Mount Everest

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Mount Everest
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{{Redirect|Everest}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|Earth's highest mountain, part of the Himalaya between Nepal and Tibet}}{{tone|date=October 2017}}{{EngvarB|date=June 2016}}{{Use dmy dates|date=May 2019}}

! rowspan= 2 | Atmospheric pressure comparison! colspan=2 | Pressure! rowspan= 2 | Reference!kilopascal!psi|Olympus Mons summit|Mars average|Hellas Planitia bottom|Armstrong limit| Mount Everest summit|Earth sea level|Dead Sea level|Surface of Venus
name Mount Everest

  • {{transl|bo|(Chomolungma){edih}
  • {{transl|zh|(ZhÅ«mùlÇŽngmÇŽ FÄ“ng)}}
  • }}| photo =File:Everest kalapatthar.jpg| photo_size =
    Mount Everest as viewed from Kalapatthar.}}#Surveys>Surveys. Ranked 1stList of peaks by prominence>Ranked 1st(Notice special definition for Everest)| map = Nepal Province1#Nepal#China Tibet topography#China#Asia| map_caption = Location on the Province No. 1, Nepal – Tibet Autonomous Region, China border| label = Mount Everest| label_position = leftSeven SummitsEight-thousanderList of countries by highest point>Country high pointUltra| location = Solukhumbu District, Province No. 1, Nepal;Geography of Nepal: Physical, Economic, Cultural & Regional By Netra Bahadur Thapa, D.P. Thapa Orient Longmans, 1969 Tingri County, Xigazê, Tibet Autonomous Region, ChinaThe position of the summit of Everest on the international border is clearly shown on detailed topographic mapping, including official Nepalese mapping.| country1 = Nepal| country2 = China| range = Mahalangur Himal, Himalayas27178631type:mountain_scale:100000display=inline,title}}| coordinates_ref =The WGS84 coordinates given here were calculated using detailed topographic mapping and are in agreement with adventurestats. They are unlikely to be in error by more than 2". Coordinates showing Everest to be more than a minute further east that appeared on this page until recently, and still appear in Wikipedia in several other languages, are incorrect.| first_ascent = 29 May 1953Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay(First winter ascent 17 February 1980 Krzysztof Wielicki, Leszek Cichy)South Col>southeast ridge (Nepal)}}{{Contains Indic text}}{{Contains Tibetan text}}(File:Mount Everest as seen from Drukair2 PLW edit.jpg|thumb|Aerial photo from the south, with Mount Everest rising above the ridge connecting Nuptse and Lhotse)File:Mount Everest morning.jpg|thumb|Everest and Lhotse from the south. In the foreground are Thamserku, Kangtega, and Ama DablamAma DablamMount Everest (Nepali: Sagarmatha ; Tibetan: Chomolungma ; Chinese: Zhumulangma ) is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas. The international border between Nepal (Province No. 1) and China (Tibet Autonomous Region) runs across its summit point.WEB, Bishart, Andrew, China’s New Road May Clear a Path for More Everest Climbers,weblink National Geographic, 4 May 2016, The current official elevation of {{convert|8848|m|ft|0|abbr=on}}, recognized by China and Nepal, was established by a 1955 Indian survey and subsequently confirmed by a Chinese survey in 1975. In 2005, China remeasured the rock height of the mountain, with a result of 8844.43 m (29,017 ft). There followed an argument between China and Nepal as to whether the official height should be the rock height (8,844 m, China) or the snow height (8,848 m, Nepal). In 2010, an agreement was reached by both sides that the height of Everest is 8,848 m, and Nepal recognizes China's claim that the rock height of Everest is 8,844 m.NEWS,weblink Official height for Everest set, 8 April 2010, BBC, 16 August 2016, In 1865, Everest was given its official English name by the Royal Geographical Society, upon a recommendation by Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India. As there appeared to be several different local names, Waugh chose to name the mountain after his predecessor in the post, Sir George Everest, despite Everest's objections.JOURNAL, Papers relating to the Himalaya and Mount Everest, Proceedings of the London Royal Geographical Society of London, April–May 1857, IX, 345–351, Mount Everest attracts many climbers, some of them highly experienced mountaineers. There are two main climbing routes, one approaching the summit from the southeast in Nepal (known as the "standard route") and the other from the north in Tibet. While not posing substantial technical climbing challenges on the standard route, Everest presents dangers such as altitude sickness, weather, and wind, as well as significant hazards from avalanches and the Khumbu Icefall. {{Asof|2017}}, nearly 300 people have died on Everest, many of whose bodies remain on the mountain.NEWS,weblink BBC Future, Death in the clouds: The problem with Everest's 200+ bodies, Nuwer, Rachel, The first recorded efforts to reach Everest's summit were made by British mountaineers. As Nepal did not allow foreigners into the country at the time, the British made several attempts on the north ridge route from the Tibetan side. After the first reconnaissance expedition by the British in 1921 reached {{convert|7000|m|ft|-1|abbr=on}} on the North Col, the 1922 expedition pushed the north ridge route up to {{convert|8320|m|ft|-1|abbr=on}}, marking the first time a human had climbed above {{convert|8000|m|ft|0|abbr=on}}. Seven porters were killed in an avalanche on the descent from the North Col. The 1924 expedition resulted in one of the greatest mysteries on Everest to this day: George Mallory and Andrew Irvine made a final summit attempt on 8 June but never returned, sparking debate as to whether or not they were the first to reach the top. They had been spotted high on the mountain that day but disappeared in the clouds, never to be seen again, until Mallory's body was found in 1999 at {{convert|8155|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} on the north face. Tenzing Norgay and Edmund Hillary made the first official ascent of Everest in 1953, using the southeast ridge route. Norgay had reached {{convert|8595|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} the previous year as a member of the 1952 Swiss expedition. The Chinese mountaineering team of Wang Fuzhou, Gonpo, and Qu Yinhua made the first reported ascent of the peak from the north ridge on 25 May 1960.BOOK, Lewis, Jon E., The Mammoth Book of How it Happened – Everest,weblink 2012, Little, Brown Book Group, 978-1-78033-727-2, 212, Appendix 1, NEWS,weblink Gonpo: first Chinese atop Mount Qomolangma, 14 October 2009, CCTV,


    The Mahalangur Himal section of the Himalayas, which includes Everest, is also known as Kirat area of eastern Nepal.South Asian Studies, Volume 10 By South Asian Studies Centre, Department of Political Science, University of Rajasthan, 1975Imperial Gazetteer of India: Provincial Series, Volume 1 By Superintendent of Government Printing, 1908 Back in 800 BCE the ancient Kirati had their Kirata Kingdom in the Himalayan mountains.Searching for Yeti: The Abominable Snowman By Turin Truet, Laura Anne GilmanThe Rosen Publishing Group, 2011

    Early surveys

    {{Location map
    |caption=Location on Earth
    |alt=Mount Everest is located in Nepal.
    }}File:MountEverestRelief.png|thumb|300px|Mount Everest relief map ]]In 1802, the British began the Great Trigonometric Survey of India to fix the locations, heights, and names of the world's highest mountains. Starting in southern India, the survey teams moved northward using giant theodolites, each weighing {{convert|500|kg|lb|abbr=on}} and requiring 12 men to carry, to measure heights as accurately as possible. They reached the Himalayan foothills by the 1830s, but Nepal was unwilling to allow the British to enter the country due to suspicions of political aggression and possible annexation. Several requests by the surveyors to enter Nepal were turned down.BOOK, Everest – The Best Writing and Pictures from Seventy Years of Human Endeavour, Peter Gillman, 1993, Little, Brown and Company, 978-0-316-90489-6, 10–13, The British were forced to continue their observations from Terai, a region south of Nepal which is parallel to the Himalayas. Conditions in Terai were difficult because of torrential rains and malaria. Three survey officers died from malaria while two others had to retire because of failing health.Nonetheless, in 1847, the British continued the survey and began detailed observations of the Himalayan peaks from observation stations up to {{convert|240|km|mi|abbr=on}} distant. Weather restricted work to the last three months of the year. In November 1847, Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India made several observations from the Sawajpore station at the east end of the Himalayas. Kangchenjunga was then considered the highest peak in the world, and with interest, he noted a peak beyond it, about {{convert|230|km|mi|abbr=on}} away. John Armstrong, one of Waugh's subordinates, also saw the peak from a site farther west and called it peak "b". Waugh would later write that the observations indicated that peak "b" was higher than Kangchenjunga, but given the great distance of the observations, closer observations were required for verification. The following year, Waugh sent a survey official back to Terai to make closer observations of peak "b", but clouds thwarted his attempts.In 1849, Waugh dispatched James Nicolson to the area, who made two observations from Jirol, {{convert|190|km|mi|abbr=on}} away. Nicolson then took the largest theodolite and headed east, obtaining over 30 observations from five different locations, with the closest being {{convert|174|km|mi|abbr=on}} from the peak.Nicolson retreated to Patna on the Ganges to perform the necessary calculations based on his observations. His raw data gave an average height of {{convert|9200|m|ft|abbr=on}} for peak "b", but this did not consider light refraction, which distorts heights. However, the number clearly indicated that peak "b" was higher than Kangchenjunga. Nicolson contracted malaria and was forced to return home without finishing his calculations. Michael Hennessy, one of Waugh's assistants, had begun designating peaks based on Roman numerals, with Kangchenjunga named Peak IX. Peak "b" now became known as Peak XV.In 1852, stationed at the survey headquarters in Dehradun, Radhanath Sikdar, an Indian mathematician and surveyor from Bengal, was the first to identify Everest as the world's highest peak, using trigonometric calculations based on Nicolson's measurements.NEWS, The man who "discovered" Everest,weblink BBC News, 20 October 2003, 11 April 2008, Soutik, Biswas, An official announcement that Peak XV was the highest was delayed for several years as the calculations were repeatedly verified. Waugh began work on Nicolson's data in 1854, and along with his staff spent almost two years working on the numbers, having to deal with the problems of light refraction, barometric pressure, and temperature over the vast distances of the observations. Finally, in March 1856 he announced his findings in a letter to his deputy in Calcutta. Kangchenjunga was declared to be {{convert|28156|ft|m|abbr=on|order=flip}}, while Peak XV was given the height of {{convert|29002|ft|m|abbr=on|order=flip}}. Waugh concluded that Peak XV was "most probably the highest in the world". Peak XV (measured in feet) was calculated to be exactly {{convert|29000|ft|m|abbr=on|sigfig=5|}} high, but was publicly declared to be {{convert|29002|ft|m|abbr=on|sigfig=5|}} in order to avoid the impression that an exact height of {{convert|29000|ft|m|sigfig=5|}} was nothing more than a rounded estimate.JOURNAL, Letters to the Editor, The American Statistician, 36, 1, February 1982, 64–67, 2684102, 10.1080/00031305.1982.10482782, Stegman, Charles E, Bellhouse, David, Ehrenberg, A.S. C, Mantel, Nathan, Proschan, Frank, Gianola, Daniel, Searle, S.R, Speed, F.M, Milliken, G.A, Waugh is sometimes playfully credited with being "the first person to put two feet on top of Mount Everest".BOOK, The Pendulum Paradigm: Variations on a Theme and the Measure of Heaven and Earth, 267, Beech, Martin, 2014, Universal-Publishers, {{anchor|Etymology}}


    (File:"Papers relating to the Himalaya and Mount Everest" in Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Vol. I (1857), p. 346.jpg|thumb|The name "Mount Everest" was first proposed in this 1856 speech, later published in 1857, in which the mountain was first confirmed as the world's highest)While the survey wanted to preserve local names if possible (e.g., Kangchenjunga and Dhaulagiri), Waugh argued that he could not find any commonly used local name. Waugh's search for a local name was hampered by Nepal and Tibet's exclusion of foreigners. Many local names existed, including "Deodungha" ("Holy Mountain") in DarjeelingWEB,weblink Mt. Everest 1857,, 23 January 2008, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 26 December 2007, and the Tibetan "Chomolungma", which appeared on a 1733 map published in Paris by the French geographer D'Anville. In the late 19th century, many European cartographers incorrectly believed that a native name for the mountain was Gaurishankar, a mountain between Kathmandu and Everest.JOURNAL, LA, Waddell, The Environs and Native Names of Mount Everest, The Geographical Journal, 12, 6, December 1898, 564–569, 1774275, 10.2307/1774275, Waugh argued that because there were many local names, it would be difficult to favour one name over all others, so he decided that Peak XV should be named after British surveyor Sir George Everest, his predecessor as Surveyor General of India.NEWS, The Times, India and China, 4 October 1856, 8, 22490, JOURNAL, Papers relating to the Himalaya and Mount Everest, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of London, April–May 1857, IX, 345–351, Everest himself opposed the name suggested by Waugh and told the Royal Geographical Society in 1857 that "Everest" could not be written in Hindi nor pronounced by "the native of India". Waugh's proposed name prevailed despite the objections, and in 1865, the Royal Geographical Society officially adopted Mount Everest as the name for the highest mountain in the world. The modern pronunciation of Everest ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|É›|v|É™r|áµ»|s|t}})WEB, Mount Everest, Unabridged (v 1.1), Random House, Inc., 22 July 2009,weblink is different from Sir George's pronunciation of his surname ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|iː|v|r|áµ»|s|t}} {{respell|EEV|rist}}).VIDEO, Claypole, Jonty (Director); Kunzru, Hari (Presenter),weblink Mapping Everest, TV Documentary, BBC Television, London, 2003, The Tibetan name for Mount Everest is ({{IPA-all|t͡ɕʰòmòlɑ́ŋmÉ‘Ì€}},{{citation needed|date=August 2014}} lit. "Holy Mother"), whose official Tibetan pinyin form is Qomolangma. It is also popularly romanised as Chomolungma and (in Wylie) as Jo-mo-glang-ma or Jomo Langma.{{refn|Other variants include "Chomo-lungma", "Djomo-lungma", "Jolmo Lungma", and "Chomolongma".WEB,weblink Chomo-lungma: Nepal, Geographical Names, 18 April 2014, WEB,weblink Djomo-lungma: Nepal, Geographical Names, 18 April 2014, WEB,weblink Chomolongma: Nepal, Geographical Names, 18 April 2014, WEB,weblink Mount Jolmo Lungma: Nepal, Geographical Names, 18 April 2014, }} The official Chinese transcription is {{nowrap|}}}} {{nowrap|(t }}),}} whose pinyin form is ZhÅ«mùlÇŽngmÇŽ FÄ“ng. It is also infrequently simply translated into Chinese as ShèngmÇ” FÄ“ng {{nowrap|(t }},}} {{nowrap|s }},}} lit. "Holy Mother Peak"). In 2002, the Chinese People's Daily newspaper published an article making a case against the use of "Mount Everest" in English, insisting that the mountain should be referred to as Mount "Qomolangma",WEB,weblink Qomolangma Feng: Nepal, Geographical Names, 18 April 2014, based on the official form of the local Tibetan name. The article argued that British colonialists did not "first discover" the mountain, as it had been known to the Tibetans and mapped by the Chinese as "Qomolangma" since at least 1719.In the early 1960s, the Nepalese government coined a Nepali name for Mount Everest, Sagarmāthā or Sagar-MathaWEB,weblink Sagar-Matha: Nepal, Geographical Names, 18 April 2014, (सागर-मथ्था, lit. "goddess of the sky").BOOK, Everest – The Mountaineering History, Unsworth, Walt, 2000, Bâton Wicks, 978-1-898573-40-1, 584, 3rd, harv,


    (File:CH-NP 79-80 Bdy Map50.jpg|thumb|300px|Published by the Survey of Nepal, this is Map 50 of the 57 map set at 1:50,000 scale "attached to the main text on the First Joint Inspection Survey, 1979–80, Nepal-China border." At the top centre, a boundary line, identified as separating "China" and "Nepal", passes through the summit contour. The boundary here and for much of the China-Nepal border follows the main Himalayan watershed divide.)(File:ISS004E8852 everest.jpg|thumb|right|Kangshung Face (the east face) as seen from orbit)The {{convert|8848|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} height given is officially recognised by Nepal and China,NEWS,weblink Nepal and China agree on Mount Everest's height, BBC News, 8 April 2010, 22 August 2010, although Nepal plans a new survey.NEWS,weblink Everest, World's Tallest Mountain, Maybe Not That Tall, Fox News, 20 July 2011, 15 August 2013, In 1856, Andrew Waugh announced Everest (then known as Peak XV) as {{convert|29002|ft|m|abbr=on|order=flip}} high, after several years of calculations based on observations made by the Great Trigonometric Survey.The elevation of {{convert|8848|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} was first determined by an Indian survey in 1955, made closer to the mountain, also using theodolites.{{Citation needed|date=May 2010}} It was subsequently reaffirmed by a 1975 Chinese measurement of {{convert|8848.13|m|ft|2|abbr=on}}. In both cases the snow cap, not the rock head, was measured. In May 1999 an American Everest Expedition, directed by Bradford Washburn, anchored a GPS unit into the highest bedrock. A rock head elevation of {{convert|8850|m|ft|0|abbr=on}}, and a snow/ice elevation {{convert|1|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} higher, were obtained via this device.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 3 January 2007, Elevation of Mount Everest newly defined, Swiss Foundation for Alpine Research, 12 November 1999, 1 April 2007, Although it has not been officially recognised by Nepal,WEB,weblink Country Profile, Government of Nepal, 2001, 1 April 2007,weblink" title="">weblink 14 March 2007, this figure is widely quoted. Geoid uncertainty casts doubt upon the accuracy claimed by both the 1999 and 2005 surveys.A detailed photogrammetric map (at a scale of 1:50,000) of the Khumbu region, including the south side of Mount Everest, was made by Erwin Schneider as part of the 1955 International Himalayan Expedition, which also attempted Lhotse. An even more detailed topographic map of the Everest area was made in the late-1980s under the direction of Bradford Washburn, using extensive aerial photography.On 9 October 2005, after several months of measurement and calculation, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping officially announced the height of Everest as {{convert|8844.43|m|ft|2|abbr=on}} with accuracy of ±{{convert|0.21|m|in|1|abbr=on}}. They claimed it was the most accurate and precise measurement to date.WEB,weblink China says Mount Qomolangma stands at 8844.43, Xinhua News Agency, Xinhua online, 9 October 2005, 17 June 2016, This height is based on the highest point of rock and not the snow and ice covering it. The Chinese team also measured a snow-ice depth of {{convert|3.5|m|ft|0|abbr=on}},WEB,weblink Everest not as tall as thought, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, News in Science, 5 October 2005, 1 April 2007, which is in agreement with a net elevation of {{convert|8848|m|ft|0|abbr=on}}. The snow and ice thickness varies over time, making a definitive height of the snow cap impossible to determine.It is thought that the plate tectonics of the area are adding to the height and moving the summit northeastwards. Two accounts suggest the rates of change are {{convert|4|mm|in|abbr=on}} per year (upwards) and {{convert|3|to|6|mm|in|2|abbr=on}} per year (northeastwards),WEB,weblink Roof of the World, National Geographic Society, 1999, 1 April 2007, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 12 July 2007, but another account mentions more lateral movement ({{convert|27|mm|in|abbr=on|disp=or}}),WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 8 November 2006, Everest: Plate Tectonics, Museum of Science, 1998, and even shrinkage has been suggested.NEWS,weblink China fears Everest is shrinking, BBC News, 25 January 2005, 1 April 2007, Louisa, Lim,


