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Gansu
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{{Distinguish|Ginsu}}{{Use dmy dates|date=June 2011}}







factoids
|PopYear = 2010|Pop = 25,575,254PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINA DATE=29 APRIL 2011 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130727021210/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/ENGLISH/NEWSANDCOMINGEVENTS/T20110429_402722516.HTM, 27 July 2013, |PopRank = 22nd|PopDensityRank = 27thSCRIPT-TITLE=ZH:甘肃省2017年国民经济和社会发展统计公报LANGUAGE=ZHACCESSDATE=2018-06-22, |GDP = 767.70 billionUSD 113.70 billion |GDPRank = 27th|GDPperCapita = 29,326USD 4,343|GDPperCapitaRank = 31st|HDIYear = 2010SCRIPT-TITLE=ZH:《2013中国人类发展报告》PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME CHINAACCESSDATE=2014-05-14, |HDIRank = 28th|HDICat = mediumdate=March 2018}}Han Chinese: 91%Hui people>Hui: 5%Dongxiang people: 2%Tibetan people>Tibetan: 2%Central Plains Mandarin>Zhongyuan Mandarin, Lanyin Mandarin, Amdo Tibetan|Prefectures = 14|Counties = 86|Townships = 1344|Website =weblink (Simplified Chinese)}}







factoids
|suz=Koe-soh|gr=Gansuh|j=Gam1-suk1g1s1}}|y=Gām-sūk|tl=Kam-siok|xej=قًا صُوَع|zh-dungan=Гансў|tib=ཀན་སུའུ་LAST=1957-PUBLISHER=ISBN=9780199358151PAGES=APPENDIX B, PAGE 6, 947145370, |order=st}}Gansu ({{zh|s={{Audio|Gansu.ogg|甘肃|help=no}}|labels=no}}; formerly romanised as Kansu) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.It lies between the Tibetan and Loess plateaus, and borders Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Ningxia to the north, Xinjiang and Qinghai to the west, Sichuan to the south, and Shaanxi to the east. The Yellow River passes through the southern part of the province.Gansu has a population of 26 million (as of 2009) and covers an area of {{convert|453700|km2}}. The capital is Lanzhou, located in the southeast part of the province.The State of Qin originated in what is now southeastern Gansu, and went on to form the first dynasty of Imperial China. The Northern Silk Road ran through the Hexi Corridor, which passes through Gansu.

Name

Gansu is a compound of the names of Ganzhou (now a district of Zhangye) and Suzhou, the seat of Jiuquan Prefecture, formerly the two most important Chinese settlements in the area.Gansu is abbreviated as "" (Gān) or "" (Lǒng), and is also known as Longxi (陇西, "[land] west of Long") or Longyou (陇右, "[land] right of Long"), in reference to the Long Mountain east of Gansu. {{citation needed|date=March 2014}}

History

File:Summer Vacation 2007, 263, Watchtower In The Morning Light, Dunhuang, Gansu Province.jpg|thumb|250px|The ruins of a Han dynasty (202 BC–220 AD) Chinese watchtower made of rammed earth at Dunhuang, Gansu province, the eastern edge of the Silk RoadSilk RoadGansu’s name is a compound name first used during the Song dynasty of two Sui and Tang dynasty{{clarify|post-script=Meaning unclear|date=April 2014}} prefectures (): Gan (around Zhangye) and Su (around Jiuquan). Its eastern part forms part of one of the cradles of ancient Chinese civilisation.

Ancient Gansu

File:Chinese jar, Neolithic period, painted earthenware, HAA.JPG|thumb|left|Xindian cultureXindian cultureIn prehistoric times, Gansu was host to Neolithic cultures. The Dadiwan culture, from where archaeologically significant artifacts have been excavated, flourished in the eastern end of Gansu from about 6000{{nbsp}}BC to about 3000{{nbsp}}BC.Dadiwan Relics Break Archeological Records The Majiayao culture and part of the Qijia culture took root in Gansu from 3100 BC to 2700 BC and 2400 BC to 1900 BC respectively.The Yuezhi originally lived in the very western part of Gansu until they were forced to emigrate by the Xiongnu around 177 BCE.The State of Qin, later to become the founding state of the Chinese empire, grew out from the southeastern part of Gansu, specifically the Tianshui area. The Qin name is believed to have originated, in part, from the area.Xinhua - English {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120305230318weblink |date=5 March 2012 }}People's Daily Online - Chinese surname history: Qin Qin tombs and artifacts have been excavated from Fangmatan near Tianshui, including one 2200-year-old map of Guixian County.Over 2,200-Year-old Map Discovered in NW China {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070312011236weblink |date=12 March 2007 }}

