Tibet Autonomous Region

aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
Tibet Autonomous Region
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{about|the administrative region of China|the ethno-cultural region|Tibet|other uses|Tibet (disambiguation)}}{{Use dmy dates |date = January 2015}}

0.3emTibetan: {{bo-textonly0.5emChinese: }}}}Autonomous regions of China>Autonomous region|translit_lang1 = ChineseChinese characters}}(abbreviation: XZ / )}}Pinyin}}zh{{small>(abbreviation: {{translZàng}})}}Tsang''|translit_lang2 = TibetanTibetan script}}བོད་རང་སྐྱོང་ལྗོངས།}}Wylie transliteration}}{{transl>bo|bod rang skyong ljongs}}Tibetan Pinyinofficial transcription (PRC)}}}}{{transl>bo|Poi Ranggyong Jong}}|image_map = Tibet in China (claimed hatched) (+all claims hatched).svg|mapsize = 275pxstyle = line-height: 1.1em; |Map showing the location of the Tibet Autonomous Region}}བོད་}} (Bö) is the Standard Tibetan name of the Greater Tibet region. (''{{transl>zh) means "Western Tsang", from Manchu language>Manchu "wargi Dzang", from Tibetan Ãœ-Tsang. Ãœ and Tsang are subregions of Greater Tibet."Tibet" is from the word Tibat'' of disputed origin.(and largest city)}}Lhasa (prefecture-level city)>Lhasa|seat1_type = |seat1 = |parts_type = Divisions|parts_style = para|parts = Prefecture-level cities of the People's Republic of China>prefecture-level cities|leader_title = Party Secretary|leader_name = Wu Yingjie|leader_title1 = Chairman|leader_name1 = Che DalhaSCRIPT-TITLE=ZH:西藏概况(2007年) TRANS-TITLE = OVERVIEW OF TIBET (2007) ACCESSDATE = 18 DECEMBER 2015 ARCHIVEURL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20151222133742/HTTP://WWW.XIZANG.GOV.CN/ZRDL/51648.JHTML DF = DMY-ALL, |area_total_km2 = 1228400List of Chinese administrative divisions by area>2nd|elevation_max_m = 8,848|elevation_max_point = Mount Everest|population_total = 3,180,000|population_as_of = December 2014PUBLISHER = NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINA ARCHIVE-URL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160419130250/HTTP://DATA.STATS.GOV.CN/ENGLISH/EASYQUERY.HTM?CN=E0103 URL-STATUS = LIVE, dmy-all, |population_density_km2 = 2.59List of Chinese administrative divisions by population>32ndList of Chinese administrative divisions by population density>33rd|demographics_type1 = Demographics|demographics1_footnotes = |demographics1_title1 = Ethnic composition|iso_code = CN-XZGross domestic product>GDP (2017)Renminbi>CNY 131.06 billion (List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP) HTTPS://WWW.SOHU.COM/A/228306328_160909SCRIPT-TITLE=ZH:西藏自治区2017年国民经济和社会发展统计公报LANGUAGE=ZHACCESSDATE=2018-06-22, |blank1_name_sec1=  - per capitaRenminbi>CNY 39,258 USD 5,814 (28th)Human Development Index>HDI {{nobold|(2017)}}WEBSITE=HDI.GLOBALDATALAB.ORGACCESS-DATE=2018-09-13, {{colormedium}} · 31stweblink}}|footnotes =Prefectures of the People's Republic of China>prefecturesDistrict of the People's Republic of China>districtsCounties of the People's Republic of China>countiesTownships of the People's Republic of China>townshipsTibetan people>Tibetan8% Han Chinese0.3% Monpa people>Monpa0.3% Hui0.2% others|demographics1_title2 = Languages and dialectsStandard Tibetan>Tibetan, Mandarin Chinese}}