    The summit of Everest is the point at which earth's surface reaches the greatest distance above sea level. Several other mountains are sometimes claimed to be the "tallest mountains on earth". Mauna Kea in Hawaii is tallest when measured from its base;The "base" of a mountain is a problematic notion in general with no universally accepted definition. However, for a peak rising out of relatively flat terrain, such as Mauna Kea or Denali, an "approximate" height above "base" can be calculated. Everest is more complicated since it only rises above relatively flat terrain on its north (Tibetan Plateau) side. Hence the concept of "base" has even less meaning for Everest than for Mauna Kea or Denali, and the range of numbers for "height above base" is wider. In general, comparisons based on "height above base" are somewhat suspect. it rises over {{convert|10200|m|ft|1|abbr=on}} when measured from its base on the mid-ocean floor, but only attains {{convert|4205|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} above sea level.By the same measure of base to summit, Denali, in Alaska, also known as Mount McKinley, is taller than Everest as well. Despite its height above sea level of only {{convert|6190|m|ft|0|abbr=on}}, Denali sits atop a sloping plain with elevations from {{convert|300|to|900|m|ft|abbr=on}}, yielding a height above base in the range of {{convert|5300|to|5900|m|ft|abbr=on}}; a commonly quoted figure is {{convert|5600|m|ft|-2|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink Surviving Denali, The Mission, Public Broadcasting Corporation, NOVA, 2000, 7 June 2007, NEWS,weblink Mount McKinley 83 feet shorter than thought, new data show, United Press International, By comparison, reasonable base elevations for Everest range from {{convert|4200|m|ft|-2|abbr=on}} on the south side to {{convert|5200|m|ft|-2|abbr=on}} on the Tibetan Plateau, yielding a height above base in the range of {{convert|3650|to|4650|m|ft|abbr=on}}.Mount Everest (1:50,000 scale map), prepared under the direction of Bradford Washburn for the Boston Museum of Science, the Swiss Foundation for Alpine Research, and the National Geographic Society, 1991, {{ISBN|3-85515-105-9}}The summit of Chimborazo in Ecuador is {{convert|2168|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} farther from earth's centre ({{convert|6384.4|km|mi|1|abbr=on}}) than that of Everest ({{convert|6382.3|km|mi|1|abbr=on}}), because the earth bulges at the equator.NEWS,weblink The 'Highest' Spot on Earth?, 7 April 2007, NPR, Robert Krulwich, This is despite Chimborazo having a peak {{convert|6268|m|ft|1|abbr=on}} above sea level versus Mount Everest's {{convert|8848|m|ft|1|abbr=on}}.


    (File:EverestfromKalarPatarcrop.JPG|thumb|500px|Mount Everest with snow melted, showing upper geologic layers in bands.)Geologists have subdivided the rocks comprising Mount Everest into three units called formations.Yin, C.-H., and S.-T. Kuo. 1978. "Stratigraphy of the Mount Jolmo Langma and its north slope." Scientia Sinica. v. 5, pp. 630–644Sakai, H., M. Sawada, Y. Takigami, Y. Orihashi, T. Danhara, H. Iwano, Y. Kuwahara, Q. Dong, H. Cai, and J. Li. 2005. "Geology of the summit limestone of Mount Qomolangma (Everest) and cooling history of the Yellow Band under the Qomolangma detachment." Island Arc. v. 14 no. 4 pp. 297–310. Each formation is separated from the other by low-angle faults, called detachments, along which they have been thrust southward over each other. From the summit of Mount Everest to its base these rock units are the Qomolangma Formation, the North Col Formation, and the Rongbuk Formation.The Qomolangma Formation, also known as the Jolmo Lungama Formation, runs from the summit to the top of the Yellow Band, about {{convert|8600|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level. It consists of greyish to dark grey or white, parallel laminated and bedded, Ordovician limestone interlayered with subordinate beds of recrystallised dolomite with argillaceous laminae and siltstone. Gansser first reported finding microscopic fragments of crinoids in this limestone.Gansser, A. 1964. Geology of the Himalayas, John Wiley Interscience, London, 1964 289 pp.WEB, Rosenberg, Matt,weblink A site which uses this dramatic fact first used in illustration of "deep time" in John McPhee's book Basin and Range,, 17 June 2016, Later petrographic analysis of samples of the limestone from near the summit revealed them to be composed of carbonate pellets and finely fragmented remains of trilobites, crinoids, and ostracods. Other samples were so badly sheared and recrystallized that their original constituents could not be determined. A thick, white-weathering thrombolite bed that is {{convert|60|m|ft|abbr=on}} thick comprises the foot of the "Third Step", and base of the summit pyramid of Everest. This bed, which crops out starting about {{convert|70|m|ft|abbr=on}} below the summit of Mount Everest, consists of sediments trapped, bound, and cemented by the biofilms of micro-organisms, especially cyanobacteria, in shallow marine waters. The Qomolangma Formation is broken up by several high-angle faults that terminate at the low angle normal fault, the Qomolangma Detachment. This detachment separates it from the underlying Yellow Band. The lower five metres of the Qomolangma Formation overlying this detachment are very highly deformed.Myrow, P.M., N.C. Hughes, M.P. Searle, C.M. Fanning, S.-C. Peng, and S.K. Parcha, 2009, "Stratigraphic correlation of Cambrian Ordovician deposits along the Himalaya: Implications for the age and nature of rocks in the Mount Everest region". Geological Society of America Bulletin. v. 121, no. 3–4, pp. 323–332.The bulk of Mount Everest, between {{convert|7,000|and|8,600|m|ft|abbr=on}}, consists of the North Col Formation, of which the Yellow Band forms its upper part between {{convert|8200|to|8,600|m|ft|abbr=on}}. The Yellow Band consists of intercalated beds of Middle Cambrian diopside-epidote-bearing marble, which weathers a distinctive yellowish brown, and muscovite-biotite phyllite and semischist. Petrographic analysis of marble collected from about {{convert|8300|m|ft|abbr=on}} found it to consist as much as five percent of the ghosts of recrystallised crinoid ossicles. The upper five metres of the Yellow Band lying adjacent to the Qomolangma Detachment is badly deformed. A {{convert|5|–|40|cm|in|abbr=on}} thick fault breccia separates it from the overlying Qomolangma Formation.The remainder of the North Col Formation, exposed between {{convert|7000|to|8,200|m|ft|abbr=on}} on Mount Everest, consists of interlayered and deformed schist, phyllite, and minor marble. Between {{convert|7600|and|8,200|m|ft|abbr=on}}, the North Col Formation consists chiefly of biotite-quartz phyllite and chlorite-biotite phyllite intercalated with minor amounts of biotite-sericite-quartz schist. Between {{convert|7000|and|7,600|m|ft|abbr=on}}, the lower part of the North Col Formation consists of biotite-quartz schist intercalated with epidote-quartz schist, biotite-calcite-quartz schist, and thin layers of quartzose marble. These metamorphic rocks appear to be the result of the metamorphism of Middle to Early Cambrian deep sea flysch composed of interbedded, mudstone, shale, clayey sandstone, calcareous sandstone, graywacke, and sandy limestone. The base of the North Col Formation is a regional low-angle normal fault called the "Lhotse detachment".Below 7,000 m (23,000 ft), the Rongbuk Formation underlies the North Col Formation and forms the base of Mount Everest. It consists of sillimanite-K-feldspar grade schist and gneiss intruded by numerous sills and dikes of leucogranite ranging in thickness from 1 cm to 1,500 m (0.4 in to 4,900 ft).Searle, M.P. (1999) Emplacement of Himalayan leucogranites by magma injection along giant sill complexes: examples from the Cho Oyu, Gyachung Kang and Everest leucogranites (Nepal Himalaya). Journal of Asian Earth Sciences. v. 17, no. 5–6, pp. 773–783. These leucogranites are part of a belt of Late Oligocene–Miocene intrusive rocks known as the Higher Himalayan leucogranite. They formed as the result of partial melting of Paleoproterozoic to Ordovician high-grade metasedimentary rocks of the Higher Himalayan Sequence about 20 to 24 million years ago during the subduction of the Indian Plate.Guo, Z., and M. Wilson (2012) The Himalayan leucogranites: Constraints on the nature of their crustal source region and geodynamic setting. Gondwana Research. v. 22, no. 2, pp. 360–376.Mount Everest consists of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks that have been faulted southward over continental crust composed of Archean granulites of the Indian Plate during the Cenozoic collision of India with Asia.
    , Tectonic Motion: Making the Himalayas
    website=Nature on PBS, 6 February 2016,
    , The Himalayas: Two continents collide, USGS, 5 May 1999, 6 February 2016, WEB,weblink Press Release: An Earth Plate Is Breaking in Two, Current interpretations argue that the Qomolangma and North Col formations consist of marine sediments that accumulated within the continental shelf of the northern passive continental margin of India before it collided with Asia. The Cenozoic collision of India with Asia subsequently deformed and metamorphosed these strata as it thrust them southward and upward.Myrow, P.M., N.C. Hughes, T.S. Paulsen, I.S. Williams, S.K. Parcha, K.R. Thompson, S.A. Bowring, S.-C. Peng, and A.D. Ahluwalia. 2003. Integrated tectonostratigraphic reconstruction of the Himalaya and implications for its tectonic reconstruction. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. vol. 212, pp. 433–441.Myrow, P.M., N.C. Hughes, J.W. Goodge, C.M. Fanning, I.S. Williams, S.-C. Peng, O.N. Bhargava, S.K. Tangri, S.K. Parcha, and K.R. Pogue. 2010. Extraordinary transport and mixing of sediment across Himalayan central Gondwanaland during the Cambrian-Ordovician. Geological Society of America Bulletin. vol. 122, pp. 1660–1670. The Rongbuk Formation consists of a sequence of high-grade metamorphic and granitic rocks that were derived from the alteration of high-grade metasedimentary rocks. During the collision of India with Asia, these rocks were thrust downward and to the north as they were overridden by other strata; heated, metamorphosed, and partially melted at depths of over {{convert|15 to 20|km|mi}} below sea level; and then forced upward to surface by thrusting towards the south between two major detachments.Searle, M. 2012. Colliding Continents: A geological exploration of the Himalaya, Karakoram, & Tibet. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 464 pp. {{ISBN|978-0-19-965300-3}} The Himalayas are rising by about 5 mm per year.

    Flora and fauna

    (File:Yak at third lake in Gokyo.jpg|thumb|left|A yak at around 4790 m (15,715 ft))There is very little native flora or fauna on Everest. A moss grows at {{convert|6480|m}} on Mount Everest.WEB,weblink High altitude plants, Adventure Scientists, 15 May 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 25 April 2012, yes, It may be the highest altitude plant species. An alpine cushion plant called Arenaria is known to grow below {{convert|18000|ft|m|order=flip}} in the region.BOOK, Ann Heinrichs, Mount Everest,weblink 2009, Marshall Cavendish, 978-0-7614-4649-1, 25, Euophrys omnisuperstes, a minute black jumping spider, has been found at elevations as high as {{convert|6700|m|ft|-2}}, possibly making it the highest confirmed non-microscopic permanent resident on Earth. It lurks in crevices and may feed on frozen insects that have been blown there by the wind. There is a high likelihood of microscopic life at even higher altitudes.JOURNAL, Wanless, F.R., Spiders of the family Salticidae from the upper slopes of Everest and Makalu, 1975, British Arachnological Society, Birds, such as the bar-headed goose, have been seen flying at the higher altitudes of the mountain, while others, such as the chough, have been spotted as high as the South Col at {{convert|7920|m}}.The Ascent of Everest by John Hunt (Hodder & Stoughton, 1953) In chapter 14, Hunt describes seeing a chough on the South Col; meanwhile Charles Evans saw some unidentified birds fly over the col Yellow-billed choughs have been seen as high as {{convert|26000|ft|m|order=flip}} and bar-headed geese migrate over the Himalayas.WEB,weblink 7 Things You Should Know About Mount Everest, Jesse Greenspan,, 20 September 2015, In 1953, George Lowe (part of the expedition of Tenzing and Hillary) said that he saw bar-headed geese flying over Everest's summit.NEWS,weblink Bar-headed geese: Highest bird migration tracked, BBC News, 20 September 2015, Yaks are often used to haul gear for Mount Everest climbs. They can haul 100 kg (220 pounds), have thick fur and large lungs. One common piece of advice for those in the Everest region is to be on the higher ground when around yaks and other animals, as they can knock people off the mountain if standing on the downhill edge of a trail.NEWS,weblink Trekking etiquette: Seek higher ground than the yaks or risk a push off the cliff, Shaun Francis, 12 October 2012, National Post, 20 September 2015, Other animals in the region include the Himalayan tahr which is sometimes eaten by the snow leopard.WEB,weblink Ale, Som B. "Ecology of the Snow Leopard and the Himalayan Tahr in Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) National Park, Nepal." University of Illinois, 2007, The Himalayan black bear can be found up to about {{convert|14000|ft|m|order=flip}} and the red panda is also present in the region.WEB,weblink List of Animals on Mount Everest, Pets on, 20 September 2015, One expedition found a surprising range of species in the region including a pika and ten new species of ants.WEB,weblink Everest Expedition Uncovers Exotic Species,, 20 September 2015,

    Environment{| class"wikitable floatright" style"width: 400px; font-size: 0.85em;"

    0.03sp=us|disp=tablecen}} –
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    In 2008, a new weather station at about 8,000 m altitude (26,246 feet) went online.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 5 January 2009, Everest weather station goes online, UIAA, 16 June 2008, 15 May 2012, The station's first data in May 2008 were air temperature {{convert|-17|C}}, relative humidity 41.3 percent, atmospheric pressure 382.1 hPa (38.21 kPa), wind direction 262.8°, wind speed 12.8 m/s (28.6 mph, 46.1 km/h), global solar radiation 711.9 watts/m2, solar UVA radiation 30.4 W/m2. The project was orchestrated by Stations at High Altitude for Research on the Environment (SHARE), which also placed the Mount Everest webcam in 2011.NEWS, Mount Everest webcam gives new meaning to high-def, Claire, Connelly,weblink Herald Sun, 30 September 2011, 30 September 2011, The solar-powered weather station is on the South Col.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 19 November 2011, Agostino, da Polenza, Elisa, Vuillermoz, Gian Pietro, Verza, Alberto, Cortinovis, Ev-K2-CNR Committee, Italy, SHARE Everest Automatic Weather Station: South Col, Mt. Everest, Nepal, One of the issues facing climbers is the frequent presence of high-speed winds.NEWS,weblink The Week, The deadly odds of climbing Mount Everest: By the numbers, The peak of Mount Everest extends into the upper troposphere and penetrates the stratosphere,WEB,weblink The Open Graveyard of Mt. Everest's "Death Zone", godhead/v, Gawker Media, Gizmodo, 20 September 2015, which can expose it to the fast and freezing winds of the jet stream.JOURNAL, 10.1038/news040524-2, High winds suck oxygen from Everest, Mark, Peplow, 25 May 2004, Nature, In February 2004 a wind speed of {{convert|175|mph|km/h|abbr=on|-1|order=flip}} was recorded at the summit and winds over {{convert|100|mph|km/h|abbr=on|order=flip}} are common. These winds can blow climbers off Everest. Climbers typically aim for a 7- to 10-day window in the spring and fall when the Asian monsoon season is either starting up or ending and the winds are lighter. The air pressure at the summit is about one-third what it is at sea level, and by Bernoulli's principle, the winds can lower the pressure further, causing an additional 14 percent reduction in oxygen to climbers. The reduction in oxygen availability comes from the reduced overall pressure, not a reduction in the ratio of oxygen to other gases.WEB,weblinkweblink 13 July 2015, The Physiological Effects of Altitude, TheTech, 20 September 2015, In the summer, the Indian monsoon brings warm wet air from the Indian Ocean to Everest's south side. During the winter the west-southwest flowing jet stream shifts south and blows on the peak.{{citation needed|date=July 2018}}

    History of expeditions

    (File:Climbing through the Yellow Band, Mt. Everest, -May 2007 a.jpg|thumb|right|Climbers below the Geneva Spur)(File:1963 reunion of the 1953 Everest-climbing expedition.jpg|thumb|Reunion of the 1953 British team)Because Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world, it has attracted considerable attention and climbing attempts. A set of climbing routes has been established over several decades of climbing expeditions to the mountain. Whether the mountain was climbed in ancient times is unknown. It may have been climbed in 1924.


