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Pompeii
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{{About|the classical Roman city|the modern Italian city|Pompei|the Classical Roman leader|Pompey|the Roman family|Pompeia (gens)|the Pacific island|Pohnpei|other uses}}{{short description|Ancient Roman city near modern Naples, Italy}}







factoids
| location = Pompei, Province of Naples, Campania, Italy| region =| type = Settlement| part_of =| length =| width =67abbr=on}}| height =| builder =| material =| built = 6th–7th century BC| abandoned = AD 79| epochs =| cultures =| dependency_of =| occupants =| event =| excavations =| archaeologists =| condition =| ownership =| management =| public_access =weblink}}| notes =| designation1 = WHS| designation1_offname = Archaeological Areas of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Torre Annunziata| designation1_type = Cultural| designation1_criteria = iii, iv, vWorld Heritage Committee>session)| designation1_number = 829| designation1_free1name = RegionList of World Heritage Sites#Europe>Europe}}Pompeii ({{IPAc-en|p|É’|m|ˈ|p|eɪ|(|i|)}}, {{IPA-la|pÉ”mˈpeːjjiː|lang}}) was an ancient Roman city located in the modern comune of Pompei near Naples in the Campania region of Italy. Pompeii, along with Herculaneum and many villas in the surrounding area (e.g. at Boscoreale, Stabiae), was buried under {{convert|4|to|6|m|abbr=on}} of volcanic ash and pumice in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79.Largely preserved under the ash, the excavated city offers a unique snapshot of Roman life, frozen at the moment it was buried{{Harvnb|De Carolis|Patricelli|2003|p=83}} and providing an extraordinarily detailed insight into the everyday life of its inhabitants. It was a wealthy town, enjoying many fine public buildings and luxurious private houses with lavish decorations, furnishings and works of art which were the main attractions for the early excavators. Organic remains, including wooden objects and human bodies, were entombed in the ash and decayed leavingvoids which archaeologists found could be used as moulds to make plaster casts of unique and often gruesome figures in their final moments of life. The numerous graffiti carved on the walls and inside rooms provide a wealth of examples of the largely lost Vulgar Latin spoken colloquially at the time, contrasting with the formal language of the classical writers.Pompeii is a UNESCO World Heritage Site status and is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Italy, with approximately 2.5 million visitors annually.WEB,weblink Dossier Musei 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090318010723weblink">weblink March 18, 2009, Touring Club Italiano, Italian, September 30, 2012, After many excavations prior to 1960 that had uncovered most of the city but left it in decay,Giovanni Longobardi, Sustainable Pompeii, Rome, L'Erma di Bretschneider, 2002. {{ISBN|88-8265-189-4}} further major excavations were banned and instead they were limited to targeted, prioritised areas. In 2018, these led to new discoveries in some previously unexplored areas of the city.WEB,weblink Homepage – Pompeii Sites Portale Ufficiale Parco Archeologico di Pompei, Pompeii Sites, NEWS,weblink Pompeii victim crushed by boulder while fleeing eruption, May 30, 2018, June 13, 2018, BBC, NEWS,weblink Skeleton of child trying to shelter from Vesuvius eruption uncovered in Pompeii, The Telegraph, April 25, 2018, June 13, 2018, Nick, Squires, NEWS,weblink The Telegraph, Remains of ancient Roman horse found at Pompeii in dig started by tomb raiders, May 11, 2018, June 13, 2018, Nick, Squires,

Name

Pompeii ({{IPA-la|pɔmˈpɛjjiː|pron}}) in Latin is a second declension plural noun (Pompeiī, -ōrum). According to Theodor Kraus, "The root of the word Pompeii would appear to be the Oscan word for the number five, pompe, which suggests that either the community consisted of five hamlets or perhaps it was settled by a family group (gens Pompeia)."{{Harvnb|Kraus|1975|p={{page needed|date=September 2012}}}}(File:Pompeii Forum.JPG|thumb|950px|The Forum with Vesuvius in the distance){{Clear}}

Geography

(File:Porta marina, sea gate.jpg|thumb|300px|View from Porta Marina showing cliffs on city edge and Suburban Baths)Pompeii was built about 40 m above sea level on a lava plateau on the coast created by earlier eruptions of Mount Vesuvius, ({{convert|8|km|mi|abbr=on}} distant). The plateau fell steeply to the south and partly the west. Three sheets of sediment from large landslides lie on top of the lava, perhaps triggered by extended rainfall.{{Harvnb|Senatore|Stanley|Pescatore|2004|p={{Page needed|date=September 2012}}}} The city bordered the coastline, though today it is 700 metres away. The mouth of the navigable Sarno River, adjacent to the city, was protected by lagoons and served early Greek and Phoenician sailors as a safe haven and port which was developed further by the Romans.Pompeii covered a total of 64 to {{convert|67|ha}} and was home to 11,000 to 11,500 people, based on household counts.BOOK, Wilson, Andrew, City Sizes and Urbanization in the Roman Empire, Settlement, Urbanization, and Population, 2011, Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 978-0-19-960235-3, 171–172,weblink Bowman, Alan, Wilson, Andrew, Oxford Studies on the Roman Economy, 2,