|gr = Shitzanq|bpmf = ㄒㄧ   ã„—ㄤˋ|myr = SyÄ«dzàng|j = Sai1-zong6|y = Sāi-johngs1z6}}|wuu = Siå¹³zaon去|poj = Se-chōng|buc = Să̤-câung|teo = Sai-tsăng|h = Sî-tshôngབོད་}}|wylie = Bod|zwpy = Poipʰø̀ʔ|}}|order = st|altname = Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR)Ãœ-Tsang>Tsang" Autonomous Region|p2 = XÄ«zàng ZìzhìqÅ«|w2 = Hsi1-tsang4TzÅ­4-chih4-chʻü1|gr2 = Shitzanq Tzyhjyhchiux1z4zi.4qu|1}}|bpmf2 = ㄒㄧ   ã„—ㄤˋㄗˋ   ã„“Ë‹   ã„‘ã„©|myr2 =SyÄ«dzàng DzÌ€jrÌ€chyÅ«|j2 = Sai1zong6 Zi6zi6keoi1|wuu2 = Siå¹³zaon去 Zy去zy去chiuå¹³|poj2 = Se-chōng ChÅ«-tÄ«-khu|buc2 = Să̤-câung Cê̤ṳ-dê-kṳ̆|teo2 = Sai-tsăng TsÄ•u-tÄ«-khu|h2 = Sî-tshông Tshá¹³-tshá¹³-khîབོད་རང་སྐྱོང་ལྗོངས།}}|wylie2 = Bod-rang-skyong-ljongs|zwpy2 = Poi Ranggyong Jong|showflag = p|mnc=ᠸᠠᡵᡤᡳᡩᡯᠠᠩ|mnc_rom=wargi Dzang}}{{contains Tibetan text}}The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short ({{zh |c = 西藏 |p = XÄ«zàng; {{noitalics|{{small|Mandarin pronunciation:}} {{IPAc-cmn|x|i|1|.|z|ang|4}}}} |l = Western Tsang}}; {{bo |t = བོད་ |z = Poi |w = Bod}}, {{IPA-bo|pʰø̀ʔ}}), is a province-level autonomous region in southwest China. It was formally established in 1965 to replace the Tibet Area, an administrative division the People's Republic of China (PRC) took over from the Republic of China (ROC) about five years after the dismissal of the Kashag by the PRC following the 1959 Tibetan uprising, and about 13 years after Tibet's incorporation into the PRC in 1951.The current borders of the Tibet Autonomous Region were generally established in the 18th century"What is Tibet? – Fact and Fancy", Excerpt from BOOK, Goldstein, Melvyn, C., Change, Conflict and Continuity among a Community of Nomadic Pastoralist: A Case Study from Western Tibet, 1950–1990, 1994, 76–87, and include about half of ethno-cultural Tibet. The Tibet Autonomous Region is the second-largest province-level division of China by area, spanning over {{convert|1200000|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}, after Xinjiang, and mostly due to its harsh and rugged terrain, is the least densely populated provincial-level division of the PRC.


{{History of Tibet}}There is a politically-charged historical debate on the exact nature of relations between Tibet and the Chinese Ming dynasty (1368–1644) and whether the Ming Dynasty had sovereignty over TibetWylie (2003), 470.Wang & Nyima (1997), 1–40.Laird (2006), 106–7. after the Mongol conquest of Tibet and Yuan administrative rule in the 13th and 14th centuries. Qing dynasty (1636–1912) rule in Tibet began with their 1720 expedition to the country when they expelled the invading Dzungars, and Tibet was actually first controlled by central government. From 1912 to 1950 Tibet was under de jure suzerainty of the Republic of China, however, the difficulties of establishing a new government in the aftermath of the Xinhai Revolution, the fractious Warlord Era, the Chinese Civil War, and the overwhelming Japanese invasion and occupation before and during World War II left the Republic unable to exert any effective administration. Other parts of ethno-cultural Tibet (eastern Kham and Amdo) had been under de jure administration of the Chinese dynastic government since the mid-18th century;Grunfeld, A. Tom, The Making of Modern Tibet, M.E. Sharpe, p245. today they are distributed among the provinces of Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan. (See also: Xikang province)In 1950, the People's Liberation Army marched into Tibet and defeated the Tibetan local army in a battle fought near the city of Chamdo. In 1951, the Tibetan representatives signed a 17-point agreement with the Central People's Government affirming China's sovereignty over Tibet and the incorporation of Tibet. The agreement was ratified in Lhasa a few months later.Gyatso, Tenzin, Dalai Lama XIV, interview, 25 July 1981.Goldstein, Melvyn C., A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951, University of California Press, 1989, p. 812-813. Although the 17-point agreement had provided for an autonomous administration led by the Dalai Lama, a "Preparatory Committee for the Autonomous Region of Tibet" (PCART) was established in 1955 to exclude the Dalai Lama's government and create a system of administration along Communist lines. Under threat of his life from Chinese forces the Dalai Lama fled to India in 1959 and renounced the 17-point agreement. Tibet Autonomous Region was established in 1965, thus making Tibet a provincial-level division of China.