Imperial era

File:Yumenguan.jpg|left|250px|thumb|The ruins of a gate at Yumen Pass, built during the Jin Dynasty (265-420)Jin Dynasty (265-420)In imperial times, Gansu was an important strategic outpost and communications link for the Chinese empire, as the Hexi Corridor runs along the "neck" of the province. The Han dynasty extended the Great Wall across this corridor, building the strategic Yumenguan (Jade Gate Pass, near Dunhuang) and Yangguan fort towns along it. Remains of the wall and the towns can be found there. The Ming dynasty built the Jiayuguan outpost in Gansu. To the west of Yumenguan and the Qilian Mountains, at the northwestern end of the province, the Yuezhi, Wusun, and other nomadic tribes dwelt (Shiji 123), occasionally figuring in regional imperial Chinese geopolitics.By the Qingshui treaty, concluded in 823 between the Tibetan Empire and the Tang dynasty, China lost much of western Gansu province for a significant period.Turghun Almas, "Uygurlar", Kashgar, 1989.After the fall of the Uyghur Khaganate, a Buddhist Yugur (Uyghur) state called the Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom was established by migrating Uyghurs from the Khaganate in part of Gansu that lasted from 848 to 1036{{nbsp}}AD.Along the Silk Road, Gansu was an economically important province, as well as a cultural transmission path. Temples and Buddhist grottoesEnglish.people.com.cn such as those at Mogao Caves ('Caves of the Thousand Buddhas') and Maijishan Caves contain artistically and historically revealing murals."Artistic treasures of Maiji Mountain caves" by Alok Shrotriya and Zhou Xue-ying. Asianart.com An early form of paper inscribed with Chinese characters and dating to about 8{{nbsp}}BC was discovered at the site of a Western Han garrison near the Yumen pass in August 2006.Xinhuanet.com The province was also the origin of the Dungan Revolt of 1862-77. Among the Qing forces were Muslim generals, including Ma Zhan'ao and Ma Anliang, who helped the Qing crush the rebel Muslims. The revolt had spread into Gansu from neighbouring Qinghai.There was another Dungan revolt from 1895 to 1896.File:JiayuguanFort.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Jiayuguan Fort]]

Republican China

As a result of frequent earthquakes, droughts and famines, the economic progress of Gansu was significantly slower than that of other provinces of China until recently. Based on the area's abundant mineral resources it has begun developing into a vital industrial center. An earthquake in Gansu at 8.6 on the Richter scale killed around 180,000 people mostly in the present-day area of Ningxia in 1920, and another with a magnitude of 7.6 killed 275 in 1932.WEB,weblink Comments for the Significant Earthquake, NGDC, 2 November 2010, The Muslim Conflict in Gansu (1927–1930) was a conflict against the Guominjun.While the Muslim General Ma Hongbin was acting chairman of the province, Muslim General Ma Buqing was in virtual control of Gansu in 1940. Liangzhou District in Wuwei was previously his headquarters in Gansu, where he controlled 15 million Muslims.NEWS, Moslem War Lord Isolated by China; Ma Pu-ching Sent to Swamps of Tibet With the Title of Reclamation Commissioner Member of a Noted Clan Vital Route to Russia Passes Through Area With 15,000,000 Believers in the Koran, Harrison Forman, The New York Times, 19 July 1942,weblink Xinjiang came under Kuomintang (Nationalist) control after their soldiers entered via Gansu.BOOK, Hsiao-ting Lin, Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West,weblink 13 September 2010, Routledge, 978-1-136-92393-7, 76–, Gansu's Tienshui was the site of a Japanese-Chinese warplane fight.BOOK, Alan Armstrong, Preemptive Strike: The Secret Plan that Would Have Prevented the Attack on Pearl Harbor,weblink 2006, Lyons Press, 978-1-59228-913-4, 122–, Gansu was vulnerable to Soviet penetration via Xinjiang.BOOK, Peter Fleming, News from Tartary: An Epic Journey Across Central Asia,weblink 19 August 2014, I.B.Tauris, 978-0-85773-495-2, 264–, Gansu was a passageway for Soviet supplies during the Second Sino-Japanese War.BOOK, Andrew D. W. Forbes, Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949,weblink 9 October 1986, CUP Archive, 978-0-521-25514-1, 146–, Lanzhou was a destination point via a road coming from Dihua (Ürümqi).BOOK, Tetsuya Kataoka, Resistance and Revolution in China: The Communists and the Second United Front,weblink 1974, University of California Press, 978-0-520-02553-0, 170–, Lanzhou and Lhasa were designated to be recipients of a new railway.{{when|date=July 2017}}BOOK, Ginsburgs, Communist China and Tibet: The First Dozen Years,weblink 11 November 2013, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-94-017-5057-8, 100–, The Kuomintang Islamic insurgency in China (1950–1958) was a prolongation of the Chinese Civil War in several provinces including Gansu.