History

Early history

(File:Map of setteling phases of Pompeii.png|thumb|250px|Settlement phases of Pompeii red: 1st (Samnite) townblue: 1st expansiongreen: 2nd expansionyellow: Roman expansion)The first stable settlements on the site date back to the 8th century BC when the Oscans,Arnold De Vos; Mariette De Vos (1982). Pompeii, Herculaneum, Stabia, Rome: Giuseppe Laterza & figli Publishing House. {{ISBN|88-420-2001-X}} a people of central Italy, founded five villages in the area.With the arrival of the Greeks in Campania from around 740 BC, Pompeii entered the orbit of the Hellenic people and the most important building of this period is the Doric Temple, built away from the centre in what would later become the Triangular Forum.BOOK, Etienne, Robert, Daily Life in Pompeii, 1992, Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Milan, 88-04-35466-6, {{RP|62}} At the same time the cult of Apollo was introduced.Paul Zanker (1993). Pompeii: society, urban images and forms of living, Turin: Giulio Einaudi Editore. {{ISBN|88-06-13282-2}} p. 60 Greek and Phoenician sailors used the location as a safe port.Around the 6th century BC, the settlement merged into a single community centred on the important crossroad between Cumae, Nola, and Stabiae and was surrounded by a tufa city wall (the pappamonte wall).Touring Club Italiano, Guida d'Italia – Naples and surroundings, Milan, Touring Club Editore, 2008. {{ISBN|978-88-365-3893-5}} The first wall followed the same course as the later wall and, unusually, enclosed a much greater area than the early town to include agricultural land.P. G. Guzzo, “Alla ricerca della Pompei sannitica,” in Studi sull’Italia dei Sanniti, Milan, 2000, pp. 107–117. See also the discussion in Guzzo (ed.), Pompei. Scienza e Società, p. 159 (F. Coarelli) and p. 161 (H. Geertman) It began to flourish and maritime trade started with the construction of a small port near the mouth of the river. The earliest settlement was focused in regions VII and VIII of the town (the altstadt) as identified from stratigraphy below the Samnite and Roman buildings.In 524 BC the Etruscans arrived and settled in the area, including Pompeii, finding in the River Sarno a communication route between the sea and the interior. Like the Greeks, the Etruscans did not conquer the city militarily, but simply controlled it and Pompeii enjoyed a sort of autonomy.{{RP|63}} Nevertheless, Pompeii became a member of the Etruscan League of cities.W. Keller: The Etruscans {{ISBN|978-0224010719}} Excavations in 1980–1981 have shown the presence of Etruscan inscriptions and a 6th-century BC necropolis.Arthur, P. (1986) "Problems of the urbanization of Pompeii: excavations 1980–1981". Antiquaries Journal 66: 29–44. Under the Etruscans a primitive forum or simple market square was built, as well as the temple of Apollo, in both of which objects including fragments of bucchero were found by Maiuri.Arnold De Vos ; Mariette De Vos, Pompeii, Herculaneum, Stabia, Rome, Giuseppe Laterza & Figli Publishing House, 1982. {{ISBN|88-420-2001-X}} p. 8 Several houses were built with the so-called Tuscan atrium, typical of this people.{{RP|64}}The city wall was strengthened in the early-5th century BC with two façades of relatively thin, vertically set, slabs of Sarno limestone some four metres apart filled with earth (the orthostate wall).Chiaramonte Treré: "The Walls and Gates", in Dobbins & Foss, eds., The World of Pompeii (Routledge 2007) {{ISBN|0-203-86619-3}}In 474 BC the Greek city of Cumae, allied with Syracuse, defeated the Etruscans at the Battle of Cumae and gained control of the area.

The Samnite period

(File:Ancient Roman Pompeii - Pompeji - Campania - Italy - July 10th 2013 - 47.jpg|thumb|City walls south of the Nocera gate)The period between about 450–375 BC witnessed large areas of the city being abandoned while important sanctuaries such as the Temple of Apollo show a sudden lack of votive material remains.The City Walls of Pompeii: Perceptions and Expressions of a Monumental Boundary by Ivo van der Graaff, M.A. Dissertation. Graduate School of The University of Texas, p. 56The Samnites, people from the areas of Abruzzo and Molise, and allies of the Romans, conquered Greek Cumae between 423 and 420 BC and it is likely that all the surrounding territory, including Pompeii, was conquered around 424 BC. The new rulers gradually imposed their architecture and enlarged the town.From 343 BC the first Roman army entered the Campanian plain bringing with it the customs and traditions of Rome and in the Roman war against the Latins the Samnites were faithful to Rome. Pompeii, although governed by the Samnites, entered the Roman orbit, to which it remained faithful even during the third Samnite war and in the war against Pyrrhus.The city walls were reinforced in Sarno stone in the early 3rd century BC (the limestone enceinte, or the "first Samnite wall"). It formed the basis for the currently visible walls with an outer wall of rectangular limestone blocks as a terrace wall supporting a large agger, or earth embankment, behind it.After the Samnite Wars from 290 BC, Pompeii was forced to accept the status of socii of Rome, maintaining, however, linguistic and administrative autonomy.From the outbreak of the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) in which Pompeii remained faithful to Rome, an additional internal retaining wall was built and the agger and outer façade raised resulting in a double parapet with wider wall-walk. Despite the political uncertainty of these events and the progressive migration of wealthy men to quieter cities in the eastern Mediterranean, Pompeii continued to flourish due to the production and trade of wine and oil with places like Provence and Spain,Paul Zanker, Pompeii: society, urban images and forms of living, Turin, Giulio Einaudi Editore, 1993. {{ISBN|88-06-13282-2}} p. 60 as well as to intensive agriculture on farms around the city.In the 2nd century BC, Pompeii enriched itself by taking part in Rome's conquest of the east as shown by a statue of Apollo in the Forum erected by Lucius Mummius in gratitude for their support in the sack of Corinth and the eastern campaigns. These riches enabled Pompeii to bloom and expand to its ultimate limits. The forum and many public and private buildings of high architectural quality were built, including the large theatre, the sanctuary to Jupiter, the Basilica, the Comitium, the Stabian Baths and a new two-story portico.ecolo a.C." In Sicilia ellenistica, consuetudo italica. Alle origini dell’architettura ellenistica d’occidente. Spoleto, complesso monumentale di S. Nicolò, 5–7 Novembre 2004, edited by M. Osanna and M. Torelli (Pisa, 2006), 227–241.