The Tibet Autonomous Region is located on the Tibetan Plateau, the highest region on earth. In northern Tibet elevations reach an average of over {{convert|4572|m|ft}}. Mount Everest is located on Tibet's border with Nepal.China's provincial-level areas of Xinjiang, Qinghai and Sichuan lie to the north, northeast, and east, respectively, of the Tibet AR. There is also a short border with Yunnan province to the southeast. Tibet Autonomous Region contains South Tibet, which is administered by India as part of Arunachal Pradesh. Tibet Autonomous Region also contains Doklam which is in dispute with Bhutan. The other countries to the south are Myanmar (Kachin State), Bhutan (Gasa, Lhuntse Thimphu, Trashiyangtse and Wangdue Phodrang Districts) and Nepal (Far-Western, Mid-Western, Western, Central, and Eastern Regions).File:Everest North Face toward Base Camp Tibet Luca Galuzzi 2006 edit 1.jpg|thumb|250px|Mount EverestMount EverestPhysically, the Tibet AR may be divided into two parts, the lakes region in the west and north-west, and the river region, which spreads out on three sides of the former on the east, south, and west. Both regions receive limited amounts of rainfall as they lie in the rain shadow of the Himalayas, however the region names are useful in contrasting their hydrological structures, and also in contrasting their different cultural uses which is nomadic in the lake region and agricultural in the river region.WEB,weblink Tibet: Agricultural Regions, 6 August 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 August 2007, dmy-all, On the south the Tibet AR is bounded by the Himalayas, and on the north by a broad mountain system. The system at no point narrows to a single range; generally there are three or four across its breadth. As a whole the system forms the watershed between rivers flowing to the Indian Ocean − the Indus, Brahmaputra and Salween and its tributaries − and the streams flowing into the undrained salt lakes to the north.The lake region extends from the Pangong Tso Lake in Ladakh, Lake Rakshastal, Yamdrok Lake and Lake Manasarovar near the source of the Indus River, to the sources of the Salween, the Mekong and the Yangtze. Other lakes include Dagze Co, Namtso, and Pagsum Co. The lake region is a wind-swept Alpine grassland. This region is called the Chang Tang (Byang sang) or 'Northern Plateau' by the people of Tibet. It is some {{convert|1100|km|-1|abbr=on}} broad, and covers an area about equal to that of France. Due to its great distance from the ocean it is extremely arid and possesses no river outlet. The mountain ranges are spread out, rounded, disconnected, separated by relatively flat valleys.The Tibet AR is dotted over with large and small lakes, generally salt or alkaline, and intersected by streams. Due to the presence of discontinuous permafrost over the Chang Tang, the soil is boggy and covered with tussocks of grass, thus resembling the Siberian tundra. Salt and fresh-water lakes are intermingled. The lakes are generally without outlet, or have only a small effluent. The deposits consist of soda, potash, borax and common salt. The lake region is noted for a vast number of hot springs, which are widely distributed between the Himalaya and 34° N, but are most numerous to the west of Tengri Nor (north-west of Lhasa). So intense is the cold in this part of Tibet that these springs are sometimes represented by columns of ice, the nearly boiling water having frozen in the act of ejection.The river region is characterised by fertile mountain valleys and includes the Yarlung Tsangpo River (the upper courses of the Brahmaputra) and its major tributary, the Nyang River, the Salween, the Yangtze, the Mekong, and the Yellow River. The Yarlung Tsangpo Canyon, formed by a horseshoe bend in the river where it flows around Namcha Barwa, is the deepest, and possibly longest canyon in the world.WEB,weblink The World's Biggest Canyon,, 29 June 2007,weblink" title="">weblink 12 October 2007, live, dmy-all, Among the mountains there are many narrow valleys. The valleys of Lhasa, Xigazê, Gyantse and the Brahmaputra are free from permafrost, covered with good soil and groves of trees, well irrigated, and richly cultivated.The South Tibet Valley is formed by the Yarlung Tsangpo River during its middle reaches, where it travels from west to east. The valley is approximately 1200 kilometres long and 300 kilometres wide. The valley descends from 4500 metres above sea level to 2800 metres. The mountains on either side of the valley are usually around 5000 metres high.BOOK, Tibetan Geography, 30–31, China Intercontinental Press, 978-7-5085-0665-4,weblink Yang, Qinye, Zheng, Du, 2004, Zheng Du, Zhang Qingsong, Wu Shaohong: Mountain Geoecology and Sustainable Development of the Tibetan Plateau (Kluwer 2000), {{ISBN|0-7923-6688-3}}, p. 312; Lakes here include Lake Paiku and Lake Puma Yumco.