Geography

(File:Gansu Donkeys.jpg|right|thumb|Semi-arid land, suitable for light grazing)Gansu has an area of {{convert|454000|km2}}, and the vast majority of its land is more than {{convert|1000|m}} above sea level. It lies between the Tibetan Plateau and the Loess Plateau, bordering Mongolia (Govi-Altai Province) to the northwest, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia to the north, Shaanxi to the east, Sichuan to the south, and Xinjiang to the west. The Yellow River passes through the southern part of the province. The province contains the geographical centre of China, marked by the Center of the Country Monument at {{coord|35|50|40.9|N|103|27|7.5|E|region:CN-62_type:landmark|name=Geographical centre of China}}.English.people.com.cnPart of the Gobi Desert is located in Gansu, as well as small parts of the Badain Jaran Desert and the Tengger Desert.The Yellow River gets most of its water from Gansu, flowing straight through Lanzhou. The area around Wuwei is part of Shiyang River Basin.WEB,weblink 2009-06-15, FutureWater, Groundwater Management Exploration Package, # Wageningen, Netherlands, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110724152308weblink">weblink 24 July 2011, The landscape in Gansu is very mountainous in the south and flat in the north. The mountains in the south are part of the Qilian Mountains, while the far western Altyn-Tagh contains the province’s highest point, at {{convert|5830|m|ft|-1}}.A natural land passage known as Hexi Corridor, stretching some {{convert|1000|km}} from Lanzhou to the Jade Gate, is situated within the province. It is bound from north by the Gobi Desert and Qilian Mountains from the south.Gansu generally has a semi-arid to arid continental climate (Köppen BSk or BWk) with warm to hot summers and cold to very cold winters, although diurnal temperature ranges are often so large that maxima remain above {{convert|0|C|F}} even in winter. However, due to extreme altitude, some areas of Gansu exhibit a subarctic climate (Dwc) – with winter temperatures sometimes dropping to {{convert|-40|C|F}}. Most of the limited precipitation is delivered in the summer months: winters are so dry that snow cover is confined to very high altitudes and the snow line can be as high as {{convert|5500|m|ft|-1}} in the southwest.{{wide image|Daxia-River-Valley-panorama-5902+5903+5904+5905+5906.jpg|900px|Panorama of the lower Daxia River valley in the northeast of the Linxia County, and the loess plateau flanking in, cut by a canyon||none}}