The Roman period

(File:Pompeii-couple.jpg|thumb|left|Fresco of Terentius Neo and his wife from their house{{Harvnb|Clarke|2006|pp=262–264}}.)(File:Pompeii map-en.svg|thumb|upright=1.15|Annotated map of Pompeii)(File:Pompeii - Casa dei Casti Amanti - Banquet.jpg|thumb|Roman fresco with a banquet scene from the Casa dei Casti Amanti, Pompeii)Pompeii took part in the Social Wars that the towns of Campania initiated against Rome, but in 89 BC it was besieged by Sulla. Although the battle-hardened troops of the Social League, headed by Lucius Cluentius, helped in resisting the Romans, in 89 BC Pompeii was forced to surrender after the conquest of Nola, culminating in many of Sulla's veterans being given land and property, while many of those who went against Rome were ousted from their homes. Despite all that, the Pompeians were granted Roman citizenship, for which they fought, and they were quickly assimilated into the Roman world. Pompeii became a Roman colony with the name of Colonia Cornelia Veneria Pompeianorum. The city became an important passage for goods that arrived by sea and had to be sent toward Rome or southern Italy along the nearby Appian Way. The main language in the city became Latin,BOOK, Beard, Mary, Pompeii, Profile Books LTD, 978-1-86197-596-6, 2008, and many of Pompeii's old aristocratic families Latinized their names as a sign of assimilation.BOOK, Butterworth, Alex, Pompeii – The Living City, St Martin's Press; 1st edition, 978-0-312-35585-2, 2005,weblink From c. 20 BC, Pompeii was fed with water by a spur from the Serino aqueduct or Aqua Augusta (Naples) built by Agrippa; the main line supplied several other large towns and the important naval base at Misenum. The castellum aquae is well preserved, and includes many details of the distribution network and its controls.WEB,weblink Lorenz, Wayne, Pompeii (and Rome) Water Supply Systems, June 2011, Wright Paleohydrological Institute, 26, 23 June 2017, In 59, there was a serious riot and bloodshed in the amphitheatre between Pompeians and Nucerians (which is recorded in a fresco) and which led the Roman senate to ban further events for a period of ten years.Tacitus: Ann. 14.17See W. O. Moeller, “The Riot of AD 59 at Pompeii,” Historia, 1970, vol. 19, pp. 84–95

AD 62–79

The inhabitants of Pompeii had long been used to minor earthquakes (indeed, the writer Pliny the Younger wrote that earth tremors "were not particularly alarming because they are frequent in Campania"), but on 5 February 62WEB, Patterns of Reconstruction at Pompeii,weblink University of Virginia, September 30, 2012, a severe earthquake did considerable damage around the bay, and particularly to Pompeii. It is believed that the earthquake would have registered between about 5 and 6 on the Richter magnitude scale.WEB,weblink Visiting Pompeii,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080820155345weblink">weblink August 20, 2008, Current Archaeology, 3, September 30, 2012, On that day in Pompeii, there were to be two sacrifices, as it was the anniversary of Augustus being named "Father of the Nation" and also a feast day to honour the guardian spirits of the city. Chaos followed the earthquake; fires caused by oil lamps that had fallen during the quake added to the panic. Nearby cities of Herculaneum and Nuceria were also affected.Between 62 and the eruption in 79 most rebuilding was done at least in the private sector.The World of Pompeii, Edited by John J. Dobbins and Pedar W. Foss, {{ISBN|0-203-86619-3}}, p. 173 It was thought until recently that some of the damage had still not been repaired at the time of the eruption but this has been shown to be doubtful as the evidence of missing forum statues and marble wall-veneers are most likely due to robbers after the city's burial.Dobbins, J. J., “Problems of chronology, decoration, and urban design in the forum at Pompeii”, AJA, 1994, vol. 98, pp. 629–694Wallat, K., Die Ostseite des Forums von Pompeji, Frankfurt am Main, 1997. The respective public buildings on the east side of the forum were in fact largely restored and were even enhanced by beautiful marble veneers and other modifications to the architecture.“Der Zustand des Forums von Pompeji am Vorabend des Vesuvausbruchs 79 n.Chr”, in T. Fröhlich and L. Jacobelli (eds), Archäologie und Seismologie. La regione vesuviana dal 62 at 79 d.C. Problemi archeologici e sismologici (Colloquium Boscoreale, 26–27 November 1993), Munich, 1995, pp. 75–92.An important field of current research concerns structures that were restored between the earthquake of 62 and the eruption. Older, damaged frescoes were often covered with newer ones, for example. Nevertheless, some buildings like the Central Baths were only started after the earthquake and were built to enhance the city with modern developments in their architecture as had been done in Rome in terms of wall-heating and window glass, and with well-lit spacious rooms. The new baths took over a whole insula by demolishing houses, which may have been made easier by the earthquake that had damaged these houses. This shows that the city was still flourishing rather than struggling to recover from the earthquake.John J. Dobbins, Pedar W. Foss, The World of Pompeii, {{ISBN|0-415-17324-8}} (hbk), p. 126In about 64 Nero and his wife Poppaea visited Pompeii and made gifts to the temple of Venus, probably when he performed in the theatre of Naples.M. Mastroroberto, “Una visita di Nerone a Pompei: le deversoriae tabernae di Moregine,” in A. D’Ambrosio, P. G. Guzzo and M. Mastroroberto (eds), Storie da un’eruzione. Exhib. Catalogue Naples–Bruxelles 2003–2004, 2003, pp. 479–523, who convincingly argues that the splendidly decorated hospitium south of Pompeii was built for this occasion.

Eruption of Vesuvius

(File:Mt Vesuvius 79 AD eruption 3.svg|thumb|upright=1.15|Pompeii and other cities affected by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. The black cloud represents the general distribution of ash and cinder. Modern coast lines are shown.)File:Cyark pompeii reconstruction2.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Illustrated reconstruction, from a CyArk/University of Ferrara research partnership, of how the Temple of Apollo may have looked before Mt. Vesuvius erupted]](File:Cyark pompeii reconstruction1.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|The same location today.)By the 1st century AD, Pompeii was one of a number of towns near the base of the volcano, Mount Vesuvius. The area had a substantial population, which had grown prosperous from the region's renowned agricultural fertility. Many of Pompeii's neighbouring communities, most famously Herculaneum, also suffered damage or destruction during the 79 eruption.WEB,weblink The Destruction of Pompeii, AD 79, 1999, EyeWitness to History, September 30, 2012, A multidisciplinary volcanological and bio-anthropological study of the eruption products and victims, merged with numerical simulations and experiments, indicates that at Pompeii and surrounding towns heat was the main cause of death of people, previously believed to have died by ash suffocation. The results of the study, published in 2010, show that exposure to at least {{convert|250|C|F}} hot surges (known as pyroclastic flows) at a distance of {{convert|10|km|0|abbr=off}} from the vent was sufficient to cause instant death, even if people were sheltered within buildings.{{Harvnb|Mastrolorenzo|Petrone|Pappalardo|Guarino|2010|p=e11127}}. The people and buildings of Pompeii were covered in up to 12 different layers of tephra, in total {{convert|25|m|ft|1}} deep, which rained down for about six hours.Pliny the Younger provided a first-hand account of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius from his position across the Bay of Naples at Misenum but written 25 years after the event. His uncle, Pliny the Elder, with whom he had a close relationship, died while attempting to rescue stranded victims. As admiral of the fleet, Pliny the Elder had ordered the ships of the Imperial Navy stationed at Misenum to cross the bay to assist evacuation attempts. Volcanologists have recognised the importance of Pliny the Younger's account of the eruption by calling similar events "Plinian". It had long been thought that the eruption was an August event based on one version of the letter but another version{{Harvnb|Stefani|2006|pp=10–14}}. gives a date of the eruption as late as 23 November. A later date is consistent with a charcoal inscription at the site, discovered in 2018, which includes the date of 17 October and which must have been recently written.WEB,weblink Pompeii's destruction date could be wrong, October 16, 2018, BBC News, WEB, Gabi Laske,weblink The A.D. 79 Eruption at Mt. Vesuvius, Lecture notes for UCSD-ERTH15: "Natural Disasters", 2008-07-28, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081229155923weblink">weblink 2008-12-29, Further support for an October/November eruption is found in the fact that people buried in the ash appear to have been wearing heavier clothing than the light summer clothes typical of August. The fresh fruit and vegetables in the shops are typical of October{{spaced ndash}}and conversely the summer fruit typical of August was already being sold in dried, or conserved form. Wine fermenting jars had been sealed, which would have happened around the end of October. Coins found in the purse of a woman buried in the ash include one with a 15th imperatorial acclamation among the emperor's titles. These coins could not have been minted before the second week of September.