    Everest's first known summitting occurred by 1953, and interest by climbers increased.NEWS,weblink Mt. Everest's Popularity Is Still Climbing, Los Angeles Times, 20 September 2015, Despite the effort and attention poured into expeditions, only about 200 people had summitted by 1987. Everest remained a difficult climb for decades, even for serious attempts by professional climbers and large national expeditions, which were the norm until the commercial era began in the 1990s.WEB,weblink James, Victoria, Japan's Everest timeline, 27 May 2012, The Japan Times, 20 February 2016, By March 2012, Everest had been climbed 5,656 times with 223 deaths.WEB,weblink The World's Tallest Mountain, 2 January 2014, Earth Observatory, NASA, Although lower mountains have longer or steeper climbs, Everest is so high the jet stream can hit it. Climbers can be faced with winds beyond {{convert|200|mph|km/h|abbr=on|order=flip}} when the weather shifts.WEB,weblink Everest Facts for Kids, At certain times of the year the jet stream shifts north, providing periods of relative calm at the mountain.WEB,weblink Window of Opportunity: Everest Climbing Season Underway, Accuweather, Other dangers include blizzards and avalanches.By 2013, The Himalayan Database recorded 6,871 summits by 4,042 different people.WEB,weblink Everest by the Numbers: The Latest Summit Stats,, Blog, 20 September 2015,

    Early attempts

    In 1885, Clinton Thomas Dent, president of the Alpine Club, suggested that climbing Mount Everest was possible in his book Above the Snow Line.BOOK,weblink From First Sight to Summit: A Guide to the Literature on Everest up to the 1953 Ascent, 5 October 2015, 31 January 2017, William Buxton, The northern approach to the mountain was discovered by George Mallory and Guy Bullock on the initial 1921 British Reconnaissance Expedition. It was an exploratory expedition not equipped for a serious attempt to climb the mountain. With Mallory leading (and thus becoming the first European to set foot on Everest's flanks) they climbed the North Col to an altitude of {{convert|7005|m|ft|0}}. From there, Mallory espied a route to the top, but the party was unprepared for the great task of climbing any further and descended.The British returned for a 1922 expedition. George Finch climbed using oxygen for the first time. He ascended at a remarkable speed—{{convert|290|m|ft|0}} per hour, and reached an altitude of {{convert|8320|m|ft|-1|abbr=on}}, the first time a human reported to climb higher than 8,000 m. Mallory and Col. Felix Norton made a second unsuccessful attempt. Mallory was faulted{{citation needed|date=November 2016}} for leading a group down from the North Col which got caught in an avalanche. Mallory was pulled down too but survived. Seven native porters were killed.The next expedition was in 1924. The initial attempt by Mallory and Geoffrey Bruce was aborted when weather conditions prevented the establishment of Camp VI. The next attempt was that of Norton and Somervell, who climbed without oxygen and in perfect weather, traversing the North Face into the Great Couloir. Norton managed to reach {{convert|8550|m|ft|abbr=on}}, though he ascended only {{convert|30|m|ft|abbr=on}} or so in the last hour. Mallory rustled up oxygen equipment for a last-ditch effort. He chose young Andrew Irvine as his partner.(File:Condor Films 1952.jpg|thumb|left|upright|1952 documentary)On 8 June 1924, George Mallory and Andrew Irvine made an attempt on the summit via the North Col-North Ridge-Northeast Ridge route from which they never returned. On 1 May 1999, the Mallory and Irvine Research Expedition found Mallory's body on the North Face in a snow basin below and to the west of the traditional site of Camp VI. Controversy has raged in the mountaineering community whether one or both of them reached the summit 29 years before the confirmed ascent and safe descent of Everest by Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay in 1953.In 1933, Lady Houston, a British millionairess, funded the Houston Everest Flight of 1933, which saw a formation of aircraft led by the Marquess of Clydesdale fly over the summit in an effort to deploy the British Union Flag at the top.WEB,weblink Aeroplane expeditions to Everest,, NEWS,weblink Wings Over Everest 2003,, 2002, JOURNAL, Flying Over World's Highest Peak,weblink 5, Popular Science, 122, May 1933, 20, Bonnier Corporation, Early expeditions—such as General Charles Bruce's in the 1920s and Hugh Ruttledge's two unsuccessful attempts in 1933 and 1936—tried to ascend the mountain from Tibet, via the North Face. Access was closed from the north to Western expeditions in 1950 after China took control of Tibet. In 1950, Bill Tilman and a small party which included Charles Houston, Oscar Houston, and Betsy Cowles undertook an exploratory expedition to Everest through Nepal along the route which has now become the standard approach to Everest from the south.WEB,weblink Everest History Time Line, Everest History, 2003, 17 June 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 26 May 2010, The Swiss Expedition of 1952, led by Edouard Wyss-Dunant, was granted permission to attempt a climb from Nepal. The expedition established a route through the Khumbu icefall and ascended to the South Col at an elevation of {{convert|7986|m|ft|abbr=on}}. Raymond Lambert and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay were able to reach an elevation of about {{convert|8595|m|ft|abbr=on}} on the southeast ridge, setting a new climbing altitude record. Tenzing's experience was useful when he was hired to be part of the British expedition in 1953.WEB,weblink Tenzing Norgay GM, Imagining Everest, The Royal Geographical Society, 21 June 2007, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 14 April 2007, One reference says that no attempt at an ascent of Everest was ever under consideration in this case,WEB, Excerpt from: Swiss Foundation for Alpine Research, 1939 to 1970, Zurich, 1972,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 8 March 2011, although John Hunt (who met the team in Zurich on their return) wrote that when the Swiss Expedition "just failed" in the spring they decided to make another post-monsoon (summit ascent) attempt in the autumn; although as it was only decided in June the second party arrived too late, when winter winds were buffeting the mountain.BOOK, Hunt, John, The Ascent of Everest, 1953, Hodder & Stoughton, London, 51, 52,

    First successful ascent by Tenzing and Hillary

    File:Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay.jpg|thumb|Edmund Hillary and Tenzing NorgayTenzing NorgayIn 1953, a ninth British expedition, led by John Hunt, returned to Nepal. Hunt selected two climbing pairs to attempt to reach the summit. The first pair, Tom Bourdillon and Charles Evans, came within {{convert|100|m|ft|abbr=on}} of the summit on 26 May 1953, but turned back after running into oxygen problems. As planned, their work in route finding and breaking trail and their oxygen caches were of great aid to the following pair. Two days later, the expedition made its second assault on the summit with the second climbing pair: the New Zealander Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay, a Nepali Sherpa climber. They reached the summit at 11:30 local time on 29 May 1953 via the South Col route. At the time, both acknowledged it as a team effort by the whole expedition, but Tenzing revealed a few years later that Hillary had put his foot on the summit first. They paused at the summit to take photographs and buried a few sweets and a small cross in the snow before descending.News of the expedition's success reached London on the morning of Queen Elizabeth II's coronation, 2 June. A few days later, the Queen gave orders that Hunt (a Briton) and Hillary (a New Zealander) were to be knighted in the Order of the British Empire for the ascent.WEB,weblink The London Gazette, 6 June 1953, 27 December 2015, Tenzing, a Nepali Sherpa who was a citizen of India, was granted the George Medal by the UK. Hunt was ultimately made a life peer in Britain, while Hillary became a founding member of the Order of New Zealand.WEB,weblink The Order of New Zealand(Instituted 1987), Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, 27 December 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 6 January 2016, dmy-all, Hillary and Tenzing are also recognised in Nepal, where annual ceremonies in schools and offices celebrate their accomplishment.{{citation needed|date=December 2015}}WEB,weblink Tribute to Sir Ed Hillary From Nepal, 20 September 2010, The next successful ascent was on 23 May 1956 by Ernst Schmied and Juerg Marmet. This was followed by Dölf Reist and Hans-Rudolf von Gunten on 24 May 1957.WEB,weblink Ernst Schmied,, 10 April 2010, Wang Fuzhou, Gonpo and Qu Yinhua of China made the first reported ascent of the peak from the North Ridge on 25 May 1960. The first American to climb Everest, Jim Whittaker, joined by Nawang Gombu, reached the summit on 1 May 1963.WEB,weblink Jim Whittaker,, 13 February 2010, JOURNAL,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 3 December 2008, Maurice, Isserman, Highest Adventure, American Heritage, February–March 2007,

    1970 disaster

    {{see also|1970 Mount Everest disaster}}In 1970 Japanese mountaineers conducted a major expedition. The centerpiece was a large "siege"-style expedition led by Saburo Matsukata, working on finding a new route up the southwest face.{{sfnp|Unsworth|2000|p=594}} Another element of the expedition was an attempt to ski Mount Everest. Despite a staff of over one hundred people and a decade of planning work, the expedition suffered eight deaths and failed to summit via the planned routes. However, Japanese expeditions did enjoy some successes. For example, Yuichiro Miura became the first man to ski down Everest from the South Col (he descended nearly 4,200 vertical feet from the South Col before falling with extreme injuries). Another success was an expedition that put four on the summit via the South Col route.WEB,weblink The Japanese Mount Everest Expedition, 1969–1970, WEB,weblink Everest Summits in the 1970s,, 25 May 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 14 October 2009, Miura's exploits became the subject of film, and he went on to become the oldest person to summit Mount Everest in 2003 at age 70 and again in 2013 at the age of 80.WEB,weblink Yuichiro Miura, 80, scales Everest, Associated Press, 23 May 2013, ESPN, In 1975, Junko Tabei, a Japanese woman, became the first woman to summit Mount Everest.{{clear}}

    1979/1980: Winter Himalaism

    (File:Mount Everest winter 1980 cert.jpg|thumb|Confirmation of the summit obtained by the Nepalese Ministry of Tourism)The Polish climber Andrzej Zawada headed the first winter ascent of Mount Everest, the first winter ascent of an eight-thousander. The team of 20 Polish climbers and 4 Sherpas established a base camp on Khumbu Glacier in early January 1980. On 15 January, the team managed to set up Camp III at 7150 meters above sea level, but further action was stopped by hurricane-force winds. The weather improved after 11 February, when Leszek Cichy, Walenty Fiut and Krzysztof Wielicki set up camp IV on South Col (7906 m). Cichy and Wielicki started the final ascent at 6:50 am on 17 February. At 2:40 pm Andrzej Zawada at base camp heard the climbers' voices over the radio – "We are on the summit! The strong wind blows all the time. It is unimaginably cold.",weblink The Ice Warriors: Poland's Golden Alpine Generation, 30 March 2016, WEB,weblink The first winter ascent of Mount Everest -, Damian, Granowski, WEB,weblink Krzysztof Wielicki – Polish Winter Expedition 1980 – part 1, 13 November 2007, The successful winter ascent of Mount Everest started a new decade of Winter Himalaism, which became a Polish specialisation. After 1980 Poles did ten first winter ascents on 8000 metre peaks, which earned Polish climbers a reputation of "Ice Warriors".WEB,weblink,, WEB,weblink Golden Decade: The Birth of 8000m Winter Climbing,, WEB,weblink Poland's 'ice warriors' risk life and limb to be first to summit K2 in winter,

    The Lho La tragedy

    In May 1989 Polish climbers, under the leadership of Eugeniusz Chrobak organized an international expedition to Mount Everest on a difficult western ridge. Ten Poles and nine foreigners participated, but ultimately only Poles remain in the fight for the summit. On 24 May Chrobak and Andrzej Marciniak, starting from camp V at 8,200 m, overcame the ridge and reached the summit. But on 27 May in the avalanche from the wall Khumbutse on the Lho La Pass, four Polish climbers were killed: Mirosław Dąsal, Mirosław Gardzielewski, Zygmunt Andrzej Heinrich and Wacław Otręba. The following day, due to his injuries, Chrobak also died. Marciniak, who was also injured, was saved by a rescue expedition in which Artur Hajzer and New Zealands Gary Ball and Rob Hall took part. In the organization of the rescue expedition they took part, inter alia Reinhold Messner, Elizabeth Hawley, Carlos Carsolio and the US consul.Zginęli bo byli najlepsi

    1996 disaster

    On 11 May 1996 eight climbers died after several expeditions were caught in a blizzard high up on the mountain. During the 1996 season, 15 people died while climbing on Mount Everest. These were the highest death tolls for a single event, and for a single season, until the sixteen deaths in the 2014 Mount Everest avalanche. The disaster gained wide publicity and raised questions about the commercialisation of climbing Mount Everest.Journalist Jon Krakauer, on assignment from Outside magazine, was in one of the affected parties, and afterward published the bestseller Into Thin Air, which related his experience. Anatoli Boukreev, a guide who felt impugned by Krakauer's book, co-authored a rebuttal book called The Climb. The dispute sparked a debate within the climbing community.In May 2004, Kent Moore, a physicist, and John L. Semple, a surgeon, both researchers from the University of Toronto, told New Scientist magazine that an analysis of weather conditions on 11 May suggested that freak weather caused oxygen levels to plunge approximately 14 percent.JOURNAL, The day the sky fell on Everest, New Scientist, 2449, 15, 29 May 2004,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 3 July 2007, 11 December 2006, WEB,weblink High winds suck oxygen from Everest. Predicting pressure lows could protect climbers, 11 December 2006, Peplow, Mark, 25 May 2004, BioEd Online, Moore explains that these jet streaks can drag a huge draught of air up the side of the mountain, lowering the air pressure. He calculates that this typically reduces the partial pressure of oxygen in the air by about 6%, which translates to a 14% reduction in oxygen uptake for the climbers. Air at that altitude already contains only one third as much oxygen as sea-level air., One of the survivors was Beck Weathers, an American client of New Zealand-based guide service Adventure Consultants. Weathers was left for dead about 275 metres (900 feet) from Camp 4 at 7,950 metres (26,085 feet). After spending a night on the mountain, Weathers managed to find his way to Camp 4 with massive frostbite and vision impaired due to snow blindness.WEB, Beck Weathers,weblink Badass of the Week, When he arrived at Camp 4, fellow climbers considered his condition terminal and left him in a tent to die overnight.JOURNAL, Weathers, Beck, My Journey Home From Everest, D Magazine, May 2000,weblink 31 January 2017, They left me alone in Scott Fischer's tent that night, expecting me to die. On a couple of occasions, I heard the others referring to 'a dead guy' in the tent. Who could that be? I wondered as I slipped in and out of wakefulness., Before leaving Camp 4 Jon Krakauer heard Weathers calling for help from his tent. Weathers' condition had not improved and an immediate descent to a lower elevation was deemed essential. A helicopter rescue was considered but was out of the question: Camp 4 was higher than the rated ceiling of any available helicopter and in any case would be extraordinarily dangerous. Eventually, a rescue was organised thanks to a lieutenant colonel of the Nepalese Army who conducted the second-highest known helicopter medical evacuation up to that time.The storm's impact on climbers on the North Ridge of Everest, where several climbers also died, was detailed in a first-hand account by British filmmaker and writer Matt Dickinson in his book The Other Side of Everest. 16-year-old Mark Pfetzer was on the climb and wrote about it in his account, Within Reach: My Everest Story.The 2015 feature film Everest, directed by Baltasar Kormákur, is based on the events of this disaster.NEWS, Hopewell, John, '2 Guns' Helmer Kormakur Set to Climb 'Everest',weblink 17 January 2014, Variety, 6 August 2013, ">

    2006 mountaineering season{| class"wikitable collapsible sortable floatright collapsed" style"font-size: 90%; "

    ! style="text-align:center;" colspan="2"|2006 fatalities!DeathsNEWS,weblink Cold mountain: Death on Everest, The Independent, 20 September 2015, !NationWEB,weblink Himalayan Database Expedition Archives of Elizabeth Hawley,, 20 September 2015, |Tuk Bahadur Thapa MasaNepal}}|Igor PlyushkinRussia}}|Vitor NegreteBrazil}}David Sharp (mountaineer)>David SharpUnited Kingdom}}|Thomas WeberGermany}}|Tomas OlssonSweden}}|Jacques-Hugues LetrangeFrance}}|Ang PhinjoNepal}}|*Pavel KalnyCzech Republic}}WEBSITE=GREATOUTDOORS.COM, 20 September 2015, Nepal}}|Dawa TembaNepal}}|Sri Kishan{{Flagcountry|India}}*Lhotse face fatality(File:Avalanche on Everest.JPG|thumb|Small avalanche on Everest, 2006)In 2006 12 people died. One death in particular (see below) triggered an international debate and years of discussion about climbing ethics.NEWS,weblink Striving for Everest: World's highest battle, Ashley Strickland, CNN, 25 May 2013, CNN, 20 September 2015, The season was also remembered for the rescue of Lincoln Hall who had been left by his climbing team and declared dead, but was later discovered alive and survived being helped off the mountain.

    David Sharp ethics controversy

    There was an international controversy about the death of a solo British climber David Sharp, who attempted to climb Mount Everest in 2006 but died in his attempt. The story broke out of the mountaineering community into popular media, with a series of interviews, allegations, and critiques. The question was whether climbers that season had left a man to die and whether he could have been saved. He was said to have attempted to summit Mount Everest by himself with no Sherpa or guide and fewer oxygen bottles than considered normal.WEB,weblink Over the Top, Outside Online, 20 September 2015, He went with a low-budget Nepali guide firm that only provides support up to Base Camp, after which climbers go as a "loose group", offering a high degree of independence. The manager at Sharp's guide support said Sharp did not take enough oxygen for his summit attempt and did not have a Sherpa guide.WEB,weblink Everest climber left to die alone, The Washington Times, 20 September 2015, It is less clear who knew Sharp was in trouble, and if they did know, whether they were qualified or capable of helping him.Double-amputee climber Mark Inglis said in an interview with the press on 23 May 2006, that his climbing party, and many others, had passed Sharp, on 15 May, sheltering under a rock overhang {{convert|450|m|ft}} below the summit, without attempting a rescue.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 23 August 2006, Everest climber defends leaving dying Briton, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 23 May 2006, Inglis said 40 people had passed by Sharp, but he might have been overlooked as climbers assumed Sharp was the corpse nicknamed "Green Boots",NEWS, Breed, Allen G., Gurubacharya, Binaj,weblink Part II: Near top of Everest, he waves off fellow climbers: 'I just want to sleep', 18 July 2006, Oh My News, but Inglis was not aware that Turkish climbers had tried to help Sharp despite being in the process of helping an injured woman down (a Turkish woman named Burçak Poçan). There has also been some discussion about Himex in the commentary on Inglis and Sharp. In regards to Inglis's initial comments, he later revised certain details because he had been interviewed while he was "...physically and mentally exhausted, and in a lot of pain. He had suffered severe frostbite – he later had five fingertips amputated." When they went through Sharp's possessions they found a receipt for US$7,490, believed to be the whole financial cost.WEB,weblink Summit fever, Ed Douglas, 13 January 2007,, 20 September 2015, Comparatively, most expeditions are between $35,000 to US$100,000 plus an additional $20,000 in other expenses that range from gear to bonuses.WEB,weblink How Much it Costs to Climb Mount Everest,, 20 September 2015, It was estimated on 14 May that Sharp summitted Mount Everest and began his descent down, but 15 May he was in trouble but being passed by climbers on their way up and down. On 15 May 2006 it is believed he was suffering from hypoxia and was about 1,000 feet from the summit on the North Side route.{{quotation|"Dawa from Arun Treks also gave oxygen to David and tried to help him move, repeatedly, for perhaps an hour. But he could not get David to stand alone or even stand to rest on his shoulders, and crying, Dawa had to leave him too. Even with two Sherpas, it was not going to be possible to get David down the tricky sections below."|Jamie McGuinessWEB,weblink Everest K2 News ExplorersWeb – Jamie McGuiness about David Sharp: "Crying, Dawa had to leave him",, 20 September 2015, }}Some climbers who left him said that the rescue efforts would have been useless and only have caused more deaths.{{citation needed|date=July 2015}} Beck Weathers of the 1996 Mount Everest disaster said that those who are dying are often left behind and that he himself had been left for dead twice but was able to keep walking.WEB,weblink Did Everest Climber Sharp Have to Die?,, 20 September 2015, The Tribune of India quoted someone who described what happened to Sharp as "the most shameful act in the history of mountaineering".WEB,weblink The Sunday Tribune – Spectrum,, 20 September 2015, In addition to Sharp's death, at least nine other climbers perished that year, including multiple Sherpas working for various guiding companies.WEB,weblink Everest K2 News ExplorersWeb – Un-named Everest Sherpa gets a name – and fatality details,, 20 September 2015, {{quotation|"You are never on your own. There are climbers everywhere."|David SharpWEB,weblink The Seattle Times: Outdoors: David Sharp's vow on Everest: "If I don't do it this time, I'm not coming back.",, 20 September 2015, }}Much of this controversy was captured by the Discovery Channel while filming the television program (Everest: Beyond the Limit). A crucial decision affecting the fate of Sharp is shown in the program, where an early returning climber Lebanese adventurer Maxim Chaya is descending from the summit and radios to his base camp manager (Russell Brice) that he has found a frostbitten and unconscious climber in distress. Chaya is unable to identify Sharp, who had chosen to climb solo without any support and so did not identify himself to other climbers. The base camp manager assumes that Sharp is part of a group that has already calculated that they must abandon him, and informs his lone climber that there is no chance of him being able to help Sharp by himself. As Sharp's condition deteriorates through the day and other descending climbers pass him, his opportunities for rescue diminish: his legs and feet curl from frostbite, preventing him from walking; the later descending climbers are lower on oxygen and lack the strength to offer aid; time runs out for any Sherpas to return and rescue him.David Sharp's body remained just below the summit on the Chinese side next to "Green Boots"; they shared a space in a small rock cave that was an ad hoc tomb for them.BOOK, D. Savage, B. Torgler, The Times They Are A Changin': The Effect of Institutional Change on Cooperative Behaviour at 26,000 ft over Sixty Years,weblink 2015, Springer, 978-1-137-52515-4, 5–, Sharp's body was removed from the cave in 2007, according to the BBC,WEB,weblink Death in the Clouds: The problem with Everest's 200+ bodies, 10 October 2015, and since 2014, Green Boots has been missing, presumably removed or buried.WEB, Nuwer, Rachel, 9 October 2015,weblink Death in the clouds: The problem with Everest's 200+ bodies, BBC Future,

    Lincoln Hall rescue

    As the Sharp debate kicked off, on 26 May 2006 Australian climber Lincoln Hall was found alive, after being left for dead the day before. He was found by a party of four climbers (Dan Mazur, Andrew Brash, Myles Osborne and Jangbu Sherpa) who, giving up their own summit attempt, stayed with Hall and descended with him and a party of 11 Sherpas sent up to carry him down. Hall later fully recovered. His team assumed he had died from cerebral edema, and they were instructed to cover him with rocks.NEWS,weblink Climber declared dead on Everest is brought down alive, Sydney, By Nick Squires in,, 16 May 2017, en, There were no rocks around to do this and he was abandoned.WEB,weblink Lincoln Hall, Australian Mountaineer, Dies at 56, Bruce, Weber, 24 March 2012, 23 October 2017,, The erroneous information of his death was passed on to his family. The next day he was discovered by another party alive.Lincoln greeted his fellow mountaineers with this:Lincoln Hall went on to live for several more years, often giving talks about his near-death experience and rescue, before dying from unrelated medical issues in 2012 at the age of 56 (born in 1955).NEWS,weblink Lincoln Hall, Australian Mountaineer, Dies at 56, Weber, Bruce, 24 March 2012, The New York Times, 16 May 2017, 0362-4331,


    Similar heroic rescue actions have been recorded since Hall, including on 21 May 2007, when Canadian climber Meagan McGrath initiated the successful high-altitude rescue of Nepali Usha Bista. Recognising her heroic rescue, Major Meagan McGrath was selected as a 2011 recipient of the Sir Edmund Hillary Foundation of Canada Humanitarian Award, which recognises a Canadian who has personally or administratively contributed a significant service or act in the Himalayan Region of Nepal.WEB,weblink Sir Edmund Hillary Foundation of Canada,, 15 May 2012,

    Ascent statistics up to 2010 season

    (File:EverestAscents.svg|thumb|left|Ascents of Mount Everest by year through 2010)(File:Sunrise over Everest.jpg|thumb|The sun rising on Everest in 2011)By the end of the 2010 climbing season, there had been 5,104 ascents to the summit by about 3,142 individuals, with 77% of these ascents being accomplished since 2000. The summit was achieved in 7 of the 22 years from 1953 to 1974 and was not missed between 1975 and 2014. In 2007, the record number of 633 ascents was recorded, by 350 climbers and 253 sherpas.A remarkable illustration of the explosion of popularity of Everest is provided by the numbers of daily ascents. Analysis of the 1996 Mount Everest disaster shows that part of the blame was on the bottleneck caused by a large number of climbers (33 to 36) attempting to summit on the same day; this was considered unusually high at the time. By comparison, on 23 May 2010, the summit of Mount Everest was reached by 169 climbers – more summits in a single day than in the cumulative 31 years from the first successful summit in 1953 through 1983.There have been 219 fatalities recorded on Mount Everest from the 1922 British Mount Everest Expedition through the end of 2010, a rate of 4.3 fatalities for every 100 summits (this is a general rate, and includes fatalities amongst support climbers, those who turned back before the peak, those who died en route to the peak and those who died while descending from the peak). Of the 219 fatalities, 58 (26.5%) were climbers who had summited but did not complete their descent. Though the rate of fatalities has decreased since the year 2000 (1.4 fatalities for every 100 summits, with 3938 summits since 2000), the significant increase in the total number of climbers still means 54 fatalities since 2000: 33 on the northeast ridge, 17 on the southeast ridge, 2 on the southwest face, and 2 on the north face.Nearly all attempts at the summit are done using one of the two main routes. The traffic seen by each route varies from year to year. In 2005–07, more than half of all climbers elected to use the more challenging, but cheaper northeast route. In 2008, the northeast route was closed by the Chinese government for the entire climbing season, and the only people able to reach the summit from the north that year were athletes responsible for carrying the Olympic torch for the 2008 Summer Olympics.NEWS,weblink Nepal Puts Everest Off Limits During China's Olympic Torch Relay in May, The New York Times, Somini, Sengupta, 15 March 2008, The route was closed to foreigners once again in 2009 in the run-up to the 50th anniversary of the Dalai Lama's exile.NEWS,weblink China closes Tibetan side of Everest to climbers ahead of anniversary of Dalai Lama's exile, The Daily Telegraph, Malcolm, Moore, 25 February 2009, London, These closures led to declining interest in the north route, and, in 2010, two-thirds of the climbers reached the summit from the south.

    The 2010s

    (File:Andreas Breitfuss Mt Everest Summit.jpg|thumb|Selfie on the summit, 2012)The 2010s were a time of new highs and lows for the mountain, with back to back disasters in 2013 and 2014 causing record deaths. 2015 saw no summits for the first time in decades. However, other years set records for numbers of summits - 2013's record number of summiters, around 667, was surpassed in 2018 with around 800 summiting the peak,WEB,weblink Everest 2018: Season Summary – Record Weather, Record Summits, 25 May 2018, The Blog on, en-US, 22 January 2019, and a subsequent record was set in 2019 with over 890 summiters.WEB,weblink Greed, Weather and Inexperience: See How Mount Everest's Deadly Season Compares to Past Years, Time, Emily Barone and Lon Tweeten, Time, en, 2019-06-12, {| class="wikitable" style="float:left; margin-right: 0; margin-left: 1em;"|+Years in review summary!Year!Summiters!Reference(s)| 2010| 543||2011|538|Mount Everest in 2012>2012|547 PUBLISHER=NGM.NATIONALGEOGRAPHIC.COM, 29 May 2016, style="background:#efefef;"Mount Everest in 2013>2013|658 - 670PUBLISHER=ALANARNETTE.COM, 29 May 2016, |2014|106PUBLISHER=ALANARNETTE.COM, 29 May 2016, style="background:#efefef;"|2015|0AUTHOR= PETER HOLLEYNEWSPAPER=THE WASHINGTON POST, 29 May 2016, Mount Everest in 2016>2016|641DATE=30 DECEMBER 2016ACCESSDATE=24 MAY 2017, Mount Everest in 2017>2017|648Mount Everest in 2018>2018|807|| 2019|approx. 891|{{clear}}

    2014 avalanche and season

    (File:Mt Everest.jpg|thumb|Mount Everest, 2014)On 18 April 2014, an avalanche hit the area just below the Base Camp 2 at around 01:00 UTC (06:30 local time) and at an elevation of about {{convert|5900|m}}.NEWS,weblink Everest avalanche kills at least 12 Sherpa guides, BBC News, 18 April 2014, 18 April 2014, Sixteen people were killed in the avalanche (all Nepalese guides) and nine more were injured.NEWS, Krakauer, Jon, Death and Anger on Everest,weblink 22 April 2014, The New Yorker, 21 April 2014, Of the twenty-five men hit by the falling ice, sixteen were killed, all of them Nepalis working for guided climbing teams., This was not the only tragedy in the region, with over 43 killed in the 2014 Nepal snowstorm disaster, and they were not even summiting but rather trekking the Annapurna Circuit.One positive outcome of the season was a 13-year-old girl, Malavath Purna, reaching the summit, breaking the record for youngest female.NEWS,weblink Times of India, 13-year-old Andhra teen becomes the youngest woman to scale Everest, 25 May 2014, Additionally, one team used a helicopter to fly from south base camp to Camp 2 to avoid the Khumbu Icefall, then reached the Everest summit. This team had to use the south side because the Chinese had denied them a permit to climb. Nepal turned Chinese reluctance into a success for the country, with the executive donating tens of thousands of dollars to local hospitals and achieving a new hybrid aviation-mountaineering technique. She was named the Nepalese "International Mountaineer of the Year".WEB,weblink Woman Whose Post-Avalanche Everest Ascent Sparked Outrage Defends Her Feat, National Geographic, 20 September 2015, {{anchor|Jing Wang}}(File:Everest3d qbd 2014116.jpg|thumb|800px|left|The location of the fatal ice avalanche on the 2014 route, and the revised 2015 route through the Khumbu.){{clear}}Over 100 people summited Everest from China (Tibet region), and six from Nepal in the 2014 season.WEB,weblink Everest 2014: Season Summary – A Nepal Tragedy,, Blog, 20 September 2015, This included 72-year-old Bill Burke, the Indian teenage girl, and a Chinese woman Jing Wang.WEB,weblink Everest 2014: Summits – Update 6,, Blog, Another teen girl summiter was Ming Kipa Sherpa who summited with her elder sister Lhakpa Sherpa in 2003, and who had achieved the most times for woman to the summit of Mount Everest at that time.WEB,weblink Teenage girl conquers Everest, 50 years on, Luke Harding, The Guardian, (see also Santosh Yadav)

    2015 avalanche, earthquake, season

    (File:Everest from Kalatop April 2015.jpg|thumb|Everest, April 2015)2015 was set to be a record-breaking season of climbs, with hundreds of permits issued in Nepal and many additional permits in Tibet (China). However, a magnitude 7.8 earthquake on 25 April 2015 effectively shut down the Everest climbing season.WEB,weblink Everest 2015: Season Summary – Summits Don't Matter,, Blog, 20 September 2015, 2015 was the first time since 1974 with no spring summits, as all climbing teams pulled out after the quakes and avalanche.WEB,weblink Mt. Everest Will Not Be Climbed for First Time Since 1974,, 20 September 2015, One of the reasons for this was the high probability of aftershocks (over 50 percent according to the USGS).WEB,weblink No One Will Climb Everest This Year – The Last Team Pulls Out,, Blog, 20 September 2015, Just weeks after the first quake, the region was rattled again by a 7.3 magnitude quake and there were also many considerable aftershocks.WEB,weblink Nepal earthquake: such huge aftershocks are rare, Nick Rawlinson, 15 May 2015, The Conversation, 20 September 2015, On 25 April 2015, an earthquake measuring 7.8 Mw triggered an avalanche that hit Everest Base Camp.NEWS, Everest Climbers Are Killed as Nepal Quake Sets Off Avalanche,weblink Gardiner Harris, New York Times, 25 April 2015, 23 December 2015, 18 bodies were recovered from Mount Everest by the Indian Army mountaineering team.WEB,weblink The Times of India, Avalanche triggered by quake kills 18 on Mount Everest, 26 April 2015, The avalanche began on Pumori,MAGAZINE,weblink Everest Base Camp a 'War Zone' After Earthquake Triggers Avalanches, National Geographic, 26 April 2015, moved through the Khumbu Icefall on the southwest side of Mount Everest, and slammed into the South Base Camp.WEB,weblink 10 confirmed dead in Mount Everest avalanche, but toll expected to rise, 25 April 2015, The Washington Post, 25 April 2015, The quakes trapped hundreds of climbers above the Khumbu icefall, and they had to be evacuated by helicopter as they ran low on supplies.NEWS,weblink Fox News, Trapped at 20,000 feet: Hundreds of Everest climbers await choppers as supplies run low, The quake shifted the route through the ice fall, making it essentially impassable to climbers. Bad weather also made helicopter evacuation difficult. The Everest tragedy was small compared the impact overall on Nepal, with almost nine thousand deadWEB,weblink Nepal Disaster Risk Reduction Portal,, Incident Report of Earthquake 2015, 28 May 2015, WEB,weblink Nepal earthquake death toll rises to 8,413, 7 May 2015, The Times of India, 9 May 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 10 May 2015, dmy-all, and about 22,000 injured. In Tibet, by 28 April at least 25 had died, and 117 were injured.NEWS,weblink Nepal quake: Death toll rises to 25 in Tibet; 117 injured, Press Trust of India, 28 April 2015, Business Standard, 17 June 2016, By 29 April 2015, the Tibet Mountaineering Association (North/Chinese side) closed Everest and other peaks to climbing, stranding 25 teams and about 300 people on the north side of Everest.WEB,weblink North Side of Everest Closing, Outside, 20 September 2015, On the south side, helicopters evacuated 180 people trapped at Camps 1 and 2.WEB,weblink Nepal earthquake: Hopes fade for survivors; 180 rescued on Mount Everest, The Sydney Morning Herald, 20 September 2015,

    Mountain re-opens in August 2015

    On 24 August 2015 Nepal re-opened Everest to tourism including mountain climbers.WEB,weblink Mount Everest opens for business, Deutsche Welle, 20 September 2015, The only climber permit for the autumn season was awarded to Japanese climber Nobukazu Kuriki, who had tried four times previously to summit Everest without success. He made his fifth attempt in October, but had to give up just {{cvt|700|m}} from the summit due to "strong winds and deep snow".WEB,weblink Japanese climber with no fingertips abandons bid to scale Everest, The Guardian, NEWS,weblink Everest Reopened to Climbers, Tanya Basu, Time, 20 September 2015, Kuriki noted the dangers of climbing Everest, having himself survived being stuck in a freezing snow hole for two days near the top, which came at the cost of all his fingertips and his thumb, lost to frostbite, which added further difficulty to his climb.NEWS,weblink Japan finger frostbite victim exposes Nepali desperation to revive Everest climbs, Reuters, 20 September 2015, Some sections of the trail from Lukla to Everest Base Camp (Nepal) were damaged in the earthquakes earlier in the year and needed repairs to handle trekkers.WEB,weblink 4 sections of trekking route to Mount Everest were damaged by earthquake, assessment finds, Fox News, 20 September 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 24 September 2015, yes,

    2016 season

    Hawley's database records 641 made it to the summit in early 2016.WEB,weblink Himalayan Database Expedition Archives of Elizabeth Hawley,, 16 April 2019,

    2017 season

    2017 was the biggest season yet, permit-wise, yielding hundreds of summiters and a handful of deaths.WEB,weblink Everest 2017: South Col Dead Body Report was Wrong, 25 May 2017, Alanarnette, 23 October 2017, On 27 May 2017, Kami Rita Sherpa made his 21st climb to the summit with the Alpine Ascents Everest Expedition, one of three people in the World along with Apa Sherpa and Phurba Tashi Sherpa to make it to the summit of Mount Everest 21 times.NEWS,weblink Kami Rita Sherpa scales Mt Everest 21 times, The Himalayan Times, 27 May 2017, 27 May 2017, Rajan, Pokhrel, NEWS,weblink Nepalese Sherpa scales Everest for record 21 times, PTI, The Hindu, 27 May 2017, 27 May 2017, The season had a tragic start with the death of famous climber Ueli Steck of Switzerland, who died from a fall during a warm-up climb.NEWS,weblink Ueli Steck, famed Swiss mountain climber, dead after plunging 3,280 feet near Mount Everest, Katie, Mettler, 1 May 2017, 23 October 2017, Washington Post, There was a continued discussion about the nature of possible changes to the Hillary Step.WEB,weblink Mount Everest's famed Hillary Step collapses, 22 May 2017, ABC Online, 23 October 2017, ABC News (Australia), ABC News, Total summiters for 2017 was tallied up to be 648. 449 summited via Nepal (from the South) and 120 from Chinese Tibet (North side).NEWS,weblink First climbers of 2018 reach Mount Everest summit, Times of India, Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd., AFP, American Free Press, 13 May 2018, 25 August 2018,weblink 14 May 2018, no,


    (File:Nepal 2018-03-27 (40012222680).jpg|thumb|Mount Everest in the upper left (March 2018))807 climbers summited Mount Everest in 2018, including 563 on the Nepal side and 240 from the Chinese Tibet side. This broke the previous record for total summits in year from which was 667 in 2013, and one factor that aided in this was an especially long and clear weather window of 11 days during the critical spring climbing season.NEWS,weblink Is climbing Everest today as 'awful' as Chris Bonington says?, Douglas, Ed, 4 June 2018, The Guardian, 22 January 2019, en-GB, 0261-3077, WEB,weblink What to Watch for on Everest This Year, Arnette, Alan, 4 April 2019, Outside Online, en, 10 April 2019, Various records were broken including an extraordinary case of a 70-year-old double-amputee, who undertook his climb after winning a court case in the Nepali Supreme Court. There was no major disasters, but seven climbers died in various situations including several sherpas as well as international climbers. Although record numbers of climbers reached the summit, old-time summiters that made expeditions in the 1980s lamented the crowding, feces, and cost.Famous Himalayan record keeper Elizabeth Hawley died in late January 2018.WEB,weblink Elizabeth Hawley dies at 94, Figures for the number of permits issued by Nepal range from 347weblink to 375.weblink">

    2019{| class"wikitable collapsible sortable floatright collapsed" style"font-size: 90%; "

    ! style="text-align:center;" colspan="2"|2019 fatalitiesWEB,weblink Mount Everest death toll increases to 11 after American dies, UPI, en, 2019-05-28, !Fatalities!Nationality|Chris DalyUSA}}|Donald CashUSA}}|Robin FisherUnited Kingdom}}|Druba BistaNepal}}| Kevin HynesIreland}}|Kalpana DashIndia}}|Anjali S. KulkarniIndia}}|Ernst LandgrafAustria}}|Nihal BagwanIndia}}|Ravi ThakarIndia}}|Chris KulishUSA}}LAST=SLATERWEBSITE=THE IRISH TIMESACCESS-DATE=2019-05-29, Ireland}}*Declared dead after missingThe spring or pre-monsoon window for 2019 witnessed the deaths of a number of climbers and worldwide publication of images of hundreds of mountaineers queuing to reach the summit and sensational media reports of climbers stepping over dead bodies dismayed people around the world.Death on Everest: the boom in climbing tourism is dangerous and unsustainableColorado climber stepped over newly dead bodies to summit Everest. He’s still wrestling with what it all meansMount Everest has gotten so crowded that climbers are perishing in the traffic jamsClimber describes scene in Everest's "death zone": Traffic jams and corpsesThere were reports of various winter expeditions in the Himalayas, including K2, Nanga Parbat, and Meru with the buzz for the Everest 2019 beginning just 14 weeks to the weather window.WEB,weblink 2018/19 Winter Climbs: K2 Climbers en route, Nanga Climbers Climbing, New Everest Route?, 7 January 2019, The Blog on, en-US, 23 January 2019, Noted climber Cory Richards announced on Twitter that he was hoping to establish a new climbing route to the summit in 2019. Also announced was an expedition to re-measure the height of Everest, particularly in light of the 2015 earthquakes.NEWS,weblink Nepalese team to measure Mount Everest amid concerns it has shrunk following earthquake, Wallen, Joe, 9 April 2019, The Telegraph, 10 April 2019, en-GB, 0307-1235, WEB,weblink Nepalese Climbers to Remeasure Mount Everest, Time, en, 10 April 2019, China closed the base-camp to those without climbing permits in February 2019 on the northern side of Mount Everest.NEWS,weblink China closes Everest base camp to tourists, 2019-02-15, 2019-05-24, en-GB, By early April, climbing teams from around the world were arriving for the 2019 spring climbing season. Among the teams was a scientific expedition with a planned study of pollution, and how things like snow and vegetation influence the availability of food and water in the region.WEB,weblink American scientists to climb Mount Everest to study pollution, Washington Post, en, 10 April 2019, In the 2019 spring mountaineering season, there were roughly 40 teams with almost 400 climbers and several hundred guides attempting to summit on the Nepali side.WEB,weblink Mountaineer extends record by climbing Everest for 24th time, NBC News, en, 2019-05-22, WEB,weblink Sherpa summits Everest a record 24th time, CNN, Emily Dixon and Sugam Pokharel, CNN, 2019-05-22, NEWS,weblink Sherpa sets record with 24th Everest summit, 2019-05-21, 2019-05-22, en-GB, Nepal issued 381 climbing permits for 2019.NEWS,weblink Three more die on Everest amid overcrowding, 2019-05-24, 2019-05-24, en-GB, For the northern routes in Chinese Tibet, several hundred more permits were issued for climbing by authorities there.WEB,weblink Chinese Everest Permits Slashed By 33%, Rock and Ice, en-US, 2019-05-26, In May 2019, Nepali mountaneering guide Kami Rita summited Mount Everest for the 23rd and 24th time, making international news headlines.WEB,weblink Sherpa climbs Everest twice in a week, breaks his record with his 24th ascent, Washington Post, en, 2019-05-22, In 2019 he went on to summit twice in one season. He first summited Everest in 1994, and has summited several other extremely high mountains, such as K2 and Lhotse.By May 23, 2019, about seven people had died, possibly due to crowding leading to delays high on the mountain, and shorter weather windows. One 19-year old who summited previously noted that when the weather window opens (the high winds calm down), long lines form as everyone rushes to get the top and back down.weblink In Chinese Tibet, one Austrian climber died from a fall, and by May 26, 2019 the overall number of deaths for the spring climbing season rose to 10.WEB,weblink British climber dies on Mount Everest; death toll reaches 10, Aaro, David, 2019-05-25, Fox News, en-US, 2019-05-26, NEWS,weblink British Climber Dies on Everest as Traffic Jam's Toll Rises to 10, Sharma, Bhadra, 2019-05-25, The New York Times, 2019-05-26, Mashal, Mujib, en-US, 0362-4331,weblink By May 28, the death toll increased to 11 when a climber passed away at about 26,000 feet during the descent, and a 12th climber missing and presumed dead. Despite the number of deaths, reports indicated that a record 891 climbers summited in the spring 2019 climbing season.Although China has had various permit restrictions, and Nepal requires a doctor to sign off on climbing permits,WEB,weblink What's causing Mount Everest's deadly season? Overcrowding, inexperience and a long line to the top, USA TODAY, en, 2019-05-29, the natural dangers of climbing such as falls and avalanches combined with medical issues aggravated by Everest's extreme altitude led to 2019 being a year with a comparatively high death toll. In light of this, the government of Nepal is now considering reviewing its existing laws on expeditions to the mountain peak.NEWS,weblink Nepal Says Everest Rules Might Change After Traffic Jams and Deaths, Sharma, Bhadra, 2019-05-29, The New York Times, 2019-05-30, Gettleman, Jeffrey, en-US, 0362-4331, WEB,weblink Mount Everest adventure seekers crowd the climb, lead to rise in deaths, Press, Associated, 2019-05-28, Chicago Sun-Times, 2019-05-31, Regardless of the number of permits, the weather window impacts the timing of when climbers head to the summit.WEB,weblink Mount Everest climbers seen crushed together in new video as Nepal debates limiting permits, Fedschun, Travis, 2019-05-30, Fox News, en-US, 2019-05-30, The 2018 season had a similar number of climbers, but an 11-day straight calm, while in 2019 the weather windows were shorter and broken up by periods of bad weather.weblinkBy May 31, 2019, the climbing season was thought to be all but concluded, as shifting weather patterns and increased wind speed make summiting more difficult.WEB,weblink Everest 2019: Season Over?, 2019-05-30, The Blog on, en-US, 2019-05-31, The next window is generally when the monsoon season ends in September; however, this is a less popular option as the monsoon leaves large amounts of snow on the mountain, thus increasing the danger of avalanches,WEB,weblink Why Does Everyone Climb Everest in May?, Goodier, Rob, 2012-05-21, Popular Mechanics, en-US, 2019-05-31, which historically account for about one quarter of Everest fatalities.


    File:Hillery Step near Everest Top (retouched).jpg|thumb|Looking up along the southern ridgeline, the face of the Hillary StepHillary Step{| class="infobox" style="width:300px"! Base camp 5400 m / 17700 ft.
    | {{bartable|5.4||10}}
    ! Camp 1 6100 m / 20000 ft.6.110}}! Camp 2 6400 m / 21000 ft.6.410}}! Camp 3 6800m / 22300 ft.6.810}}! Camp 4 8000 m / 26000 ft.810}}! Summit 8850 m / 29035 ft.8.810}}


    There were 334 climbing permits issued in 2014 in Nepal, these were extended until 2019 due to the closure. In 2015 there were 357 permits to climb Everest, but the mountain was closed again because of the avalanche and earthquake, and these permits were given a two-year extension to 2017 (not to 2019 as with the 2014 issue).WEB,weblink Everest expeditions likely to be delayed by bad weather,, 23 October 2017, WEB, Sangam Prasain,weblink Kathmandu Post- Everest permits to be extended,, 17 June 2016, {{clarify|date=June 2016}} This was an example of hospitality for which Nepalis have become famous; an extension was especially requested by expedition firms (which in turn bring resources into the country due to mountaineering). Nepal is essentially a "fourth world" country{{mdash}}as of 2015 one of the poorest non-African countries along with Haiti and Myanmar{{mdash}}and the 19th poorest country in the world overall.NEWS,weblink Everest permits: Climbers want Nepal 'to honour 2014 promise' – BBC News,, 24 February 2015, 17 June 2016, BBC News, Khadka, Navin Singh, WEB,weblink The 23 poorest countries in the world,, 23 October 2017, Despite this, Nepal has been very welcoming to tourists and a significant tourism industry has been established. Although there are some difficulties, especially since it can be hard to maintain order in distant areas or control the actions of trouble-makers, there is a long history of going the extra kilometre for tourists.In 2017 a permit evader who tried to climb Everest without the $11,000 permit faced, among other penalties, a $22,000 fine, bans, and a possible four years in jail after he was caught (he had made it up past the Khumbu icefall).NEWS,weblink Nepal lets Everest permit dodger off $22,000 fine, Dail Mail, 26 May 2017, In the end he was given a 10-year mountaineering ban in Nepal and allowed to return home, according to the British newspaper Daily Mail. The rogue mountaineer, who in fact had not climbed other mountains, said he was "ecstatic" and that he would try again but buy a permit next time.Examples of Nepal permits for a selection of years:NEWS,weblink Climbers Did Not Die Due To Congestion On Mount Everest, Says Nepal, NDTV, 13 June 2019,
    • 2008 – 160
    • 2009 – 220
    • 2010 – 209
    • 2011 – 225
    • 2012 – 208
    • 2013 – 316
    • 2014 – 326 (extended for use in any year up to 2019)
    • 2015 – 356 (extended for use in any year up to 2017)
    • 2016 – 289
    • 2017 – 366-373 (last year for 2015 extended permits)
    • 2018 - 346
    • 2019 - 381 (last year for 2014 extended permits)
    The Chinese side in Tibet is also managed with permits for summiting Everest.WEB,weblink Everest Will Be More Crowded Than Ever This Year, Devon, O'Neil, 3 April 2017,, 23 October 2017, They did not issue permits in 2008, due to the Olympic torch relay being taken to the summit of Mount Everest.NEWS,weblink Nepal Puts Everest Off Limits During China's Olympic Torch Relay in May, Somini, Sengupta, 15 March 2008, 23 October 2017, The New York Times,


    (File:STS058-101-12 2.JPG|thumb|Overview South Col route and North Col/Ridge route)Mount Everest has two main climbing routes, the southeast ridge from Nepal and the north ridge from Tibet, as well as many other less frequently climbed routes.WEB,weblink Ascent Routes on Everest,, 21 January 2008, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 15 January 2008, Of the two main routes, the southeast ridge is technically easier and more frequently used. It was the route used by Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay in 1953 and the first recognised of 15 routes to the top by 1996. This was, however, a route decision dictated more by politics than by design, as the Chinese border was closed to the western world in the 1950s, after the People's Republic of China invaded Tibet.WEB,weblink Everest Time Line: 80 Years of Triumph and Tragedy, National Geographic Society, Thompson, Kalee, 2 April 2003, 28 March 2008, Most attempts are made during May, before the summer monsoon season. As the monsoon season approaches, the jet stream shifts northward, thereby reducing the average wind speeds high on the mountain.NEWS,weblink Climbing Mount Everest, The New York Times, 19 May 1997, 24 October 2008, WEB,weblink Mt. Everest Information, Team Everest 03, 24 October 2008, While attempts are sometimes made in September and October, after the monsoons, when the jet stream is again temporarily pushed northward, the additional snow deposited by the monsoons and the less stable weather patterns at the monsoons' tail end makes climbing extremely difficult.

    Southeast ridge

    The ascent via the southeast ridge begins with a trek to Base Camp at {{convert|5380|m|ft|-2|abbr=on}} on the south side of Everest, in Nepal. Expeditions usually fly into Lukla (2,860 m) from Kathmandu and pass through Namche Bazaar. Climbers then hike to Base Camp, which usually takes six to eight days, allowing for proper altitude acclimatisation in order to prevent altitude sickness.JOURNAL, Muza, SR, Fulco, CS, Cymerman, A, Altitude Acclimatization Guide, US Army Research Inst. Of Environmental Medicine Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division Technical Report, USARIEM–TN–04–05, 2004,weblink 5 March 2009, Climbing equipment and supplies are carried by yaks, dzopkyos (yak-cow hybrids), and human porters to Base Camp on the Khumbu Glacier. When Hillary and Tenzing climbed Everest in 1953, the British expedition they were part of (comprising over 400 climbers, porters, and Sherpas at that point) started from the Kathmandu Valley, as there were no roads further east at that time.Climbers spend a couple of weeks in Base Camp, acclimatising to the altitude. During that time, Sherpas and some expedition climbers set up ropes and ladders in the treacherous Khumbu Icefall.Seracs, crevasses, and shifting blocks of ice make the icefall one of the most dangerous sections of the route. Many climbers and Sherpas have been killed in this section. To reduce the hazard, climbers usually begin their ascent well before dawn, when the freezing temperatures glue ice blocks in place.Above the icefall is Camp I at {{convert|6065|m|ft|-1}}.(File:Inside Khumbu-Icefall.jpg|thumb|Climber traversing Khumbu Icefall)From Camp I, climbers make their way up the Western Cwm to the base of the Lhotse face, where Camp II or Advanced Base Camp (ABC) is established at {{convert|6500|m|ft|-2|abbr=on}}. The Western Cwm is a flat, gently rising glacial valley, marked by huge lateral crevasses in the centre, which prevent direct access to the upper reaches of the Cwm. Climbers are forced to cross on the far right, near the base of Nuptse, to a small passageway known as the "Nuptse corner". The Western Cwm is also called the "Valley of Silence" as the topography of the area generally cuts off wind from the climbing route. The high altitude and a clear, windless day can make the Western Cwm unbearably hot for climbers.WEB,weblink The Way to the Summit, Public Broadcasting Corporation, NOVA Online, 2000, 28 March 2008, From Advanced Base Camp, climbers ascend the Lhotse face on fixed ropes, up to Camp III, located on a small ledge at {{convert|7470|m|ft|-2|abbr=on}}. From there, it is another 500 metres to Camp IV on the South Col at {{convert|7920|m|ft|-2|abbr=on}}.From Camp III to Camp IV, climbers are faced with two additional challenges: the Geneva Spur and the Yellow Band. The Geneva Spur is an anvil shaped rib of black rock named by the 1952 Swiss expedition. Fixed ropes assist climbers in scrambling over this snow-covered rock band. The Yellow Band is a section of interlayered marble, phyllite, and semischist, which also requires about 100 metres of rope for traversing it.On the South Col, climbers enter the death zone. Climbers making summit bids typically can endure no more than two or three days at this altitude. That's one reason why clear weather and low winds are critical factors in deciding whether to make a summit attempt. If the weather does not cooperate within these short few days, climbers are forced to descend, many all the way back down to Base Camp.From Camp IV, climbers begin their summit push around midnight, with hopes of reaching the summit (still another 1,000 metres above) within 10 to 12 hours. Climbers first reach "The Balcony" at {{convert|8400|m|ft|-2|abbr=on}}, a small platform where they can rest and gaze at peaks to the south and east in the early light of dawn. Continuing up the ridge, climbers are then faced with a series of imposing rock steps which usually forces them to the east into the waist-deep snow, a serious avalanche hazard. At {{convert|8750|m|ft|-2|abbr=on}}, a small table-sized dome of ice and snow marks the South Summit.From the South Summit, climbers follow the knife-edge southeast ridge along what is known as the "Cornice traverse", where snow clings to intermittent rock. This is the most exposed section of the climb, and a misstep to the left would send one {{convert|2400|m|ft|abbr=on}} down the southwest face, while to the immediate right is the {{convert|3050|m|ft|abbr=on}} Kangshung Face. At the end of this traverse is an imposing {{convert|12|m|ft|abbr=on}} rock wall, the Hillary Step, at {{convert|8790|m|ft|-1|abbr=on}}.BOOK,weblink On Top of World: My Everest Adventure, Vajpai, Arjun, 10 November 2010, Penguin UK, 978-81-8475-304-2, en, Hillary and Tenzing were the first climbers to ascend this step, and they did so using primitive ice climbing equipment and ropes. Nowadays, climbers ascend this step using fixed ropes previously set up by Sherpas. Once above the step, it is a comparatively easy climb to the top on moderately angled snow slopes—though the exposure on the ridge is extreme, especially while traversing large cornices of snow. With increasing numbers of people climbing the mountain in recent years, the Step has frequently become a bottleneck, with climbers forced to wait significant amounts of time for their turn on the ropes, leading to problems in getting climbers efficiently up and down the mountain.After the Hillary Step, climbers also must traverse a loose and rocky section that has a large entanglement of fixed ropes that can be troublesome in bad weather. Climbers typically spend less than half an hour at the summit to allow time to descend to Camp IV before darkness sets in, to avoid serious problems with afternoon weather, or because supplemental oxygen tanks run out.

    North ridge route

    {{see also|Three Steps}}File:Mount Everest North Face.jpg|thumb|Mount Everest north face from Rongbuk in Tibet]]The north ridge route begins from the north side of Everest, in Tibet. Expeditions trek to the Rongbuk Glacier, setting up base camp at {{convert|5180|m|ft|-1|abbr=on}} on a gravel plain just below the glacier. To reach Camp II, climbers ascend the medial moraine of the east Rongbuk Glacier up to the base of Changtse, at around {{convert|6100|m|ft|-2|abbr=on}}. Camp III (ABC—Advanced Base Camp) is situated below the North Col at {{convert|6500|m|ft|abbr=on}}. To reach Camp IV on the North Col, climbers ascend the glacier to the foot of the col where fixed ropes are used to reach the North Col at {{convert|7010|m|ft|-2|abbr=on}}. From the North Col, climbers ascend the rocky north ridge to set up Camp V at around {{convert|7775|m|ft|-2|abbr=on}}. The route crosses the North Face in a diagonal climb to the base of the Yellow Band, reaching the site of Camp VI at {{convert|8230|m|ft|-2|abbr=on}}. From Camp VI, climbers make their final summit push.Climbers face a treacherous traverse from the base of the First Step: ascending from {{convert|8501|to|8534|m|ft|-1|abbr=on}}, to the crux of the climb, the Second Step, ascending from {{convert|8577|to|8626|m|ft|-1|abbr=on}}. (The Second Step includes a climbing aid called the "Chinese ladder", a metal ladder placed semi-permanently in 1975 by a party of Chinese climbers.WEB,weblink AFFIMER, Chinese ladder, It has been almost continuously in place since, and ladders have been used by virtually all climbers on the route.) Once above the Second Step the inconsequential Third Step is clambered over, ascending from {{convert|8690|to|8800|m|ft|-1|abbr=on}}. Once above these steps, the summit pyramid is climbed by a snow slope of 50 degrees, to the final summit ridge along which the top is reached.WEB,weblink The Way to the Summit (North), Public Broadcasting Corporation, NOVA Online, 2000, 28 March 2008,


    (File:Amanecer desde la cima del Everest por Carlos Pauner.JPG|thumb|left|A view from the summit of Mount Everest in May 2013)The routes usually share one spot in common, the summit itself. The summit of Everest has been described as "the size of a dining room table".WEB,weblink Swindon explorer on top of the world, Swindon Advertiser, 20 September 2015, The summit is capped with snow over ice over rock, and the layer of snow varies from year to year.WEB,weblink Highest Mountain – Everest,, 20 September 2015, The rock summit is made of Ordovician limestone and is a low-grade metamorphic rock according to Montana State University.WEB,weblink Montana State University – Everest Education Expedition – Everest Facts,, 17 June 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 5 March 2016, yes, (see survey section for more on its height and about the Everest rock summit)Below the summit there is an area known as "rainbow valley", filled with dead bodies still wearing brightly coloured winter gear. Down to about 8000 metres is an area commonly called the "death zone", due to the high danger and low oxygen because of the low pressure.Below the summit the mountain slopes downward to the three main sides, or faces, of Mount Everest: the North Face, the South-West Face, and the East/Kangshung Face.WEB,weblink Everest Facts, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 9 May 2015,

    Death zone

    {{See also|Effects of high altitude on humans}}(File:Everest Peace Project - Everest summit.jpg|thumb|The summit of Mount Everest from the North side)File:Everest-fromKalarPatar.jpg|thumb|From Kala PattharKala PattharAt the higher regions of Mount Everest, climbers seeking the summit typically spend substantial time within the death zone (altitudes higher than {{convert|8000|m|ft}}), and face significant challenges to survival. Temperatures can dip to very low levels, resulting in frostbite of any body part exposed to the air. Since temperatures are so low, snow is well-frozen in certain areas and death or injury by slipping and falling can occur. High winds at these altitudes on Everest are also a potential threat to climbers.Another significant threat to climbers is low atmospheric pressure. The atmospheric pressure at the top of Everest is about a third of sea level pressure or {{convert|0.333|atm|mbar}}, resulting in the availability of only about a third as much oxygen to breathe.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 29 July 2012, Online high altitude oxygen calculator,, 15 August 2007, Debilitating effects of the death zone are so great that it takes most climbers up to 12 hours to walk the distance of {{convert|1.72|km|mi}} from South Col to the summit.WEB,weblink Mount Everest South Col Route Maps,, 15 August 2013, Achieving even this level of performance requires prolonged altitude acclimatisation, which takes 40–60 days for a typical expedition. A sea-level dweller exposed to the atmospheric conditions at the altitude above {{convert|8500|m|abbr=on}} without acclimatisation would likely lose consciousness within 2 to 3 minutes.JOURNAL,weblink Arterial Blood Gases and Oxygen Content in Climbers on Mount Everest, The New England Journal of Medicine, 2009, Michael P.W., Grocott, 10.1056/NEJMoa0801581, 360, 2, 140–9, 19129527, etal, In May 2007, the Caudwell Xtreme Everest undertook a medical study of oxygen levels in human blood at extreme altitude. Over 200 volunteers climbed to Everest Base Camp where various medical tests were performed to examine blood oxygen levels. A small team also performed tests on the way to the summit.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 6 June 2008, Everest 2007, Caudwell Xtreme Everest 2007, Even at base camp, the low partial pressure of oxygen had direct effect on blood oxygen saturation levels. At sea level, blood oxygen saturation is generally 98–99%. At base camp, blood saturation fell to between 85 and 87%. Blood samples taken at the summit indicated very low oxygen levels in the blood. A side effect of low blood oxygen is a greatly increased breathing rate, often 80–90 breaths per minute as opposed to a more typical 20–30. Exhaustion can occur merely attempting to breathe.WEB,weblink Altitude physiology,, 6 July 2010, Lack of oxygen, exhaustion, extreme cold, and climbing hazards all contribute to the death toll. An injured person who cannot walk is in serious trouble, since rescue by helicopter is generally impractical and carrying the person off the mountain is very risky. People who die during the climb are typically left behind. As of 2006, about 150 bodies had never been recovered. It is not uncommon to find corpses near the standard climbing routes.NEWS,weblink The deadly business of climbing Everest, The Age, Melbourne, 3 June 2006, Connie, Levett,
    A 2008 study noted that the "death zone" is indeed where most Everest deaths occur, but also noted that most deaths occur during descent from the summit.WEB,weblink Climbing Everest: Who Makes It to the Top?, Climbing, 20 September 2015, A 2014 article in The Atlantic about deaths on Everest noted that while falling is one of the greatest dangers the death zone presents for all 8000ers, avalanches are a more common cause of death at lower altitudes.WEB,weblink Charting Deaths on Mount Everest, Svati Kirsten Narula, The Atlantic, 20 September 2015, 21 April 2014, However, Everest climbing is more deadly than BASE jumping, although some have combined extreme sports and Everest including a Russian who base-jumped off Everest in a wingsuit (he did survive, though).WEB,weblink Everest Base Jumper, Red Bull, Despite this, Everest is safer for climbers than a number of peaks by some measurements, but it depends on the period.WEB,weblink 5 Mountains Deadlier Than Everest, Mental Floss, 20 September 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 23 September 2015, Some examples are Kangchenjunga, K2, Annapurna, Nanga Parbat, and the Eiger (especially the nordwand). Mont Blanc has more deaths each year than Everest, with over one hundred dying in a typical year and over eight thousand killed since records were kept.WEB,weblink Everest anniversary: World's five deadliest mountains, 28 May 2013, Yahoo News UK, 20 September 2015, Some factors that affect total mountain lethality include the level of popularity of the mountain, the skill of those climbing, and the difficulty of the climb.Another health hazard is retinal haemorrhages, which can damage eyesight and cause blindness.NEWS,weblink Everest team forced to leave sick British climber to die, The Independent, 20 September 2015, Up to a quarter of Everest climbers can experience retinal haemorrhages, and although they usually heal within weeks of returning to lower altitudes, in 2010 a climber went blind and ended up dying in the death zone.The team made a huge effort for the next 12 hours to try to get him down the mountain, but to no avail, as they were unsuccessful in getting him through the difficult sections.WEB, Peter Gillman,weblink What killed Peter Kinloch, 'left to die' on Everest | The Week UK,, 2 June 2010, 17 June 2016, Even for the able, the Everest North-East ridge is recognised as a challenge. It is hard to rescue someone who has become incapacitated and it can be beyond the ability of rescuers to save anyone in such a difficult spot. One way around this situation was pioneered by two Nepali men in 2011, who had intended to paraglide off the summit. They had no choice and were forced to go through with their plan anyway, because they had run out of bottled oxygen and supplies.WEB,weblink Paragliding From Everest's Peak, Then Kayaking to Indian Ocean – ABC News,, 5 December 2013, 17 June 2016, They successfully launched off the summit and para-glided down to Namche Bazaar in just 42 minutes, without having to climb down the mountain.

    Supplemental oxygen

    (File:Iván Ernesto Gómez Carrasco en la cima del Monte Everest.jpg|thumb|upright|Climber at the summit wearing an oxygen mask)(File:Everest Oxygen Graph.jpg|thumb|left|Available oxygen at Everest)Most expeditions use oxygen masks and tanks above {{convert|8000|m|ft|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 22 August 2000, Chamber of Horrors: The Oxygen Mask,, 21 May 1998, 1 April 2007, Everest can be climbed without supplementary oxygen, but only by the most accomplished mountaineers and at increased risk. Humans do not think clearly with low oxygen, and the combination of extreme weather, low temperatures, and steep slopes often requires quick, accurate decisions. While about 95 percent of climbers who reach the summit use bottled oxygen in order to reach the top, about five percent of climbers have summited Everest without supplemental oxygen. The death rate is double for those who attempt to reach the summit without supplemental oxygen.NEWS, Field Test on Everest: To Os or not to Os, National Geographic, 18 May 2012,weblink 11 May 2015, Travelling above 8,000 feet altitude is a factor in cerebral hypoxia.WEB,weblink Brain Hypoxia, 25 July 2012, Healthline, 20 September 2015, This decrease of oxygen to the brain can cause dementia and brain damage, as well as other symptoms.WEB,weblink Dementia From Oxygen Deprivation,, 20 September 2015, One study found that Mount Everest may be the highest an acclimatised human could go, but also found that climbers may suffer permanent neurological damage despite returning to lower altitudes.{{quotation|Brain cells are extremely sensitive to a lack of oxygen. Some brain cells start dying less than 5 minutes after their oxygen supply disappears. As a result, brain hypoxia can rapidly cause severe brain damage or death.|Healthline Website}}The use of bottled oxygen to ascend Mount Everest has been controversial. It was first used on the 1922 British Mount Everest Expedition by George Finch and Geoffrey Bruce who climbed up to {{convert|7800|m|ft|abbr=on}} at a spectacular speed of 1,000 vertical feet per hour (vf/h). Pinned down by a fierce storm, they escaped death by breathing oxygen from a jury-rigged set-up during the night. The next day they climbed to {{convert|8100|m|ft|abbr=on}} at 900 vf/h—nearly three times as fast as non-oxygen users. Yet the use of oxygen was considered so unsportsmanlike that none of the rest of the Alpine world recognised this high ascent rate.{{Citation needed|date=June 2011}}George Mallory described the use of such oxygen as unsportsmanlike, but he later concluded that it would be impossible for him to summit without it and consequently used it on his final attempt in 1924.BOOK, Tom Holzel, Audrey Salkeld, The Mystery of Mallory & Irvine, 1986, When Tenzing and Hillary made the first successful summit in 1953, they also used open-circuit bottled oxygen sets, with the expedition's physiologist Griffith Pugh referring to the oxygen debate as a "futile controversy", noting that oxygen "greatly increases subjective appreciation of the surroundings, which after all is one of the chief reasons for climbing."BOOK, The Ascent of Everest, John, Hunt, Hodder & Stoughton, 1953, Appendix VII, For the next twenty-five years, bottled oxygen was considered standard for any successful summit.{{quotation|...although an acclimatised lowlander can survive for a time on the summit of Everest without supplemental oxygen, one is so close to the limit that even a modicum of excess exertion may impair brain function.|Thomas F. Hornbein in The high-altitude brainJOURNAL,weblink The high-altitude brain, 18, 3129–3132, Journal of Experimental Biology, 204, 20 September 2015, 15 September 2001, Hornbein, Thomas F., }}Reinhold Messner was the first climber to break the bottled oxygen tradition and in 1978, with Peter Habeler, made the first successful climb without it. In 1980, Messner summited the mountain solo, without supplemental oxygen or any porters or climbing partners, on the more difficult northwest route. Once the climbing community was satisfied that the mountain could be climbed without supplemental oxygen, many purists then took the next logical step of insisting that is how it should be climbed.BOOK, Krakauer, Jon, Into Thin Air: A Personal Account of the Mt. Everest Disaster, 1997, Villard, New York, 978-0-679-45752-7, {{RP|154}}The aftermath of the 1996 disaster further intensified the debate. Jon Krakauer's Into Thin Air (1997) expressed the author's personal criticisms of the use of bottled oxygen. Krakauer wrote that the use of bottled oxygen allowed otherwise unqualified climbers to attempt to summit, leading to dangerous situations and more deaths. The disaster was partially caused by the sheer number of climbers (34 on that day) attempting to ascend, causing bottlenecks at the Hillary Step and delaying many climbers, most of whom summitted after the usual 14:00 turnaround time. He proposed banning bottled oxygen except for emergency cases, arguing that this would both decrease the growing pollution on Everest—many bottles have accumulated on its slopes—and keep marginally qualified climbers off the mountain.The 1996 disaster also introduced the issue of the guide's role in using bottled oxygen.WEB,weblink Everest controversy continues, Salon, 7 August 1998, 17 June 2016, DeWalt, Weston,weblink" title="">weblink 14 May 2011, Guide Anatoli Boukreev's decision not to use bottled oxygen was sharply criticised by Jon Krakauer. Boukreev's supporters (who include G. Weston DeWalt, who co-wrote The Climb) state that using bottled oxygen gives a false sense of security.WEB,weblink The Oxygen Illusion, The Anatoli Boukreev Memorial Fund, 24 June 2010, Krakauer and his supporters point out that, without bottled oxygen, Boukreev could not directly help his clients descend.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 3 March 2000, Coming Down, 3, Dwight, Garner, Salon, August 1998, They state that Boukreev said that he was going down with client Martin Adams, but just below the south summit, Boukreev determined that Adams was doing fine on the descent and so descended at a faster pace, leaving Adams behind. Adams states in The Climb, "For me, it was business as usual, Anatoli's going by, and I had no problems with that."BOOK, The Climb, Boukreev, Anatoli, DeWalt, Weston, St. Martins Paperbacks, 978-0-312-96533-4, 182, 1998, The Climb (book), The low oxygen can cause a mental fog-like impairment of cognitive abilities described as "delayed and lethargic thought process, clinically defined as bradypsychia" even after returning to lower altitudes.WEB,weblink This is your brain. This is your brain at altitude, Boulder Weekly, 20 September 2015, 14 June 2012, In severe cases, climbers can experience hallucinations. Some studies have found that high-altitude climbers, including Everest climbers, experience altered brain structure. The effects of high altitude on the brain, particularly if it can cause permanent brain damage, continue to be studied.

    Autumn climbing

    (File:Mount Everest as seen from Drukair.jpg|thumb|Everest in September 2006)Although generally less popular than spring, Mount Everest has also been climbed in the autumn (also called the "post-monsoon season").WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 21 July 2015, The Kathmandu Post :: Read the Post. Get Posted,, 20 September 2015, For example, in 2010 Eric Larsen and five Nepali guides summited Everest in the autumn for the first time in ten years. The first mainland British ascent of Mount Everest (Hillary was from New Zealand), which was also the first ascent via a face rather than a ridge, was the autumn 1975 Southwest Face expedition led by Chris Bonington.BOOK, K.S. Gulia, Discovering Himalaya : Tourism of Himalayan Region (2 Vols.),weblink 2007, Gyan Publishing House, 978-81-8205-410-3, 34, The autumn season, when the monsoon ends, is regarded as more dangerous because there is typically a lot of new snow which can be unstable.WEB,weblink Window of Opportunity: Everest Climbing Season Underway, AccuWeather, 20 September 2015, However, this increased snow can make it more popular with certain winter sports like skiing and snowboarding. Two Japanese also summited in October 1973.WEB,weblink Everest, Japanese summits, Chris Chandler and Bob Cormack summited Everest in October 1976 as part of the American Bicentennial Everest Expedition that year, the first Americans to make an autumn ascent of Mount Everest according to the Los Angeles Times.NEWS,weblink U.S. Climber Chris Chandler Dies on Nepal Peak, Los Angeles Times, 20 September 2015, 27 January 1985, By the 21st century, summer and autumn can be more popular with skiing and snowboard attempts on Mount Everest.WEB,weblink Asia, Nepal, Malahangur Asia, Nepal (Khumbu), Everest, Summer and Autumn Attempts with Ski and Snowboard – AAC Publications – Search The American Alpine Journal and Accidents in North American Mountaineering,, 20 September 2015, During the 1980s, climbing in autumn was actually more popular than in spring.JOURNAL,weblink Success & death on Everest, RB, Huey, R, Salisbury, American Alpine Journal, 2003, U.S. astronaut Karl Gordon Henize died in October 1993 on an autumn expedition, conducting an experiment on radiation. The amount of background radiation increases with higher altitudes.JOURNAL, 10.1088/0952-4746/21/1/003, 2001JRP....21....5T, Invited Editorial: Radiation exposures of aircrew in high altitude flight, Journal of Radiological Protection, 21, 1, 5–8, Townsend, Lawrence W, 2001, The mountain has also been climbed in the winter, but that is not popular because of the combination of cold high winds and shorter days.NEWS,weblink Nepal to cut fees for off-season Everest climbers, Reuters, 20 September 2015, 22 August 2007, By January the peak is typically battered by {{convert|170|mph|km/h|abbr=on}} winds and the average temperature of the summit is around −33 Â°F (−36 Â°C).

    Selected climbing records

    (File:KhumbuIcefall.jpg|thumb|The Khumbu Icefall in 2005)(File:Western Cwm - 14th May 2011.jpg|thumb|The Western Cwm ("Coom"), with Everest on the left and Lhotse to the right)By the end of the 2010 climbing season, there had been 5,104 ascents to the summit by about 3,142 individuals.WEB,weblink Full list of all ascents of Everest up to and including 2010,, 24 September 2011, 28 September 2011, Some notable "firsts" by climbers include:
    • 1922 – First climb to {{convert|8000|m|ft|0}}, by George Finch and Captain Geoffrey Bruce
    • 1952 – First climb to South Col by 1952 Swiss Mount Everest expedition
    • 1953 – First ascent, by Tenzing Norgay and Edmund Hillary on 1953 British Mount Everest expedition
    • 1960 – First reported ascent from the North Ridge by Wang Fuzhou, Gonpo and Qu Yinhua of China.
    • 1975 – First female ascent, by Junko Tabei (16 May).
    • 1975 – First female ascent from the North Ridge, by Phanthog, deputy head of the second Chinese Everest expedition that sent nine climbers to the summit (27 May).BOOK, Reinhold Messner, Everest: Expedition to the Ultimate,weblink 2014, Vertebrate Graphics Limited, 978-1-910240-21-2, 283, BOOK, John B West, High Life: A History of High-Altitude Physiology and Medicine,weblink 2013, Springer, 978-1-4614-7573-6, 487, NEWS,weblink PāndÄ“ng zhÅ« fÄ“ng chuánqí, People's Daily, Chinese, Everest Legend, 攀登珠峰传奇,
    • 1978 – First ascent without supplemental oxygen by Reinhold Messner and Peter HabelerWEB,weblink Everest – First without oxygen, PBS, NOVA Online, 2000, 28 March 2008,
    • 1978 – First solo ascent, by Franz OppurgGuinness Sports Record Book 1990–91, p. 143
    • 1980 – First winter ascent, by Polish National Expedition Winter 1979/1980 (Leszek Cichy and Krzysztof WielickiWEB,weblink Golden Decade: The Birth of 8000m Winter Climbing,, 18 March 2011, 28 May 2013, Starr, Daniel, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 8 May 1999, Mt Everest History and facts,, 17 June 2016, )
    • 1980 – First solo ascent without supplemental oxygen, by Reinhold Messner
    • 1988 – First "cross-over" climb by Chinese, Japanese and Nepalese teams which ascended the peak simultaneously from both the North and South sides of the mountain and descended down the other side.NEWS,weblink Victoria, James, Japan's Everest timeline, Japan Times, 27 May 2012, The cross-over climb was also the first to be recorded on live broadcast television.
    • 1988 – First descent by paraglider, by Jean-Marc BoivinNEWS,weblink A view from the top of the world, BBC News, 15 February 2007, 6 October 2010,
    • 1988 – First female ascent without supplemental oxygen by Lydia BradeyWEB,weblink Firsts, Everest, 8 February 2014,
    • 1998 – Fastest to reach the summit via the southeast ridge (South Col), without supplemental oxygen, by Kazi Sherpa, in 20 hours and 24 minutes.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 16 November 2012, Sherpa Attempts Everest Speed Climbing Record,, 24 October 2012, WEB,weblink New/Old Records Record,, 30 April 2013, BOOK, 1999 American Alpine Journal,weblink 25 April 2015, American Alpine Club Press, 978-1-933056-46-3, 374,
    • 2000 – First descent by ski by Davo KarničarNEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 22 June 2013, The man who skied down Everest, The Independent, London, Julia, Stuart, 10 October 2000,
    • 2001 – First ascent by a blind climber, Erik WeihenmayerNEWS, Greenfeld, Karl, Adventure: Blind To Failure,weblink 7 May 2013, Time Magazine, 18 June 2001,
    • 2001 – Lhakpa Sherpa becomes first Nepali woman to summit Everest and survive.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 20 February 2005, SAWNET: Who's Who: Lhakpa Sherpa,
    • 2004 – Fastest to reach the summit via the southeast ridge (South Col), with supplemental oxygen, by Pemba Dorje, in 8 hours and 10 minutes.NEWS,weblink BBC News, Sherpa sets record Everest time, 21 May 2004,
    • 2006 – Lhakpa Sherpa summits for the 6th time, breaking her own record for most successful female Everest climber.WEB,weblink The Most Successful Female Everest Climber of All Time Is a Housekeeper in Hartford, Connecticut, Grayson Schaffer, Outside Online, 10 May 2016,
    • 2007 – Fastest to reach the summit via the northeast ridge, without supplemental oxygen, by Christian Stangl, in 16 hours, 42 minutes.NEWS,weblink 58 Stunden, 45 Minuten, Süddeutsche Zeitung, 10 December 2007, German, WEB,weblink In 16 Stunden auf den Mount Everest,, 30 May 2006, 16 June 2016, German, In 16 hours to Mount Everest,
    • 2010 – Youngest male to reach the summit, by Jordan Romero (13-year and 10 months old)WEB,weblink Everest K2 News Explorersweb – the pioneers checkpoint,, 21 May 2010, 22 August 2010,
    • 2011 – Most times to reach the summit, Apa Sherpa (21 times; 10 May 1990 â€“ 11 May 2011)
    • 2013 – Apa Sherpa tied for most times to reach the summit by Phurba Tashi (21 times; 1999–2013)
    • 2013 – Melissa Arnot, American, summits for the 5th time breaking her own record for most successful summits by any non-Sherpa woman.WEB, O'Neil, Devon,weblink espnW – Melissa Arnot has conquered Mount Everest five times, but American is hailed as hero for playing peacemaker on mountain's slopes,, 14 November 2013, 17 June 2016,
    • 2014 – Youngest female to reach the summit, by Malavath Purna (13-year and 11 months old)
    • 2017 – Kami Rita Sherpa of Alpine Ascents reaches 21 ascents to the summit.WEB,weblink Nepal's Kami Rita becomes third person to scale Mt. Everest 21 times, IANS, Feeds, 27 May 2017,, 23 October 2017, WEB,weblink Nepalese creates record by scaling Mount Everest 21 times, 27 May 2017,, 23 October 2017,
    • 2019 – Kami Rita Sherpa reaches 24 ascents to the summit.NEWS,weblink Nepalese climber scales Everest record 24 times – with one more to go, The Guardian, 24 May 2019, 21 May 2019,

    Summiting with disabilities

    Summiting Everest with disabilities such as amputations and diseases has become popular in the 21st century, with stories like that of Sudarshan Gautam, a man with no arms who made it to the top in 2013.NEWS,weblink Canadian double-amputee summits Mount Everest, 30 May 2013, 31 May 2013, CBC News, CBC/Radio-Canada,, A teenager with Down's syndrome made it to Base camp, which has become a substitute for more extreme record-breaking because it carries many of the same thrills including the trip to the Himalayas and rustic scenery.NEWS,weblink Teen with Down syndrome becomes first ever to reach Mt. Everest base camp, Fox News, 20 September 2015, 1 April 2013, FOX, Danger lurks even at base camp though, which was the site where dozens were killed in the 2015 Mount Everest avalanches. Others that have climbed Everest with amputations include Mark Inglis (no legs), Paul Hockey (one arm only), and Arunima Sinha (one leg only).

    Everest and aviation

    1933: Flight over Everest

    Lucy, Lady Houston, a British millionaire former showgirl, funded the Houston Everest Flight of 1933. A formation of airplanes led by the Marquess of Clydesdale flew over the summit in an effort to photograph the unknown terrain .WEB,weblink Aeroplane expeditions to Everest,, 2010-02-13,

    1988: First climb and glide

    On 26 September 1988, having climbed the mountain via the south-east ridge, Jean-Marc Boivin made the first paraglider descent of Everest,NEWS,weblink A view from the top of the world, BBC News, 15 February 2007, 6 October 2010, in the process creating the record for the fastest descent of the mountain and the highest paraglider flight. Boivin said: "I was tired when I reached the top because I had broken much of the trail, and to run at this altitude was quite hard."JOURNAL, John, Harlin,weblink Get Down, Backpacker Magazine, May 1989, 11, Boivin ran {{convert|60|ft|abbr=on|order=flip}} from below the summit on 40-degree slopes to launch his paraglider, reaching Camp II at {{convert|19400|ft|abbr=on|order=flip}} in 12 minutes (some sources say 11 minutes).WEB,weblink Hang glider and Paraglider expeditions to Everest,, 2 October 2010, Boivin would not repeat this feat, as he was killed two years later in 1990, base-jumping off Venezuela's Angel Falls.WEB,weblink BASE Fatality List – Jean-Marc Boivin,, 23 January 2016, 17 June 2016,

    1991: Hot air balloon flyover

    In 1991 four men in two balloons achieved the first hot-air balloon flight over Mount Everest.WEB,weblink A Hot-Air Balloon Ride Over Mt. Everest Will Cost You $2.6 Million, In one balloon was Andy Elson and Eric Jones (cameraman), and in the other balloon Chris Dewhirst and Leo Dickinson (cameraman).WEB,weblink Andy Elson goes over the top,, 20 September 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, Dickinson went on to write a book about the adventure called Ballooning Over Everest. The hot-air balloons were modified to function at up to 40,000 feet altitude. Reinhold Messner called one of Dickinson's panoramic views of Everest, captured on the now discontinued Kodak Kodachrome film, the "best snap on Earth", according to UK newspaper The Telegraph.NEWS,weblink Spectacular panorama captured of the Himalayas from hot air balloon, 22 July 2009,, 20 September 2015, Dewhirst has offered to take passengers on a repeat of this feat for US$2.6 million per passenger.

    2005: Pilot summits Everest with helicopter

    (File:Eurocopter AS-350B-3 Ecureuil AN0980259.jpg|thumb|Photo of a Eurocopter AS350 B3 "Squirrel")In May 2005, pilot Didier Delsalle of France landed a Eurocopter AS350 B3 helicopter on the summit of Mount Everest.WEB,weblink Landing on Air, National Geographic Adventure, 1 September 2005, 24 June 2009, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 6 July 2016, He needed to land for two minutes to set the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) official record, but he stayed for about four minutes, twice. In this type of landing the rotors stay engaged, which avoids relying on the snow to fully support the aircraft. The flight set rotorcraft world records, for highest of both landing and take-off.Some press reports suggested that the report of the summit landing was a misunderstanding of a South Col landing, but he had also landed on South Col two days earlier,WEB,weblink French Everest Mystery Chopper's Utopia summit,, 27 May 2005, 20 September 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 13 January 2015, yes, with this landing and the Everest records confirmed by the FAI.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2 December 2008, Rotorcraft World Records, FAI, Delsalle also rescued two Japanese climbers at {{convert|16000|ft|m|-1|abbr=on|order=flip}} while he was there. One climber noted that the new record meant a better chance of rescue.

    2011 Paraglide off summit

    In 2011 two Nepali paraglided from the Everest Summit to Namche Bazaar in 42 minutes. They had run out of oxygen and supplies, so it was a very fast way off the mountain. The duo won National Geographic Adventurers of the Year for 2012 for their exploits.WEB,weblink Sano Babu Sunuwar and Lakpa Tsheri Sherpa, Adventurers of the Year 2012 – National Geographic,, 1 January 1970, 17 June 2016, After the paraglide they kayaked to the Indian Ocean, and they had made it to the Bay of Bengal by the end of June 2011. One had never climbed, and one had never para-glided, but together they accomplished a ground-breaking feat. By 2013 footage of the flight was shown on the television Nightline.WEB,weblink Ultimate Descent: Paragliding off Everest Video – ABC News,, 17 June 2016, (see also kayaking for more on this style of activity)

    2014: Helicopter-assisted ascent

    In 2014, a team financed and led by mountaineer Wang Jing used a helicopter to fly from South base camp to Camp 2 to avoid the Khumbu Icefall, and thence climbed to the Everest summit.WEB, Brown, Chip, Chinese Woman Becomes First to Summit Everest After Avalanche,weblink National Geographic, National Geographic Society, 16 December 2017, en, 25 May 2014, Next year I think maybe I will relax., This climb immediately sparked outrage and controversy in much of the mountaineering world over the legitimacy and propriety of her climb.WEB, Yelkov, Alexander, Ван Цзин – миллионерша, красавица, мама и скандальная рекордсменка мира (Wang Jing – millionaire, beauty, mother and scandalous world record holder),weblink ГорнЯшкА.рф,, 18 December 2017, ru, 20 April 2015, Nepal ended up investigating Wang, who initially denied the claim that she had flown to Camp 2, admitting only that some support crew were flown to that higher camp, over the Khumbu Icefall.WEB, Sharma, Gopal,weblink Nepal probes if Chinese woman used helicopter on Everest climb, Reuters, Reuters, 27 May 2014, 17 June 2016, In August 2014, however, she stated that she had flown to Camp 2 because the icefall was impassable. "If you don't fly to Camp II, you just go home," she said in an interview. In that same interview she also insisted that she had never tried to hide this fact.Her team had had to use the south side because the Chinese had denied them a permit to climb. Ultimately, the Chinese refusal may have been beneficial to Nepalese interests, allowing the government to showcase improved local hospitals and provided the opportunity for a new hybrid aviation/mountaineering style, triggering discussions about helicopter use in the mountaineering world. National Geographic noted that a village festooned Wang with honours after she donated US$30,000 to the town's hospital. Wang won the International Mountaineer of the Year Award from the Nepal government in June 2014.

    2016: Helicopter business increases

    In 2016 the increased use of helicopters was noted for increased efficiency and for hauling material over the deadly Khumbu icefall.WEB,weblink Helicopter transport flights to Everest high camps – Mount Everest, – Adventure Sports, 25 April 2015, 17 June 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 2 September 2016, In particular it was noted that flights saved icefall porters 80 trips but still increased commercial activity at Everest. After many Nepalis died in the icefall in 2014, the government had wanted helicopters to handle more transportation to Camp 1 but this was not possible because of the 2015 deaths and earthquake closing the mountain, so this was then implemented in 2016 (helicopters did prove instrumental in rescuing many people in 2015 though). That summer Bell tested the 412EPI, which conducted a series of tests including hovering at 18,000 feet and flying as high as 20,000 feet altitude near Mount Everest.WEB, Bergqvist, Pia,weblink Bell Helicopter Tests 412EPI Near Mount Everest | Flying Magazine,, 17 June 2016,

    Financial cost of guided climbs

    Going with a "celebrity guide", usually a well-known mountaineer typically with decades of climbing experience and perhaps several Everest summits, can cost over £100,000 as of 2015.NEWS,weblink Kenton Cool: my journey from a wheelchair to the peak of Mount Everest, 11 August 2015, The Telegraph, 20 September 2015, Stadlen, Matthew, On the other hand, a limited support service, offering only some meals at base camp and bureaucratic overhead like a permit, can cost as little as US$7,000 as of 2007. There are issues with the management of guiding firms in Nepal, and one Canadian woman was left begging for help when her guide firm, which she had paid perhaps US$40,000 to, couldn't stop her from dying in 2012. She ran out of bottled oxygen after climbing for 27 hours straight. Despite decades of concern over inexperienced climbers, neither she nor the guide firm had summited Everest before. The Tibetan/Chinese side has been described as "out of control" due to reports of thefts and threats. By 2015, Nepal was considering requiring that climbers have some experience and wanted to make the mountain safer, and especially increase revenue.NEWS, Jason Burke,weblink Mount Everest to be declared off-limits to inexperienced climbers, says Nepal, The Guardian, 28 September 2015, 17 June 2016, One barrier to this is that low-budget firms make money not taking inexperienced climbers to the summit.WEB,weblink Mt Everest 'summit fever': Why climbers make poor decisions near peak, Herald Sun, 28 May 2016, 17 June 2016, {{Subscription required|date=June 2016}} Those turned away by Western firms can often find another firm willing to take them for a price{{mdash}}that they return home soon after arriving after base camp, or part way up the mountain. Whereas a Western firm will convince those they deem incapable to turn back, other firms simply give people the freedom to choose.

    Commercial climbing

    (File:The World’s Tallest Mountain (15473492788).jpg|thumb|Top down view showing the location of the summit, and its three main faces/sides)(File:Kathmandu , Nepal , Himalayas ,Everest 2.jpg|thumb|Everest base camp)(File:Nepal - Sagamartha Trek - 170 - Gorak Shep (497708037).jpg|thumb|Gorak Shep is about a three-hour walk to South EBC (Everest Base Camp).WEB,weblink Nepal – Gokyo valley and Everest Base Camp trek, )Climbing Mount Everest can be a relatively expensive undertaking for climbers. Climbing gear required to reach the summit may cost in excess of US$8,000, and most climbers also use bottled oxygen, which adds around US$3,000. The permit to enter the Everest area from the south via Nepal costs US$10,000 to US$25,000 per person, depending on the size of the team. The ascent typically starts at one of the two base camps near the mountain, both of which are approximately {{convert|100|km|mi|-1}} from Kathmandu and {{convert|300|km|mi}} from Lhasa (the two nearest cities with major airports). Transferring one's equipment from the airport to the base camp may add as much as US$2,000.{{citation needed|date=April 2014}}By 2016, most guiding services cost between US$35,000–200,000. However, the services offered vary widely and it is "buyer beware" when doing deals in Nepal, one of the poorest and least developed countries in the world.WEB,weblink Nepal, Developing World Connections, 25 April 2015, 17 June 2016, Tourism is about four percent of Nepal's economy, but Everest is special in that an Everest porter can make nearly double the nations's average wage in a region in which other sources of income are lacking.WEB, Conger, Cristen,weblink How has Mount Everest tourism affected Nepal? | HowStuffWorks,, 1 April 2008, 17 June 2016, Beyond this point, costs may vary widely. It is technically possible to reach the summit with minimal additional expenses, and there are "budget" travel agencies which offer logistical support for such trips. However, this is considered difficult and dangerous (as illustrated by the case of David Sharp). Many climbers hire "full service" guide companies, which provide a wide spectrum of services, including acquisition of permits, transportation to/from base camp, food, tents, fixed ropes,WEB,weblink Fixed ropes, medical assistance while on the mountain, an experienced mountaineer guide, and even personal porters to carry one's backpack and cook one's meals. The cost of such a guide service may range from US$40,000–80,000 per person.WEB,weblink What It Costs To Climb Mount Everest, 2 May 2016, Since most equipment is moved by Sherpas, clients of full-service guide companies can often keep their backpack weights under {{convert|10|kg}}, or hire a Sherpa to carry their backpack for them. By contrast, climbers attempting less commercialised peaks, like Denali, are often expected to carry backpacks over {{convert|30|kg}} and, occasionally, to tow a sled with {{convert|35|kg}} of gear and food.WEB,weblink The Physical Demands of Climbing Denali, According to Jon Krakauer, the era of commercialisation of Everest started in 1985, when the summit was reached by a guided expedition led by David Breashears that included Richard Bass, a wealthy 55-year-old businessman and an amateur mountain climber with only four years of climbing experience.JOURNAL,weblink Conquers Mt. Everest to Fulfill Dream: Millionaire First to Climb Summits of All Continents, Los Angeles Times, Bill, Stall, 2 May 1985, By the early-1990s, several companies were offering guided tours to the mountain. Rob Hall, one of the mountaineers who died in the 1996 disaster, had successfully guided 39 clients to the summit before that incident.{{RP|24,42}}The degree of commercialisation of Mount Everest is a frequent subject of criticism.NEWS, Jenkins, Mark, Maxed Out on Everest,weblink 31 January 2017, National Geographic, June 2013, Jamling Tenzing Norgay, the son of Tenzing Norgay, said in a 2003 interview that his late father would have been shocked to discover that rich thrill-seekers with no climbing experience were now routinely reaching the summit, "You still have to climb this mountain yourself with your feet. But the spirit of adventure is not there any more. It is lost. There are people going up there who have no idea how to put on crampons. They are climbing because they have paid someone $65,000. It is very selfish. It endangers the lives of others."NEWS,weblink Everest's decline blamed on trail of rich tourists, The Guardian, London, Reinhold Messner concurred in 2004, "You could die in each climb and that meant you were responsible for yourself. We were real mountaineers: careful, aware and even afraid. By climbing mountains we were not learning how big we were. We were finding out how breakable, how weak and how full of fear we are. You can only get this if you expose yourself to high danger. I have always said that a mountain without danger is not a mountain....High altitude alpinism has become tourism and show. These commercial trips to Everest, they are still dangerous. But the guides and organisers tell clients, "Don't worry, it's all organised." The route is prepared by hundreds of Sherpas. Extra oxygen is available in all camps, right up to the summit. People will cook for you and lay out your beds. Clients feel safe and don't care about the risks.NEWS,weblink Home on the range, The Guardian, London, However, not all opinions on the subject among prominent mountaineers are strictly negative. For example, Edmund Hillary, who went on record saying that he has not liked "the commercialization of mountaineering, particularly of Mount Everest"WEB,weblink Sir Edmund Hillary: The Right Stuff, and claimed that "Having people pay $65,000 and then be led up the mountain by a couple of experienced guides...isn't really mountaineering at all",NEWS,weblink Hillary laments Everest changes, BBC News, 26 May 2003, nevertheless noted that he was pleased by the changes brought to Everest area by Westerners, "I don't have any regrets because I worked very hard indeed to improve the condition for the local people. When we first went in there they didn't have any schools, they didn't have any medical facilities, all over the years we have established 27 schools, we have two hospitals and a dozen medical clinics and then we've built bridges over wild mountain rivers and put in fresh water pipelines so in cooperation with the Sherpas we've done a lot to benefit them."WEB,weblink Interview with Sir Edmund Hillary, Foreign Correspondent, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, ABC, 29 April 2003, 26 April 2014, One of the early guided summiters, Richard Bass (of Seven Summits fame) responded in an interview about Everest climbers and what it took to survive there, "Climbers should have high altitude experience before they attempt the really big mountains. People don't realise the difference between a 20,000-foot mountain and 29,000 feet. It's not just arithmetic. The reduction of oxygen in the air is proportionate to the altitude alright, but the effect on the human body is disproportionate—an exponential curve. People climb Denali [20,320 feet] or Aconcagua [22,834 feet] and think, 'Heck, I feel great up here, I’m going to try Everest.' But it's not like that."WEB,weblink The Adventurer: Dick Bass' Many Summits, James Clash, 12 November 2003, Forbes, 20 September 2015,

    Law and order

    Some climbers have reported life-threatening thefts from supply caches. Vitor Negrete, the first Brazilian to climb Everest without oxygen and part of David Sharp's party, died during his descent, and theft of gear and food from his high-altitude camp may have contributed.WEB, Everest fatality silence mystery solved: British David Sharp left to die by 40 climbers,weblink, WEB, Brazilian Vitor Negrete lost on Everest after a no O2 summit,weblink, "Several members were bullied, gear was stolen, and threats were made against me and my climbing partner, Michael Kodas, making an already stressful situation even more dire", said one climber.NEWS,weblink Guest Insights: A leadership nightmare turned Everest triumph, Parmenter, Anne, Washington Post, 20 September 2015, In addition to theft, Michael Kodas describes in his book, High Crimes: The Fate of Everest in an Age of Greed (2008):BOOK, Kodas, Michael, High Crimes: The Fate of Everest in an Age of Greed, 2008, Hyperion, 978-1-4013-0273-3, unethical guides and Sherpas, prostitution and gambling at the Tibet Base Camp, fraud related to the sale of oxygen bottles, and climbers collecting donations under the pretense of removing trash from the mountain.WEB,weblink Go Sell It on the Mountain, Mother Jones, 1 February 2008, NEWS, Bristow, Michael, Everest base camp a 'wild-west town', BBC News,weblink 13 July 2007, 31 March 2010, The Chinese side of Everest in Tibet was described as "out of control" after one Canadian had all his gear stolen and was abandoned by his Sherpa.WEB,weblink Manny Pizarro robbed and abandoned by Sherpa after summiting Everest – being helped down by DCXP's sirdar,, Chessell, Duncan, Another sherpa helped the victim get off the mountain safely and gave him some spare gear. Other climbers have also reported missing oxygen bottles, which can be worth hundreds of dollars each. One problem is: hundreds of climbers pass by people's tents. Another is: weather can damage or even blow people's equipment away.In the late 2010s, the reports of theft of oxygen bottles from camps became more common.WEB,weblink Two Climbers Return to Everest to Snapchat the Summit, 14 April 2017,, 23 October 2017, Westerners have sometimes struggled to understand the ancient culture and desperate poverty that drives some locals, some of whom have a different concept of the value of a human life.NEWS,weblink Nepal trekkers 'kicked out of lodge during snow storm' blame local greed for eight deaths, Dean, Nelson, 17 October 2014, 23 October 2017,, NEWS,weblink Nepal blizzard: survivor tells of friends' deaths on Annapurna circuit, Jason, Burke, 16 October 2014, 23 October 2017, The Guardian, For example, for just 1,000 rupees (£6.30) per person, several foreigners were forced to leave the lodge where they were staying and tricked into believing they were being led to safety. Instead they were abandoned and died in the snowstorm.

    2014 Sherpa strike

    On 18 April 2014, in one of the worst disasters to ever hit the Everest climbing community up to that time, 16 Sherpas died in Nepal due to the avalanche that swept them off Mount Everest. In response to the tragedy numerous Sherpa climbing guides walked off the job and most climbing companies pulled out in respect for the Sherpa people mourning the loss.NEWS, NPR,weblink Sherpas Walk Off The Job After Deadly Avalanche, McCarthy, Julie, 24 April 2014, 26 April 2014, NEWS, Sherpas Consider Boycott After Everest Disaster, Associated Press, NPR, 21 April 2014,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 21 April 2014, 26 April 2014, Some still wanted to climb but there was really too much controversy to continue that year. One of the issues that triggered the work action by Sherpas was unreasonable client demands during climbs.

    Extreme sports at Mount Everest

    (File:Img20040730 0302 at neustift.jpg|thumb|A paraglider at Neustift, Tirol, Austria)Mount Everest has been host to other winter sports and adventuring besides mountaineering, including snowboarding, skiing, paragliding, and BASE jumping.Yuichiro Miura became the first man to ski down Everest in the 1970s. He descended nearly 4,200 vertical feet from the South Col before falling with extreme injuries. Stefan Gatt and Marco Siffredi snowboarded Mount Everest in 2001.WEB,weblink Mount Everest Snowboard Controversy Solved, 27 June 2001, TransWorld SNOWboarding, 20 September 2015, Other Everest skiers include Davo Karničar of Slovenia, who completed a top to south base camp descent in 2000, Hans Kammerlander of Italy in 1996 on the north side,WEB,weblink Skiing Down Mount Everest and the World's Highest Peaks,, 17 June 2016, and Kit DesLauriers of the United States in 2006.BOOK, Salisbury, Richard, The Himalayan database the expedition archives of Elizabeth Hawley, 2004, American Alpine Club Press, Golden, CO, 978-0-930410-99-5,weblink In 2006 Swede Tomas Olsson and Norwegian Tormod Granheim skied together down the north face. Olsson's anchor broke while they were rappelling down a cliff in the Norton couloir at about 8,500 metres, resulting in his death from a two and a half-kilometre fall. Granheim skied down to camp III.WEB,weblink Tomas Olsson found dead – Skiing down from the North side of Mount Everest ended in tragedy!,, 20 September 2015, Also, Marco Siffredi died in 2002 on his second snow-boarding expedition.Various types of gliding descents have slowly become more popular, and are noted for their rapid descents to lower camps. In 1986 Steve McKinney led an expedition to Mount Everest,BOOK, Walt Unsworth, Everest: The Mountaineering History,weblink 2000, Mountaineers, London, 978-0-89886-670-4, 626, during which he became the first person to fly a hang-glider off the mountain. Frenchman Jean-Marc Boivin made the first paraglider descent of Everest in September 1988, descending in minutes from the south-east ridge to a lower camp. In 2011, two Nepalese made a gliding descent from the Everest summit down {{convert|16400|ft|m|order=flip}} in 45 minutes.WEB,weblink Ultimate Adventure Bucket List – Dream Trip: Make the Ultimate Descent, Sano Babu Sunuwar, Lakpa Tsheri Sherpa, yes, National Geographic, 20 September 2015, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 18 September 2015, On 5 May 2013, the beverage company Red Bull sponsored Valery Rozov, who successfully BASE jumped off of the mountain while wearing a wingsuit, setting a record for world's highest BASE jump in the process.WEB, Cooper, Tarquin, 28 May 2013,weblink Valery Rozov BASE Jumps From Mt Everest, Red Bull,

    Everest and religion

    File:Rongbuk Monastery Everest.jpg|thumb|right|The Rongphu MonasteryRongphu MonasteryThe southern part of Mount Everest is regarded as one of several "hidden valleys" of refuge designated by Padmasambhava, a ninth-century "lotus-born" Buddhist saint.Near the base of the north side of Everest lies Rongbuk Monastery, which has been called the "sacred threshold to Mount Everest, with the most dramatic views of the world."WEB, Gilbert, Jeanne-Marie, Rongbuk Monastery,weblink PBS, 14 September 2013, November 2000, For Sherpas living on the slopes of Everest in the Khumbu region of Nepal, Rongbuk Monastery is an important pilgrimage site, accessed in a few days of travel across the Himalayas through Nangpa La.BOOK, Tenzing, Norgay, James, Ramsey Ullman, Tenzing Norgay, James Ramsey Ullman, Man of Everest: The Autobiography of Tenzing,weblink 1955, G.G. Harrap, also published as Tiger of the Snows, 320, Miyolangsangma, a Tibetan Buddhist "Goddess of Inexhaustible Giving", is believed to have lived at the top of Mt Everest. According to Sherpa Buddhist monks, Mt Everest is Miyolangsangma's palace and playground, and all climbers are only partially welcome guests, having arrived without invitation.The Sherpa people also believe that Mount Everest and its flanks are blessed with spiritual energy, and one should show reverence when passing through this sacred landscape. Here, the karmic effects of one's actions are magnified, and impure thoughts are best avoided.NEWS, Coburn, Broughton, Mount Everest Fight Raises Questions About Sherpas,weblink National Geographic News, 14 September 2013, National Geographic Society, National Geographic Partners, LLC., 1 May 2013,

    Waste management

    In 2015 the president of the Nepal Mountaineering Association warned that pollution, especially human waste, has reached critical levels. As much as "26,500 pounds of human excrement" each season is left behind on the mountain.NEWS, Holley, Peter, Morning Mix Decades of human waste have made Mount Everest a 'fecal time bomb',weblink 31 January 2017, Washington Post, 3 March 2015, Human waste is strewn across the verges of the route to the summit, making the four sleeping areas on the route up Everest's south side minefields of human excrement. Climbers above Base Camp—for the 62-year history of climbing on the mountain—have most commonly either buried their excrement in holes they dug by hand in the snow, or slung it into crevasses, or simply defecated wherever convenient, often within meters of their tents. The only place where climbers can defecate without worrying about contaminating the mountain is Base Camp. At approximately 18,000 feet, Base Camp sees the most activity of all camps on Everest because climbers acclimate and rest there. In the late-1990s, expeditions began using toilets that they fashioned from blue plastic 50-gallon barrels fitted with a toilet seat and enclosed.NEWS, Bishop, Brent, Peak Poop: The Feces Problem on Everest Needs a Solution,weblink 31 January 2017, Outside Online, 7 April 2015, Mariah Media Network LLC., The problem of human waste is compounded by the presence of more anodyne waste: spent oxygen tanks, abandoned tents, empty cans and bottles. The Nepalese government now requires each climber to pack out eight kilograms of waste when descending the mountain.NEWS, Saul, Heather, Human waste left by climbers on Mount Everest is causing pollution and could spread diseases,weblink 31 January 2017, The Independent, 3 March 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 22 December 2017, no, In February 2019, due to the mounting waste problem, China closed the base camp on its side of Everest to visitors without climbing permits. Tourists are allowed to go as far as the Rongbuk Monastery.NEWS,weblink China closes Everest base camp to tourists, 15 February 2019, 15 February 2019, en-GB, In April 2019, the Solukhumbu district's Khumbu Pasanglhamu Rural Municipality launched a campaign to collect nearly 10,000 kg of garbage from Everest.WEB,weblink Major cleanup of Everest aims to bring back 10,000kg of garbage, bodies of dead climbers, hermesauto, 29 April 2019, The Straits Times, en, 1 May 2019,


    (File:Gaurisankar 1890.jpg|thumb|1890 graphic with the Himalayas, including Gaurisankar (Mount Everest) in the distance)
    • Peak XV (British Empire's Survey)
    • "The Bastard" (Hillary)NEWS, Sherpa, Phurba,weblink Mount Everest death toll rises to five,, 28 May 2016, 17 June 2016,
    • Romanised Tibetan name: "Chomolongma"
    • Romanised Chinese name: "Mount Qomolangma"
    • Romanised Nepalese name: "Sagar-Matha" (usually Sagarmatha)
    • Old Darjeeling name: "Deodungha"WEB,weblink 5 Everest facts,, 1 June 2016, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 6 April 2016,
    • Mount Everest
    • "Gauri Shankar" or "Gaurisankar"; in modern times the name is used for a different peak about 30 miles away, but was used occasionally until about 1900BOOK, H.P.S. Ahluwalia, Faces of Everest,weblink 1978, Vikas Publishing House, 978-0-7069-0563-2,

    Context and maps

    Nearby peaks include Lhotse, {{convert|8516|m|ft|abbr=on}}; Nuptse, {{convert|7855|m|ft|abbr=on}}, and Changtse, {{convert|7580|m|ft|abbr=on}} among others. Another nearby peak is Khumbutse, and many of the highest mountains in the world are near Mount Everest. On the southwest side, a major feature in the lower areas is the Khumbu icefall and glacier, a famous obstacle to climbers on those routes but also to the base camps.{{Himalaya annotated imagemap|width=600|caption=Southern and northern climbing routes as seen from the International Space Station. (The names on the photo are links to corresponding pages.)}}

    See also

    {{div col|colwidth=30em}} {{div col end}}


    WEB,weblink Geology of Mount Everest
    ,, 13 November 2018,

    NEWS,weblink Sherpa Guides Scale Everest to Pave Way for Others Climbers
    , 13 May 2018, The New York Times, 14 May 2018, en-US, 0362-4331
    , 13 May 2018,

    WEB,weblink No Longer Everest but Mount Qomolangma, People's Daily, People's Daily Online
    , 20 November 2002, 9 June 2005,

    , Will Everest's Climbing Circus Slow Down After Disasters?, Parker, Laura, 13 May 2015
    , News, National Geographic, 6 July 2015,

    Further reading

    {{For|1924 Mount Everest expedition|1924 British Mount Everest expedition#Bibliography}}{{For|first ascent of Mount Everest|1953 British Mount Everest expedition#Further reading}}
    • BOOK, Astill, Tony, Mount Everest: The Reconnaissance 1935, 2005,
    • BOOK, Boukreev, Anatoli, Anatoli Boukreev, DeWalt, G. Weston, The Climb: Tragic Ambitions on Everest, Saint Martin's Press, 1997, 978-0-312-16814-8,
    • BOOK, Edmund, Hillary, Edmund Hillary, High Adventure, London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1953,
    • BOOK, Reinhold Messner, Messner, Reinhold, The Crystal Horizon: Everest – the first solo ascent, Seattle, The Mountaineers, 1989, 978-0-89886-207-2,
    • BOOK, W.H. Murray, Murray, W.H., The Story of Everest, 1921–1952, London, J.M. Dent & Sons, 1953,
    • BOOK, Tenzing Norgay, Norgay, Tenzing, Ullman, Ramsey James, Tiger of the Snows, New York, Putnam, 1955,
    • BOOK, Bill Tilman, Tilman, H.W., Nepal Himalaya, Cambridge University Press, 1952,
    • MAGAZINE, Mount Everest: Surveying the Third Pole, Bradford, Washburn, National Geographic (magazine), National Geographic, 652–659, 174, 5, November 1988, 0027-9358, 643483454,

    External links

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