Administrative divisions

Gansu is divided into fourteen prefecture-level divisions: twelve prefecture-level cities and two autonomous prefectures:{| class="wikitable" style="margin:1em auto 1em auto; width:90%; font-size:smaller; text-align:center"! colspan="12" |Administrative divisions of Gansu(File:Gansu prfc map.png|450px){{Color box|#7C9973|border=darkgray}} {{small|Prefecture-level city district areas}} {{Color box|#729996|border=darkgray}} {{small|County-level cities}}!! scope="col" rowspan="2" | â„–!! scope="col" rowspan="2" | Division codeWEB, zh-hans,weblink zh:中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码, Ministry of Civil Affairs, !! scope="col" rowspan="2" | Division!! scope="col" rowspan="2" | Area in km2{{zh}}BOOK, zh-hans, Shenzhen Bureau of Statistics, China Statistics Print, zh:《深圳统计年鉴2014》,weblink 2015-05-29, !! scope="col" rowspan="2" | Population 2010BOOK, shi, Guo wu yuan ren kou pu cha ban gong, council, Guo jia tong ji ju ren kou he jiu ye tong ji si bian = Tabulation on the 2010 population census of the people's republic of China by township / compiled by Population census office under the state, population, Department of, statistics, employment statistics national bureau of, zh:中国2010年人口普查分乡、镇、街道资料, 2012, China Statistics Print, Beijing, 978-7-5037-6660-2, Di 1 ban., !! scope="col" rowspan="2" | Seat!! scope="col" colspan="4" | DivisionsBOOK, zh-hans, Ministry of Civil Affairs, zh:《中国民政统计年鉴2014》, August 2014, China Statistics Print, 978-7-5037-7130-9, !! scope="col" width="45" | Districts!! scope="col" width="45" | Counties!! scope="col" width="45" | Aut. counties!! scope="col" width="45" | CL cities style="font-weight: bold"   ! 620000 !! Gansu ProvinceLanzhou city >| 4! 7 !! 620100 !! Lanzhou cityChengguan District, Lanzhou>Chengguan District 5 3 bgcolor="grey" ! 2 !! 620200 !! Jiayuguan city*Shengli Subdistrict, Jiayuguan>Shengli Subdistrict bgcolor="grey" bgcolor="grey" ! 4 !! 620300 !! Jinchang cityJinchuan District > bgcolor="grey"| ! 6 !! 620400 !! Baiyin cityBaiyin District > bgcolor="grey"| ! 12 !! 620500 !! Tianshui cityQinzhou District > ! 5 !! 620600 !! Wuwei cityLiangzhou District > ! 3 !! 620700 !! Zhangye cityGanzhou District > ! 13 !! 620800 !! Pingliang cityKongtong District > bgcolor="grey"| ! 1 !! 620900 !! Jiuquan citySuzhou District >| 2! 14 !! 621000 !! Qingyang cityXifeng District > bgcolor="grey"| ! 10 !! 621100 !! Dingxi cityAnding District, Dingxi>Anding District 1 6 bgcolor="grey" ! 11 !! 621200 !! Longnan cityWudu District > bgcolor="grey"| ! 8 !! 622900 !! Linxia Autonomous PrefectureLinxia City>Linxia city bgcolor="grey"| 1! 9 !! 623000 !! Gannan Autonomous PrefectureHezuo city > 7 bgcolor="grey"| 1 * - direct-piped cities - does not contain any county-level divisions{|class="wikitable sortable collapsible collapsed" style="text-font:90%; width:auto; text-align:center; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;"! colspan="5" |Administrative divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations! English !! Chinese !! PinyinGansu Province >| Gānsù ShÄ›ngLanzhou city >| Lánzhōu ShìJiayuguan City>Jiayuguan city Jiāyùguān ShìJinchang city >| JÄ«nchāng ShìBaiyin city >| Báiyín ShìTianshui city >| Tiānshuǐ ShìWuwei, Gansu>Wuwei city WÇ”wÄ“i ShìZhangye city >| Zhāngyè ShìPingliang city >| Píngliáng ShìJiuquan city >| JiÇ”quán ShìQingyang city >| Qìngyáng ShìDingxi city >| DìngxÄ« ShìLongnan city >| LÇ’ngnán ShìLinxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture>Linxia Autonomous Prefecture Línxià ZhōuGannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture>Gannan Autonomous Prefecture Gānnán ZhōuThe fourteen prefecture-level divisions of Gansu are subdivided into 82 county-level divisions (17 districts, 4 county-level cities, 58 counties, and 3 autonomous counties).

Urban areas{|class"wikitable sortable collapsible" style"font-size:90%;"

! colspan="6" | Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities!#!!City!!style ="background-color: #aaaaff;"|Urban area!!style ="background-color: #aaffaa;"|District area!!style ="background-color: #ffaaaa;"|City properBOOK, 2012, zh:中国2010年人口普查分县资料, Beijing, [China Statistics Print], 978-7-5037-6659-6, !!Census dateLanzhou>|2010-11-01Tianshui>|2010-11-01Baiyin>|2010-11-01Wuwei, Gansu>Wuwei331,3701,010,2951,815,0592010-11-01Jiuquan>|2010-11-01Pingliang>|2010-11-01Linxia City>Linxia220,895274,466{{smallpart of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture>Linxia Prefecture}}2010-11-01Zhangye>|2010-11-01Jiayuguan City>Jiayuguan216,362231,853231,8532010-11-01Jinchang>|2010-11-01Qingyang>|2010-11-01Dingxi>|2010-11-01Longnan>|2010-11-01Dunhuang>see Jiuquan}}2010-11-01 bgcolor="lightyellow"Huating, Gansu>Huating{{efnHuating County is currently known as Huating CLC after census.}}88,454189,333{{smallsee Pingliang}}>|2010-11-01Yumen City>Yumen78,940159,792{{smallsee Jiuquan}}>|2010-11-01Hezuo>''see Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture''}}>|2010-11-01{{notelist}}