Rediscovery and excavations

(File:Pompeii Garden of the Fugitives 02.jpg|thumb|upright|"Garden of the Fugitives". Plaster casts of victims still in situ; many casts are in the Archaeological Museum of Naples.)(File:Roman fresco Villa dei Misteri Pompeii 006.jpg|thumb|Roman fresco from the Villa dei Misteri)(File:Eschebach Ãœbersicht Pompeji 150dpi.png|thumb|300px|Denominated Regiones and unexcavated areas of the city)Soon after the burial of the city, some survivors or thieves came to salvage valuables, including marble statues from the forum and other precious materials from buildings. The city was not completely buried and tops of larger buildings would have been above the ash making it obvious where to dig or salvage building material.John J. Dobbins, Pedar W. Foss, The World of Pompeii, {{ISBN|0-415-17324-8}}, p. 125 The robbers left traces of their passage, as in a house where modern archaeologists found wall graffito saying "house dug".Mary Beard, Pompeii; The life of a Roman city, Seuil, 2012 p. 24 Nevertheless, over the following centuries, its name and location were forgotten.The next known date that any part was unearthed was in 1592, when the digging of an underground channel to divert the River Sarno ran into ancient walls covered with paintings and inscriptions. The architect Domenico Fontana was called in; he unearthed a few more frescoes, then covered them over again, and nothing more came of the discovery. A wall inscription had mentioned a decurio Pompeii ('the town councillor of Pompeii') but its reference to the long-forgotten Roman city was missed.Herculaneum itself was rediscovered in 1738 by workmen digging for the foundations of a summer palace for the King of Naples, Charles of Bourbon and due to the spectacular quality of the finds the Spanish military engineer Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre made excavations to find further remains at the site of Pompeii in 1748 even if the city was not identified.{{Harvnb|Ozgenel|2008|p=13}}. Charles of Bourbon took great interest in the finds, even after leaving to become king of Spain, because the display of antiquities reinforced the political and cultural prestige of Naples.{{Harvnb|Ozgenel|2008|p=19}} On August 20, 1763, an inscription [...] Rei Publicae Pompeianorum [...] was found and the city was identified as Pompeii.Giuseppe Fiorelli: Pompeianarum Antiquitatum Historia. Volume Primum, p. 153Karl Weber directed the first scientific excavations.{{Harvnb|Parslow|1995|p={{Page needed|date=September 2012}}}} He was followed in 1764 by military engineer Franscisco la Vega who was succeeded by his brother, Pietro, in 1804.{{Harvnb|Pagano|1997|p={{Page needed|date=September 2012}}}}There was much progress in exploration when the French occupied Naples in 1799 and ruled over Italy from 1806 to 1815. The land on which Pompeii lies was expropriated and up to 700 workers were used in the excavations. The excavated areas in the north and south were connected. Parts of the Via dell'Abbondanza were also exposed in west-east direction and for the first time an impression of the size and appearance of the ancient town could be appreciated. In the following years, the excavators struggled with lack of money and excavations progressed slowly, but with significant finds such as the houses of the Faun, the Meleager, the tragic poet and the Dioscuri.Giuseppe Fiorelli took charge of the excavations in 1863 and made greater progress.WEB,weblink Pompeii: Its Discovery and Preservation, Salvatore Ciro, Nappo, February 17, 2011, March 2, 2013, BBC, Giuseppe Fiorelli directed the Pompeii excavation from 1863 to 1875, During early excavations of the site, occasional voids in the ash layer had been found that contained human remains. It was Fiorelli who realised these were spaces left by the decomposed bodies and so devised the technique of injecting plaster into them to recreate the forms of Vesuvius's victims. This technique is still in use today, with a clear resin now used instead of plaster because it is more durable, and does not destroy the bones, allowing further analysis.WEB,weblink Gracco, Tiberio, Orto dei Fuggiaschi, Pompei Online, 28 April 2017, 23 June 2017, Fiorelli also introduced scientific documentation. He divided the city into the present nine areas (regiones) and blocks (insulae) and numbered the entrances of the individual houses (domus), so that each is identified by these three numbers. Fiorelli also published the first periodical with excavation reports. Under Fiorelli's successors the entire west of the city was exposed.