{{See also|List of modern political leaders of Tibet|List of current Chinese provincial leaders}}The Tibet Autonomous Region is a province-level entity of the People's Republic of China. Chinese law nominally guarantees some autonomy in the areas of education and language policy. Like other subdivisions of China, routine administration is carried out by a People's Government, headed by a Chairman, who has been an ethnic Tibetan except for an interregnum during the Cultural Revolution. As with other Chinese provinces, the Chairman carries out work under the direction of the regional secretary of the Communist Party of China. The regional standing committee of the Communist Party serves as the top rung of political power in the region. The current Chairman is Che Dalha and the current party secretary is Wu Yingjie.NEWS, Leadership shake-up in China's Tibet: state media,weblink Agence France-Presse, France 24, France, 15 January 2010, 29 July 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 January 2010, dmy-all,

Administrative divisions

The Autonomous Region is divided into seven prefecture-level divisions: six prefecture-level cities and one prefecture.These in turn are subdivided into a total of 66 counties and 8 districts (Chengguan, Doilungdêqên, Dagzê, Samzhubzê, Karub, Bayi, Nêdong, and Seni).{| class="wikitable" style="margin:1em auto 1em auto; font-size:smaller; text-align:center;"! colspan="12" |Administrative divisions of Tibet Autonomous Region(File:Xizang prfc map.png|480px){{Color box|#7C9973|border=darkgray}} {{small|Prefecture-level city district areas}}!! scope="col" rowspan="2" | â„–!! scope="col" rowspan="2" | Division codeWEB, zh-Hans-CN,weblink zh:中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码, Ministry of Civil Affairs, Archived copy, 7 April 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 2 April 2015, live, dmy-all, !! scope="col" rowspan="2" | Division!! scope="col" rowspan="2" | Area in km2{{zh}}BOOK, zh-Hans-CN, Shenzhen City Bureau of Statistics, China Statistics Print, zh:《深圳统计年鉴2014》,weblink 2015-05-29, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 12 May 2015, dead, dmy-all, !! scope="col" rowspan="2" | Population 2010BOOK, Census Office of the State Council, Population and Employment Statistics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of China, National Bureau of Statistics, zh:中国2010人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料, 2012, China Statistics Print, Beijing, 978-7-5037-6660-2, 1th, !! scope="col" rowspan="2" | Seat!! scope="col" colspan="3" | DivisionsBOOK, zh-Hans-CN, Ministry of Civil Affairs, zh:《中国民政统计年鉴2014》, August 2014, China Statistics Print, 978-7-5037-7130-9, !! scope="col" width="45" | Districts!! scope="col" width="45" | Counties style="font-weight: bold"  ! 540000 !! Tibet Autonomous RegionLhasa (prefecture-level city)>Lhasa city 8 66! 5 !! 540100 !! Lhasa cityChengguan District, Lhasa>Chengguan District 3 5! 4 !! 540200 !! Shigatse / Xigazê citySamzhubzê District >| 17! 3 !! 540300 !! Chamdo / Qamdo cityKaruo District >| 10! 7 !! 540400 !! Nyingchi cityBayi District >| 6! 6 !! 540500 !! Shannan / Lhoka cityNêdong District >| 11! 2 !! 540600 !! Nagqu citySeni District >| 10! 1 !! 542500 !! Ngari PrefectureGar County > 7File:IMG 1565 Yamdrok Tso.jpg|thumb|250px|Yamdrok LakeYamdrok LakeFile:NamTso scene.jpg|thumb|250px|Namtso LakeNamtso Lake{|class="wikitable sortable collapsible collapsed" style="text-font:90%; width:auto; text-align:center; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"! colspan="6" |Administrative divisions in Tibetan, Chinese, and varieties of romanizations! English !! Tibetan !! Tibetan Pinyin !! Wylie transliteration !! Chinese !! PinyinTibet Autonomous Region >བོད་རང་སྐྱོང་ལྗོངས།}} Poi Ranggyongjong bod rang skyong ljongs XÄ«zàng ZìzhìqÅ«Lhasa (prefecture-level city)>Lhasa city {{bo-textonly| Lāsà ShìShigatse>Xigazê city {{bo-textonly| Rìkāzé ShìChamdo>Qamdo city {{bo-textonly| ChāngdÅ« ShìNyingchi city >ཉིང་ཁྲི་གྲོང་ཁྱེར།}} Nyingchi Chongkyir nying khri grong khyer LínzhÄ« ShìShannan, Tibet>Shannan city {{bo-textonly| Shānnán ShìNagqu city >ནག་ཆུ་གྲོང་ཁྱེར།}} Nagqu Chongkyir nag chu grong khyer àqÅ« ShìNgari Prefecture >མངའ་རིས་ས་ཁུལ།}} Ngari Sakü mnga' ris sa khul Ä€lǐ DìqÅ«

Urban areas{| class"wikitable sortable collapsible" style"font-size:90%;"