Politics

{{further|List of provincial leaders of the People's Republic of China}}(File:Gansu Government.jpg|thumb|Gates of a provincial government complex in Lanzhou)Secretaries of the CPC Gansu Committee: The Secretary of the CPC Gansu Committee is the highest-ranking office within Gansu Province.
  1. Zhang Desheng (): 1949−1954
  2. Zhang Zhongliang (): 1954−1961
  3. Wang Feng (): 1961−1966
  4. Hu Jizong (): 1966−1967
  5. Xian Henghan (): 1970−1977
  6. Song Ping (): 1977−1981
  7. Feng Jixin (): 1981−1983
  8. Li Ziqi (): 1983−1990
  9. Gu Jinchi (): 1990−1993
  10. Yan Haiwang (): 1993−1998
  11. Sun Ying (): 1998−2001
  12. Song Zhaosu (): 2001−2003
  13. Su Rong (): 2003−2007
  14. Lu Hao (): April 2007 − December 2011
  15. Wang Sanyun (): December 2011 − March 2017
  16. Lin Duo (): March 2017 − incumbent
Governors of Gansu: The Governorship of Gansu is the second highest-ranking official within Gansu, behind the Secretary of the CPC Gansu Committee. The governor is responsible for all issues related to economics, personnel, political initiatives, the environment and the foreign affairs of the province. The Governor is appointed by the Gansu Provincial People's Congress, which is the province's legislative body.
  1. Wang Shitai (): 1949−1950
  2. Deng Baoshan (): 1950−1967
  3. Xian Henghan (): 1967−1977
  4. Song Ping (): 1977−1979
  5. Feng Jixin (): 1979−1981
  6. Li Dengying (): 1981−1983
  7. Chen Guangyi (): 1983−1986
  8. Jia Zhijie (): 1986−1993
  9. Yan Haiwang (): 1993
  10. Zhang Wule (): 1993−1996
  11. Sun Ying (): 1996−1998
  12. Song Zhaosu (): 1998−2001
  13. Lu Hao (): 2001−2006
  14. Xu Shousheng (): January 2007−July 2010NEWS, Xu Shousheng re-elected governor of northwest China's Gansu Province,weblink Xinhua, 2008-01-27, 2008-02-23,
  15. Liu Weiping (): July 2010−April 2016
  16. Lin Duo (): April 2016−April 2017
  17. Tang Renjian (): April 2017−incumbent

Economy

(File:Lanzhou-rio-amarillo-baita-shan-d03.jpg|thumbnail|right|The Yellow River in Lanzhou seen from the park of the White Pagoda.)Agricultural production includes cotton, linseed oil, maize, melons (such as the honeydew melon, known locally as the Bailan melon or "Wallace" due to its introduction by US vice president Henry A. Wallace),Hudong.com This simplified Chinese page discusses how the seeds were brought to China, the connection to Wallace, dates, etc. millet, and wheat. Gansu is known as a source for wild medicinal herbs which are used in Chinese medicine. However, pollution by heavy metals, such as cadmium in irrigation water, has resulted in the poisoning of many acres of agricultural land. The extent and nature of the heavy metal pollution is considered a state secret.NEWS, The Poison Eaters of Gansu Province: Pollution is not a problem some western farmers can choose to ignore, as many say they have suffered from chronic bone pains for decades,weblink March 1, 2013, Caixin, March 1, 2013, Liu Hongqiao, However, most of Gansu's economy is based on mining and the extraction of minerals, especially rare earth elements. The province has significant deposits of antimony, chromium, coal, cobalt, copper, fluorite, gypsum, iridium, iron, lead, limestone, mercury, mirabilite, nickel, crude oil, platinum, troilite, tungsten, and zinc among others. The oil fields at Yumen and Changqing are considered significant.Gansu has China's largest nickel deposits accounting for over 90% of China's total nickel reserves.{{citation needed|date=June 2018}}Industries other than mining include electricity generation, petrochemicals, oil exploration machinery, and building materials.According to some sources, the province is also a center of China's nuclear industry.Despite recent growth in Gansu and the booming economy in the rest of China, Gansu is still considered to be one of the poorest provinces in China. Its nominal GDP for 2011 was about 502.0 billion yuan (79.69 billion USD) and per capita of 12,836 RMB (1,879 USD). Tourism has been a bright spot in contributing to Gansu's overall economy. As mentioned below, Gansu offers a wide variety of choices for national and international tourists.As stipulated in the country's 12th Five Year Plan, the local government of Gansu hopes to grow the provinces GDP by 10% annually by focusing investments on five pillar industries: renewable energy, coal, chemicals, nonferrous metals, pharmaceuticals and services.{{citation needed|date=June 2018}}