Modern archaeology

In the 1920s Amedeo Maiuri excavated for the first time in older layers than that of 79 AD in order to learn about the settlement history. Maiuri made the last excavations on a grand scale in the 1950s, and the area south of the Via dell'Abbondanza and the city wall was almost completely uncovered, but they were poorly documented scientifically. Preservation was haphazard and presents today's archaeologists with great difficulty. Questionable reconstruction was done in the 1980s and 1990s after the severe earthquake of 1980, which caused great destruction. Since then, except for targeted soundings and excavations, work was confined to the excavated areas. Further excavations on a large scale are not planned and today archaeologists try to reconstruct, to document and, above all, to stop the ever faster decay.Under the Great Pompeii Project over 2.5 km of ancient walls are being relieved of danger of collapse by treating the unexcavated areas behind the street fronts in order to increase drainage and reduce the pressure of ground water and earth on the walls, a problem especially in the rainy season. As of August 2019, these excavations have resumed on unexcavated areas of Regio V.WEB,weblink Discoveries Continue at the Regio V Site, Archaeological Park of Pompeii, August 20, 2019, 2018-08-23,

Conservation

Objects buried beneath Pompeii were well-preserved for almost 2,000 years as the lack of air and moisture allowed little to no deterioration. However, once exposed, Pompeii has been subject to both natural and man-made forces, which have rapidly increased deterioration.Weathering, erosion, light exposure, water damage, poor methods of excavation and reconstruction, introduced plants and animals, tourism, vandalism and theft have all damaged the site in some way. Two-thirds of the city has been excavated, but the remnants of the city are rapidly deteriorating.JOURNAL,weblink Popham, Peter, Ashes to ashes: the latter-day ruin of Pompeii, Prospect Magazine, May 2010, London, 23 June 2017, Furthermore, during World War II many buildings were badly damaged or destroyed by bombs dropped in several raids by the Allied forces.WEB,weblink The Last Days of Pompeii: Destruction in World War II, August 27, 2019, The J. Paul Getty Museum, The concern for conservation has continually troubled archaeologists. The ancient city was included in the 1996 World Monuments Watch by the World Monuments Fund, and again in 1998 and in 2000. In 1996 the organisation claimed that Pompeii "desperately need[ed] repair" and called for the drafting of a general plan of restoration and interpretation.WEB,weblink World Monuments Fund, List of 100 Most Endangered Sites, New York, 31, 1996, 2012-07-07, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130320153209weblink">weblink 2013-03-20, The organisation supported conservation at Pompeii with funding from American Express and the Samuel H. Kress Foundation.WEB,weblink World Monuments Fund, Ancient Pompeii, 2017, 23 June 2017, Today, funding is mostly directed into conservation of the site; however, due to the expanse of Pompeii and the scale of the problems, this is inadequate in halting the slow decay of the materials. A 2012 study recommended an improved strategy for interpretation and presentation of the site as a cost-effective method of improving its conservation and preservation in the short term.JOURNAL, 10.5334/pia.406, Papers from the Institute of Archaeology, Presenting Pompeii: Steps towards Reconciling Conservation and Tourism at an Ancient Site, 22, 2012, 115–136, Ubiquity Press, Wallace, Alia, In June 2013, UNESCO declared: If restoration and preservation works “fail to deliver substantial progress in the next two years,” Pompeii could be placed on the List of World Heritage in Danger.WEB, The Fall and Rise and Fall of Pompeii,weblink 2015-07-01, Joshua, Hammer,

House of the Gladiators collapse

The 2,000-year-old Schola Armatorum ('House of the Gladiators') collapsed on 6 November 2010. The structure was not open to visitors, but the outside was visible to tourists. There was no immediate determination as to what caused the building to collapse, although reports suggested water infiltration following heavy rains might have been responsible. There has been fierce controversy after the collapse, with accusations of neglect.WEB,weblink World News – Breaking International Headlines & Exclusives | Toronto Sun, 2019-07-11,weblink 2019-07-11, dead, WEB,weblink Pompeii Gladiator Training Centre Collapses, {{nonspecific|date=September 2019}}

Roman city development

(File:Via dell'Abbondanza 1.JPG|thumb|left|Via dell'Abbondanza, the main street in Pompeii.)(File:Pompeii-Street.jpg|thumb|A paved street with stepping stones, to allow vehicles to pass)File:HouseOfTheFaunOverview.jpg|thumb|The House of the FaunHouse of the FaunFile:Fresco from Pompeii, 1st century AD, National Archaeological Museum of Naples, Italy.jpg|thumb|Fresco of a man in a theatre mask and a woman wearing a garland while playing a lyre, 1st century AD (National Archaeological Museum, NaplesNational Archaeological Museum, NaplesFile:Statuetta indiana di Lakshmi, avorio, da pompei, 1-50 dc ca., 149425, 02.JPG|thumb|100px|Indian art, evidence of Indo-Roman trade: the Pompeii LakshmiPompeii LakshmiUnder the Romans, Pompeii underwent a process of urban development especially in the Augustan period. Public buildings include the forum, the amphitheatre with palaestra or gymnasium with a central natatorium (cella natatoria) or swimming pool, two theatres, and at least four public baths. The amphitheatre has been cited by scholars as a model of sophisticated design, particularly in the area of crowd control.WEB, Berinato, Scott, May 18, 2007,weblink Crowd Control in Ancient Pompeii, CSO, September 30, 2012, Other service buildings were found: the Macellum ('great food market'); the Pistrinum ('mill'); the Thermopolium (a fast food place that served hot and cold dishes and beverages), and cauponae ('cafes' or 'dives' with a seedy reputation as hangouts for thieves and prostitutes). At least one building, the Lupanar, was dedicated to prostitution.NEWS,weblink Prostitution in Pompeii: 2,000 years after explosion, sex-for-cash is still rife, November 16, 2015, The Independent, Michael, Day, the city's most extravagant brothel, the Lupanare – from the Latin word lupa for 'prostitute', A large hotel or hospitium (of 1,000 square metres) was found at Murecine a short distance from Pompeii when the Naples-Salerno motorway was being built, and the Murecine Silver Treasure and the Tablets providing a unique record of business transactions were discovered.WEB,weblink Murecine, AD79eruption, August 18, 2019, Clements, Peter and Michael, WEB,weblink Esplora murecine, Ermes Multimedia, August 18, 2019, An aqueduct provided water to the public baths, to more than 25 street fountains, and to many private houses (domūs) and businesses. The aqueduct was a fed from a branch of the great Serino Aqueduct built to serve the Bay of Naples region.Modern archaeologists have excavated garden sites and urban domains to reveal the agricultural staples of Pompeii's economy. Pompeii was fortunate to have had fertile soil for crop cultivation. The soils surrounding Mount Vesuvius preceding its eruption have been revealed to have had good water-retention capabilities, implying productive agriculture. The Tyrrhenian Sea's airflow provided hydration to the soil despite the hot, dry climate.BOOK, Meyer, Frederick G (edited by Wilhelmina Feemster Jashemski), The natural history of Pompeii, 2002, Cambridge University Press, New York, 978-0521800549, 65, 1. publ., Barley, wheat, and millet were all produced along with wine and olive oil, in abundance for export to other regions.WEB, Bernick, Christie, Agriculture in Pompeii,weblink Wall Paintings of the Pompeii Forum, 3 August 2014, Evidence of wine imported nationally from Pompeii in its most prosperous years can be found from recovered artefacts such as wine bottles in Rome. For this reason, vineyards were of utmost importance to Pompeii's economy. Agricultural policymaker Columella suggested that each vineyard in Rome produced a quota of three cullei of wine per jugerum, otherwise the vineyard would be uprooted. The nutrient-rich lands near Pompeii were extremely efficient at this and were often able to exceed these requirements by a steep margin, therefore providing the incentive for local wineries to establish themselves. While wine was exported for Pompeii's economy, the majority of the other agricultural goods were likely produced in quantities sufficient for the city's consumption.Remains of large formations of constructed wineries were found in the Forum Boarium, covered by cemented casts from the eruption of Vesuvius. It is speculated that these historical vineyards are strikingly similar in structure to the modern day vineyards across Italy.Carbonised food plant remains, roots, seeds and pollens, have been found from gardens in Pompeii, Herculaneum and from the Roman villa at Torre Annunziata. They revealed that emmer wheat, Italian millet, common millet, walnuts, pine nuts, chestnuts, hazel nuts, chickpeas, bitter vetch, broad beans, olives, figs, pears, onions, garlic, peaches, carob, grapes, and dates were consumed. All but the dates could have been produced locally.JOURNAL, Meyer, Frederick G., Carbonized Food Plants of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and the Villa at Torre Annunziata, New York Botanical Garden: Economic Botany, October–December 1980, 34, 4, 419, 4254221,