! colspan="6" | Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities!#!!City!!style ="background-color: #aaaaff;"|Urban area!!style ="background-color: #aaffaa;"|District area!!style ="background-color: #ffaaaa;"|City properBOOK, Census Office of the State Council, Population and Society, Science and Technology Statitics Division of the National Bureau of Statistics of China, National Bureau of Statistics, 2012, zh:中国2010年人口普查分县资料, Beijing, China Statistics Print, 978-7-5037-6659-6, !!Census dateLhasa (prefecture-level city)>Lhasa{{efnNew districts established after census: Doilungdêqên District, Dagzê District>Dagzê (Dagzê County). These new districts not included in the urban area & district area count of the pre-expanded city.}}199,159279,074559,4232010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow" class="sortbottom"(new districts)}}{{efnsee Lhasa}}2010-11-01Shigatse>Xigazê{{efnXigazê Prefecture is currently known as Xigazê PLC after census; Xigazê CLC is currently known as Samzhubzê District after census.}}>|2010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow"Chamdo>Qamdo{{efnQamdo Prefecture is currently known as Qamdo PLC after census; Qamdo County is currently known as Karuo District after census.}}>|2010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow"Nagqu{{efn>name=NagquSeni District>Seni after census.}}42,984108,781462,3812010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow"Nyingchi{{efn>name=NyingchiBayi District>Bayi after census.}}35,17954,702195,1092010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow"Shannan, Tibet>Shannan{{efnShannan Prefecture is currently known as Shannan PLC after census; Nêdong County is currently known as Nêdong District after census.}}>|2010-11-01{{Notelist}}


{{Historical populations|title = Historical populationXikang>Xikang Province / Chuanbian SAR was established in 1923 from parts of Tibet / Lifan Yuan; dissolved in 1955 and parts were incorporated into Tibet AR.ACCESSDATE=6 MARCH 2014ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150924032922/HTTP://WWW.IER.HIT-U.AC.JP/COE/JAPANESE/DISCUSSIONPAPERS/DP97.9/FHYO2.HTMLURL-STATUS=LIVE1,160,000ACCESSDATE=6 MARCH 2014ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150924032924/HTTP://WWW.IER.HIT-U.AC.JP/COE/JAPANESE/DISCUSSIONPAPERS/DP97.9/FHYO3.HTMURL-STATUS=LIVE372,000ACCESSDATE=6 MARCH 2014ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150924032925/HTTP://WWW.IER.HIT-U.AC.JP/COE/JAPANESE/DISCUSSIONPAPERS/DP97.9/FHYO4.HTMURL-STATUS=LIVE372,000ACCESSDATE=6 MARCH 2014ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130913053600/HTTP://WWW.IER.HIT-U.AC.JP/COE/JAPANESE/DISCUSSIONPAPERS/DP97.9/FHYO5.HTMURL-STATUS=LIVE1,000,000PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINAARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20090805174810/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/TJGB/RKPCGB/QGRKPCGB/T20020404_16767.HTMDF=DMY-ALL, |1,273,969PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINAARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120914173158/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/TJGB/RKPCGB/QGRKPCGB/T20020404_16768.HTMDF=DMY-ALL, |1,251,225PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINAARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120510075429/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/TJGB/RKPCGB/QGRKPCGB/T20020404_16769.HTMDF=DMY-ALL, |1,892,393PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINAARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120619002216/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/TJGB/RKPCGB/QGRKPCGB/T20020404_16772.HTMDF=DMY-ALL, |2,196,010PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINAARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120829052024/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/TJGB/RKPCGB/QGRKPCGB/T20020331_15435.HTMDF=DMY-ALL, |2,616,329PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINAARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130727021210/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/ENGLISH/NEWSANDCOMINGEVENTS/T20110429_402722516.HTMDF=DMY-ALL, |3,002,166}}With an average of only two people per square kilometer, Tibet has the lowest population density among any of the Chinese province-level administrative regions, mostly due to its harsh and rugged terrain.weblink" title="">China Economy @ China Perspective. Retrieved on 18 July 2013.In 2011 the Tibetan population was three million.WEB, Wang, Guanqun, Tibet's population tops three million; 90% are Tibetans,weblink, Xinhua, 2011-05-04,weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2011, live, dmy-all, The ethnic Tibetans, comprising 90.48% of the population,WEB, zh:西藏自治区常住人口超过300万,weblink Xizang gov, Xizang gov, 2011-05-06, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 February 2013, dmy-all, mainly adhere to Tibetan Buddhism and Bön, although there is an ethnic Tibetan Muslim community.Hannue, Dialogues Tibetan Dialogues Han Other Muslim ethnic groups such as the Hui and the Salar have inhabited the Region. There is also a tiny Tibetan Christian community in eastern Tibet. Smaller tribal groups such as the Monpa and Lhoba, who follow a combination of Tibetan Buddhism and spirit worship, are found mainly in the southeastern parts of the region.Historically, the population of Tibet consisted of primarily ethnic Tibetans. According to tradition the original ancestors of the Tibetan people, as represented by the six red bands in the Tibetan flag, are: the Se, Mu, Dong, Tong, Dru and Ra. Other traditional ethnic groups with significant population or with the majority of the ethnic group reside in Tibet include Bai people, Blang, Bonan, Dongxiang, Han, Hui people, Lhoba, Lisu people, Miao, Mongols, Monguor (Tu people), Menba (Monpa), Mosuo, Nakhi, Qiang, Nu people, Pumi, Salar, and Yi people.According to Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition published between 1910–1911, total population of Tibetan capital of Lhasa, including the lamas in the city and vicinity, was about 30,000, and the permanent population also included Chinese families (about 2,000).EB1911, Lhasa, 16, 531, Henry, Yule, Henry Yule, Laurence, Waddell, Laurence Waddell, Most Han people in the TAR (8.17% of the total population) are recent migrants, because all of the Han were expelled from "Outer Tibet" (Central Tibet) following the British invasion until the establishment of the PRC.BOOK, Grunfeld, A. Tom, The Making of Modern Tibet, 114–119, 1996, East Gate Books, Only 8% of Han people have household registration in TAR, other keep their household registration in place of origin.Tibetan scholars and Tibetans in exile claim that, with the 2006 completion of the Qingzang Railway connecting the TAR to Qinghai Province, there has been an "acceleration" of Han migration into the region.WEB, Johnson, Tim,weblink Tibetans see 'Han invasion' as spurring violence | McClatchy,, 28 March 2008, 11 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 15 November 2009, dmy-all, The exile Tibetan Administration of the Dalai Lama in north India, claims that the PRC will swarm Tibet with migrants in order to alter Tibet's demographic makeup.WEB,weblink Central Tibetan Administration, Population Transfer Programmes, 2003, 29 July 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 30 July 2010, dead, dmy-all,


