Han Chinese

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Han Chinese
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{{Hatnote|Unless otherwise specified, Chinese text in this article is written in the format Simplified Chinese / Traditional Chinese, Pinyin. If the Simplified and Traditional Chinese characters are identical, they are written only once.}}

/}}}}/}}}}| rawimage = Circa 1.3 billionJAMES B. TITLE = ETHNIC GROUPS OF NORTH, EAST, AND CENTRAL ASIA: AN ENCYCLOPEDIA YEAR = 2014 ISBN = 978-1-61069-018-8, 89–95, Mainland China}} 1,268,375,111CIA Factbook: "Han Chinese 96.98%" out of a reported population of 1.384789 billion (July 2018 est.){{nowrapROC}} Taiwan 23,575,365}}{{FlagiconHong Kong 6,723,786Place of birth 2016 Hong Kong census{{Flagicon>Macau}} Macau 663,4002018 Demographics| tablehdr = Overseas Chinese (by descent)Thailand}}| pop1 = 9,392,987Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, Facts on File, p. 794, {{ISBN>1-4381-1913-5}}.Malaysia}}| pop2 = 6,650,009URL-STATUS = DEAD ARCHIVE-DATE = 2016-08-12, United States}}| pop3 = 3,795,007PUBLISHER =UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU, 19 January 2014, Indonesia}}| pop4 = 2,833,134| ref4 = BOOK, Badan Pusat Statistikyear= 2011, 978-979-064-417-5,weblink Singapore}}| pop5 = 2,547,000ACCESS-DATE=2015-10-21 ARCHIVE-URL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160304082553/HTTP://WWW.NPTD.GOV.SG/PORTALS/0/NEWS/POPULATION-IN-BRIEF-2014.PDF, 2016-03-04, Myanmar}}| pop6 = 1,638,000ACCESS-DATE=17 FEBRUARY 2016 ARCHIVE-URL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20101006115241/HTTPS://CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/BM.HTML, 6 October 2010, Canada}}| pop7 = 1,469,000AUTHOR=ASIA PACIFIC FOUNDATION OF CANADA ACCESS-DATE=17 FEBRUARY 2016, Philippines}}| pop8 = 1,350,000DATE=JANUARY 21, 2013ACCESSDATE=2016-07-29 ARCHIVEURL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160409034225/HTTP://WWW.SENATE.GOV.PH/PRESS_RELEASE/2013/0121_PRIB1.ASP reason=no reference to Han|date=August 2016}}Australia}}| pop9 = 1,214,000PUBLISHER=AUSTRALIAN BUREAU OF STATISTICSACCESSDATE=31 OCTOBER 2018, Russia}}| pop10 = 998,000WEBSITE=OVERSEAS COMPATRIOT AFFAIRS COMMISSION, R.O.C. ARCHIVE-DATE=4 JANUARY 2011ACCESS-DATE=23 SEPTEMBER 2016, Vietnam}}| pop11 = 823,000PUBLISHER=GENERAL STATISTICS OFFICE OF VIETNAMURL-STATUS=LIVEARCHIVEDATE=13 NOVEMBER 2010, Japan}}| pop12 = 731,000PUBLISHER = MINISTRY OF JUSTICE LANGUAGE = JA ARCHIVE-URL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180327132827/HTTP://WWW.MOJ.GO.JP/CONTENT/001254624.PDF URL-STATUS = DEAD, {{Better sourcedate=April 2018}}France}}| pop13 = 700,000| ref13 = Venezuela}}| pop14 = 450,000DATE=JANUARY 2019, 7 January 2019, United Kingdom}}| pop15 = 433,000PUBLISHER=OFFICE FOR NATIONAL STATISTICSACCESSDATE=13 APRIL 2015, Peru|state}}| pop16 = 375,954| ref16 =weblinkSouth Africa}}| pop17 = 350,000YEAR = 2009 TITLE = RECENT CHINESE MIGRATIONS TO SOUTH AFRICA – NEW INTERSECTIONS OF RACE, CLASS AND ETHNICITY LAST = PARK ACCESSDATE = SEPTEMBER 20, 2010 ARCHIVEURL = HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20101228041728/HTTP://WWW.INTER-DISCIPLINARY.NET/WP-CONTENT/UPLOADS/2009/11/REI-V1.3B.PDF, December 28, 2010, Italy}}| pop18 = 334,000WEBSITE=ISTAT.IT, 12 December 2017, Germany}}| pop19 = 212,000LANGUAGE = DE ACCESSDATE=12 DECEMBER 2017 ARCHIVE-DATE=9 DECEMBER 2017DF=DMY-ALL, South Korea}}| pop20 = 210,000Of the 710,000 Chinese nationals living in Korea in 2016, 500,000 are Koreans in China.}}HTTP://M.PULSENEWS.CO.KR/VIEW.PHP?NO=638478&YEAR=2016 WEBSITE=MAEIL BUSINESS NEWS KOREA ACCESSDATE=10 MAY 2018, Cambodia}}| pop21 = 210,000accessdate=15 September 2018, 2018-09-14, India}}| pop22 = 189,000| ref22 = Laos}}| pop23 = 186,000| ref23 = Spain}}| pop24 = 172,000LANGUAGE = ES ACCESSDATE=12 DECEMBER 2017, New Zealand}}| pop25 = 171,000ACCESSDATE = MAY 13, 2018, Brazil}}| pop26 = 152,000| ref26 = Netherlands}}| pop27 = 145,000| ref27 = Panama}}| pop28 = 135,000 {{webarchive >url= TITLE = LITTLE CHINA IN BELGRADE ACCESSDATE = 2010-05-04, Mexico}}| pop29 = 70,000NEWSPAPER=THE SAN DIEGO UNION-TRIBUNEACCESSDATE=OCT 8, 2017, Costa Rica|state}}| pop31 = 19,000WEBSITE=NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STATISTICS AND CENSUS OF COSTA RICA PAGE=61QUOTE=CUADRO 23. COSTA RICA: POBLACIóN TOTAL POR AUTOIDENTIFICACIóN éTNICA-RACIAL, SEGúN PROVINCIA, ZONA Y SEXO. CHINO(A) 9,170, Ireland}}| pop32 = 11,000weblink {{webarchive >url= |date=October 16, 2012 }}Chinese language>ChineseIrreligious, Chinese Buddhism>Mahayana Buddhism, Chinese folk religion (including Taoism, ancestor veneration in China, Confucianism, and others), with minorities ascribing to Christianity and other faiths.2010 Chinese Spiritual Life Survey conducted by Dr. Yang Fenggang, Purdue University's Center on Religion and Chinese Society. Statistics published in: Katharina Wenzel-Teuber, David Strait. ''People's Republic of China: Religions and Churches Statistical Overview 2011 {{webarchive>url= 2192-9289}}.| related = Sino-Tibetan peoples| footnotes = Some sources refer to Han Chinese directly as "Chinese" or group them with other Sino-Tibetan peoples.| native_name = | native_name_lang = }}

|j=Hon3 zuk6|y=Hon juhkhɔ̄ːn tsʊ̀k}}|bpmf=ㄏㄢˋ ㄗㄨˊ|wuu=Hoe zoh|buc=Háng-cŭk|poj=Hàn-cho̍k|teo=Hàng-tsôk|h=Hòn-tshu̍k|order=st}}The Han Chinese,BOOK, China: A Religious State, Hsu, Cho-yun, Columbia University Press, 2012, 978-0-231-15920-3, 126, BOOK, Learning to Be Tibetan: The Construction of Ethnic Identity at Minzu, Yang, Miaoyan, Lexington Books, 2017, 978-1-4985-4463-4, 7, Who are the Chinese people? {{zh icon}}. Retrieved on 2013-04-26. Hanzu,BOOK, The Han: China's Diverse Majority, Joniak-Luthi, Agnieszka, University of Washington Press, 2015, 978-0-295-80597-9, 3, BOOK, Constructing Nationhood in Modern East Asia, Chow, Kai-wing, University of Michigan Press, 2001, 978-0-472-06735-0, 2, BOOK, The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions, Rawski, Evelyn, University of California Press, 2001, 978-0-520-92679-0, 2, Han peopleBOOK, China at War: An Encyclopedia, Li, Xiaobing, Pentagon Press, 2012, 978-81-8274-611-4, 155, BOOK, Fairbank, John K., 1983, The Cambridge History of China Volume 12: Republican China, 1912–1949, Part 1,weblink Cambridge University Press, 978-1-139-05479-9, May 20, 2016, JOURNAL, Wen, etal, 2004, Genetic evidence supports demic diffusion of Han culture,weblink Nature, 431, 7006, 302–05, 10.1038/nature02878, 15372031, 2004Natur.431..302W, Stix, Gary (2008). "Traces of a Distant Past" Scientific American, July: 56–63. ({{IPAc-en|UK|h|æ|n}};WEB,weblink Han definition and meaning {{!, Collins English Dictionary ||access-date=2018-06-12}} {{IPAc-en|US|h|aː|n}};"Han". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. {{zh|t=漢人 |p=Hànrén |l=Han people|c=|s=汉人}}BOOK, Kim, Hodong, 2004, Holy War in China: The Muslim Rebellion and State in Chinese Central Asia, 1864–1877,weblink Stanford University Press, 320, 978-0-8047-7364-5, May 20, 2016, or {{zh |labels=yes |s = 汉族 |t = 漢族 |p = Hànzú |l=Han ethnicity |c=|links=no}}BOOK, 2015, Xiaobing Li, Patrick Fuliang Shan, Ethnic China: Identity, Assimilation, and Resistance, Lexington Books, 69, 978-1-4985-0729-5, ),BOOK, 1998, Rawski, Evelyn S., The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions, Stanford University Press, 2, 978-0-520-92679-0, are an East Asian ethnic group and nation native to China.JOURNAL, Siska, Veronika, Jones, Eppie Ruth, Jeon, Sungwon, Bhak, Youngjune, Kim, Hak-Min, Cho, Yun Sung, Kim, Hyunho, Lee, Kyusang, Veselovskaya, Elizaveta, Balueva, Tatiana, Gallego-Llorente, Marcos, Hofreiter, Michael, Bradley, Daniel G., Eriksson, Anders, Pinhasi, Ron, Bhak, Jong, Manica, Andrea, Genome-wide data from two early Neolithic East Asian individuals dating to 7700 years ago, Science Advances, 3,weblink February 1, 2017, 10.1126/sciadv.1601877, 28164156, 5287702, 2017, JOURNAL, Ang, Khai C., Ngu Mee S., Reid P. Katherine, Teh S. Meh, Aida, Zamzuraida, Koh X.R. Danny, Berg, Arthur, Oppenheimer, Stephen, Salleh, Hood, Clyde M. Mahani, ZainMd M. Badrul, Canfield A. Victor, Cheng C. Keith, Skin Color Variation in Orang Asli Tribes of Peninsular Malaysia, PLoS ONE, 8, 7, 2, 2012, 10.1371/journal.pone.0042752, 22912732, 3418284, 2012PLoSO...742752A, JOURNAL, Wang, Yuchen, Lu Dongsheng, Chung Yeun-Jun, Xu Shuhua, Genetic structure, divergence and admixture of Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean populations, Hereditas, 155, 19, 2018,weblink 10.1186/s41065-018-0057-5, 29636655, 5889524, BIORXIV, Chiang, Charleston, Map of Genetic Variation in Han Chinese,weblink 10, 2017, 162982, JOURNAL, Wang, Yuchen, Lu, Dongsheng, Chung, Yeun-Jun, Xu, Shuhua, Genetic structure, divergence and admixture of Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean populations, Hereditas, 155, 19, April 6, 2018, 10.1186/s41065-018-0057-5, 29636655, 5889524, 2018, They constitute the world's largest ethnic group, making up about 18% of the global population.JOURNAL, Zhang, Feng, Su, Bing, Zhang, Ya-ping, Jin, Li, Genetic Studies of Human Diversity in East Asia, 2435565, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 362, 1482, 987–996, February 22, 2007, 17317646, 10.1098/rstb.2007.2028, JOURNAL, Zhao, Yong-Bin, Zhang, Ye, Zhang, Quan-Chao, Li, Hong-Jie, Cui, Ying-Qiu, Xu, Zhi, Jin, Li, Zhou, Hui, Zhu, Hong, Ancient DNA Reveals That the Genetic Structure of the Northern Han Chinese Was Shaped Prior to three-thousand Years Ago, PLoS ONE, 2015, 10, 5, e0125676, 10.1371/journal.pone.0125676, 25938511, 4418768, 2015PLoSO..1025676Z, The estimated 1.3 billion Han Chinese people are mostly concentrated in mainland China (roughly 91.6% of the total population). In Taiwan they make about 95% of the population.WEB, zh-TW,weblink zh:中華民國國情簡介, ROC Vital Information, 2016, Executive Yuan, 2016-08-23, BOOK, 2014, The Republic of China Yearbook 2014, Executive Yuan, R.O.C.,weblink 2016-06-11, 978-986-04-2302-0, 36, People of Han Chinese descent also make up around 75% of the total population of Singapore.WEB,weblink Home, 2016-02-14, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2016-02-16, The Han Chinese trace a common ancestry to the Huaxia, a name for the initial confederation of agricultural tribes living along the Yellow River.BOOK, Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia, Minahan, James B., ABC-CLIO, 2015, 978-1-61069-017-1, 89–90, BOOK, Origin of Man in Southeast Asia 2: Early Dominant Peoples of the Mainland Region, Schliesinger, Joachim, Booksmango, 2016, 13–14, The term Huaxia represents the collective neolithic confederation of agricultural tribes Hua and Xia who settled along the Central Plains around the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River in northern China.BOOK, Chinese Business: Landscapes and Strategies, Liu, Hong, Routledge, 2017, 978-1-138-91825-2, 34, BOOK, Chinese History: A New Manual, Wilkinson, Endymion Porter, Harvard University Asia Center, 2015, 978-0-674-08846-7, 709, BOOK, The Magic Lotus Lantern and Other Tales from the Han Chinese, Yuan, Haiwang, Libraries Unlimited, 978-1-59158-294-6, 2006, 6, The two tribes were the ancestors of the modern Han Chinese people that gave birth to Chinese civilization. In addition, the term Huaxia (literally "the civilized Xia people") was distinctively used to represent a civilized ethnic group in contrast to what was perceived as barbaric peoples around them.BOOK, Encyclopedia of China: History and Culture, Perkins, Dorothy, Checkmark Books, 1998, 978-0-8160-2693-7, 202,weblink BOOK, Origin of Man in Southeast Asia 2: Early Dominant Peoples of the Mainland Region, Schliesinger, Joachim, Booksmango, 2016, 14, In many overseas Chinese communities, the term Hua Ren ({{zh |labels=no |s = 华人 |t = 華人 |p = Huárén }}), Hua Qiao ({{zh |labels=no |s = 华侨 |t = 華僑 |p = Huáqiáo |c=}}) or Hua Zu ({{zh |labels=no |s = 华族 |t = 華族 |p = Huázú }}) may be used for people of Chinese ethnicity as distinct from Zhongguo Ren ({{zh |labels=no |s = 中国人 |t = 中國人 |p = |c=|links=no}}) which also refers to citizens of China, including people of non-Han ethnicity.BOOK,weblink Language, Politics and Identity in Taiwan: Naming China, Hui-Ching Chang, Richard Holt, 162–64, 978-1-135-04635-4, Routledge, 2014-11-20, BOOK,weblink China and Taiwan: Cross-strait Relations Under Chen Shui-bian, Sheng Lijun, 53, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2002, 978-981-230-110-9, BOOK,weblink War Memory and the Making of Modern Malaysia and Singapore, Karl Hack, Kevin Blackburn, NUS Press, 2012, 978-9971-69-599-6, 96, Han people ({{zh |labels=no |s = 汉人 |t=漢人 |p=Hànrén}}) may also be used for people of ethnic Chinese descent around the world.BOOK, The Magic Lotus Lantern and Other Tales from the Han Chinese, Yuan, Haiwang, Libraries Unlimited, 978-1-59158-294-6, 2006, 6, The Han Chinese people are bound together with a shared history inhabiting an ancient ancestral territory for over four thousand years, deeply rooted with many different cultural traditions and customs.BOOK, Race and Racism in Modern East Asia: Western and Eastern Constructions, Kowner, Rotem, Demel, Walter, Brill Academic, 2012, 978-90-04-23729-2, 351–52, The Huaxia tribes in northern China experienced a continuous expansion into southern China over the past two millennia.BOOK, Origin of Man in Southeast Asia 2: Early Dominant Peoples of the Mainland Region, Schliesinger, Joachim, Booksmango, 2016, 10–17, BOOK, A Panoramic View of Chinese Culture, Dingming, Wu, Simon & Schuster, 2014, Huaxia culture spread southward from its heartland in the Yellow River Basin, absorbing various non-Chinese ethnic groups that became sinicised over the centuries at various points in China's history.BOOK, Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia, Minahan, James B., ABC-CLIO, 2015, 978-1-61069-017-1, 91, The Han dynasty is considered to be one of the first great eras in Chinese history, as it made China the major regional power in East Asia and projected much of its influence on its neighbours while rivalling the Roman Empire in population size and geographical reach.BOOK, Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia, Minahan, James B., ABC-CLIO, 2015, 978-1-61069-017-1, 92, BOOK, East Asia: A New History, Walker, Hugh Dyson, AuthorHouse, 2012, 119, BOOK, East Asia Before the West: Five Centuries of Trade and Tribute, Kang, David C., Columbia University Press, 2012, 978-0-231-15319-5, 33–34, The Han dynasty's prestige and prominence influenced many of the ancient Huaxia to begin identifying themselves as "The People of Han".BOOK, China: a History: From the Great Qing Empire through the People's Republic of China, 1644–2009, Tanner, Harold Miles, Hackett Pub Co., 2010, 978-1-60384-204-4, 83, BOOK, America's Changing Neighborhoods: An Exploration of Diversity through Places, Ueda, Reed, Greenwood, 2017, 978-1-4408-2864-5, 403, JOURNAL, Eno, R., The Han Dynasty (206 B.C. – A.D. 220),weblink Indiana University Press, 1, BOOK, China at War: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia, Li, Xiaobing, Pentagon Press, 2012, 978-81-8274-611-4, June 30, 2012, 155, To this day, Han Chinese people have since taken their ethnic name from this dynasty, and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters".{{sfnp|Schaefer|2008|p=279}}


The name Han was derived from the name of the eponymous dynasty,BOOK,weblink Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society, Schaefer, Richard T., 2008, Sage Publications, 978-1-4522-6586-5, 279, Although the term han has its roots in the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD), which began around the Yellow River and then spread out, the concept really became nationalized early in this century., which succeeded the short-lived Qin dynasty, and is historically considered to be the first golden age of China's Imperial era due to the power and influence it projected over much of East Asia. As a result of the dynasty's prominence in inter-ethnic and pre-modern international influence, Chinese people began identifying themselves as the "people of Han" ({{zh|t=漢人|p=Hànrén|c=|s=汉人|labels=no|first=ts}}),BOOK, China: A Religious State, Hsu, Cho-yun, Lagerwey, John, Columbia University Press, 2012, Y.S. Cheng, Joseph, 126, a name that has been carried down to this day. Similarly, the Chinese language also came to be named the "Han language" ({{zh|s=汉语|zh|t=漢語|c=|p=Hànyǔ|first=st|labels=no}}) ever since. In the Oxford Dictionary, the Han are defined as "The dominant ethnic group in China".WEB,weblink Definition of Han by Oxford,, 12 December 2017, In the Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, the Han are called the dominant population in "China, as well as in Taiwan and Singapore."BOOK, 2010, Infobase Publishing, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, Barbara A., West, 978-1-4381-1913-7, According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, the Han are "the Chinese peoples especially as distinguished from non-Chinese (such as Mongolian) elements in the population."WEB,weblink Definition of Han by Merriam-Webster,, 12 December 2017, The Han dynasty's founding emperor, Liu Bang, was made king of the Hanzhong region after the fall of the Qin dynasty, a title that was later shortened to "the King of Han" ({{zh|s=汉王|zh|t=漢王|c=|p=|first=t|labels=no}}) during the Chu-Han contention. The name "Hanzhong", in turn, was derived from the Han River,BOOK, Liu, Xingwu, 2004, Springer US, 978-0-306-47754-6, Ember, Carol R., 703–17, The name "Han" was derived from the Han River, an upper tributary of the Yangtze River. It was further strengthened by the famous Han Empire (206 BC–220 AD) which lasted for several hundred years when the people began active interactions with the outside world., Ember, Melvin, 10.1007/0-387-29905-X_73, Encyclopedia of Medical Anthropology, Han, which flows through the region's plains. The river, in turn, derives its name from expressions such as Tianhan ({{zh|t=天漢|c=|s=天汉|p=|first=t|labels=no}}, "the heavenly river"), Yinhan ({{zh|t=銀漢|c=|s=银汉|p=|first=t|labels=no}}, "the silver river"), Xinghan ({{zh|t=星漢|c=|s=星汉|p=|first=t|labels=no}}, "the star river") or Yunhan ({{zh|t=雲漢|c=|s=云汉|p=|labels=no|first=t}}, "the cloud river"), all ancient Chinese poetic nicknames for the Milky Way and first mentioned in the Classic of Poetry.Prior to the Han dynasty, ancient Chinese scholars used the term Huaxia ({{zh|s=华夏|t=華夏|p=Huá Xià|c=|labels=no|first=t}}, "the magnificent Xia") in texts to describe China proper, while the Chinese populus were referred to as either the "various Hua" ({{zh|t=諸華|c=|s=诸华|p=|labels=no|first=t}}) or the "various Xia" ({{zh|t=諸夏|c=|s=诸夏|p=|labels=no|first=t}}). This gave rise to a term commonly used nowadays by overseas Chinese as an ethnic identity for the Chinese diaspora – Huaren ({{zh|s= |t= |p=Huá Rén|links=no|c=|labels=no}}, "the Chinese people"), Huaqiao ({{zh|s=华侨|t=華僑|p=Huáqiáo|c=|labels=no}}, "the Chinese immigrant" meaning overseas Chinese) as well as a literary name for China – Zhonghua ({{zh|s= |t= |p=zhōnghuá|links=no|c=|labels=no}}, "the central Chinese"). Zhonghua refers more to the culture of Chinese people, although it may also be seen as equivalent to Zhonghua minzu. The overseas Chinese use Huaren or Huaqiao instead of Zhongguoren ({{zh |labels=no |s = 中国人 |t = 中國人 |p = |c=|links=no}}), which commonly refers to citizens of the People's Republic of China.Among some southern Han Chinese varieties such as Cantonese, Hakka, and Minnan, a different term exists – Tang Chinese ({{zh|t=唐人|p=Táng Rén}}, literally "the people of Tang"), derived from the later Tang dynasty, regarded as another zenith of Chinese civilization. The term is used in everyday conversation and is also an element in the Cantonese word for Chinatown: "street of the Tang people" ({{zh|c= |j=tong4 jan4 gaai1 |p=Táng Rén Jiē}}{{clarify|date=August 2019}}. The phrase {{transl|zh|Huá Bù}} {{zh|s=华埠|t=華埠|p=|c=|labels=no|first=t}} is also used to describe the same area).


Mainland China

The vast majority of Han Chinese – over 1.2 billion – live in areas under the jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC), where they constitute about 92% of its population. Han Chinese in China have been a politically, culturally, and economically dominant majority vis-à-vis the non-Han minorities throughout most of China's recorded history.BOOK, World On Fire, Chua, Amy, Knopf Doubleday Publishing, 2003, 978-0-385-72186-8, 177,weblink PAPER, Chua, Amy L., 2000, The Paradox of Free Market Democracy: Rethinking Development Policy,weblink Harvard International Law Journal, 41, 325, Han Chinese are almost the majority in every Chinese province, municipality, and autonomous region except for the autonomous regions of Xinjiang (38% or 40% in 2010) and Tibet Autonomous Region (8% in 2014), where Uighurs and Tibetans are the majority, respectively.

Hong Kong and Macau

{{see also|Demographics of Hong Kong|Demographics of Macau}}Han Chinese also constitute the majority in both of the special administrative regions of the PRC – about 92% and 88% of the population of Hong Kong and Macau, respectively.REPORT, February 2016, 2016 Population By-census – Summary Results,weblink Census and Statistics Department (Hong Kong), Census and Statistics Department, 37, 14 March 2017, REPORT, May 2017, 2016 Population By-Census Detailed Results,weblink Statistics and Census Service, 25 July 2019, {{harvid, Population By-Census, 2016, }} The Han Chinese in Hong Kong and Macau have been culturally, economically, and politically dominant majority vis-à-vis the non-Han minorities.PAPER, Chua, Amy L., 2000, The Paradox of Free Market Democracy: Rethinking Development Policy,weblink Harvard International Law Journal, 41, 328,


File:艋舺龍山寺 臺北市 直轄市定古蹟寺廟 Venation 2.JPG|thumb|Lungshan Temple of MankaLungshan Temple of MankaThere are over 22 million Han Chinese in Taiwan.WEB,weblink Taiwan Population (2017) – World Population Review,, 2017-01-23, At first, these migrants chose to settle in locations that bore a resemblance to the areas they had left behind in mainland China, regardless of whether they arrived in the north or south of Taiwan. Hoklo immigrants from Quanzhou settled in coastal regions, and those from Zhangzhou tended to gather on inland plains, while the Hakka inhabited hilly areas. Clashes between these groups over land, water, and cultural differences led to the relocation of some communities, and, as time passed, varying degrees of intermarriage and assimilation took place. In Taiwan, Han Chinese (including both the earlier Han Taiwanese settlers and the recent Mainland Chinese that arrived in Taiwan with Chiang Kai-shek in 1949) constitute over 95 percent of the population. They have also been a politically, culturally, and economically dominant majority vis-à-vis the non-Han aborigines.BOOK, World On Fire, Chua, Amy, Knopf Doubleday Publishing, 2003, 978-0-385-72186-8, 178,weblink

Southeast Asia

Of about 40 million "overseas Chinese"{{NoteTag|Overseas Chinese include both Han and non-Han people (see overseas Chinese for related references).}} worldwide, nearly 30 million live in Southeast Asia.{{citation needed|date=April 2016}} According to a population genetic study, Singapore is "the country with the biggest proportion of Hans" in Southeast Asia.THESIS, Yim, Onn Siong, 2005, Y chromosome diversity in Singaporean Han Chinese population subgroups, Master, National University of Singapore,weblink Singapore is the only country in the world where Overseas Chinese constitute a majority of the population and remain a cultural, economic, and politically dominant majority vis-à-vis the non-Han minorities.BOOK, Vatikiotis, Michael, Entrerepeeneurs, 12 February 1998, Far Eastern Economic Review, Bangkok,weblink Up until the past few decades, overseas Han communities originated predominantly from areas in southern China (especially the Guangdong, Fujian, and Zhejiang areas).


Elsewhere in the world, nearly 4 million people of Chinese descent live in the United States (about 1% of the population), over 1 million in Australia (5.6%) and Canada (3.7%), nearly 150,000 in New Zealand (3.7%), and as many as 750,000 in Africa.China and Africa: Stronger Economic Ties Mean More Migration, By Malia Politzer, Migration Information Source, August 2008.


Because of the overwhelming numerical and cultural dominance of Han culture in China, most of the written history of China can be read as "a history of the Han Chinese".BOOK, John A.G, Roberts, Palgrave Macmillan, 2001, A History of China, 5,


The prehistory of the Han Chinese is closely intertwined with both archaeology, biology, historical textual records and mythology. The ethnic stock to which the Han Chinese originally trace their ancestry from were confederations of late neolithic and early bronze-age agricultural tribes known as the Huaxia that lived along the Guanzhong and Yellow River basins in Northern China.NEWS,weblink A Point Of View: How China sees a multicultural world, Jacques, Martin, October 26, 2012, BBC News, BOOK, Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia, Minahan, James, ABC-CLIO, 2014, 978-1-61069-017-1, February 10, 2014, 90, BOOK, Interpreters in Early Imperial China, Lung, Rachel, John Benjamins Publishing, 2011, 978-90-272-2444-6, 5, BOOK, An Introduction to Chinese History and Culture, Zhang, Qizhi, Springer, 2016, 978-3-662-51507-5, 26, BOOK, An Introduction to the Chinese Economy: The Driving Forces Behind Modern Day China, Guo, Rongxing, Wiley, 2016, 978-3-319-32305-3, 66–67, JOURNAL, 10.1177/0022002795039003004, War and Politics in Ancient China, 2700 B.C. To 722 B.C.: Measurement and Comparative Analysis, 1995, Cioffi-Revilla, C., Lai, D., Journal of Conflict Resolution, 39, 3, 467–94, BOOK, Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceaniaisbn=978-1-4381-1913-7first1=Barbara AEthnic groups in Chinese history#List of ethnic groups>ethnic groups were assimilated and absorbed by the Han Chinese at various points in China's history.HTTP://WWW.ATIMES.COM/ATIMES/CHINA/CHIN-01-100114.HTML> TITLE=COMMON TRAITS BIND JEWS AND CHINESE DATE=JAN 10, 2014 FIRST=MARK LAI FIRST2= MADELINE YEAR=2004 PAGE=8, A SHORT HISTORY OF CHINA AND SOUTHEAST ASIA: TRIBUTE, TRADE AND INFLUENCE >LAST=STUART-FOX PUBLISHER=ALLEN & UNWIN PUBLICATION-DATE=NOVEMBER 1, 2003 FIRST=DAVID YEAR=2007 PAGE=7, PINGHUA POPULATION AS AN EXCEPTION OF HAN CHINESE'S COHERENT GENETIC STRUCTURE>JOURNAL=JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICSISSUE=4YEAR=2008PMID = 18270655FIRST1=RUI-JINGFIRST2=SHANG-LINGFIRST3=LAURA F.FIRST4=ZHEN-DONGFIRST5=XIAO-YUNFIRST6=JIFIRST7=CHENG-WUFIRST8=JUN-HUAFIRST9=SHI-LINFIRST10=JIE-SHUNFIRST11=LIFIRST12=HUI, Writers during the Western Zhou and Han dynasties derived ancestral lineages based on Shang dynasty-era legendary materials,WEB, Xia Dynasty,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-03-08, {{citation|last=Allan|first=Sarah|title=The Shape of the Turtle|year=1991|publisher=SUNY Press|location=Albany, NY|isbn=978-0-7914-0460-7|url=}} while the Han dynasty historian Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian places the reign of the Yellow Emperor ({{zh|t=黃帝|p=Huáng Dì}}), the legendary leader of Youxiong tribes (), at the beginning of Chinese history. The Yellow Emperor is traditionally credited to have united with the neighbouring Shennong tribes () after defeating their leader, the Flame Emperor, ({{zh|t=炎帝|p=Yán Dì}}) at the Battle of Banquan. The newly merged Yanhuang ({{zh|炎黃}}) tribes then combined forces to defeat their common enemy from the east, Chiyou ({{zh|t=|p=Chì Yóu|c=蚩尤|s=|labels=no}}) of the Jiuli () tribes, at the Battle of Zhuolu, and established their cultural dominance in the Central Plain region. To this day, modern Han Chinese refer themselves as "Descendants of Yan and Huang" ({{zh|s=炎黄子孙|t=炎黃子孫|p=Yánhuáng Zǐsūn}}).Although study of this period of history is complicated by the absence of contemporary records, the discovery of archaeological sites has enabled a succession of neolithic cultures to be identified along the Yellow River. Along the central reaches of the Yellow River were the Jiahu culture (c. 7000 to 6600 BCE), the Yangshao culture (c. 5000 to 3000 BCE) and the Longshan culture (c. 3000 to 2000 BCE). Along the lower reaches of the river were the Qingliangang culture (c. 5400 to 4000 BCE), the Dawenkou culture (c. 4300 to 2500 BCE), and the Yueshi culture (c. 1900 to 1500 BCE).

Early history

Early ancient Chinese history is largely legendary, consisting of mythical tales intertwined with sporadic annals written centuries to millennia later. Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian recorded a period following the Battle of Zhuolu, during the reign of successive generations of confederate overlords ({{zh|t=共主}}) known as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (c. 2852–2070 BCE), who, allegedly, were elected to power among the tribes. This is a period for which scant reliable archaeological evidence exists – these sovereigns are largely regarded as cultural heroes.

Xia dynasty

The first dynasty to be described in Chinese historical records is the Xia dynasty (c. 2070–1600 BCE), established by Yu the Great after Emperor Shun abdicated leadership to reward Yu's work in taming the Great Flood. Yu's son, Qi, managed to not only install himself as the next ruler, but also dictated his sons as heirs by default, making the Xia dynasty the first in recorded history where genealogical succession was the norm. The civilizational prosperity of the Xia dynasty at this time is thought to have given rise to the name "Huaxia" ({{zh|s=华夏|t=華夏|p=Huá Xià}}, "the magnificent Xia"), a term that was used ubiquitously throughout history to define the Chinese nation.BOOK, An Introduction to the Chinese Economy: The Driving Forces Behind Modern Day China, Guo, Rongxing, Wiley, 2010, 978-0-470-82604-1, 10, Conclusive archaeological evidence predating the 16th century BCE is, however, rarely available. Recent efforts of the Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project drew the connection between the Erlitou culture and the Xia dynasty, but scholars could not reach a consensus regarding the reliability of such history.

Shang dynasty

The Xia dynasty was overthrown after the Battle of Mingtiao, around 1750 BCE, by Cheng Tang, who established the Shang dynasty (c. 1750–1046 BCE). The earliest archaeological examples of Chinese writing date back to this period – from characters inscribed on oracle bones used for divination – but the well-developed characters hint at a much earlier origin of writing in China.During the Shang dynasty, people of the Wu area in the Yangtze River Delta, were considered a different tribe, and described as being scantily dressed, tattooed and speaking a distinct language.WEB,weblink Han Ethnic Group, Facts about Chinese Han, Han People China,, 12 December 2017, WEB,weblink Free Resources: Country Profile and Demographics – The Han People of China, 25 December 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 25 December 2008, Later, Taibo, elder uncle of Ji Chang – on realising that his younger brother, Jili, was wiser and deserved to inherit the throne – fled to WuWEB,weblink The Feudal State of Wu 吳 (, Ulrich, Theobald,, 12 December 2017, and settled there. Three generations later, King Wu of the Zhou dynasty defeated King Zhou (the last Shang king), and enfeoffed the descendants of Taibo in Wu – mirroring the later history of Nanyue, where a Chinese king and his soldiers ruled a non-Han population and mixed with locals, who were sinicized over time.

Zhou dynasty

After the Battle of Muye, the Shang dynasty was overthrown by Zhou (led by Ji Fa), which had emerged as a western state along the Wei River in the 2nd millennium BCE. The Zhou dynasty shared the language and culture of the Shang people, and extended their reach to encompass much of the area north of the Yangtze River.WEB, China The Zhou Period,weblink, 12 December 2017, WEB, China The Zhou Period,weblink, 12 December 2017, Through conquest and colonization, much of this area came under the influence of sinicization, and this culture extended south. However, the power of the Zhou kings fragmented not long afterwards, and many autonomous vassal states emerged. This dynasty is traditionally divided into two eras – the Western Zhou (1046–771 BCE) and the Eastern Zhou (770–256 BCE) – with the latter further divided into the Spring and Autumn (770–476 BCE) and the Warring States (476–221 BCE) periods. It was a period of significant cultural and philosophical diversification (known as the Hundred Schools of Thought) and Confucianism, Taoism and Legalism are among the most important surviving philosophies from this era.{{Citation needed|date=March 2014}}

Imperial history

Qin dynasty

The chaotic Warring States period of the Eastern Zhou dynasty came to an end with the unification of China by the western state of Qin after its conquest of all other rival states{{when|date=February 2015}} under King Ying Zheng. King Zheng then gave himself a new title "First Emperor of Qin" ({{zh|c=秦始皇帝|p=Qín Shǐ Huángdì}}), setting the precedent for the next two millennia. To consolidate administrative control over the newly conquered parts of the country, the First Emperor decreed a nationwide standardization of currency, writing scripts, and measurement units, to unify the country economically and culturally. He also ordered large-scale infrastructure projects such as the Great Wall, the Lingqu Canal and the Qin road system to militarily fortify the frontiers. In effect, he established a centralized bureaucratic state to replace the old feudal confederation system of preceding dynasties, making Qin the first imperial dynasty in Chinese history.This dynasty, sometimes phonetically spelt as the "Ch'in dynasty", has been proposed in the 17th century by Martin Martini and supported by later scholars such as Paul Pelliot and Berthold Laufer to be the etymological origin of the modern English word "China".

Han dynasty

File:China.Terracotta statues007.jpg|thumb|upright|A female servant and male advisor dressed in silk robes, ceramic figurines from the Western Han era]]The reign of the first imperial dynasty was to be short-lived. Due to the First Emperor's autocratic rule and his massive labor projects, which fomented rebellion among the populace, the Qin dynasty fell into chaos soon after his death. Under the corrupt rule of his son and successor Huhai, the Qin dynasty collapsed a mere three years later. The Han dynasty (206 BC–220 CE) then emerged from the ensuing civil wars and succeeded in establishing a much longer-lasting dynasty. It continued many of the institutions created by the Qin dynasty, but adopted a more moderate rule. Under the Han dynasty, arts and culture flourished, while the Han Empire expanded militarily in all directions. Many Chinese scholars such as Ho Ping-ti believe that the concept (ethnogenesis) of Han ethnicity, though an ancient one, was formally entrenched in the Han dynasty.WEB,weblink Clayton D. Brown Research on Chinese History: Ethnology, Archaeology, and Han Identity,, 12 December 2017, The Han dynasty is considered one of the golden ages of Chinese history, and to this day, the modern Han Chinese people have since taken their ethnic name from this dynasty and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters".{{sfnp|Schaefer|2008|p=279}}

Three Kingdoms to Tang

The fall of the Han dynasty was followed by an age of fragmentation and several centuries of disunity amid warfare among rival kingdoms. During this time, areas of northern China were overrun by various non-Han nomadic peoples, which came to establish kingdoms of their own, the most successful of which was Northern Wei (established by the Xianbei). Starting from this period, the native population of China proper began to be referred to as Hanren, or the "People of Han", to distinguish them from the nomads from the steppe. Warfare and invasion led to one of the first great migrations of Han populations in history, as they fled south to the Yangzi and beyond, shifting the Chinese demographic center and speeding up sinicization of the far south. At the same time most of the nomads in northern China came to be sinicized as they ruled over large Chinese populations and adopted elements of their culture and administration. Of note, the Xianbei rulers of Northern Wei ordered a policy of systematic sinicization, adopting Han surnames, institutions, and culture.The Sui (581–618) and Tang (618–907) dynasties saw the continuation of the complete sinicization of the south coast of what is now China proper, including what are now the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. The later part of the Tang era, as well as the Five Dynasties period that followed, saw continual warfare in north and central China; the relative stability of the south coast made it an attractive destination for refugees.

Song to Qing

File:Boxer queue.JPG|thumb|Han Chinese man wears a queue in compliance with Manchu custom during the Qing dynasty]]The next few centuries saw successive invasions of Han and non-Han peoples from the north. In 1279, the Mongols conquered all of China, becoming the first non-Han ethnic group to do so, and established the Yuan dynasty. The Mongols divided society into four classes, with themselves occupying the top class and Han Chinese into the bottom two classes. Emigration, seen as disloyal to ancestors and ancestral land, was banned by the Song and Yuan dynasties.BOOK, Pál, Nyíri, Igorʹ, Rostislavovich Savelʹev, Globalizing Chinese migration: trends in Europe and Asia,weblink Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2002, 208, 978-0-7546-1793-8, In 1644, the Ming capital, Beijing, was captured by Li Zicheng's peasant rebels and the Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide. The Manchus of the Qing dynasty then allied with former Ming general Wu Sangui and seized control of Beijing. Remnant Ming forces led by Koxinga fled to Taiwan and established the Kingdom of Tungning, which eventually capitulated to Qing forces in 1683. Taiwan, previously inhabited mostly by non-Han aborigines, was sinicized during this period via large-scale migration accompanied by assimilation, despite efforts by the Manchus to prevent this, as they found it difficult to maintain control over the island. In 1681, the Kangxi Emperor ordered construction of the Willow Palisade to prevent Han Chinese migration to the three northeastern provinces, which nevertheless had harbored a significant Chinese population for centuries, especially in the southern Liaodong area. The Manchus designated Jilin and Heilongjiang as the Manchu homeland, to which the Manchus could hypothetically escape and regroup if the Qing dynasty fell.JOURNAL, Mark C., Elliott, August 2000, The Limits of Tartary: Manchuria in Imperial and National Geographies, The Journal of Asian Studies, 59, 3, 603–46, 2658945, 10.2307/2658945, Because of increasing Russian territorial encroachment and annexation of neighboring territory, the Qing later reversed its policy and allowed the consolidation of a demographic Han majority in northeast China.

Culture and society

China is one of the world's oldest and most complex civilizations, whose culture dates back thousands of years. Overseas Han Chinese maintain cultural affinities to Chinese territories outside of their host locale through ancestor worship and clan associations, which often identify famous figures from Chinese history or myth as ancestors of current members. Such patriarchs include the Yellow Emperor and the Yan Emperor, who according to legend lived thousands of years ago and gave Han people the sobriquet "Descendants of Yan and Huang Emperor" (; ), a phrase which has reverberative connotations in a divisive political climate, as in that of between Mainland China and Taiwan. File:Along the River During the Qingming Festival (detail of original).jpg|thumb|Zhang Zeduan's painting Along the River During the Qingming Festival captures the daily life of people from the Song dynasty at the capital, Bianjing, today's KaifengKaifengChinese art, Chinese architecture, Chinese cuisine, Chinese literature, and Chinese philosophy all have undergone thousands of years of development, while numerous Chinese sites, such as the Great Wall and the Terracotta Army, are World Heritage Sites. Since the start of the program in 2001, aspects of Chinese culture have been listed by UNESCO as Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. Throughout the history of China, Chinese culture has been heavily influenced by Confucianism. Credited with shaping much of Chinese thought, Confucianism was the official philosophy throughout most of Imperial China's history, institutionalizing values like filial piety, which implied the performance of certain shared rituals. Thus, villagers lavished on funeral and wedding ceremonies that imitated the Confucian standards of the Emperors. Mastery of Confucian texts provided the primary criterion for entry into the imperial bureaucracy, but even those degree-holders who did not enter the bureaucracy or who left it held increased social influence in their home areas, contributing to the homogenizing of Han Chinese culture. Other factors contributing to the development of a shared Han culture included urbanization and geographically vast but integrated commodity markets.


{{see also|Standard Chinese}}Han Chinese speak various forms of the Chinese language that are descended from a common early language; one of the names of the language groups is Hanyu ({{zh|t= |s= |links=no}}), literally the "Han language". Similarly, Chinese characters, used to write the language, are called Hanzi ({{zh|t= |s= |links=no}}), or "Han characters".In the late imperial period, more than two-thirds of the Han Chinese population used a variant of Mandarin Chinese as their native tongue.BOOK, Kinship, Contract, Community, And State: Anthropological Perspectives on China, Myron L, Cohen, Late Imperial China and Its Legacies, 41–45, 50, However, there was a larger variety of languages in certain areas of southeast China, like Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Guangxi. Since the Qin dynasty, which standardized the various forms of writing that existed in China, a standard literary Chinese had emerged with vocabulary and grammar that was significantly different from the various forms of spoken Chinese. A simplified and elaborated version of this written standard was used in business contracts, notes for Chinese opera, ritual texts for Chinese folk religion, and other daily documents for educated people.During the early 20th century, written vernacular Chinese based on Mandarin dialects, which had been developing for several centuries, was standardized and adopted to replace literary Chinese. While written vernacular forms of other varieties of Chinese exist, such as written Cantonese, written Chinese based on Mandarin is widely understood by speakers of all varieties and has taken up the dominant position among written forms, formerly occupied by literary Chinese. Thus, although residents of different regions would not necessarily understand each other's speech, they generally share a common written language, Standard Written Chinese and Literary Chinese (these two writing styles can merge into a 半白半文 writing style).From the 1950s, Simplified Chinese characters were adopted in mainland China and later in Singapore and Malaysia, while Chinese communities in Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan and overseas countries continue to use Traditional Chinese characters.{{citation needed|date=May 2016}} Although significant differences exist between the two character sets, they are largely mutually intelligible.


(File:Guiyuan Temple Wuhan3.jpg|left|thumb|Chinese bell tower)Han Chinese architectural style is unique and native to Han Chinese.


In China, the notion of hundred surnames () is crucial identity point of Han people.Ebrey, Patricia Surnames and Han Chinese Identity, University of Washington


File:Gu Hongzhong's Night Revels, Detail 1.jpg|thumb|A Song dynasty Chinese painting Night Revels of Han Xizai showing scholars in scholar's robes and musicians dressed in a Hanfu variant, 12th-century remake of a 10th-century original by Gu HongzhongGu HongzhongHan Chinese clothing has been shaped through its dynastic traditions as well as foreign influences.BOOK, Chinese Clothing: Costumes, Adornments and Culture (Arts of China), Yang, Shaorong, Long River Press, 2004, 978-1-59265-019-4, 3, Han Chinese clothing showcases the traditional fashion sensibilities of Chinese clothing traditions and forms one of the major cultural facets of Chinese civilization.BOOK, China, Japan, Korea: Culture and Customs, Brown, John, Createspace Independent Publishing, 2006, 978-1-4196-4893-9, 79, Hanfu () or traditional Han clothing comprises all traditional clothing classifications of the Han Chinese with a recorded history of more than three millennia until the end of the Ming Dynasty. During the Qing dynasty, Hanfu clothing was mostly replaced by the Manchu style until the dynasty's fall in 1911, yet Han women continued to wear clothing from Ming dynasty. Manchu and Han fashions of women's clothing coexisted during the Qing dynasty.BOOK, zh:《中国古代服饰史》, Zhou, Xibao (周锡保), 中国戏剧出版社, 2002, 449, 978-7-104-00359-5, BOOK, Shaorong Yang, Traditional Chinese Clothing Costumes, Adornments & Culture,weblink 2004, Long River Press, 978-1-59265-019-4, 7, Men's clothing in the Qing Dyansty consisted for the most part of long silk growns and the so-called "Mandarin" jacket, which perhaps achieved their greatest popularity during the latter Kangxi Period to the Yongzheng Period. For women's clothing, Manchu and Han systems of clothing coexisted., Moreover, neither Taoist priests nor Buddhist monks were required to wear the queue by the Qing; they continued to wear their traditional hairstyles, completely shaved heads for Buddhist monks, and long hair in the traditional Chinese topknot for Taoist priests.BOOK, Edward J.M. Rhoads, Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861–1928,weblink 2000, University of Washington Press, 978-0-295-98040-9, 60–, BOOK, Gerolamo Emilio Gerini, Chŭlăkantamangala: Or, The Tonsure Ceremony as Performed in Siam,weblink 1895, Bangkok Times, 11–, During the Republic of China period, fashion styles and forms of traditional Qing costumes gradually changed, influenced by fashion sensibilities from the Western World resulting modern Han Chinese wearing Western style clothing as a part of everyday dress.Mei Hua, Chinese Clothing, Cambridge University Press, 2010, pp. 133–34Han Chinese clothing is influential to traditional East Asian fashion as both the Japanese Kimono and the Korean Hanbok were influenced by Han Chinese clothing designs.{{Citation |url = weblink |title = Elizabeth LaCouture, Journal of Design History, Vol. 30, Issue 3, 1 September 2017, pp. 300–14 | journal = Journal of Design History| volume = 30 |issue = 3 |pages = 300–314 |doi = 10.1093/jdh/epw042| year = 2017 | last = Lacouture | first = Elizabeth }}.{{Citation |url = weblink | title = J. Liddell, The story of the kimono, EP Dutton New York, 1989| isbn = 978-0-525-24574-2| last = Liddell |first = Jill |year = 1989}}.BOOK, Stevens, Rebecca, The kimono inspiration: art and art-to-wear in America, Pomegranate, 131–42, 1996, 978-0-87654-598-0, BOOK, Dalby, Liza, Liza Dalby, Kimono: Fashioning Culture, University of Washington Press, 25–32, 2001, Washington, 978-0-295-98155-0, ENCYCLOPEDIA, Annette Lynch, Mitchell D. Strauss, Sandra Lee Evenson, Hanfu Chinese robes, Ethnic Dress in the United States A Cultural Encyclopedia,weblink 2014, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 978-0-7591-2150-8, 135–36, WEB,weblink Keeping a Grip on Culture, Beijing Review, June 19, 2008, NEWS,weblink People's Daily Online, China launches first Traditional Garment Day, April 20, 2018, NEWS,weblink China Daily, Similar yet different: Chinese and Korean traditional clothing, October 30, 2015,


Han Chinese families throughout China have had certain traditionally prescribed roles, such as the family head (, jiāzhǎng), who represents the family to the outside world, and the family manager (, dāngjiā), who is in charge of the revenues. Because farmland was commonly bought, sold, or mortgaged, families were run like enterprises, with set rules for the allocation (, fēnjiā) of pooled earnings and assets.Han Chinese houses differ from place to place. In Beijing, the whole family traditionally lived together in a large rectangle-shaped house called a siheyuan. Such houses had four rooms at the front – guest room, kitchen, lavatory, and servants' quarters. Across large double doors was a wing for the elderly in the family. This wing consisted of three rooms: a central room where the four tablets – heaven, earth, ancestor, and teacher – were worshipped, and two rooms attached to the left and right, which were bedrooms for the grandparents. The east wing of the house was inhabited by the eldest son and his family, while the west wing sheltered the second son and his family. Each wing had a veranda; some had a "sunroom" made with surrounding fabric and supported by a wooden or bamboo frame. Every wing was also built around a central courtyard that was used for study, exercise, or nature viewing.CONFERENCE, Montgomery County Public Schools Foreign Language Department, Si-he-yuan, 1–8, Montgomery County Public Schools, August 2006,weblink


There is no specific one uniform cuisine of the Han people since the food eaten varies from Sichuan's famously spicy food to Guangdong's Dim Sum and fresh seafood.Analyses have revealed their main staple to be rice and noodles (different kinds of wheat foods). During China's neolithic period, southwestern rice growers transitioned to millet from the northwest, when they could not find a suitable northwestern ecology – which was typically dry and cold – to sustain the generous yields of their staple as well as it did in other areas, such as along the eastern Chinese coast.JOURNAL, The expansion of Setaria farmers in East Asia: A linguistic and archaeological model, Past Human Migrations in East Asia: Matching …,weblink 137, Sagart, Laurent,


Han Chinese have a rich history of classical literature dating back to three thousand years. Important early works include classic texts such as Classic of Poetry, Analects of Confucius, I Ching, Tao Te Ching, and the Art of War. Some of the most important Han Chinese poets in the pre-modern era include Li Bai, Du Fu, and Su Dongpo. The most important novels in Chinese literature, otherwise known as the Four Great Classical Novels, are: Dream of the Red Chamber, Water Margin, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, and Journey to the West. Chinese literature continues to have an international reputation with Liu Cixin's San Ti series receiving international acclaim.WEB,weblink 2015 Hugo Award Winners Announced, Kevin, 2015-08-23, The Hugo Awards, 2017-08-06, live,weblink" title="">weblink 2015-08-24,

Contributions to humanity

{{Further|List of Chinese inventions|List of Chinese discoveries}}Han Chinese have influenced and contributed to the development of human progress throughout history in many fields and domains including culture, business, science and technology, social sciences and humanities, and politics both historically and in the modern era. Throughout ancient and medieval Chinese history, the scientific and technological accomplishments of China include the armillary sphere, acupuncture, seismological earthquake detector, pipeline transport, irrigation systems, seals, fingerprint recognition and authentication methods, multistage rockets, multiple rocket launchers, rocket launchers, rockets for recreational and military purposes, fermentation, alcoholic beverages, chopsticks, wok, soy sauce, hand fan, gongs, hygrometers, rain gauges, snow gauges, abacus, shells, war wagons, firearms, fire lances, cannons, landmines, naval mines, continuous flame throwers, fire arrows, explosive hand grenades, trebuchets, traction trebuchets, crossbows, repeating crossbows, firecrackers, fireworks, fired bricks, flares, crank handle, crankshafts, bells, pontoon bridges, matches, paper money, civil service examination and merit systems, imperial tributary systems, belt drive, raised-relief maps, night markets, gnomons, hill censers, incense, hot pots, biological pest control, horse harness, food steamers, rammed earth, multi-tube seed drill, tangrams, rotary winnowing fans, blast furnaces, cast iron, finery forge, steelmaking, restaurant menus, petroleum and natural gas as fuel, borehole drilling for natural gas, plough, oil well drilling, oil refining, deepwater drilling, oil lamps, gimbals, double-action piston bellows, plastromancy, porcelain, celadon, lacquer, lacquerware, dental amalgam, silk, sericulture, air conditioning, dry docks, tea, teabags, teapots, tea production, pound locks, flash locks, drawloom, south-pointing chariots, odometers, fishing reels, rudders, mechanical clocks, water clocks, chain pumps, chain drives, escapements, sliding calipers, trip hammers, kites, sunglasses, umbrellas, gas cylinders, gas lighting, toothbrushes, inoculation, unmanned hot air balloon, bronzemaking, wheelbarrows, moveable sails, watertight compartments, and the oil-paper umbrella.BOOK, Science and Technology from Global and Historical Perspectives, Karagözoğlu, Bahattin, Springer International Publishing, 2017, 978-3-319-52889-2, 1st, September 27, 2010, 120, BOOK, Let There be Peace - Ascension to Ivisimara, O'Doherty, Mark, 978-1291208917, November 24, 2012, 57, BOOK, The Future of Post-human History: A Preface to a New Theory of Universality and Relativity, Baofu, Peter, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2012, 978-1443837682, May 1, 2012, 268, BOOK, Democratising English Language Research Education in the Face of Eurocentric Knowledge Transfer: Turning Mute Chinese Linguistic and Theoretical Assets into Analytical Tools, Meng, Hui, BOOK, Technology and the City: Systems, Applications and Implications, Yigitcanlar, Tan, Routledge, 2016, 978-1138826700, May 10, 2016, 19, The invention of paper, printing, the compass, and gunpowder are celebrated in Chinese culture as the Four Great Inventions. Medieval Han Chinese astronomers were also among the first peoples to record observations of a cosmic supernova in 1054 AD. The work of medieval Chinese polymath Shen Kuo (1031–1095) of the Song dynasty theorized that the sun and moon were spherical and wrote of planetary motions such as retro gradation as well postulating theories for the processes of geological land formation.Throughout much of history, successive Chinese dynasties have exerted influence on their East Asian neighbors in the areas of culture,education, language, politics, science and technology, and business. In modern times, Han Chinese form the largest ethnic group in China, while an overseas Han Chinese diaspora numbering in the tens of millions has settled in and contributed to their host countries throughout the world.In modern times, Han Chinese continue to contribute to the progress of science and technology. Among them are Nobel Prize recipients Tu Youyou, Steven Chu, Samuel C.C. Ting, Chen Ning Yang, Tsung-Dao Lee, Yuan T. Lee, Daniel C. Tsui, Roger Y. Tsien, and Charles K. Kao (known as the "Godfather of Broadband" and "Father of Fiber Optics");NEWS,weblink 'Master of Light' awarded Nobel Prize, The Independent, Ferguson, Ben, 7 October 2009, Fields Medal recipients Terence Tao and Shing-Tung Yau, and Turing Award recipient Andrew Yao. Tsien Hsue-shen was a prominent aerospace engineer and rocket scientist who helped to found NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.NEWS,weblink Qian Xuesen, The Daily Telegraph, 22 November 2009, The geometer Shiing-Shen Chern was one of the leaders in differential geometry of the 20th century and was awarded the 1984 Wolf Prize in mathematics. The physicist Chien-Shiung Wu, nicknamed the "First Lady of Physics" contributed to the Manhattan Project and radically altered modern physical theory and changed the accepted view of the structure of the universe.WEB,weblink Chien-Shiung Wu, National Women's Hall of Fame, The biochemist Chi-Huey Wong is well known for his pioneering research in glycoscience research and developing the first enzymatic method for the large-scale synthesis of oligosaccharides and the first programmable automated synthesis of oligosaccharides. The physical chemist Ching W. Tang, was the inventor of the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and hetero-junction organic photovoltaic cell (OPV) and is widely considered the "Father of Organic Electronics".JOURNAL, 10.1557/mrs.2012.125, Energy efficiency with organic electronics: Ching W. Tang revisits his days at Kodak, 2012, Forrest, Stephen, MRS Bulletin, 37, 6, 552–53, Others include David Ho, one of the first scientists to propose that AIDS was caused by a virus, thus subsequently developing combination antiretroviral therapy to combat it. Dr. Ho was named Time Magazine Person of the Year in 1996.NEWS,weblink Dr David Ho, Man of the Year, Time Magazine, 30 December 1996, Min Chueh Chang was the co-inventor of the combined oral contraceptive pill and is known for his pioneering work and significant contributions to the development of in vitro fertilization at the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology.WEB, Min Chueh Chang, National Academy of Sciences,weblink WEB, Chang Min-Chueh, Britannica Online for Kids,weblink Choh Hao Li discovered human growth hormone (and subsequently used it to treat a form of dwarfism caused by growth hormone deficiency), beta-endorphin (the most powerful of the body's natural painkillers), follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone (the key hormone used in fertility testing, an example is the ovulation home test).NEWS,weblink Discovered Human Growth Hormone : Choh Hao Li, 74; Endocrinologist at UC, Los Angeles Times, Maugh II, Thomas, 2 December 1987, WEB, Choh Hao Li, National Academy of Sciences,weblink WEB, A History of UCSF People, Choh Hao Li,weblink Joe Hin Tjio was a cytogeneticist renowned as the first person to recognize the normal number of human chromosomes, a breakthrough in karyotype genetics.NEWS,weblink Joe Hin Tjio The man who cracked the chromosome count, The Guardian, Wright, Pearce, 11 December 2001, NEWS,weblink Joe Hin Tjio, 82; Research Biologist Counted Chromosomes, The New York Times, Saxon, Wolfgang, 7 December 2001, Yuan-Cheng Fung, is regarded as the "Father of modern biomechanics" for pioneering the application of quantitative and analytical engineering principles to the study of the human body and disease.WEB,weblink News from the National Academies, National Academy of Sciences, 4 January 2007, WEB,weblink Dr. Yuan-Cheng 'Bert' Fung, National Academy of Engineering, 2007, China's system of "barefoot doctors" was among the most important inspirations for the World Health Organization conference in Alma Ata, Kazakhstan in 1978, and was hailed as a revolutionary breakthrough in international health ideology emphasizing primary health care and preventive medicine.JOURNAL,weblink Consensus during the Cold War: back to Alma-Ata, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, October 2008, 86, 10, 737–816, JOURNAL,weblink China's village doctors take great strides, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, December 2008, 86, 12, 909–88,


{{Unreferenced section|date=May 2016}}File:Vinegar tasters.jpg|right|thumb|upright|A traditional representation of The Vinegar TastersThe Vinegar TastersChinese culture has been long characterized by religious pluralism and Chinese folk religion has always maintained a profound influence. Indigenous Confucianism and Taoism share aspects of being a philosophy or a religion, and neither demand exclusive adherence, resulting in a culture of tolerance and syncretism, where multiple religions or belief systems are often practiced in concert with local customs and traditions. Han Chinese culture has for long been influenced by Mahayana Buddhism, while in recent centuries Christianity has also gained a foothold among the population.{{Citation needed|date = November 2018}}Chinese folk religion is a set of worship traditions of the ethnic deities of the Han people. It involves the worship of various figures in Chinese mythology, folk heroes such as Guan Yu and Qu Yuan, mythological creatures such as the Chinese dragon, or family, clan and national ancestors. These practices vary from region to region, and do not characterize an organized religion, though many traditional Chinese holidays such as the Duanwu (or Dragon Boat) Festival, Qingming, and the Mid-Autumn Festival come from the most popular of these traditions.Taoism, another indigenous religion, is also widely practiced in both its folk forms and as an organized religion, and has influenced Chinese art, poetry, philosophy, medicine, astronomy, alchemy and chemistry, cuisine, martial arts, and architecture. Taoism was the state religion of the early Han Dynasty, and also often enjoyed state patronage under subsequent emperors and dynasties.Confucianism, although sometimes described as a religion, is a governing philosophy and moral code with some religious elements like ancestor worship. It is deeply ingrained in Chinese culture and was the official state philosophy in China during the Han Dynasty and unto the fall of imperial China in the 20th century.{{Citation needed|date = November 2018}}During the Han Dynasty, Confucian ideals were the dominant ideology. Near the end of the dynasty, Buddhism entered China, later gaining popularity. Historically, Buddhism alternated between periods of state tolerance (and even patronage) and persecution. In its original form, Buddhism was at odds with the native Chinese religions, especially with the elite, as certain Buddhist values often conflicted with Chinese sensibilities. However, through centuries of assimilation, adaptation, and syncretism, Chinese Buddhism gained an accepted place in the culture. Mahayana would come to be influenced by Confucianism and Taoism, and exerted influence in turn – such as in the form of Neo-Confucianism.Though Christian influence in China existed as early as the 7th century, Christianity did not begin to gain a significant foothold in China until the establishment of contact with Europeans during the Ming and Qing dynasties. Chinese practices at odds with Christian beliefs resulted in the Chinese Rites controversy, and a subsequent reduction in Christian influence. Christianity grew considerably following the First Opium War, after which foreign missionaries in China enjoyed the protection of the Western powers and engaged in widespread proselytising.{{Citation needed|date = December 2015}}

Historical southward migration of the Han people

{{multiple issues|{{POV|section|date=February 2016}}{{more citations needed section|date=February 2016}}}}File:Han Expansion.png|thumb|Map showing the expansion of Han dynastyHan dynastyThe term "Huaxia" was used by Confucius's contemporaries, during the Warring States era, to describe the shared ethnicity of all Chinese;BOOK, Erica Fox Brindley, Ancient China and the Yue: Perceptions and Identities on the Southern Frontier, c. 400 BCE–50 CE,weblink 2015, Cambridge University Press, 978-1-316-35228-1, 9–10, Chinese people called themselves Hua Ren.BOOK, Gyanendra Pandey, Peter Geschiere, The Forging of Nationhood,weblink 2003, Manohar, 978-81-7304-425-0, 102, Southern Han people – such as the Hoklo, Cantonese and Hakka – all claim northern Chinese origins from ancestors who migrated from Northern China's Yellow River Valley during the 4th to 12th centuries. Hoklo clans living in southeastern coastal China, such as in Chaozhou and Quanzhou–Zhangzhou, originated from northern China's Henan province during the Tang dynasty.BOOK, Sow-Theng Leong, Tim Wright, George William Skinner, Migration and Ethnicity in Chinese History: Hakkas, Pengmin, and Their Neighbors,weblink 1997, Stanford University Press, 978-0-8047-2857-7, 78–, There were several periods of mass migration of Han people to southeastern and southern China throughout history.BOOK, Jacques Gernet, A History of Chinese Civilization,weblink 1996, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-49781-7, 8, The ancestors of the Cantonese are said to be northern Chinese who moved to Guangdong, while the Yue (Baiyue) descendants were indigenous minorities who practised tattooing, as described in "The Real Yue People" ({{zh|labels=no |c=真越人 |p=zhēn yuèrén}}) essay by Qu Dajun (), a Cantonese scholar who extolled his people's Chineseness.BOOK, Shmuel Noah Eisenstadt, Wolfgang Schluchter, Björn Wittrock, Public Spheres and Collective Identities,weblink Transaction Publishers, 978-1-4128-3248-9, 213–14, Vietnam, Guangdong, and Yunnan all experienced a major surge in Han Chinese migrants during Wang Mang's reign.{{rp|126}} Hangzhou's coastal regions and the Yangtze valley were settled in the 4th century by Northern Chinese families from the nobility.{{rp|181}} Special "commanderies of immigrants" and "white registers" were created for the massive number of Han Chinese of northern origin who moved south during the Eastern Jin dynasty.{{rp|182}} The southern Chinese aristocracy was formed from the offspring of these migrants;WEB,weblink The Transformation of Medieval Chinese Elites (850–1000 C.E.), Nicolas Olivier Tackett,, 12 December 2017, Celestial Masters and the nobility of northern China subdued the aristocracy of southern China during the Eastern Jin and Western Jin, particularly in Jiangnan.BOOK, John Lagerwey, Pengzhi Lü, Early Chinese Religion: The Period of Division (220–589 AD),weblink 2009, Brill, 978-90-04-17585-3, 831–, With the depopulation of the north, due to this migration of northern Chinese, the south became the most populous region of China.BOOK, Historical Atlas of the Classical World, 500 BC–AD 600,weblink 2000, Barnes & Noble Books, 978-0-7607-1973-2, 2.25, BOOK, Haywood, John, Jotischky, Andrew, McGlynn, Sean, Historical Atlas of the Medieval World, AD 600–1492,weblink 1998, Barnes & Noble, 978-0-7607-1976-3, 3.21, The Han Chinese "Eight Great Surnames" were eight noble families who migrated from northern China to Fujian in southern China due to the uprising of the five barbarians when the Eastern Jin was founded, the Hu, He, Qiu, Dan, Zheng, Huang, Chen and Lin surnames.BOOK, Dean, Kenneth, Zheng, Zhenman, 2009, Ritual Alliances of the Putian Plain. Volume One: Historical Introduction to the Return of the Gods,weblink 341, BRILL, 904742946X, BOOK, Xu, Bin, Xie, Bizhen, Li, Tang, Dietmar W., Winkler, 2013, From the Oxus River to the Chinese Shores: Studies on East Syriac Christianity in China and Central Asia,weblink 270, The Rise and Fall of Nestorianism in Quanzhou during the Yuan dynasty, illustrated, LIT Verlag Münster, 3643903294, BOOK, Ni, Hao, Travel Guide of Fujian,weblink DeepLogic, Travelling in China, BOOK, Szonyi, Michael, 2002, Practicing Kinship: Lineage and Descent in Late Imperial China,weblink 27, illustrated, Stanford University Press, 0804742618, BOOK, Zheng, Zhenman, 2001, Family Lineage Organization and Social Change in Ming and Qing Fujian,weblink 190, illustrated, University of Hawaii Press, 0824823338, Ming dynasty Han Chinese pirate Zheng Zhilong and his son Koxinga's ancestors in the Zheng family originated in northern China but due to the Uprising of the Five Barbarians and Disaster of Yongjia by the Five Barbarians, the Zheng family were among the northern Chinese refugees who fled to southern China and settled in Putian, Fujian. They later moved to Zhangzhou and moved on to Nan'an.福建人民出版社《闽台关系族谱资料选编》台湾《漳龙衍派鄱山氏之来龙去脉》( 在2002年举行的纪念郑成功收复台湾340周年研讨会上 郑姓)Different waves of migration of aristocratic Chinese from northern China to the south at different times – with some arriving in the 300s–400s and others in the 800s–900s – resulted in the formation of distinct lineages.BOOK, Hugh R. Clark, Portrait of a Community: Society, Culture, and the Structures of Kinship in the Mulan River Valley (Fujian) from the Late Tang Through the Song,weblink 2007, Chinese University Press, 978-962-996-227-2, 37–38, During the 700s (Tang dynasty), Han migrants from northern China flooded into the south.BOOK, Hugh R. Clark, Portrait of a Community: Society, Culture, and the Structures of Kinship in the Mulan River Valley (Fujian) from the Late Tang Through the Song,weblink 2007, Chinese University Press, 978-962-996-227-2, 78–79, Hong Kong history books record migrations of the Song and Tang dynasties to the south, which resulted in Hong Kongers that are descended from ethnic Han settlers that originated from northern China.BOOK, Edward Vickers, History Education and National Identity in East Asia,weblink 2013, Routledge, 978-1-135-40500-7, 191–, Since it was during the Tang dynasty that Guangdong was subjected to settlement by Han people, many Cantonese, Hokkien and Teochew call themselves Tang.BOOK, Endymion Porter Wilkinson, Chinese History: A Manual,weblink 2000, Harvard University Asia Center, 978-0-674-00249-4, 752–, Several wars in northern China such as the Uprising of the Five Barbarians, An Lushan Rebellion, Huang Chao Rebellion, the wars of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms and Jin–Song Wars caused a mass migration of Han Chinese from northern China to southern China called 衣冠南渡(yì guān nán dù).衣冠南渡 .在线新华字典[引用日期2013-08-09唐宋时期的北人南迁 .内蒙古教育出版社官网.2008-01-15[引用日期2013-08-09]六朝时期北人南迁及蛮族的流布 .内蒙古教育出版社官网.2008-01-15[引用日期2013-08-09]东晋建康的开始—永嘉南渡 .通南京网.2012-10-10[引用日期2013-08-09]从衣冠南渡到西部大开发 .中国期刊网.2011-4-26 [引用日期2013-08-12]中华书局编辑部.全唐诗.北京:中华书局,1999-01-1 :761 These mass migrations led to southern China's population growth, economic, agricultural and cultural development as it stayed peaceful unlike the north.BOOK, Yao, Yifeng, 2016, Nanjing: Historical Landscape and Its Planning from Geographical Perspective,weblink 95, illustrated, Springer, 9811016372, ENCYCLOPEDIA, The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Six Dynasties,weblink December 4, 2008, Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., BOOK, Entenmann, Robert Eric, 1982, Migration and settlement in Sichuan, 1644-1796,weblink 14, reprint, Harvard University, BOOK, Shi, Zhihong, 2017, The Quantitative Economic History of China, Agricultural Development in Qing China: A Quantitative Study, 1661-1911,weblink 154, BRILL, 9004355243, BOOK, Hsu, Cho-yun, 2012, Masters of Chinese Studies, China: A New Cultural History,weblink 194, illustrated, Columbia University Press, 0231528183, BOOK, Pletcher, Kenneth, 2010, Understanding China, The History of China,weblink 127, illustrated, The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc, 1615301097, BOOK, 2004, Chinese journal of international law, Chinese journal of international law, Volume 3,weblink 631, The Mongol invasion caused Han Chinese refugees moving south to settle and develop the Pearl River delta.BOOK, Foster, Simon, 2010, Hunter travel guides, China's Pearl River Delta, Guangzhou & Shenzhen,weblink Hunter Publishing, Inc, 1588438112, BOOK, Marks, Robert B., 2017, China: An Environmental History,weblink 177, 2, Rowman & Littlefield, 1442277890, BOOK, Zhao, Zhenzhou, Lee, Wing On, 2010, Emerging Perspectives on Education in China, China's Mongols at University: Contesting Cultural Recognitio,weblink 243, Lexington Books, 1461633117, BOOK, Marks, Robert, 1998, Studies in Environment and History, Tigers, Rice, Silk, and Silt: Environment and Economy in Late Imperial South China,weblink 53, Cambridge University Press, 113942551X, BOOK, Herklots, Geoffrey Alton Craig, 1932, The Hong Kong Naturalist, Volumes 3-4,weblink 120, Newspaper Enterprise Limited, BOOK, Lai, H. Mark, Hsu, Madeline, 2004, Volume 13 of Critical perspectives on Asian Pacific Americans series, Becoming Chinese American: A History of Communities and Institutions,weblink 11, illustrated, Rowman Altamira, 0759104581, The first Ming dynasty emperor Zhu Yuanzhang resettled his home city Fengyang and capital Nanjing with people from Jiangnan.BOOK, Lu, Hanchao, 2005, Street Criers: A Cultural History of Chinese Beggars,weblink 59, illustrated, Stanford University Press, 080475148X, BOOK, Li, Dun Jen, 1975, Street Criers: A Cultural History of Chinese Beggars, The civilization of China, Volume 1,weblink 278, Simon & Schuster, 068413943X,

DNA and genetics analysis

{{see|Peopling of China|Genetic history of East Asians}}{{split section|Genetic history of East Asia|date=July 2018}}{{expert needed|genetics|date=June 2017}}Y-chromosome haplogroup O2-M122 is a common DNA marker in Han Chinese, as it appeared in China in prehistoric times. It is found in at least 36.7% to over 80% of Han Chinese males in certain regions.{{harvnb|Xue|2006}}JOURNAL, 10.1086/430051, The Dual Origin of the Malagasy in Island Southeast Asia and East Africa: Evidence from Maternal and Paternal Lineages, 2005, Hurles, M, Sykes, B, Jobling, M, Forster, P, The American Journal of Human Genetics, 76, 5, 894–901, 15793703, 1199379, Other Y-DNA haplogroups that have been found with notable frequency in samples of Han Chinese include O-P203 (15/165 = 9.1%, 47/361 = 13.0%), C-M217 (10/168 = 6.0%, 27/361 = 7.5%, 187/1730 = 10.8%, 20/166 = 12.0%), N-M231 (6/166 = 3.6%, 18/361 = 5.0%, 117/1729 = 6.8%, 17/165 = 10.3%), O-M268(xM95, M176) (54/1147 = 4.7%,Chuncheng Lu, Jie Zhang, Yingchun Li, Yankai Xia, Feng Zhang, Bin Wu, Wei Wu, Guixiang Ji, Aihua Gu, Shoulin Wang, Li Jin, and Xinru Wang, "The b2/b3 subdeletion shows higher risk of spermatogenic failure and higher frequency of complete AZFc deletion than the gr/gr subdeletion in a Chinese population." Human Molecular Genetics, 2009, Vol. 18, No. 6 1122–30. {{doi|10.1093/hmg/ddn427}} 8/168 = 4.8%, 23/361 = 6.4%, 12/166 = 7.2%), and Q-M242 (2/168 = 1.2%, 49/1729 = 2.8%, 12/361 = 3.3%, 48/1147 = 4.2%). However, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Han Chinese increases in diversity as one looks from northern to southern China, which suggests that male migrants from northern China married with women from local peoples after arriving in modern-day Guangdong, Fujian, and other regions of southern China.JOURNAL, Wen, B., Li, H., Lu, D., Song, X., Zhang, F., He, Y., Li, F., Gao, Y., Mao, X., Zhang, Liang, Qian, Ji, Tan, Jingze, Jin, Jianzhong, Huang, Wei, Deka, Ranjan, Su, Bing, Chakraborty, Ranajit, Jin, Li, Genetic evidence supports demic diffusion of Han culture, Nature, 431, 7006, 302–05, Sep 2004, 10.1038/nature02878, 15372031,weblink 8, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2009-03-24, 2004Natur.431..302W, JOURNAL, 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201998, A spatial analysis of genetic structure of human populations in China reveals distinct difference between maternal and paternal lineages, 2008, Xue, Fuzhong, Wang, Yi, Xu, Shuhua, Zhang, Feng, Wen, Bo, Wu, Xuesen, Lu, Ming, Deka, Ranjan, Qian, Ji, Jin, L, 9, European Journal of Human Genetics, 16, 6, 705–17, 18212820, Despite this, tests comparing the genetic profiles of northern Han, southern Han and southern natives determined that haplogroups O1b-M110, O2a1-M88 and O3d-M7, which are prevalent in southern natives, were only observed in some southern Han (4% on average), but not in northern Han. Therefore, this proves that the male contribution of southern natives in southern Han is limited, assuming that the frequency distribution of Y lineages in southern natives represents that before the expansion of Han culture that started two-thousand years ago.JOURNAL, 10.1038/nature02878, Genetic evidence supports demic diffusion of Han culture, 2004, Wen, Bo, Li, Hui, Lu, Daru, Song, Xiufeng, Zhang, Feng, He, Yungang, Li, Feng, Gao, Yang, Mao, Xianyun, Zhang, L, Qian, J, Tan, J, Jin, J, Huang, W, Deka, R, Su, B, Chakraborty, R, Jin, L, 9, Nature, 431, 7006, 302–05, 15372031, 2004Natur.431..302W, In contrast, there are consistent strong genetic similarities in the Y chromosome haplogroup distribution between the southern and northern Chinese population, and the result of principal component analysis indicates almost all Han populations form a tight cluster in their Y chromosome. However, other research has also shown that the paternal lineages Y-DNA O-M119,JOURNAL, Li, Hui, Paternal genetic affinity between western Austronesians and Daic populations,weblink BMC Evolutionary Biology, 15 May 2008, 10.1186/1471-2148-8-146, 18482451, 2408594, 8, 2008, 146, 1, O-P201,JOURNAL, Karafet, Tatiana, Hallmark, B, Cox, M.P., Sudoyo, H, Downey, S, Lansing, J.S., Hammer, M.F., Major East–West Division Underlies Y Chromosome Stratification across Indonesia, Molecular Biology and Evolution,weblink 10.1093/molbev/msq063, 20207712, 27, 8, August 2010, 1833–44, O-P203 and O-M95JOURNAL, Karafet, Tatiana, Hagberg, L, Hanson, L. A., Korhonen, T, Leffler, H, Olling, S, Balinese Y-chromosome perspective on the peopling of Indonesia: genetic contributions from pre-neolithic hunter-gatherers, Austronesian farmers, and Indian traders, 6114819, 80, 1981, Ciba Found Symp, 161–87, are found in both southern Han Chinese and South Chinese minorities, but more commonly in the latter. In fact, these paternal markers are in turn less frequent in northern Han Chinese.WEB, Wang, Xiadong, Han Chinese dialect area by the distribution of the Y chromosome,weblink, Wang Xiadong, 10 June 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 July 2014, JOURNAL, Yan, Shi, Wang, C.C., Li, H, Li, S.L., Jin, L, An updated tree of Y-chromosome Haplogroup O and revised phylogenetic positions of mutations P164 and PK4, 3179364, European Journal of Human Genetics, 19, 9, 1013–15, 2011, 10.1038/ejhg.2011.64, 21505448, Another study puts Han Chinese into two groups: northern and southern Han Chinese, and it finds that the genetic characteristics of present-day northern Han Chinese was already formed as early as three-thousand years ago in the Central Plain area.JOURNAL, Zhao, Yong-Bin, Zhang, Ye, Zhang, Quan-Chao, Li, Hong-Jie, Cui, Ying-Qiu, Xu, Zhi, Jin, Li, Zhou, Hui, Zhu, Hong, Ancient DNA Reveals That the Genetic Structure of the Northern Han Chinese Was Shaped Prior to three-thousand Years Ago, PLoS ONE, 2015, 10, 5, e0125676, 10.1371/journal.pone.0125676, 25938511, 4418768, 2015PLoSO..1025676Z, The estimated contribution of northern Han to southern Han is substantial in both paternal and maternal lineages and a geographic cline exists for mtDNA. As a result, the northern Han are the primary contributors to the gene pool of the southern Han. However, it is noteworthy that the expansion process was dominated by males, as is shown by a greater contribution to the Y-chromosome than the mtDNA from northern Han to southern Han. These genetic observations are in line with historical records of continuous and large migratory waves of northern China inhabitants escaping warfare and famine, to southern China. Aside from these large migratory waves, other smaller southward migrations occurred during almost all periods in the past two millennia. A study by the Chinese Academy of Sciences into the gene frequency data of Han subpopulations and ethnic minorities in China, showed that Han subpopulations in different regions are also genetically quite close to the local ethnic minorities, meaning that in many cases, blood of ethnic minorities had mixed into Han, while at the same time, the blood of Han had also mixed into the local ethnic minorities.JOURNAL, 18726285, 1997, Du, R, Xiao, C, Cavalli-Sforza, LL, Genetic distances between Chinese populations calculated on gene frequencies of 38 loci, 40, 6, 613–21, 10.1007/BF02882691, Science China Life Sciences, A study on Armenian admixture in varied populations found 3.9% Armenian-like DNA in some northern Chinese Han.WEB, World ancestry,weblink, 2016-02-09, A recent, and to date the most extensive, genome-wide association study of the Han population, shows that geographic-genetic stratification from north to south has occurred and centrally placed populations act as the conduit for outlying ones.JOURNAL, 10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.10.016, Genetic Structure of the Han Chinese Population Revealed by Genome-wide SNP Variation, 2009, Chen, Jieming, Zheng, Houfeng, Bei, Jin-Xin, Sun, Liangdan, Jia, Wei-hua, Li, Tao, Zhang, Furen, Seielstad, Mark, Zeng, Yi-Xin, Zhang, X, Liu, J, 9, The American Journal of Human Genetics, 85, 6, 775–85, 19944401, 2790583, Ultimately, with the exception in some ethnolinguistic branches of the Han Chinese, such as Pinghua, there is "coherent genetic structure" in all Han Chinese populace.JOURNAL, Pinghua population as an exception of Han Chinese's coherent genetic structure, 10.1007/s10038-008-0250-x, 18270655, Journal of Human Genetics, 53, 4, 303–13, 2008, Gan, Rui-Jing, Pan, Shang-Ling, Mustavich, Laura F., Qin, Zhen-Dong, Cai, Xiao-Yun, Qian, Ji, Liu, Cheng-Wu, Peng, Jun-Hua, Li, Shi-Lin, Xu, Jie-Shun, Jin, Li, Li, Hui, Typical Y-DNA haplogroups of present-day Han Chinese include Haplogroup O-M122 and Haplogroup Q-M120, and these haplogroups also have been found to predominate (alongside some members of Haplogroup N-M231, Haplogroup O-M95, and unresolved Haplogroup O-M175) among a selection of ancient human remains recovered from the Hengbei archeological site in Jiang County, Shanxi Province, China, an area that was part of the suburbs of the capital (near modern Luoyang) during the Zhou dynasty.JOURNAL, Zhao, Yong-Bin, Zhang, Ye, Zhang, Quan-Chao, Li, Hong-Jie, Cui, Ying-Qiu, Xu, Zhi, Jin, Li, Zhou, Hui, Zhu, Hong, 2015-05-04, Ancient DNA Reveals That the Genetic Structure of the Northern Han Chinese Was Shaped Prior to 3,000 Years Ago, PLoS ONE, 10, 5, e0125676, 10.1371/journal.pone.0125676, 1932-6203, 4418768, 25938511, 2015PLoSO..1025676Z, West Eurasian admixture has been detected mainly in northern Han. A 2011 study found Y-DNA R1a1 (8.9%), R2a (6.7%), and G2a* (2.2%) out of 45 samples of Northern Han Chinese from western Henan province.JOURNAL, Zhong H, Shi H, Qi XB, etal, Extended Y chromosome investigation suggests postglacial migrations of modern humans into East Asia via the northern route, Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28, 1, 717–27, January 2011, 20837606, 10.1093/molbev/msq247,weblink The study also detected 4.8% G2a1 and 4.8% R1a1 in another set of 21 samples of Northern Han from Nanyang City, western Henan province. Y-DNA J1 (1.8%), J2a (1.8%) and L3 (1.8%) were detected in Harbin Han Chinese, Heilongjiang province.A 2006 study found 10% haplogroup J and 6.7% R1a1 in Northern Han from Lanzhou city.JOURNAL, Yali Xue, Tatiana Zerjal, Weidong Bao, Suling Zhu, Qunfang Shu, Jiujin Xu, Ruofu Du, Songbin Fu, Pu Li, Matthew E. Hurles, Huanming Yang, Chris Tyler-Smith, April 2006,weblink Male demography in East Asia: a north-south contrast in human population expansion times, Genetics, 172, 4, 2431–2439, 10.1534/genetics.105.054270, free,





Further reading

  • BOOK, The Magic Lotus Lantern and Other Tales from the Han Chinese, Haiwang, Yuan, Libraries Unlimited, Westport, Conn., 2006, 978-1-59158-294-6, 65820295,

External links

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