Erotic art

(File:Pompeii - Casa del Centenario - Cubiculum - detail.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.5|Fresco from the Casa del Centenario bedroom)The discovery of erotic art in Pompeii and Herculaneum left the archaeologists with a dilemma stemming from the clash of cultures between the mores of sexuality in ancient Rome and in Counter-Reformation Europe. An unknown number of discoveries were hidden away again. A wall fresco depicting Priapus, the ancient god of sex and fertility, with his grotesquely enlarged penis, was covered with plaster. An older reproduction was locked away "out of prudishness" and opened only on request â€“ and only rediscovered in 1998 due to rainfall.As reported by the Evangelist pressedienst press agency in March, 1998. In 2018, an ancient fresco depicting an erotic scene of "Leda and the Swan" was discovered at Pompeii.NEWS,weblink Ancient erotic fresco uncovered in Pompeii ruins, 2018-11-20, CNN Style, 2018-11-21, en, Many artefacts from the buried cities are preserved in the Naples National Archaeological Museum. In 1819, when King Francis visited the Pompeii exhibition there with his wife and daughter, he was so embarrassed by the erotic artwork that he had it locked away in a "secret cabinet" (gabinetto segreto), a gallery within the museum accessible only to "people of mature age and respected morals". Re-opened, closed, re-opened again and then closed again for nearly 100 years, the Naple's "Secret Museum" was briefly made accessible again at the end of the 1960s (the time of the sexual revolution) and was finally re-opened for viewing in 2000. Minors are still allowed entry only in the presence of a guardian or with written permission.Karl Schefold (2003), Die Dichtung als Führerin zur Klassischen Kunst. Erinnerungen eines Archäologen (Lebenserinnerungen Band 58), edd. M. Rohde-Liegle et al., Hamburg. p. 134 {{ISBN|3-8300-1017-6}}.

Gallery of Luigi Bazzani's Watercolors of Pompeii when first excavated

{{Commons category|Bazzani Watercolors of Pompeii}}(See more on Wikimedia Commons)File:Summer Triclinius of House V, 2, 15 at Pompeii 1914 by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Summer Triclinium of House V, 2, 15, 1914File:Pompeii Bath watercolor by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Pompeii BathFile:Lararium of the House of Dioscuri at Pompeii, 1902 by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Lararium of the House of Dioscuri, 1902File:House of the Great Fountain in Pompeii by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|House of the Great FountainFile:Atrium of the House of the Centenary at Pompeii, 1901.jpg|Atrium of the House of the Centenary, 1901File:Pompeii Fountain watercolor by Luigi Bazzani (before 1927).jpg|Peristyle with fountain in the House of Marcus LucretiusFile:Luigi Bazzani - Blick in ein Atriumhaus.jpg|Peristyle with fountain in the House of Marcus Lucretius (Detail)File:Pompeii interior watercolor by Luigi Bazzani (before 1927).jpg|Pompeii InteriorFile:Pompeii theater watercolor by Luigi Bazzani (before 1927).jpg|Pompeii theaterFile:Lararium of the House IX,1,7, Pompeii,1903 (watercolor).jpg|Lararium of the House IX,1,7, Pompeii,1903File:Nymphaeum at the House of the Bull in Pompeii by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Nymphaeum at the House of the Bull, 1901File:Atrium of the House of the Mariner by Luigi Bazzani before 1927.jpg|Atrium of the House of the MarinerFile:House of the Vetti by Luigi Bazzani (watercolor) before 1927.jpg|House of the VettiFile:House of the Small Fountain in Pompeii by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|House of the Small FountainFile:House with impluvium and marble table in Pompeii by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|House with impluvium and marble tableFile:Insula in Region IX, V, 18 by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Insula in Region IX, V, 18File:Temple of Isis by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Temple of IsisFile:Thermopolion in the alley of the rooster in Pompeii by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Thermopolion (fast food stall) in the alley of the roosterFile:Fountain with head of Mercury on Mercury Street in Pompeii by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Fountain with head of Mercury on Mercury StreetFile:House of the Hanging Balcony in Pompeii by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|House of the Hanging BalconyFile:Portal of a patrician house on Augustus Street in Pompeii by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Portal of a patrician house on Augustus StreetFile:Tomb in the necropolis of Pompeii by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Tomb in the necropolisFile:Tomb with covered niche and planter with garland in Pompeii necropolis by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Tomb with covered niche and planter with garlandFile:Lararium in the House of L Caecilius Jucundus Pompeii by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Lararium in the House of L Caecilius JucundusFile:Atrium in Pompeii by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Pompeii AtriumFile:Arches of Nero in the Forum in Pompeii watercolor by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Arches of Nero in the ForumFile:Pompeian red interior watercolor by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Pompeian red interiorFile:The Genaeceum (Women's Quarters) of the House of Sallust (VI 2, 4) in Pompei watercolor by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|The Genaeceum (Women's Quarters) of the House of Sallust (VI 2, 4)File:Thermopolium in the Alley of the Pharmacist in Pompeii watercolor by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Thermopolium in the Alley of the PharmacistFile:Atrium of the House of the Ancient Hunt in Pompeii watercolor by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Atrium of the House of the Ancient HuntFile:Atrium of the House of the Ancient Hunt (Detail) in Pompeii watercolor by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Atrium of the House of the Ancient Hunt (Detail)File:Atrium in Pompeii watercolor by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Atrium in PompeiiFile:Atrium of the House of the Vetti VI 15 1 in Pompeii, 1895 by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Atrium of the House of the Vetti VI.15.1File:Entry to a Roman domus watercolor by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Entry to a Roman domusFile:Atrium of the House of the Prince of Naples in Pompeii watercolor by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Atrium of the House of the Prince of NaplesFile:Fountain of the House of C. Virnius Modestus (IX 7, 16) in Pompeii watercolor by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Fountain of the House of C. Virnius Modestus (IX 7, 16)File:Atrium of the House of Cornelius Rufus in Pompeii watercolor by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Atrium of the House of Cornelius RufusFile:Colonnade of the House of Cornelius Rufus in Pompeii watercolor by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|thumb|Colonnade of the House of Cornelius RufusFile:House of the Silver Wedding in Pompeii watercolor by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|House of the Silver WeddingFile:Lararium of a family altar, seen in situ after excavation, House of Aulus Vettius, Pompeii, c36-39 CE, 1895 watercolor by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|thumb|Lararium of a family altar, seen in situ after excavation, House of Aulus Vettius, Pompeii, c. 36–39 AD, 1895File:Lararium of House IX 1, 7, in Pompeii watercolor by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Lararium of the House of Paccius Alexander (IX 1, 7)File:Large theater in Pompeii, 1910, watecolor by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Large theater in Pompeii, 1910,File:Pompeii forum watercolor by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|Pompeii forumFile:The Temple of Fortuna Augusta in Pompeii watercolor by Luigi Bazzani.jpg|The Temple of Fortuna Augusta

Tourism

Pompeii has been a popular tourist destination for over 250 years;{{Harvnb|Rowland|2014}}. it was on the Grand Tour. By 2008, it was attracting almost 2.6 million visitors per year, making it one of the most popular tourist sites in Italy.Nadeau, Barbie Selling Pompeii, Newsweek, April 14, 2008. It is part of a larger Vesuvius National Park and was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1997. To combat problems associated with tourism, the governing body for Pompeii, the Soprintendenza Archaeological di Pompei, have begun issuing new tickets that allow tourists to visit cities such as Herculaneum and Stabiae as well as the Villa Poppaea, to encourage visitors to see these sites and reduce pressure on Pompeii.Pompeii is a driving force behind the economy of the nearby town of Pompei. Many residents are employed in the tourism and hospitality industry, serving as taxi or bus drivers, waiters, or hotel staff.{{Citation needed|date=September 2019}}Excavations at the site have generally ceased due to a moratorium imposed by the superintendent of the site, Professor Pietro Giovanni Guzzo. The site is generally less accessible to tourists than in the past, with less than a third of all buildings open in the 1960s being available for public viewing today.

In popular culture

Pompeii was the setting for the British comedy television series Up Pompeii! and the movie of the series. Pompeii also featured in the second episode of the fourth season of revived BBC science fiction series Doctor Who, named "The Fires of Pompeii",WEB,weblink Doctor Who â€“ News â€“ Rome Sweet Rome, BBC, 2010-10-16, which featured Caecilius as a character.In 1971, the rock band Pink Floyd filmed a live concert titled (Pink Floyd: Live at Pompeii), in which they performed six songs in the ancient Roman amphitheatre in the city. The audience consisted only of the film's production crew and some local children.Siouxsie and the Banshees wrote and recorded the punk-inflected dance song "Cities in Dust", which describes the disaster that befell Pompeii and Herculaneum in AD 79. The song appears on their album Tinderbox, released in 1985, on Polydor Records. The jacket of the single remix of the song features the plaster cast of the chained dog killed in Pompeii.Pompeii is a novel written by Robert Harris (published in 2003) featuring the account of the aquarius's race to fix the broken aqueduct in the days leading up to the eruption of Vesuvius, inspired by actual events and people."Pompeii" is a song by the British band Bastille, released 24 February 2013. The lyrics refer to the city and the eruption of Mount Vesuvius.Pompeii is a 2014 German-Canadian historical disaster film produced and directed by Paul W. S. Anderson.WEB, September 18, 2012, Sandy Schaefer, Paul W.S. Anderson To Helm 'Pompeii',weblink Screenrant, 2014-02-27, In 2016, 45 years after the Pink Floyd recordings, band guitarist David Gilmour returned to the Pompeii amphitheatre to perform a live concert for his Rattle That Lock Tour. This event was considered the first in the amphitheatre to feature an audience since the AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius.NEWS,weblink Rolling Stone, David Gilmour Sets First Pompeii Shows Since Pink Floyd's Concert Film, March 16, 2016, October 11, 2017, Daniel, Kreps, NEWS,weblink David Gilmour live at Pompeii – a photo essay, July 14, 2016, October 11, 2017, The Guardian,