{{Bar box|float = right|title = Religion in Tibet (2012 estimates)Internazional Religious Freedom Report 2012 by the US government. p. 20: «Most ethnic Tibetans practice Tibetan Buddhism, although a sizeable minority practices Bon, an indigenous religion, and very small minorities practice Islam, Catholicism, or Protestantism. Some scholars estimate that there are as many as 400,000 Bon followers across the Tibetan Plateau. Scholars also estimate that there are up to 5,000 ethnic Tibetan Muslims and 700 ethnic Tibetan Catholics in the TAR.»|bars ={{Bar percent|Tibetan Buddhism|Yellow|78.5}}{{Bar percent|Bon|SlateBlue|12.5}}{{Bar percent|Chinese folk religion|FireBrick|8.58}}{{Bar percent|IslamMin Junqing. The Present Situation and Characteristics of Contemporary Islam in China. JISMOR, 8. 2010 Islam by province, page 29 {{Webarchive|url= |date=27 April 2017 }}. Data from: Yang Zongde, Study on Current Muslim Population in China, Jinan Muslim, 2, 2010.|Green|0.4}}{{Bar percent|Christianity|DodgerBlue|0.02}}}}File:Tibet-6048 - Largest Sitting Maitreya Buddha.jpg|thumb|150px|Maitreya Buddha statue of Tashilhunpo Monastery in ShigatseShigatseThe main religion in Tibet has been Buddhism since its outspread in the 8th century AD. Before the arrival of Buddhism, the main religion among Tibetans was an indigenous shamanic and animistic religion, Bon, which now comprises a sizeable minority and which would later influence the formation of Tibetan Buddhism.According to estimates from the International Religious Freedom Report of 2012, most of Tibetans (who comprise 91% of the population of the Tibet Autonomous Region) are bound by Tibetan Buddhism, while a minority of 400,000 people (12.5% of the total population of the TAR) are bound to the native Bon or folk religions which share the image of Confucius (Tibetan: Kongtse Trulgyi Gyalpo) with Chinese folk religion, though in a different light.WEB, Te-Ming TSENG, Shen-Yu LIN,weblink The Image of Confucius in Tibetan Culture, zh:《臺灣東亞文明研究學刊》第4卷第2期(總第8期), December 2007, 169–207, National Taiwan University, pdf, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, dmy-all, Shenyu Lin. The Tibetan Image of Confucius {{Webarchive|url= |date=13 September 2017 }}. Revue d’Etudes Tibétaines. According to some reports, the government of China has been promoting the Bon religion, linking it with Confucianism.China-Tibet Online: Confucius ruled as a "divine king" in Tibet{{dead link|date=December 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}. 2014-11-04Most of the Han Chinese who reside in Tibet practice their native Chinese folk religion ({{zh|labels=no |c=神道 |p=shén dào |l=Way of the Gods}}). There is a Guandi Temple of Lhasa () where the Chinese god of war Guandi is identified with the cross-ethnic Chinese, Tibetan, Mongol and Manchu deity Gesar. The temple is built according to both Chinese and Tibetan architecture. It was first erected in 1792 under the Qing dynasty and renovated around 2013 after decades of disrepair.World Guangong Culture: Lhasa, Tibet: Guandi temple was inaugurated {{Webarchive|url= |date=4 March 2016 }}.China-Tibet Online: Tibet's largest Guandi Temple gets repaired{{dead link|date=December 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}. 2013-03-13Built or rebuilt between 2014 and 2015 is the Guandi Temple of Qomolangma (Mount Everest), on Ganggar Mount, in Tingri County.World Guangong Culture: Dingri, Tibet: Cornerstone Laying Ceremony being Grandly Held for the Reconstruction of Qomolangma Guandi Temple {{Webarchive|url= |date=7 November 2017 }}.World Guangong Culture: Wuhan, China: Yang Song Meets Cui Yujing to Discuss Qomolangma Guandi Temple {{Webarchive|url= |date=4 March 2016 }}.There are four mosques in the Tibet Autonomous Region with approximately 4,000 to 5,000 Muslim adherents, although a 2010 Chinese survey found a higher proportion of 0.4%. There is a Catholic church with 700 parishioners, which is located in the traditionally Catholic community of Yanjing in the east of the region.

