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Miao people
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{{multiple issues|{{More citations needed|date=November 2009}}{{Essay|date=April 2010}}{{undue weight|date=January 2019}}}}







factoids
200 px)|caption=Headdress of the Long-horn Miao—one of the small branches of Miao living in the 12 villages near Zhijin County, Guizhou| population = 11–12 millionChina}}| pop1 = 9,426,007 (2010)Vietnam}}| pop2 = 1,068,189 (2009)Laos}}| pop3 = 595,028 (2015)United States}}| pop4 = 247,595 (2010)| ref4 = Elizabeth M. Hoeffel, Sonya Rastogi, Myoung Ouk Kim, Hasan Shaid.(2010) The Asian Population: 2010. 2010 Census Briefs.Thailand}}| pop5 = 151,080 (2002)France}}| pop6 = 13,000Australia}}| pop7 = 2,190TITLE=THE COUNTRIES OF BIRTH AND ETHNICITIES OF AUSTRALIA'S HMONG AND LAO COMMUNITIES: AN ANALYSIS OF RECENT AUSTRALIAN CENSUS DATADATE=30 MARCH 2010URL=HTTPS://RESEARCHONLINE.JCU.EDU.AU/8905/, 16 July 2017, Hmongic languages, Mandarin Chinese>Mandarin, Cantonese Chinese, Vietnamese language>Vietnamese, Tai–Kadai languages (Lao language>Lao and Thai language), French language>French|rels=Miao folk religion. Minorities: Taoism, Atheism, Irreligion, Christianity, Buddhism}}







factoids
The Miao is an ethnic group belonging to South China, and is recognized by the government of China as one of the 55 official minority groups. Miao is a Chinese term and does not reflect the self-designations of the component groups of people, which include (with some variant spellings) Hmong, Hmu, Xong (Qo-Xiong), and A-Hmao.The Chinese government has grouped these people and other non-Miao peoples together as one group, whose members may not necessarily be either linguistically or culturally related, though the majority are members of Miao-Yao language family, which includes the Hmong, Hmub, Xong and A-Hmao and the majority do share cultural similarities. Many Miao groups cannot communicate with each other in their native tongues and have different histories and cultures. Many groups designated as Miao by the PRC do not even agree that they belong to the ethnic group, though some Miao groups, such as the Hmong do agree with the collective grouping as a single ethnic group – Miao.The Miao live primarily in southern China's mountains, in the provinces of Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangxi, Guangdong and Hainan. Some sub-groups of the Miao, most notably the Hmong people, have migrated out of China into Southeast Asia (Burma (Myanmar), northern Vietnam, Laos and Thailand). Following the communist takeover of Laos in 1975, a large group of Hmong refugees resettled in several Western nations, mainly in the United States, France, and Australia.

Nomenclature: Miao and Hmong

File: Miao musicians.jpg|thumb|Miao musicians from the Langde Miao Ethnic Village, GuizhouGuizhouFile: Lang De Girls.jpg|thumb|Miao girls also from Lang De, GuizhouGuizhouFile: Miao woman in Yangshuo (China).jpg|thumb|Young Miao woman in Yangshuo CountyYangshuo CountyThe term "Miao" gained official status in 1949 as a minzu (ethnic group) encompassing a group of linguistically-related ethnic minorities in Southwest China. This was part of a larger effort to identify and classify minority groups to clarify their role in the national government, including establishing autonomous administrative divisions and allocating the seats for representatives in provincial and national government.Schein, Louisa. "The Miao in contemporary China." In The Hmong in transition. Edited by Hendricks, G. L., Downing, B. T., & Deinard, A. S. Staten Island: Center for migration studies (1986): 73-85.Historically, the term "Miao" had been applied inconsistently to a variety of non-Han peoples. Early Western writers used Chinese-based names in various transcriptions: Miao, Miao-tse, Miao-tsze, Meau, Meo, mo, Miao-tseu etc. In Southeast Asian contexts words derived from the Chinese "Miao" took on a sense which was perceived as derogatory by the Hmong subgroup living in that region. There has been a recent tendency by Hmong Americans to group all Miao peoples together under the term Hmong because of the perceived potential derogatory use of the term Miao. This, however, fails to recognize that the Hmong are only a subgroup within the broader linguistic and cultural family of Miao people and the vast majority of Miao people do not classify themselves as Hmong and have their own names for themselves. In China, however, the term has no such context and is used by the Miao people themselves, of every group.Tapp, Nicholas. "Cultural Accommodations in Southwest China: the 'Han Miao' and Problems in the Ethnography of the Hmong." Asian Folklore Studies, Vol. 61, 2002: 77-104.The increased presence of the Hmong subgroup outside of China has led to a situation where the entire Miao linguistic/cultural family is sometimes mistakenly referred to as Hmong in English language sources. Following the recent increased interaction of Hmong in the West with Miao in China, it is reported that some non-Hmong Miao who are previously completely unaware of the English term "Hmong", have even begun to mistakenly identify themselves as Hmong, because of the promotion of the term by Hmong Americans in English. However, most non-Hmong Miao in China are unfamiliar with the term as referring to their entire group and continue to use "Miao", or their own separate ethnic self-designation.Though the Miao themselves use various self-designations, the Chinese traditionally classify them according to the most characteristic color of the women's clothes. The list below contains some of these self-designations, the color designations, and the main regions inhabited by the four major groups of Miao in China:

Demographics

missing image!
- Yuanyang miao women.jpg -
Miao women during market day in Laomeng village, Yuanyang County, Yunnan, China
File: Miao enclave in China 1891.jpg|right|thumb|Detail from Stielers Hand-Atlas, 1891, showing a "Miao-tse" enclave between Guiyang and GuilinGuilinAccording to the 2000 census, the number of Miao in China was estimated to be about 9.6 million. Outside of China, members of the Miao linguistic/cultural family sub-group or nations of the Hmong live in Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and Burma due to outward migrations starting in the 18th century. As a result of recent migrations in the aftermath of the Indochina and Vietnam Wars from 1949–75, many Hmong people now live in the United States, French Guiana, France and Australia. Altogether, there are approximately 8 million speakers in the Miao language family. This language family, which consists of 6 languages and around 35 dialects (some of which are mutually intelligible) belongs to the Hmong/Miao branch of the Hmong–Mien (Miao–Yao) language family.The Hmong live primarily in the northern mountainous reaches of Southeast Asia including Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, and in far Southwest China mostly in the provinces of Yunnan, Guangxi, and to a very limited extent in Guizhou. There are about 1.5–2 million Hmong in China.
Note: The Miao areas of Sichuan province became part of the newly created Chongqing Municipality in 1997.
Most Miao currently live in China. Miao population growth in China:
  • 1953: 2,510,000
  • 1964: 2,780,000
  • 1982: 5,030,000
  • 1990: 7,390,000
3,600,000 Miao, about half of the entire Chinese Miao population, were in Guizhou in 1990. The Guizhou Miao and those in the following six provinces make up over 98% of all Chinese Miao: In the above provinces, there are 6 Miao autonomous prefectures (shared officially with one other ethnic minority): There are in addition 23 Miao autonomous counties:
  • Hunan:Mayang (麻阳 : Máyáng), Jingzhou (靖州 : JÄ«ngzhōu), and Chengbu (城步: Chéngbù)
  • Guizhou: Songtao (松桃 : Sōngtáo), Yingjiang (印江 : Yìnjiāng), Wuchuan (务川 : Wùchuān), Daozhen (道真: DÇŽozhÄ“n), Zhenning (镇宁 : Zhènníng), Ziyun (紫云 : Zǐyún), Guanling (关岭 : Guānlíng), and Weining (威宁 : WÄ“iníng)
  • Yunnan: Pingbian (屏边 : Píngbiān), Jinping (金平 : JÄ«npíng), and Luquan (禄劝: Lùquàn)
  • Chongqing: Xiushan (秀山 : Xiùshān), Youyang (酉阳 : YÇ’uyáng), Qianjiang (黔江 : Qiánjiāng), and Pengshui (å½­æ°´ : Péngshuǐ)
  • Guangxi: Rongshui (融水 : Róngshuǐ), Longsheng (龙胜 : LóngshÄ“ng), and Longlin (隆林 : Lōnglín) (including Hmong)
  • Hainan Province: Qiong (琼中 : Qióngzhōng) and Baoting (保亭 : BÇŽotíng)
Most Miao reside in hills or on mountains, such as
  • Wuling Mountain by the Qianxiang River (湘黔川边的武陵山 : Xiāngqián Chuān Biān Dí WÇ”líng Shān)
  • Miao Mountain (è‹—å²­ : Miáo Líng), Qiandongnan
  • Yueliang Mountain (月亮山 : Yuèliàng Shān), Qiandongnan
  • Greater and Lesser Ma Mountain (大小麻山 : Dà XiÇŽo Má Shān), Qiannan
  • Greater Miao Mountain (大苗山 : Dà Miáo Shān), Guangxi
  • Wumeng Mountain by the Tianqian River (滇黔川边的乌蒙山 : Tiánqián Chuān Biān Dí WÅ«mÄ“ng Shān)
Several thousands of Miao left their homeland to move to larger cities like Guangzhou and Beijing. There are 2,000,000 Hmong spread throughout northern Vietnam, Laos, Burma, and on other continents. 174,000 live in Thailand, where they are one of the six main hill tribes.{{gallery|lines=4|width=225Young ethnic Miao boy in Guizhou, ChinaTraditional Miao Boat used to travel down rapids for trading goods.Traditional Miao irrigation system made entirely of wood planks (Yunnan Province)}}

History

{{Unreferenced section|date=February 2007}}{{Unbalanced section|date=April 2010}}(File:Hmong diaspora.png|thumb|350px|The migration of the Hmong according to legend.WEB,weblink Commentary: Challenges and Complexity in the Re-Construction of Hmong History, Yang, Kou, 2010, www.ingentaconnect.com, en, 2019-03-10, )

History according to Chinese legend and other considerations

According to Chinese legend, the Miao who descended from the Jiuli tribe led by Chiyou ({{zh|c=蚩尤 |p=Chīyóu}}) were defeated at the Battle of Zhuolu ({{zh|labels=no |c=涿鹿 |p=Zhuōlù}}, a defunct prefecture on the border of present provinces of Hebei and Liaoning) by the military coalition of Huang Di ({{zh|labels=no |t=黃帝 |p=Huángdì}}) and Yan Di, leaders of the Huaxia ({{zh|labels=no |t=華夏 |p=Huáxià}}) tribe as the two tribes struggled for supremacy of the Yellow River valley.

Archaeological discoveries

missing image!
- LongjiTerraces.jpg -
Rice terrace farming in Longji, Guangxi, China.
According to André-Georges Haudricourt and David Strecker's claims based on limited secondary data, the Miao were among the first people to settle in present-day China.JOURNAL, Haudricourt, Andre, Strecker, Hmong–Mien (Miao–Yao) Loans in Chinese, T'oung Pao, 77, 4-5, 1991, 335–341, They claim that the Han borrowed a lot of words from the Miao in regard to rice farming. This indicated that the Miao were among the first rice farmers in China. In addition, some have connected the Miao to the Daxi Culture (5,300 – 6,000 years ago) in the middle Yangtze River region.JOURNAL, Wen, Bo, Li, Hui, Gao, Song, Mao, Xianyun, Gao, Yang, Li, Feng, Zhang, Feng, He, Yungang, Dong, Yongli, Zhang, Youjun, Huang, Wenju, Jin, Jianzhong, Xiao, Chunjie, Lu, Daru, Chakraborty, Ranajit, Su, Bing, Deka, Ranjan, Jin, Li,weblink Genetic Structure of (H)mong-Mien Speaking Populations in East Asia as Revealed by mtDNA Lineages, Oxford Journal of Molecular Biology and Evolution, 2005, 22, 3, 725–734, 10.1093/molbev/msi055, The Daxi Culture has been credited with being amongst the first cultivators of rice in the Far East by Western scholars. However, in 2006 rice cultivation was found to have existed in the Shandong province even earlier than the Daxi Culture.JOURNAL, Crawford, G. W., X. Chen, J. Wang, Houli Culture Rice from the Yuezhuang Site, Jinan, Kaogu [Archaeology], 3, 247–251, 2006, zh, Though the Yuezhuang culture has cultivated rice, it is more of collected wild rice and not actual cultivated and domesticated rice like that of the Daxi.A western study mention that the Miao (especially the Miao-Hunan) have some DNA from the Northeast people of China, but has origins in southern china. Recent DNA samples of Miao males contradict this theory. The White Hmong have 25% C, 8% D, & 6% N(Tat)WEB,weblink a topology table showing the hierarchy for Table 1, yet they have the least contact with the Han population.(File:Silken banner section, Western Han.jpg|thumb|300px|A Western Han painting on silk near Changsha in Hunan province.)

Chu

In 2002, the Chu language has been identified as perhaps having influence from Tai–Kam and Miao–Yao languages by researchers at University of Massachusetts Amherst.Chu Language Rhymes at University of Massachusetts Amherst

Qin and Han dynasties

The term Miao was first used by the Han Chinese in pre-Qin times (in other words, before 221 BC) for designating non-Han Chinese groups in the south. It was often used in combination: "nanmiao", "miaomin", "youmiao" and "sanmiao" ({{zh|labels=no |c=三苗 |p=Sānmiáo}})

Ming and Qing dynasties

During the Ming and Qing dynasties (1368–1911) 'miao' and 'man' were both used, the second possibly to designate the Yao ({{zh|labels=no |c=å‚œ |p=Yáo}}) people. The Yuan, Ming, and Qing Dynasties could neither fully assimilate nor control the indigenous people.During the Miao Rebellions, when Miao tribes rebelled, Ming troops, including Han Chinese, Hui people, and Uyghurs crushed the rebels, killing thousands of them.BOOK,weblink Negotiating ethnicity in China: citizenship as a response to the state, Chih-yu Shih, Zhiyu Shi, 2002, Psychology Press, 0415283728, 133, 2010-06-28, BOOK,weblink The Cambridge history of China: The Ming dynasty, 1368-1644, Part 1, Frederick W. Mote, Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank, 1988, Cambridge University Presslocation=, 0521243327, 380, 2010-06-28, Mass castrations of Miao boys also took place.BOOK,weblink The eunuchs in the Ming dynasty, Shih-shan Henry Tsai, 1996, SUNY Press, 0791426874, 16, 2010-06-28, File:Raising an army.jpg|thumb|300px|A Qing-era painting depicting a government campaign against the Miao in Hunan, 1795.]]During the Qing Dynasty the Miao fought three wars against the empire.Xiong, Yuepheng L. "Chinese Odyssey: Summer Program offers Students rare opportunity to learn Hmong history in China", HmongNet.org In 1735 in the southeastern province of Guizhou, the Miao rose up against the government's forced assimilation. Eight counties involving 1,224 villages fought until 1738 when the revolt ended. According to Xiangtan University Professor Wu half the Miao population were affected by the war.The second war (1795–1806) involved the provinces of Guizhou and Hunan. Shi Sanbao and Shi Liudeng led this second revolt. Again, it ended in failure, but it took 11 years to quell the uprising.BOOK, Elleman, Bruce A., Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795-1989, 2001, Routledge, 978-0415214742, 7–8, London, The Miao Revolt (1795–1806), The greatest of the three wars occurred from 1854 to 1873. Zhang Xiu-mei led this revolt in Guizhou until his capture and death in Changsha, Hunan. This revolt affected over one million people and all the neighbouring provinces. By the time the war ended Professor Wu said only 30 percent of the Miao were left in their home regions. This defeat led to the Hmong people migrating out of China.During Qing times, more military garrisons were established in southwest China. Han Chinese soldiers moved into the Taijiang region of Guizhou, married Miao women, and the children were brought up as Miao.BOOK,weblink Contributions to Southeast Asian ethnography, Issue 7, 1988, Board of Editors, Contributions to Southeast Asian Ethnography, 99, 2010-06-28, BOOK,weblink Butterfly mother: Miao (Hmong) creation epics from Guizhou, China, Dan Jin, Xueliang Ma, Mark Bender, 2006, Hackett Publishing, 0872208494, xvii, 2010-06-28, In spite of rebellion against the Han, Hmong leaders made allies with Han merchants.BOOK,weblink The dream of the Hmong kingdom: resistance, collaboration, and legitimacy under French colonialism (1893-1955), Mai Na M., Lee, 2005, University of Wisconsin--Madison, 149, 2010-06-28, Politically and militarily, the Miao continued to be a stone in the shoe of the Chinese empire. The imperial government had to rely on political means to ensnare Hmong people, they created multiple competing positions of substantial prestige for Miao people to participate and assimilate into the Qing government system. During the Ming and Qing times, the official position of Kiatong was created in Indochina. The Miao would employ the use of the Kiatong government structure until the 1900s when they entered into French colonial politics in Indochina.

20th century

{{Multiple issues|section=yes|{{Expand section|text|date=February 2011}}{{more citations needed section|date=August 2014}}}}During the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC), the Miao played an important role in its birth when they helped Mao Zedong to escape the Kuomintang in the Long March with supplies and guides through their territory.In Vietnam, a powerful Hmong named Vuong Chinh Duc, dubbed the king of the Hmong, aided Ho Chi Minh's nationalist move against the French, and thus secured the Hmong's position in Vietnam.Nevison, Leslie. "In Search of a Hmong King" During the Vietnam War, Miao fought on both sides, the Hmong in Laos primarily for the US, across the border in Vietnam for the North-Vietnam coalition, the Chinese-Miao for the Communists. However, after the war the Vietnamese were very aggressive towards the Hmong who suffered many years of reprisals and genocide. Most Hmong in Thailand also supported a brief Communist uprising during the war.

Han Chinese origins of the Miao clans

{{Organize section|date=January 2017}}Some of the origins of the Hmong and Miao clan names are a result of the marriage of Hmong women to Han Chinese men,BOOK, Tao Tao Liu, David Faure, Unity and Diversity: Local Cultures and Identities in China,weblink 1 March 1996, Hong Kong University Press, 978-962-209-402-4, 88–, BOOK, Nicholas Tapp, The Impossibility of Self: An Essay on the Hmong Diaspora,weblink 2010, LIT Verlag Münster, 978-3-643-10258-4, 100–, with distinct Han Chinese-descended clans and lineages practicing Han Chinese burial customs instead of Hmong-style burials.BOOK, Stephan Feuchtwang, Making Place: State Projects, Globalisation and Local Responses in China,weblink 2004, Psychology Press, 978-1-84472-010-1, 141–, These clans were called "Han Chinese Hmong" ("Hmong Sua") in Sichuan, and were instructed in military tactics by fugitive Han Chinese rebels.BOOK, Nicholas Tapp, The Hmong of China: Context, Angency, and the Imaginary,weblink 2001, BRILL, 0-391-04187-8, 204–, Such Chinese "surname groups" are comparable to the patrilineal Hmong clans and also practice exogamy.BOOK, Narendra Singh Bisht, T. S. Bankoti, Encyclopaedia of the South East Asian Ethnography,weblink 1 March 2004, Global Vision Publishing House, 978-81-87746-96-6, 243–, 1, BOOK, Narendra S. Bisht, T. S. Bankoti, Encyclopaedia of the South-east Asian Ethnography: A-L,weblink 2004, Global Vision, 978-81-87746-97-3, 243, BOOK, David Levinson, Encyclopedia of world cultures,weblink 1993, G.K. Hall, 978-0-8168-8840-5, 93, BOOK, Timothy J. O'Leary, Encyclopedia of world cultures: North America,weblink 1991, Hall, 978-0-8168-8840-5, 93, BOOK, Melvin Ember, Carol R. Ember, Cultures of the world: selections from the ten-volume encyclopedia of world cultures,weblink 1999, Macmillan Library Reference, 252, Han Chinese male soldiers who fought against the Miao rebellions during the Qing and Ming dynasties were known to have married with non-Han women such as the Miao because Han women were not available.BOOK, Louisa Schein, Minority Rules: The Miao and the Feminine in China's Cultural Politics,weblink 2000, Duke University Press, 0-8223-2444-X, 61–, BOOK, Susan Brownell, Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom, Chinese Femininities, Chinese Masculinities: A Reader,weblink 1 January 2002, University of California Press, 978-0-520-21103-2, 392–, BOOK, Brackette Williams, Women Out of Place: The Gender of Agency and the Race of Nationality,weblink 2 December 2013, Routledge, 978-1-135-23476-8, 98–, The Wang clan, founded among the Hmong in Gongxian county of Sichuan's Yibin district, is one such clan and can trace its origins to several such marriages around the time of the Ming dynasty suppression of the Ah rebels.BOOK, Tao Tao Liu, David Faure, Unity and Diversity: Local Cultures and Identities in China,weblink 1 March 1996, Hong Kong University Press, 978-962-209-402-4, 86–, Nicholas Tapp wrote that, according to The Story of the Ha Kings in the village, one such Han ancestor was Wang Wu.BOOK, Nicholas Tapp, The Hmong of China: Context, Angency, and the Imaginary,weblink 2001, BRILL, 0-391-04187-8, 327–, It is also noted that the Wang typically sided with the Chinese, being what Tapp calls "cooked" as opposed to the "raw" peoples who rebelled against the Chinese.BOOK, Nicholas Tapp, The Hmong of China: Context, Angency, and the Imaginary,weblink 2001, BRILL, 0-391-04187-8, 333–, {{r|LiuFaure1996p86}}Hmong women who married Han Chinese men founded a new Xem clan among Northern Thailand's Hmong. Fifty years later in Chiangmai two of their Hmong boy descendants were Catholics.BOOK, Nicholas Tapp, Sovereignty and Rebellion: The White Hmong of Northern Thailand,weblink'+opinion+(1976,&dq=In+the+same+way,+two+Catholic+Hmong+boys+studying+in+Chiangmai+came+from+a+small+Xem+clan,+formed+fifty+years+previously+after+some+Chinese+had+come+to+a+Hmong+village+and+married+Hmong+women.+In+contrast+to+Geddes'+opinion+(1976,&hl=en&sa=X&ei=0AfiUc6wHbjF4AO0pYDgBQ&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA, 1989, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-588912-3, 169, A Hmong woman and Han Chinese man married and founded northern Thailand's Lau2, or Lauj, clan, {{r|"Tapp1989"}}, with another Han Chinese man of the family name Deng founding another Hmong clan. Some scholars believe this lends further credence to the idea that some or all of the present day Hmong clans were formed in this way.BOOK, Asian Folklore Studies,weblink 2002, Nanzan University Institute of Anthropology, 93, Jiangxi Han Chinese are claimed by some as the forefathers of the southeast Guizhou Miao, and Miao children were born to the many Miao women married Han Chinese soldiers in Taijiang in Guizhou before the second half of the 19th century.BOOK, Mark Bender, Butterfly Mother: Miao (Hmong) Creation Epics from Guizhou, China,weblink 10 March 2006, Hackett Publishing, 1-60384-335-3, xvii–, Some imperially commissioned Han Chinese chieftaincies assimilated with the Miao. Those who had "gone native" became the ancestors of a part of the Miao population in Guizhou.BOOK, Mark Elvin, The Retreat of the Elephants: An Environmental History of China,weblink 1 October 2008, Yale University Press, 978-0-300-13353-0, 216–, The Hmong Tian clan in Sizhou began in the seventh century as a migrant Han Chinese clan.BOOK, Spreading the Dao, Managing Mastership, and Performing Salvation: The Life and Alchemical Teachings of Chen Zhixu,weblink 2008, ProQuest, 978-0-549-44283-7, 70–, The origin of the Tunbao people traces back to the Ming dynasty when the Hongwu Emperor sent 300,000 Han Chinese male soldiers in 1381 to conquer Yunnan, with some of the men marrying Yao and Miao women.NEWS, February 27, 2005, Tunbao people spring preformance [sic],weblink English--People's Daily Online, BOOK, James Stuart Olson, An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of China,weblink 1 January 1998, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-313-28853-1, 340–, The presence of women presiding over weddings was a feature noted in "Southeast Asian" marriages, such as in 1667 when a Miao woman in Yunnan married a Chinese official.BOOK, Barbara Watson Andaya, The Flaming Womb: Repositioning Women in Early Modern Southeast Asia,weblink 2006, University of Hawaii Press, 978-0-8248-2955-1, 205–, Some Sinicization occurred, in Yunnan a Miao chief's daughter married a scholar in the 1600s who wrote that she could read, write, and listen in Chinese and read Chinese classics.BOOK, Barbara Watson Andaya, The Flaming Womb: Repositioning Women in Early Modern Southeast Asia,weblink 2006, University of Hawaii Press, 978-0-8248-2955-1, 20–,

Distribution

(File:1 xijiang panorama.jpg|thumb|centre|600px|Xijiang, a Miao-majority township in Guizhou, China)

By province

The 2000 Chinese census recorded 8,940,116 Miao in mainland China.
Provincial distribution of the Miao in mainland China{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align: right;"

! Province-level division !! % of mainland China'sMiao population !! % of provincial totalGuizhou Province >| 12.199%Hunan Province >| 3.037%Yunnan Province >| 2.463%Chongqing Municipality >| 1.647%Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region >| 1.056%Hubei Province >| 0.360%Sichuan Province >| 0.179%Guangdong Province >| 0.142%Hainan Province >| 0.810%| N/A

By county

County-level distribution of the Miao in mainland China
(Only includes counties or county-equivalents containing >0.25% of mainland China's Miao population.){| class="wikitable sortable"! Province-level division ! Prefecture-level division ! County-level division! Miao population! % of mainland China'sMiao population| GuizhouQiandongnan Miao and Dong people>Dong A. P.Kaili City ()| 274,238| 3.07%| Chongqing Municipality| nonePengshui Miao and Tujia Autonomous County>Pengshui Miao and Tujia people A. C. ()| 273,488| 3.06%| Hunan| Huaihua CityMayang Miao Autonomous County>Mayang Miao A. C. ()| 263,437| 2.95%| Guizhou| Tongren CitySongtao Miao Autonomous County>Songtao Miao A. C. ()| 228,718| 2.56%| Hunan| Huaihua CityYuanling County ()| 217,613| 2.43%| HunanXiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P.Huayuan County ()| 192,138| 2.15%| HunanXiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P.Fenghuang County ()| 185,111| 2.07%| Hunan| Shaoyang CitySuining County, Hunan>Suining County ()| 184,784| 2.07%Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region>Guangxi Zhuang A. R.| Liuzhou CityRongshui Miao Autonomous County>Rongshui Miao A. C. ()| 168,591| 1.89%| Guizhou| Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P.Huangping County ()| 161,211| 1.8%| Guizhou| Zunyi CityWuchuan Gelao and Miao Autonomous County>Wuchuan Gelao people and Miao A. C. ()| 157,350| 1.76%| Hunan| Shaoyang CityChengbu Miao Autonomous County>Chengbu Miao A. C. ()| 136,943| 1.53%| Guizhou| Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P.Taijiang County ()| 135,827| 1.52%| Guizhou| Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P.Congjiang County ()| 129,626| 1.45%| Guizhou| Liupanshui CityShuicheng County ()| 126,319| 1.41%| Hunan| Huaihua CityJingzhou Miao and Dong Autonomous County>Jingzhou Miao and Dong A. C. ()| 114,641| 1.28%| Guizhou| Anshun CityZiyun Miao and Buyei Autonomous County>Ziyun Miao and Buyei A. C. ()| 114,444| 1.28%| Guizhou| Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P.Jianhe County>Jianhe County ()| 112,950| 1.26%| HunanXiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P.Jishou City ()| 112,856| 1.26%| Guizhou| Tongren CitySinan County, Guizhou>Sinan County ()| 112,464| 1.26%| Guizhou| Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P.Leishan County ()| 110,413| 1.24%| HunanXiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P.Luxi County, Hunan>Luxi County ()| 107,301| 1.2%| Guizhou| Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P.Tianzhu County, Guizhou>Tianzhu County ()| 106,387| 1.19%| Guizhou| Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P.Danzhai County ()| 104,934| 1.17%| Guizhou| Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P.Rongjiang County ()| 96,503| 1.08%| GuizhouQiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P.Huishui County ()| 91,215| 1.02%| YunnanWenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Wenshan Zhuang and Miao A. P.Guangnan County ()| 88,444| 0.99%| Chongqing Municipality| noneYouyang Tujia and Miao Autonomous County>Youyang Tujia and Miao A. C. ()| 85,182| 0.95%| Guangxi Zhuang A. R.Bose (Guangxi)>Bose CityLonglin Various Nationalities Autonomous County>Longlin Various Nationalities A. C. ()| 84,617| 0.95%| Guizhou| Bijie CityZhijin County ()| 81,029| 0.91%| YunnanHonghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture>Honghe Hani people and Yi people>Yi A. P.Jinping Miao, Yao, and Dai Autonomous County>Jinping Miao, Yao, and Dai A. C. ()| 80,820| 0.9%| Guizhou| Anshun CityXixiu District ()| 79,906| 0.89%| Guizhou| Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P.Jinping County, Guizhou>Jinping County ()| 78,441| 0.88%| Guizhou| Zunyi CityDaozhen Gelao and Miao Autonomous County>Daozhen Gelao people and Miao A. C. ()| 76,658| 0.86%| Guizhou| Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P.Liping County ()| 75,718| 0.85%| YunnanWenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Wenshan Zhuang and Miao A. P.Maguan County ()| 73,833| 0.83%| Guizhou| Bijie CityNayong County ()| 72,845| 0.81%| GuizhouQiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P.Duyun City ()| 71,011| 0.79%| HubeiEnshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Enshi Tujia and Miao A. P.Laifeng County ()| 70,679| 0.79%| Guizhou| Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P.Majiang County ()| 68,847| 0.77%| Chongqing Municipality| noneXiushan Tujia and Miao Autonomous County>Xiushan Tujia and Miao A. C. ()| 66,895| 0.75%| Guizhou| Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P.Shibing County ()| 66,890| 0.75%| YunnanWenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Wenshan Zhuang and Miao A. P.Qiubei County ()| 66,826| 0.75%| Guizhou| Guiyang CityHuaxi District ()| 62,827| 0.7%| HunanXiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P.Longshan County ()| 61,709| 0.69%| Guizhou| Bijie CityQianxi County, Guizhou>Qianxi County ()| 60,409| 0.68%| YunnanHonghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture>Honghe Hani people and Yi people>Yi A. P.Pingbian Miao Autonomous County>Pingbian Miao A. C. ()| 60,312| 0.67%| Guizhou| Bijie CityWeining Yi, Hui, and Miao Autonomous County>Weining Yi, Hui people, and Miao A. C. ()| 60,157| 0.67%| Chongqing Municipality| noneQianjiang District ()| 59,705| 0.67%| HunanXiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P.Baojing County ()| 57,468| 0.64%| YunnanWenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Wenshan Zhuang and Miao A. P.Wenshan City>Wenshan County ()| 57,303| 0.64%| HunanXiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P.Guzhang County ()| 54,554| 0.61%| HubeiEnshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Enshi Tujia and Miao A. P.Lichuan, Hubei>Lichuan City ()| 53,590| 0.6%| GuizhouQianxinan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Qianxinan Buyei and Miao A. P.Qinglong County, Guizhou>Qinglong County ()| 53,205| 0.6%| Guangxi Zhuang A. R.| Liuzhou CitySanjiang Dong Autonomous County>Sanjiang Dong A. C. ()| 53,076| 0.59%| Guizhou| Bijie CityDafang County ()| 52,547| 0.59%| YunnanWenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Wenshan Zhuang and Miao A. P.Yanshan County, Yunnan>Yanshan County ()| 51,624| 0.58%| Guizhou| Liupanshui CityLiuzhi Special District ()| 50,833| 0.57%| GuizhouQiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P.Changshun County ()| 48,902| 0.55%| GuizhouQiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P.Fuquan, Guizhou>Fuquan City ()| 48,731| 0.55%| YunnanHonghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture>Honghe Hani people and Yi people>Yi A. P.Mengzi City>Mengzi County ()| 48,132| 0.54%| Guizhou| Tongren CityBijiang District ()| 47,080| 0.53%| YunnanWenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Wenshan Zhuang and Miao A. P.Malipo County ()| 45,655| 0.51%| Yunnan| Zhaotong CityYiliang County, Zhaotong>Yiliang County ()| 44,736| 0.5%| Guizhou| Anshun CityPingba County ()| 44,107| 0.49%| GuizhouQiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P.Sandu Shui Autonomous County>Sandu Shui people A. C. ()| 43,464| 0.49%| GuizhouQiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P.Guiding County ()| 42,450| 0.47%| Guizhou| Tongren CityYinjiang Tujia and Miao Autonomous County>Yinjiang Tujia and Miao A. C. ()| 42,431| 0.47%| GuizhouQiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P.Longli County ()| 40,096| 0.45%| Guizhou| Guiyang CityQingzhen City ()| 39,845| 0.45%| GuizhouQianxinan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Qianxinan Buyei and Miao A. P.Wangmo County ()| 39,491| 0.44%| Guizhou| Bijie CityQixingguan District ()| 38,508| 0.43%| HunanXiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Xiangxi Tujia and Miao A. P.Yongshun County ()| 37,676| 0.42%| Guizhou| Bijie CityHezhang County ()| 37,128| 0.42%| Yunnan| Zhaotong CityWeixin County ()| 36,293| 0.41%| Guizhou| Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P.Sansui County ()| 35,745| 0.4%| GuizhouQiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P.Luodian County ()| 35,463| 0.4%| Guizhou| Anshun CityZhenning Buyei and Miao Autonomous County>Zhenning Buyei and Miao A. C. ()| 34,379| 0.38%| HubeiEnshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Enshi Tujia and Miao A. P.Xuan'en County ()| 34,354| 0.38%| Hunan| Huaihua CityHuitong County ()| 33,977| 0.38%| GuizhouQianxinan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Qianxinan Buyei and Miao A. P.Anlong County ()| 32,926| 0.37%| Guizhou| Bijie CityJinsha County ()| 31,884| 0.36%| Sichuan| Luzhou CityXuyong County ()| 30,362| 0.34%| Guizhou| Anshun CityPuding County ()| 30,254| 0.34%| Sichuan| Yibin CityXingwen County ()| 30,020| 0.34%| Guizhou| Anshun CityGuanling Buyei and Miao Autonomous County>Guanling Buyei and Miao A. C. ()| 29,746| 0.33%| Guangxi Zhuang A. R.Bose (Guangxi)>Bose CityXilin County ()| 28,967| 0.32%| Guangxi Zhuang A. R.| Guilin CityZiyuan County ()| 27,827| 0.31%| HubeiEnshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Enshi Tujia and Miao A. P.Xianfeng County ()| 27,668| 0.31%| Guizhou| Guiyang CityNanming District ()| 27,460| 0.31%| Yunnan| Zhaotong CityZhenxiong County ()| 26,963| 0.3%| YunnanWenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Wenshan Zhuang and Miao A. P.Funing County, Yunnan>Funing County ()| 26,396| 0.3%| Guangdong| Dongguan CityDongguan District ()| 26,241| 0.29%| Guizhou| Tongren CityJiangkou County ()| 25,588| 0.29%| Guizhou| Liupanshui CityPan County ()| 25,428| 0.28%| Guangxi Zhuang A. R.| Guilin CityLongsheng Various Nationalities Autonomous County>Longsheng Various Nationalities A. C. ()| 24,841| 0.28%| GuizhouQianxinan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Qianxinan Buyei and Miao A. P.Xingren County ()| 24,130| 0.27%| Hunan| Huaihua CityZhijiang Dong Autonomous County>Zhijiang Dong people A. C. ()| 23,698| 0.27%| YunnanHonghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture>Honghe Hani people and Yi people>Yi A. P.Kaiyuan, Yunnan>Kaiyuan City ()| 23,504| 0.26%| GuizhouQianxinan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Qianxinan Buyei and Miao A. P.Zhenfeng County ()| 23,054| 0.26%| GuizhouQiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Qiannan Buyei and Miao A. P.Pingtang County ()| 22,980| 0.26%| Guizhou| Qiandongnan Miao and Dong A. P.Zhenyuan County, Guizhou>Zhenyuan County ()| 22,883| 0.26%| GuizhouQianxinan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture>Qianxinan Buyei and Miao A. P.Pu'an County ()| 22,683| 0.25%| Guizhou| Guiyang CityWudang District ()| 22,468| 0.25%| Other areas of mainland China||| 1,246,040| 13.94%

Gender roles

(File:Miao Women Dancing Guizhou.jpg|thumb|Young women from a Miao tribe performing a traditional group dance in Guizhou, China)(File:MiaoGirls.jpg|thumb|Miao girls from Guizhou, China wearing traditional silver jewelry headdresses)

Women's status

Compared to the Confucian principles traditionally exercised over women in the rest of China, the Miao culture is generally less strict in categorization of women’s roles in society. Miao women exercise relatively more independence, mobility and sexual freedom.JOURNAL, Feng, Xianghong, 18 June 2013, Women's Work, Men's Work: Gender and Tourism among the Miao in Rural China,weblink Anthropology of Work Review, XXXIV, 4–10, 10.1111/awr.12002, They are perceived as being wild and dangerous, and actively participate in farm work, strongly labouring in the fields with unbound feet.Silver jewelry is a well-known craftwork of the Miao people. Apart from being a cultural tradition, it also symbolises the wealth of Miao women.JOURNAL, Yu, Runze, 13 October 2017, Where women can’t marry without silver,weblink BBC Travel, 1–10, As a Miao saying goes, “decorated with no silver or embroidery, a girl is not a girl”, Miao women are occasionally defined by the amount of silver jewelry she wears or owns. It is especially important to wear heavy and intricate silver headdresses and jewelry during significant occasions and festivals, notably during weddings, funerals and springtime celebration. Silver jewelry is an essential element of Miao marriages, particularly to the bride. Miao families would begin saving silver jewellery for the girls at an early age, wishing their daughters could marry well with the large amount of silver jewelry representing the wealth of the family. Although a growing Miao population is moving from rural Miao regions to cities, the new generation respects the families' silver heritage and is willing to pass on the practice as a cultural tradition more than a showcase of family wealth.

Workforce and income

Although Miao women’s behaviour are not strictly-governed, their social status is often seen as lower than that of men. Be it in the subsistence economy or otherwise, men are the main labor force and provide the stable source of income for the family. Women are primarily involved in domestic chores, and additionally earn supplementary income.As tourism became a major economic activity to this ethnic group, Miao women gained more opportunities to join the labor force and make their own money. Women mostly take up jobs that require an amiable and approachable personality; for example, selling souvenirs, flower wreaths and renting ethnic costumes. These jobs require persuasion and hospitality and more visibility in public, but provide unstable and insecure income. On the contrary, Miao men take up jobs than require more physical strengths and less visibility in public, such as rickshaw pulling, sightseeing boatmen and drivers. These jobs generally provide a more stable and profitable source of income.The above example of unequal division of labor demonstrates, in spite of socioeconomic changes in the recent era, men are still considered the financial backbone of the family.

Marriage and family

While the Miao people have had their own unique culture, the Confucian ideology exerted significant influences on this ethnic group. It is expected that men are the dominant figures and breadwinners of the family, while women occupy more domestic rules. There are strict social standards on women to be “virtuous wives and good mothers”, and to abide by “three obediences and four virtues”, which include cultural moral specifications of women’s behavior.A Miao woman also has more cultural freedom in marrying a man of her choice. Nonetheless, there are strict cultural practices on marriage, one being clan exogamy. It is a taboo to marry someone with the same family name, even when the couple are not blood related or from the same community.In contrast to the common practice of the right of succession belonging to the firstborn son, the Miao’s inheritance descends to the youngest son. The older sons leave the family and build their own residences, usually in the same village and close to the family. The youngest son is responsible of living with and caring for the parents, even after marriage. He receives a larger share of the family’s heritage and his mother’s silver jewellery collection, which is used as bridal wealth or dowry.

Cuisine

Miao Fish (苗鱼 miáo yǘ)

Miao fish is a special way of fermenting and cooking fish by Miao people. It has been recognized as a local featured cuisine with its tasty flavor: the mixture of fish, green peppers, ginger slices and garlic, providing people with great eating experience.WEB,weblink 舌尖上的中国:正宗苗家古法腌鱼,可保存上10年不变质, 3g.163.com, zh, 2019-03-10,

See also

References

Citations

{{Reflist}}

Sources

  • Enwall, Jaokim. Thai-Yunnan Project Newsletter, No. 17, Department of Anthropology, Australian National University, June 1992.
  • BOOK, Minority Rules: The Miao and the Feminine in China's Cultural Politics, Louisa, Schein, illustrated, reprint, 2000, Durham, North Carolina, Duke University Press,weblink 082232444X, 24 April 2014, harv,
  • BOOK, Gina Corrigan, Miao textiles from China, University of Washington Press, Seattle, 2001, 0-295-98137-7,
  • BOOK, Nicholas Tapp, The Hmong of China: Context, Agency, and the Imaginary, Brill Academic Publishers, Boston, 2002, 0-391-04187-8,
  • BOOK, Nicholas Tapp, Jean Michaud, Christian Culas, Gary Yia Lee, Hmong/Miao in Asia, Silkworm Books, 2004, 974-9575-01-6,
  • BOOK, David Deal, Laura Hostetler, yes, The Art of Ethnography: a Chinese "Miao Album", University of Washington Press, Seattle, 2006, 978-0295985435,
  • BOOK, Jin Dan, Xueliang Ma, Mark Bender, Miao (Hmong) Creation Epics from Guizhou, China, Hackett Publishing Company, Indianapolis, IN, 2006, 978-0872208490,
  • BOOK, Thomas Vang, A History of The Hmong: From Ancient Times to the Modern Diaspora, Lulu.com, 2008, 978-1435709324,
  • Feng, Xianghong. (2013). Women's Work, Men's Work: Gender and Tourism among the Miao in Rural China. Anthropology of Work Review. 34. p. 4–10.

Further reading

  • Tomoko Torimaru(September 1, 2008), One Needle, One Thread: Miao (Hmong) embroidery and fabric piecework from Guizhou, China, University of Hawaii Art Galle
  • BOOK, The conquest of the Miao-tse, an imperial poem ... entitled A choral song of harmony for the first part of the Spring [tr.] by S. Weston, from the Chinese, Ch'ien Lung (emperor of China), Stephen Weston (antiquary), Stephen Weston, 1810, London, Printed & Sold by C. & R. Baldwin, New Bridge Street, Black Friars,weblink 24 April 2014, harv,

External links

{{Commons category|Miao}} {{CEG}}{{Ethnic groups in Vietnam}}

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