Economic and technological development zones

The following economic and technological zones are situated in Gansu:
  • Lanzhou National Economic and Technological Development Zone was established in 1993, located in the center of Lanzhou Anning District. The zone has a planned area of {{convert|9.53|km2|abbr=on}}. 17 colleges, 11 scientific research institutions, 21 large and medium-size companies and other 1735 enterprises have been set up in the zone. Main industries include textile mills, rubber, fertilizer plants, oil refinery, petrochemical, machinery, and metallurgical industry.RightSite.asia {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100611124453weblink |date=11 June 2010 }}, Lanzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone
  • Lanzhou New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone, Lanzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone, one of the first 27 national hi-tech industrial development zones, was established in 1998 covering more than {{convert|10|km2|abbr=on}}. It is expected to expand another {{convert|19|km2|abbr=on}}. The zone mainly focuses on Biotechnology, chemical industry, building decoration materials and information technology.RightSite.asia {{webarchive|url=https://archive.is/20120717180648weblink |date=17 July 2012 }}, Lanzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Demographics

File:5674-Linxia-City-Xin-Xi-Lu.jpg|thumb|On the streets of Linxia ]]{{Historical populations|title = Historical population|footnote = Ningxia Province/AR was part of Gansu Province until 1929 and 1954-1958.ACCESSDATE=6 MARCH 2014, |4,990,000ACCESSDATE=6 MARCH 2014, |6,281,000ACCESSDATE=6 MARCH 2014, |6,716,000ACCESSDATE=6 MARCH 2014, |7,091,000PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINA ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20090805174810/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/TJGB/RKPCGB/QGRKPCGB/T20020404_16767.HTM DF=DMY, |12,928,102PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINA ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120914173158/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/TJGB/RKPCGB/QGRKPCGB/T20020404_16768.HTM DF=DMY, |12,630,569PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINA ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120510075429/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/TJGB/RKPCGB/QGRKPCGB/T20020404_16769.HTM DF=DMY, |19,569,261PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINA ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120619002216/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/TJGB/RKPCGB/QGRKPCGB/T20020404_16772.HTM DF=DMY, |22,371,141PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINA ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120829052024/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/TJGB/RKPCGB/QGRKPCGB/T20020331_15435.HTM DF=DMY, |25,124,282PUBLISHER=NATIONAL BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CHINA ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130727021210/HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOV.CN/ENGLISH/NEWSANDCOMINGEVENTS/T20110429_402722516.HTM DF=DMY, |25,575,254}}Gansu province is home to 30,711,287 people. Most of the population, 73%, is rural. Gansu is 92% Han and also has Hui, Tibetan, Dongxiang, Tu, Yugur, Bonan, Mongolian, Salar, and Kazakh minorities. Gansu province's community of Chinese Hui Muslims was bolstered by Hui Muslims resettled from Shaanxi province during the Dungan Revolt. Gansu is also a historical home, along with Shaanxi, of the dialect of the Dungans, who migrated to Central Asia. The southwestern corner of Gansu is home to a large ethnic Tibetan population.

Languages

Most of the inhabitants of Gansu speak dialects of Northern Mandarin Chinese. On the border areas of Gansu one might encounter Tu, Amdo Tibetan, Mongolian, and the Kazakh language. Most of the minorities also speak Chinese.

Culture

{{see also|Music of Gansu}}File:Gansu Sheep.jpg|right|thumb|Sheep grazing beside a main road near JiuquanJiuquanThe cuisine of Gansu is based on the staple crops grown there: wheat, barley, millet, beans, and sweet potatoes. Within China, Gansu is known for its lamian (pulled noodles), and Muslim restaurants which feature authentic Gansu cuisine.{{clear}}

Religion

{{Pie chart|thumb = right当代中国宗教状况报告——基于CFPS(2012)调查数据 {{webarchive >url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140809051625weblink |date=9 August 2014 }}. p. 013Chinese folk religion>traditional faiths|value1 = 88|color1 = HoneydewBuddhism in China>Buddhism|value2 = 8.2|color2 = YellowIslam in China>Islam|value3 = 3.4|color3 = GreenProtestantism in China>Protestantism|value4 = 0.4|color4 = DodgerBlue|label5 = Catholicism|value5 = 0.1|color5 = DarkOrchid}}According to a 2012 survey only around 12% of the population of Gansu belongs to organised religions, the largest groups being Buddhists with 8.2%, followed by Muslims with 3.4%, Protestants with 0.4% and Catholic with 0.1% (in total, as of 2012 Christians comprise 0.5% of the population, decreasing from 1.02% in 2004China General Social Survey 2009, Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150925123928weblink |date=25 September 2015 }}.) Around 88% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects.Muslim restaurants are known as "qingzhen restaurants" ("pure truth restaurants"), and feature typical Chinese dishes, but without any pork products, and instead an emphasis on lamb and mutton. Gansu has many works of Buddhist art, including the Maijishan Grottoes. Dunhuang was a major centre of Buddhism in the Middle Ages.{||File:Lanzhou Chanyuan 2013.12.29 11-48-31.jpg|Main hall of a Chan temple of Lanzhou.File:Lanzhou Fu Chenghuang Miao 2013.12.29 11-19-25.jpg|Temple of the Chenghuangshen (City God) of Lanzhou.File:5855-Linxia-Yu-Baba-Gongbei-and-Nanhua-Amituo-Fo-Temple.jpg|Nanhua Amituo Fo Temple of Chinese Buddhism seen on a hill above the roofs of the Yu Baba Gongbei, a Sufi shrine.File:拉卜楞寺僧舍俯瞰.jpg|Labrang Monastery of Tibetan Buddhism in Gannan.File:5913-Linxia-County-Xihe-township-village-temple.jpg|Village temple in Linxia County.File:伏羲庙牌坊.jpg|Arch of the Temple of Fuxi in Tianshui.