Human rights

Towns and villages in Tibet

{{Further|List of populated places in the Tibet Autonomous Region}}

"Comfortable Housing"

Beginning in 2006, 280,000 Tibetans who lived in traditional villages and as nomadic herdsmen have been forcefully relocated into villages and towns. In those areas new housing was built and existing houses were remodelled to serve a total of 2 million people.Those living in substandard housing were required to dismantle their houses and remodel them to government standards. Much of the expense was borne by the residents themselves often through bank loans. The population transfer program, which was first implemented in Qinghai where 300,000 nomads were resettled, is called "Comfortable Housing". which is part of the “Build a New Socialist Countryside” program. Its effect on Tibetan culture has been criticized by exiles and human rights groups.WEB, "They Say We Should Be Grateful": Mass Rehousing and Relocation Programs in Tibetan Areas of China,weblink Human Rights Watch, 28 June 2013, June 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 12 July 2013, live, dmy-all, Finding employment is difficult for relocated persons who have only agrarian skills. Income shortfalls are offset by government support programs.NEWS, Rights Report Faults Mass Relocation of Tibetans,weblink 28 June 2013, The New York Times, 27 June 2013, Andrew Jacobs (journalist), Andrew, Jacobs,weblink" title="">weblink 27 June 2013, live, dmy-all, It was announced in 2011 that 20,000 Communist Party cadres were to be placed in the new towns.


The Tibetans traditionally depended upon agriculture for survival. Since the 1980s, however, other jobs such as taxi-driving and hotel retail work have become available in the wake of Chinese economic reform. In 2011, Tibet's nominal GDP topped 60.5 billion yuan (US$9.60 billion), nearly more than seven times as big as the 11.78 billion yuan (US$1.47 billion) in 2000. Economic growth since the beginning of the 21st century has averaged over 10 percent a year.While traditional agriculture and animal husbandry continue to lead the area's economy, in 2005 the tertiary sector contributed more than half of its GDP growth, the first time it surpassed the area's primary industry.WEB,weblink Xinhua – Per capita GDP tops $1,000 in Tibet,, Xinhua, 31 January 2006, 11 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 9 June 2011, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Tibet posts fixed assets investment rise,, Xinhua, 31 January 2006, 11 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 9 June 2011, dmy-all, Rich reserves of natural resources and raw materials have yet to lead to the creation of a strong secondary sector, due in large part to the province's inhospitable terrain, low population density, an underdeveloped infrastructure and the high cost of extraction.The collection of caterpillar fungus (Cordyceps sinensis, known in Tibetan as Yartsa Gunbu) in late spring / early summer is in many areas the most important source of cash for rural households. It contributes an average of 40% to rural cash income and 8.5% to the TAR's GDP.Winkler D. 2008 Yartsa gunbu (Cordyceps sinenis) and the fungal commodification of rural Tibet. Economic Botany 62.3. See also Hannue, Dialogues Tibetan Dialogues HanThe re-opening of the Nathu La pass (on southern Tibet's border with India) should facilitate Sino-Indian border trade and boost Tibet's economy.NEWS, Maseeh Rahman in New Delhi,weblink China and India to trade across Himalayas | World news, The Guardian, 19 June 2006, 11 October 2011, London, In 2008, Chinese news media reported that the per capita disposable incomes of urban and rural residents in Tibet averaged 12,482 yuan (US$1,798) and 3,176 yuan (US$457) respectively.WEB,weblink Tibetans report income rises,, 11 October 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 21 July 2011, live, dmy-all, The China Western Development policy was adopted in 2000 by the central government to boost economic development in western China, including the Tibet Autonomous Region.