Documentaries

  • In Search of...{{'}}s episode No. 82 focuses entirely on Pompeii; it premiered on November 29, 1979.
  • The National Geographic special In the Shadow of Vesuvius (1987) explores the sites of Pompeii and Herculaneum, interviews (then) leading archaeologists, and examines the events leading up to the eruption of Vesuvius.WEB,weblink In the Shadow of Vesuvius, National Geographic, August 1, 2014,
  • Ancient Mysteries: Pompeii: Buried Alive (1996), an A&E television documentary narrated by Leonard Nimoy.WEB,weblink Ancient Mysteries: Season 3, Episode 22, A&E, February 17, 2016, February 2, 1996,
  • (Pompeii: The Last Day) (2003), an hour-long drama produced for the BBC that portrays several characters (with historically attested names, but fictional life-stories) living in Pompeii, Herculaneum and around the Bay of Naples, and their last hours, including a fuller and his wife, two gladiators, and Pliny the Elder. It also portrays the facts of the eruption.
  • Pompeii and the AD 79 eruption (2004), a two-hour Tokyo Broadcasting System documentary.
  • Pompeii Live (June 28, 2006), a Channel 5 production featuring a live archaeological dig at Pompeii and HerculaneumBOOK, Pompeii in the Public Imagination from Its Rediscovery to Today, Shelley Hales, Joanna Paul, 367, The recent UK Channel 5 programme, transmitted live from Herculaneum on 29 June 2006..., 978-0199569366, 2011, Oxford University Press, 10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199569366.001.0001, WEB,weblink Shows, Five, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060603115005weblink">weblink 2006-06-03,
  • Pompeii: The Mystery of the People Frozen in Time (2013), a BBC One drama documentary presented by Dr. Margaret Mountford.WEB,weblink Pompeii: The Mystery of the People Frozen in Time, BBC, April 6, 2013,
  • The Riddle of Pompeii (May 23, 2014), Discovery Channel.AV MEDIA,weblink The Riddle of Pompeii, 23 May 2014, YouTube,
  • Pompeii's People (September 3, 2017), a CBC Gem documentary presented by David Suzuki.AV MEDIA,weblink Pompeii's People, 3 Sep 2017, cbc.ca,

See also



Volcanic destruction
  • Armero tragedy, a city in Colombia that suffered a similar fate in 1985
  • Joya de Cerén, a pre-Columbian farming village in El Salvador known as the "Pompeii of the Americas"
  • Plymouth, Montserrat, former capital city buried by volcanic ash from the Soufrière Hills volcano in the 1990s
  • Saint-Pierre, Martinique, town similarly destroyed by the volcanic eruption of Mount Pelee, in 1902


Other

References

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, Beard, Mary, 2008, Pompeii: The Life of a Roman Town, Profile Books, 978-1-86197-596-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Butterworth, Alex, Laurence, Ray, 2005, Pompeii: The Living City, St. Martin's Press, 978-0-312-35585-2, harv,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Cioni, Rafaello, Gurioli, L, Lanza, R, Zanella, E, 2004, Temperatures of the A.D. 79 pyroclastic density current deposits (Vesuvius, Italy), Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, B2, 2207, 10.1029/2002JB002251, harv, 2004JGRB..109.2207C,
  • BOOK, Clarke, John, 2006, Visual Representation and Non-Elite Viewers in Italy, 100 BC â€“ AD 315, University of California, 978-0-520-24815-1, harv,
  • BOOK, De Carolis, Ernesto, Patricelli, Giovanni, 2003, Vesuvius, A.D. 79: the destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum, L'erma Di Bretschneider, 978-88-8265-199-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Fletcher, John, 1835, The whole works of...John Flecter, Oxford University, BOOK, Grant, Michael, 2001, Cities of Vesuvius: Pompeii and Herculaneum, Phoenix, 978-1842122198, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Hodge, Trevor, 2001, Roman Aqueducts & Water Supply, Duckworth, 978-0715631713, harv,
  • BOOK, Kraus, Theodor, 1975, Pompeii and Herculaneum: The Living Cities of the Dead, H.N. Abrams, 978-0810904187, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Maiuri, Amedeo, 1994, Pompeii, Scientific American, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Mastrolorenzo, Giuseppe, Petrone, Pierpaolo, Pappalardo, Lucia, Guarino, Fabio, 2010, Lethal Thermal Impact at Periphery of Pyroclastic Surges: Evidences at Pompeii, PLOS ONE, 5, 6, 10.1371/journal.pone.0011127, 20559555, 2886100, 2010PLoSO...511127M, Langowski, Jörg, e11127, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Ozgenel, Lalo, A Tale of Two Cities: In Search of Ancient Pompeii and Herculaneum,weblink 26 January 2018, 1–25, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, 25, 1, Journal of the Faculty of Archaeology, 15 April 2008, harv,
  • BOOK, Pagano, Mario, 1997, I Diari di Scavo di Pompeii, Ercolano e Stabiae di Francesco e Pietro la Vega (1764–1810), Italian, L'Erma di Bretschneidein, 88-7062-967-8, harv,
  • BOOK, Parslow, Christopher, 1995, Rediscovering antiquity: Karl Weber and the excavation of Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Stabiae, Cambridge University Press, 0-521-47150-8, harv,
  • BOOK, Perring, Stefania, 1991, Pompeii: The Wonders of the Ancient World Brought to Life in Vivid See-Through Reconstructions: Then and Now, Macmillan Books, 0-02-599461-1, harv,
  • BOOK, Rodríguez, Cristina, Cristina Rodríguez (journalist), 2008, Les mystères de Pompéi, french, Éditions du Masque, 978-2-702-43404-8,
  • BOOK, Rowland, Ingrid D., Ingrid D. Rowland, 2014, From Pompeii: The Afterlife of a Roman Town, Cambridge, MA, Belknap Press, 978-0674047938, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Senatore, Maria, Stanley, Jean-Daniel, Pescatore, Tullio, November 7–10, 2004,weblink Avalanche-associated mass flows damaged Pompeii several times before the Vesuvius catastrophic eruption in the 79 CE, 2004 Denver Annual Meeting, harv,
  • BOOK, Stefani, Grete, October 2006, La vera data dell'eruzione, Archeo, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Steven, Ellis, 2004, The distribution of bars at Pompeii: Archaeological, spatial and viewshed analyses, Journal of Roman Archaeology, 17, 1, 1047-7594, harv,
  • BOOK, Zarmati, Louise, Louise Zarmati, 2005, Heinemann ancient and medieval history: Pompeii and Herculaneum, Heinemann, 1-74081-195-X, harv,

External links

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