Tourism

File:Yulin Cave 3 w wall Manjusri (Western Xia).jpg|thumb|A painting of the Buddhist manjusri, from the Yulin Caves of Gansu, Tangut-led Western XiaWestern XiaFile:Han Dynasty Granary west of Dunhuang.jpg|thumb|These rammed earth ruins of a granary in Hecang Fortress ({{zh|s=河仓城; |p=Hécāngchéng}}), located ~11 km (7 miles) northeast of the Western-Han-era Yumen Pass, were built during the Western Han (202 BC - 9 AD) and significantly rebuilt during the (Western Jin]] (280-316 AD).Wang Xudang, Li Zuixiong, and Zhang Lu (2010). "Condition, Conservation, and Reinforcement of the Yumen Pass and Hecang Earthen Ruins Near Dunhuang", in Neville Agnew (ed), Conservation of Ancient Sites on the Silk Road: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Conservation of Grotto Sites, Mogao Grottoes, Dunhuang, People's Republic of China, June 28 - July 3, 2004, 351-357. Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute, J. Paul Getty Trust. {{ISBN|978-1-60606-013-1}}, pp 351-352.)

Jiayuguan Pass of the Great Wall

Jiayuguan Pass, in Jiayuguan city, is the largest and most intact pass, or entrance, of the Great Wall. Jiayuguan Pass was built in the early Ming dynasty, somewhere around the year 1372. It was built near an oasis that was then on the extreme western edge of China. Jiayuguan Pass was the first pass on the west end of the great wall so it earned the name “The First And Greatest Pass Under Heaven.”An extra brick is said to rest on a ledge over one of the gates. One legend holds that the official in charge asked the designer to calculate how many bricks would be used. The designer gave him the number and when the project was finished, only one brick was left. It was put on the top of the pass as a symbol of commemoration. Another account holds that the building project was assigned to a military manager and an architect. The architect presented the manager with a requisition for the total number of bricks that he would need. When the manager found out that the architect had not asked for any extra bricks, he demanded that the architect make some provision for unforeseen circumstances. The architect, taking this as an insult to his planning ability, added a single extra brick to the request. When the gate was finished, the single extra brick was, in fact, extra and was left on the ledge over the gate.WEB,weblink The Great Wall in Gansu, 4 December 2015,

Mogao Grottoes

The Mogao Grottoes near Dunhuang have a collection of Buddhist art. Originally there were a thousand grottoes, but now only 492 cave temples remain. Each temple has a large statue of a buddha or bodhisattva and paintings of religious scenes. In 336 AD, a monk named Le Zun (Lo-tsun) came near Echoing Sand Mountain, when he had a vision. He started to carve the first grotto. During the Five Dynasties period they ran out of room on the cliff and could not build any more grottoes.

Silk Road and Dunhuang City

File:Cernuschi Museum 20060812 156.jpg|thumb|200px|A terracotta warrior from Gansu, with traces of polychrome and gold, from the Tang DynastyTang DynastyThe historic Silk Road starts in Chang'an and goes to Constantinople. On the way merchants would go to Dunhuang in Gansu. In Dunhuang they would get fresh camels, food and guards for the journey around the dangerous Taklamakan Desert. Before departing Dunhuang they would pray to the Mogao Grottoes for a safe journey, if they came back alive they would thank the gods at the grottoes. Across the desert they would form a train of camels to protect themselves from thieving bandits. The next stop, Kashi (Kashgar), was a welcome sight to the merchants. At Kashi most would trade and go back and the ones who stayed would eat fruit and trade their Bactrian camels for single humped ones. After Kashi they would keep going until they reached their next destination.Located about {{convert|5|km|abbr=on}} southwest of the city, the Crescent Lake or Yueyaquan is an oasis and popular spot for tourists seeking respite from the heat of the desert. Activities includes camel and 4x4 rides.

Silk Route Museum

The Silk Route Museum is located in Jiuquan along the Silk Road, a trading route connecting Rome to China, used by Marco Polo. It is also built over the tomb of the Western Liang King.Silk Route Museum China Tourist Information Tourist Link.

Bingling Temple

Bingling Temple, or Bingling Grottoes, is a Buddhist cave complex in a canyon along the Yellow River. Begun in 420 AD during the Western Jin Dynasty, the site contains dozens of caves and caverns filled with outstanding examples of carvings, sculpture, and frescoes. The great Maitreya Buddha is more than 27 meters tall and is similar in style to the great Buddhas that once lined the cliffs of Bamiyan, Afghanistan. Access to the site is by boat from Yongjing in the summer or fall. There is no other access point.

Labrang Monastery

Labrang Tashikyil Monastery is located in Xiahe County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, located in the southern part of Gansu, and part of the traditional Tibetan province of Amdo. It is one of the six major monasteries of the Gelukpa tradition of Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet, and the most important one in Amdo. Built in 1710, it is headed by the Jamyang-zhaypa. It has 6 dratsang (colleges), and houses over sixty thousand religious texts and other works of literature as well as other cultural artifacts.

Education

Colleges and universities

{{see also|List of universities and colleges in Gansu}}

Natural resources

Land

  • {{convert|166400|km2}} grassland
  • {{convert|46700|km2}} mountain slopes suitable for livestock breeding
  • {{convert|46200|km2}} forests (standing timber reserves of {{convert|0.2|km3}})
  • {{convert|35300|km2}} cultivated land ({{convert|1400|m2}} per capita)
  • {{convert|66600|km2}} wasteland suitable for forestation
  • {{convert|10000|km2}} wasteland suitable for farming

Minerals

Three thousand deposits of 145 different minerals. Ninety-four minerals have been found and ascertained, including nickel, cobalt, platinum, selenium, casting clay, finishing serpentine, and five other minerals whose reserves are the largest in China.{{citation needed|date=May 2009}} Gansu has advantages in getting nickel, zinc, cobalt, platinum, iridium, copper, barite, and baudisserite.

Energy

Among Gansu’s most important sources of energy are its water resources: the Yellow River and other inland river drainage basins. Gansu is placed ninth among China’s provinces in annual hydropower potential and water discharge. Gansu produces 17.24 gigawatts of hydropower a year. Twenty-nine hydropower stations have been constructed in Gansu, altogether(?) capable of generating 30 gigawatts. Gansu has an estimated coal reserve of 8.92 billion tons and petroleum reserve of 700 million tons.There is also good potential for wind and solar power development. The Gansu Wind Farm project – already producing 7.965GW in 2015WEB, South Africa’s biggest wind farms vs the world,weblink BusinessTech, 22 November 2016, July 22, 2015, – is expected to achieve 20GW by 2020, at which time it will likely become the world's biggest collective windfarm.In November 2017 an agreement between the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Gansu government was announced, to site and begin operations of a molten salt reactor pilot project in the province by 2020weblink

Flora and fauna

Gansu has 659 species of wild animals.Gansu.gov.cn {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091115095308weblink |date=15 November 2009 }} It has twenty-four rare animals which are under a state protection.Gansu's mammals include some of the world's most charismatic: the giant panda, golden monkeys, lynx, snow leopards, sika deer, musk deer, and the Bactrian camel.Among zoologists who study moles, the Gansu mole is of great interest. For a reason that can only be speculated, it is taxologically a New World mole living among Old Word moles; that is to say an American mole living in a sea of Euro-Asians.Gansu is home to 441 species of birds; it is a center of endemism and home to many species and subspecies which occur nowhere else in the world.Gansu is China's second-largest producer of medicinal plants and herbs, including some produced nowhere else, such as the hairy asiabell root, fritillary bulb, and Chinese caterpillar fungus.

Environment

Natural disasters

{{see also|1920 Haiyuan earthquake}}On 16 December 1920, Gansu witnessed the deadliest landslide ever recorded. A series of landslides, triggered by a single earthquake, accounted for most of the 180,000 people killed in the event.BOOK, Guinness world records 2014, Glenday, Craig, The Jim Pattison Group, 2013, 978-1-908843-15-9, 015,

Anti-desertification project

The Asian Development Bank is working with the State Forestry Administration of China on the Silk Road Ecosystem Restoration project, designed to prevent degradation and desertification in Gansu. It is estimated to cost up to US$150 million.

Space launch center

The Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, located in the Gobi desert, is named after the city of Jiuquan, Gansu, the nearest city, although the center itself is in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

See also

References

{{Reflist|2}}

External links

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