File:SG105186.jpg|thumb|right|250px|The Potala Palace in Lhasa, the capital of the TAR.]]Foreign tourists were first permitted to visit the Tibet Autonomous Region in the 1980s. While the main attraction is the Potala Palace in Lhasa, there are many other popular tourist destinations including the Jokhang Temple, Namtso Lake, and Tashilhunpo Monastery.* Birgit Zotz, Destination Tibet. Hamburg: Kovac 2010, {{ISBN|978-3-8300-4948-7}} weblink {{Webarchive|url= |date=17 January 2012 }} Nonetheless, tourism in Tibet is still restricted for non-Chinese passport holders and Taiwan citizens, and presently the only way for foreigners to enter is via Tibet Entry Permit. The permit can only be obtained through a travel agency in Tibet, and travel in Tibet must be arranged in a group tour, in which the group must be accompanied by a licensed tour guide at all times. Those traveling into Tibet must specify every location they want to travel within the TAR, and thus cannot travel anywhere not specified in the application. Before entering on a train, plane, or road leading into Tibet, anyone without a Chinese passport must present the Tibet Entry Permit, or they will otherwise be denied entry. People barred from obtaining the permit are journalists, diplomats, professional media photographers, and government officials.WEB, In-depth Guide of How to get to Tibet,weblink, 2016-01-18,weblink" title="">weblink 19 January 2016, live, dmy-all,



File:Lhasa airport.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Lhasa Gonggar AirportLhasa Gonggar AirportThe civil airports in Tibet are Lhasa Gonggar Airport,WEB,weblink Gongkhar Airport in Tibet enters digital communication age, Xinhua News Agency, 12 May 2009, 12 December 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 15 December 2010, dmy-all, Qamdo Bangda Airport, Nyingchi Airport, and the Gunsa Airport.Gunsa Airport in Ngari Prefecture began operations on 1 July 2010, to become the fourth civil airport in China's Tibet Autonomous Region.WEB,weblink Tibet's fourth civil airport opens, Xinhua News Agency, 1 July 2010, 11 December 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 December 2010, dmy-all, The Peace Airport for Xigazê was opened for civilian use on 30 October 2010.WEB,weblink Tibet to have fifth civil airport operational before year end 2010, Xinhua News Agency, 26 July 2010, 12 December 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 15 December 2010, dmy-all, Nagqu Dagring Airport is expected to become the world's highest altitude airport by 2014 at 4,436 meters above sea level.WEB,weblink World's highest-altitude airport planned on Tibet,, Xinhua News Agency, 12 January 2010, 12 December 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 15 December 2010, dmy-all,


The Qinghai–Tibet Railway from Golmud to Lhasa was completed on 12 October 2005. It opened to regular trial service on 1 July 2006. Five pairs of passenger trains run between Golmud and Lhasa, with connections onward to Beijing, Chengdu, Chongqing, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Xining and Lanzhou. The line includes the Tanggula Pass, which, at 5,072 m (16,640 ft) above sea level, is the world's highest railway.The Lhasa–Xigazê Railway branch from Lhasa to Xigazê was completed in 2014. It opened to regular service on 15 August 2014. The planned China–Nepal railway will connect Xigazê to Kathmandu, capital of Nepal, and is expected to be completed around 2027.NEWS, Giri, A, Giri, S, Nepal, China agree on rail study,weblink 22 September 2018, The Kathmandu Post, 24 August 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 22 September 2018, live, dmy-all, The construction of the Sichuan–Tibet Railway began in 2015. The line is expected to be completed around 2025.WEB, Chu, China Approves New Railway for Tibet,weblink, CRI, 9 November 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 9 November 2014, live, dmy-all,

See also



Further reading

  • Hannue, Dialogues Tibetan Dialogues Han, travelogue from Tibet – by a woman who's been travelling around Tibet for over a decade, {{ISBN|978-988-97999-3-9}}
  • Sorrel Wilby, Journey Across Tibet: A Young Woman's 1900-Mile Trek Across the Rooftop of the World, Contemporary Books (1988), hardcover, 236 pages, {{ISBN|0-8092-4608-2}}.
  • Hillman, Ben, ‘China’s Many Tibets: Diqing as a model for ‘development with Tibetan characteristics?’ Asian Ethnicity, Vol. 11, No. 2, June 2010, pp 269–277.{{ISBN?}}

External links

{{Commons|Tibet}}{{Wikivoyage|Tibet|Tibet Autonomous Region}} {{-}}{{Province-level divisions of the People's Republic of China}}{{Tibet Autonomous Region}}{{Tibetan autonomy in the People's Republic of China}}{{Tibet related articles}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Tibet Autonomous Region" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 8:18pm EDT - Wed, Oct 16 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott