Hui people

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Hui people
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{{Short description|Ethnic group in China}}{{Redirect|Hui Chinese|the group of dialects spoken on the Anhui/Zhejiang/Jiangxi borders|Huizhou Chinese||Hui (disambiguation)}}

Mandarin Chinese, Dungan language>Dungan and other Sinitic languagesSunni Islam (≈ 50% Hanafi, 20% Wahhabism, 20% Sufism),BY CHOOSING ASSIMILATION, CHINA'S HUI HAVE BECOME ONE OF THE WORLD'S MOST SUCCESSFUL MUSLIM MINORITIESACCESSDATE=8 OCTOBER 2016THE ECONOMIST>DATE=8 OCTOBER 2016, some Hui also follow BuddhismHan Chinese{{•}}Bai people>BaiOther Sino-Tibetan peoples}}

|xej=خُوِذُو|zh-dungan=Хуэйзў}}File:HuiChineseMuslim2.jpg|thumb|262x262px|Hui praying in a mosquemosqueThe Hui people ({{zh|c=|p=Huízú|w=Hui2-tsu2}}, Xiao'erjing: ; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of ethnically Chinese adherents of Islam found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region. According to the 2011 census, China is home to approximately 10.5 million Hui people, the majority of whom are Chinese-speaking practitioners of Islam, though some may practise other religions. The 110,000 Dungan people of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan are also considered part of the Hui ethnicity.Their culture has distinct differences that developed from the practice of Islam.{{sfn|Gladney|1996|p=20}} For example, as Muslims, they follow Islamic dietary laws and reject the consumption of pork, the most common meat consumed in China{{harvnb|Gladney|1996|p=13}} Quote: "In China, pork has been the basic meat protein for centuries and regarded by Chairman Mao as 'a national treasure'" and have given rise to their own variation of Chinese cuisine. Traditional Hui clothing differs from that of the Han primarily in that some men wear white caps (taqiyah) and some women wear headscarves, as is the case in many Islamic cultures. However, since the industrialization and modernization of China, most of the young Hui people wear the same clothes as mainstream fashion trends.{{Islam and China|groups}}The Hui people are one of 56 ethnic groups recognized by China. The government defines the Hui people to include all historically Muslim communities not included in China's other ethnic groups; they are therefore distinct from other Muslim groups such as the Uyghurs.{{harvnb|Lipman|1997|p=xxiii}} or {{harvnb|Gladney|1996|pp=18–20}} Besides the Hui people, nine other officially recognized ethnic groups of PRC are considered predominantly Muslim. Those nine groups are defined mainly on linguistic grounds: namely, six groups speaking Turkic languages (Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Salars, Tatars, Uyghurs and Uzbeks), two Mongolic-speaking groups (Bonan and Dongxiang) and one Iranian-speaking group (Tajiks). The Hui predominantly speak Chinese,{{sfn|Gladney|1996|p=20}} while maintaining some Arabic and Persian phrases.BOOK, Michael Dillon, China's Muslim Hui Community: Migration, Settlement and Sects,weblink 16 December 2013, Taylor & Francis, 978-1-136-80940-8, 154–, In fact, the Hui ethnic group is unique among Chinese ethnic minorities in that it associates with no non-Sinitic language.{{harvnb|Lipman|1997|p=50}} Of course, many members of some other Chinese ethnic minorities don't speak their ethnic group's traditional language anymore and practically no Manchu people speak the Manchu language natively anymore; but even the Manchu language is well attested historically. Meanwhile, the ancestors of today's Hui people are thought to have been predominantly native Chinese speakers of Islamic religion since no later than the mid- or early Ming Dynasty. [i.e. the late 14th to late 16th centuries]The Hui people are more concentrated in Northwestern China (Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjiang), but communities exist across the country, e.g. Beijing, Xi'an, Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Hainan and Yunnan.



After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the term "Hui" was applied by the Chinese government to one of China's ten historically Islamic minorities.{{sfn|Lipman|1997|pp = xxii-xxiii}}Earlier, the term referred to Chinese-speaking groups with (foreign) Muslim ancestry. Practising Islam was not a criterion. Use of the Hui category to describe foreign Muslims moving into China dates back to the Song dynasty (960{{ndash}}1279).Pan-Turkic Uyghur activist, Masud Sabri (1886–1952), viewed the Hui people as Muslim Han Chinese and separate from his own people, noting that with the exception of religion, their customs and language were identical to those of the Han.{{sfn|Wei|Liu|2002|p= 181}}Hui people are of varied ancestry, many directly descending from Silk Road travellers and expatriates. Their ancestors include Central Asians, and Middle Eastern ethnic groups such as the Arabs who intermarried with the local Han Chinese. West Eurasian DNA is prevalent—6.7% of Hui people's maternal genetics have a Central Asian and Middle Eastern origin.JOURNAL, 15317881, 2004, Yao, Y. G., Different matrilineal contributions to genetic structure of ethnic groups in the silk road region in china, Molecular Biology and Evolution, 21, 12, 2265–80, Kong, Q. P., Wang, C. Y., Zhu, C. L., Zhang, Y. P., 10.1093/molbev/msh238, Several medieval Chinese dynasties, particularly the Tang, Song and Mongol Yuan Dynasties, encouraged immigration from predominantly Muslim Central Asia, with both{{which|date=February 2018}} dynasties welcoming traders from these regions and appointing Central Asian officials. In subsequent centuries, the immigrants gradually mixed with the Han Chinese, eventually forming the Hui.BOOK,weblink Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China, Jonathan N., Lipman, Jonathan Neaman, Lipman, 17 August 1997, University of Washington Press, 17 August 2018, Google Books, 9780295976440, Nonetheless, included among Huis in Chinese census statistics (and not officially recognized as separate ethnic groups) are members of a few small non-Chinese speaking communities. These include several thousand Utsuls in southern Hainan Province, who speak an Austronesian language (Tsat) related to that of the Vietnamese Cham Muslim minority, said{{by whom|date=February 2018}} to descend from Chams who migrated to Hainan.{{sfn|Gladney|1996|pp = 33-34}} A small Muslim minority among Yunnan's Bai people are classified as Hui as well (even if they are Bai speakers),{{harvnb|Gladney|1996|pp= 33–34}} The Bai-speaking Hui typically claim descent from Hui refugees who fled to Bai areas after the 1873 defeat of the Panthay Rebellion, and have assimilated to the Bai culture since.
as are some groups of Tibetan Muslims.{{sfn|Gladney|1996|pp = 33-34}}


The East Asian O3-M122 Y chromosome Haplogroup is found in large quantities in other Muslims close to the Hui like Dongxiang, Bo'an and Salar. The majority of Tibeto-Burmans, Han Chinese, and Ningxia and Liaoning Hui share paternal Y chromosomes of East Asian origin which are unrelated to Middle Easterners and Europeans. In contrast to distant Middle Easterners and Europeans with whom the Muslims of China are not significantly related, East Asians, Han Chinese, and most of the Hui and Dongxiang of Linxia share more genes with each other. This indicates that native East Asian populations converted to Islam and were culturally assimilated and that the Chinese Muslim populations are mostly not descendants of foreigners as claimed by some accounts while only a small minority of them are.JOURNAL, Yao, H.-B., etal, Genetic evidence for an East Asian origin of Chinese Muslim populations Dongxiang and Hui, Science Rep. 6, 38656, 6, 38656, 10.1038/srep38656, 27924949, 5141421, 2016, 2016NatSR...638656Y,

"Huihui" and "Hui"

Huihui (回回) was the usual generic term for China's Muslims during the Ming and Qing dynasties. It is thought to have its origin in the earlier Huihe (回纥) or Huihu ((:zh:回鶻|回鶻)), which was the name for the Uyghur State of the 8th and 9th centuries.{{harvnb|Gladney|1996|p=18}}; or {{harvnb|Lipman|1997|pp=xxiii-xxiv}} Although the ancient Uyghurs were not Muslims the name Huihui came to refer to foreigners, regardless of language or origin, by the time of the Yuan (1271–1368).{{harvnb|Gladney|2004|p=161}}; he refers to {{harvnb|Leslie|1986|pp=195–196}} and Ming Dynasties (1368–1644). During the Yuan Dynasty, large numbers of Muslims came from the west, and since the Uyghur land was in the west, this led the Chinese to call foreigners of all religions, including Muslims, Nestorian Christians and Jews, as Huihui.Kublai Khan called both foreign Jews and Muslims in China Huihui when he forced them to stop halal and kosher methods of preparing food:WEB,weblink The Integration of Religious Minorities in China: The Case of Chinese Muslims, Donald Daniel, Leslie, 1998, 12, The Fifty-ninth George Ernest Morrison Lecture in Ethnology, 30 November 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 December 2010, "Among all the [subject] alien peoples only the Hui-hui say "we do not eat Mongol food". [Cinggis Qa’an replied:] "By the aid of heaven we have pacified you; you are our slaves. Yet you do not eat our food or drink. How can this be right?" He thereupon made them eat. "If you slaughter sheep, you will be considered guilty of a crime." He issued a regulation to that effect ... [In 1279/1280 under Qubilai] all the Muslims say: "if someone else slaughters [the animal] we do not eat". Because the poor people are upset by this, from now on, Musuluman [Muslim] Huihui and Zhuhu [Jewish] Huihui, no matter who kills [the animal] will eat [it] and must cease slaughtering sheep themselves, and cease the rite of circumcision."The Chinese called Muslims, Jews and Christians in ancient times by the same name, Huihui. Christians were called "Hui who abstain from animals without the cloven foot", Muslims were called "Hui who abstain from pork", Jews were called "Hui who extract the sinews". Huihui is presently used almost exclusively for Muslims, but Jews were still called Lan mao Huihui which means "Blue cap Huihui".Jews and Muslims in China shared the same name for synagogue and mosque, which were both called Qingzhen Si ("temple of purity and truth") from the thirteenth century. Synagogues and mosques were also known as Libai Si ("temple of worship"). The Kaifeng Jews were nicknamed Teaou kin jiao (挑筋教, "extract sinew religion"). A tablet indicated that Judaism was once known as Yih-tsze-lo-nee-keaou (一赐乐业教, "Israelitish religion") and the synagogue known as Yih-tsze lo née leen ("Israelitish temple"), but this fell from use.BOOK, {{google books, y, 04kdAAAAMAAJ, |title = Chinese and Japanese repository of facts and events in science, history and art, relating to Eastern Asia, Volume 1 |author = Anonymous |year=1863 |publisher=s.n. |page = 18 |accessdate = 2011-07-06}}The widespread and rather generic application of the name Huihui in Ming China was attested to by foreign visitors as well. Matteo Ricci, the first Jesuit to reach Beijing (1598), noted that "Saracens are everywhere in evidence . . . their thousands of families are scattered about in nearly every province"Trigault, Nicolas S. J. China in the Sixteenth Century: The Journals of Mathew Ricci: 1583-1610. English translation by Louis J. Gallagher, S.J. (New York: Random House, 1953). This is an English translation of the Latin work, De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas based on Matteo Ricci's journals completed by Nicolas Trigault. Pp. 106-107. There is also [{{google books |id = iLsWAAAAQAAJ}} full Latin text]. Ricci noted that the term Huihui or Hui was applied by Chinese not only to "Saracens" (Muslims) but also to Chinese Jews and supposedly even to Christians.Trigault (trans.) (1953), p. 112. In Samuel Purchas's translation (1625) (Vol. XII, p. 466): "All these Sects the Chinois call, Hoei, the Jewes distinguished by their refusing to eate the sinew or leg; the Saracens, Swines flesh; the Christians, by refusing to feed on round-hoofed beasts, Asses, Horses, Mules, which all both Chinois, Saracens and Jewes doe there feed on." It's not entirely clear what Ricci means by saying that Hui also applied to Christians, as he does not report finding any actual local Christians. In fact, when the reclusive Wanli Emperor first saw a picture of Ricci and Diego de Pantoja, he supposedly exclaimed, "Hoei, hoei. It is quite evident that they are Saracens", and had to be told by a eunuch that they actually weren't, "because they ate pork".Trigault (trans.) (1953), p. 375. The 1916 Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics, Volume 8 said that Chinese Muslims always called themselves Huihui or Huizi, and that neither themselves nor other people called themselves Han, and they disliked people calling them Dungan.{{sfn|Hastings|Selbie|Gray|1916|p = 892}} A French army Commandant Viscount D'Ollone wrote a report on what he saw among Hui in 1910. He reported that due to religion, Hui were classed as a different nationality from Han as if they were one of the other minority groups.{{sfn|Dillon|1999|p = 80}}Huizu is now the standard term for the "Hui nationality" (ethnic group), and Huimin, for "Hui people" or "a Hui person". The traditional expression Huihui, its use now largely restricted to rural areas, would sound quaint, if not outright demeaning, to modern urban Chinese Muslims.{{sfn|Gladney|1996|pp = 20-21}}File:Shanghai-Lanzhou-Zhengzong-Niurou-Lamian-2782.jpg|thumb|Halal (清真) restaurants offering Northwestern beef lamianlamian

Related terms

Islam was originally called Dashi Jiao during the Tang Dynasty, when Muslims first appeared in China. "Dashi Fa" literally means "Arab law" in Old Chinese.{{sfn|Israeli|2002}} Since almost all Muslims in China were exclusively foreign Arabs or Persians at the time, it was barely mentioned by the Chinese, unlike other religions like Zoroastrism, Mazdaism, and Nestorian Christianity which gained followings in China.WEB,weblink The Integration of Religious Minorities in China: The Case of Chinese Muslims, Donald Daniel, Leslie, 1998, The Fifty-ninth George Ernest Morrison Lecture in Ethnology, 30 November 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 December 2010, As an influx of foreigners, such as Persians, Jews and Christians, most but not all of them were Muslims who came from western regions, they were labelled as Semu people, but were also mistaken by Chinese as Uyghur, due to them coming from the west (Uyghur lands).{{sfn|Lipman|1997|p = 33}} The name "Hui Hui" was applied to them, and eventually became the name applied to Muslims.Another, probably unrelated, early use of the word Huihui comes from the History of Liao Dynasty, which mentions Yelü Dashi, the 12th-century founder of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, defeating the Huihui Dashibu (回回大食部) people near Samarkand – apparently, referring to his defeat of the Khwarazm ruler Ahmed Sanjar in 1141.{{sfn|Dillon|1999|p = 13}} Khwarazm is referred to as Huihuiguo in the Secret History of the Mongols as well.{{sfn|Dillon|1999|p = 15}}While Huihui or Hui remained a generic name for all Muslims in Imperial China, specific terms were sometimes used to refer to particular groups, e.g. Chantou Hui ("turbaned Hui") for Uyghurs, Dongxiang Hui and Sala Hui for Dongxiang and Salar people, and sometimes even Han Hui (漢回) ("Chinese Hui") for the (presumably Chinese-speaking) Muslims more assimilated into the Chinese mainstream society.{{harvnb|Gladney|1996|p=18}} {{harvnb|Lipman|1997|p=xxiii}}WEB,weblink From Yunnan to Xinjiang:Governor Yang Zengxin and his Dungan Generals, Garnaut, Anthony, Pacific and Asian History, Australian National University, 95, 2010-07-14, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-03-09, Some scholars also say that some Hui used to call themselves 回漢子 (Hui Hanzi) "Muslim Han" but the Communist regime separated them from other Chinese and placed them into a separate ethnicity, "Huizu".BOOK, Stéphane A., Dudoignon, Hisao, Komatsu, Yasushi, Kosugi, Intellectuals in the modern Islamic world: transmission, transformation, communication, {{google books, yes, MJzB6wrz6Q4C, 242, | accessdate = 2010-06-28| year = 2006| publisher = Taylor Francis| isbn = 978-0-415-36835-3| page = 242 }}File:5612-Linxia-City-halal-bathhouse.jpg|thumb|A halal (清真) shower house in Linxia CityLinxia CityIn the 1930s the Communist Party defined the term Hui to indicate only Sinophone Muslims. In 1941, this was clarified by a Party committee comprising ethnic policy researchers in a treatise entitled "On the question of Huihui Ethnicity" (Huihui minzu wenti). This treatise defined the characteristics of the Hui nationality as an ethnic group associated with, but not defined by, Islam and descended primarily from Muslims who migrated to China during the Mongol-founded Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368), as distinct from the Uyghur and other Turkic-speaking ethnic groups in Xinjiang. The Nationalist government by contrast recognised all Muslims as one of "the five peoples"—alongside the Manchus, Mongols, Tibetans and Han Chinese—that constituted the Republic of China.WEB,weblink Editorial, China Heritage Quarterly, 2016-09-17, A traditional Chinese term for Islam is "" (pinyin: Huíjiào, literally "the religion of the Hui"). However, since the early days of the PRC, thanks to the arguments of such Marxist Hui scholars as Bai Shouyi, the standard term for "Islam" within the PRC has become the transliteration "" (pinyin: Yīsīlán jiào, literally "Islam religion").{{sfn|Gladney|1996|pp = 18-19}}{{sfn|Gladney|2004|pp = 161-162}} The more traditional term Huijiao remains in use in Singapore, Taiwan and other overseas Chinese communities.On the continuing use of Huijiao in Taiwan, see {{harvnb|Gladney|1996|pp=18–19}}Qīngzhēn (, literally "pure and true") has also been a popular term for Muslim culture since the Yuan or Ming Dynasty. Gladney suggested that a good translation for it would be Arabic tahára. i.e. "ritual or moral purity"{{sfn|Gladney|1996|pp=12-13}} The usual term for a mosque is qīngzhēn sì (), i.e. "true and pure temple", and qīngzhēn is commonly used to refer to halal eating establishments and bathhouses.In contrast, the Uyghurs were called "Chan Tou Hui" ("Turban Headed Muslim"), and the Turkic Salars called "Sala Hui" (Salar Muslim), while Turkic speakers often referred to Hui as "Dungan".{{sfn|Lipman|1997|p = xxiii}}

"Zhongyuan ren"

During the Qing Dynasty, the term Zhongyuan ren ({{zh|labels=no |c=中原人 |l=people from the Central Plain}}) was the term for all Chinese, encompassing Han Chinese and Hui in Xinjiang or Central Asia. While Hui are not Han, they consider themselves to be Chinese and include themselves in the larger group of Zhongyuan ren.BOOK, Richard V., Weekes, Muslim peoples: a world ethnographic survey, 1, {{google books, itiOSRAAACAAJ, yes, 334, | accessdate = 2010-11-28| year = 1984| publisher = Greenwood Press| isbn = 0-313-23392-6| page = 334 }} The Dungan people, descendants of Hui who fled to Central Asia, called themselves Zhongyuan ren in addition to the standard labels lao huihui and huizi.BOOK, James Stuart, Olson, Nicholas Charles, Pappas, An Ethnohistorical dictionary of the Russian and Soviet empires, {{google books, CquTz6ps5YgC, yes, 202, | accessdate = 2010-11-28| year = 1994| publisher = Greenwood Publishing Group| isbn = 0-313-27497-5| page = 202 }}For some Uyghurs, there is barely any difference between Hui and Han. A Uyghur social scientist, Dilshat, regarded Hui as the same people as Han, deliberately calling Hui people Han and dismissing the Hui as having only a few hundred years of history.{{sfn|Bellér-Hann|2007|p = 185}}Some prominent Hui, such as Imam Ma Chao-yen{{Dubious |reason=Who is the prominentMa Chao-yen?|date=February 2017}}, refer to themselves and other Hui people as simply Chinese in English, and practice Confucian culture.WEB,weblink Taiwan Muslims' Struggle to Survive, Ma, Chao-yen, Center for the Study of Islamic Civilization and Thoughts, 2010-06-28, {{Self-published source|date=February 2017}}


Pusuman was a name used by Chinese during the Yuan Dynasty. It could have been a corruption of Musalman or another name for Persians. It either means Muslim or Persian.BOOK, Ralph Kauz, Ralph Kauz, Aspects of the Maritime Silk Road: From the Persian Gulf to the East China Sea, {{google books, y, YJibpHfnw94C, 89, | accessdate = 2010-06-28| edition = illustrated| date = 2010-05-20| publisher = Otto Harrassowitz Verlag| isbn = 978-3-447-06103-2| page = 89 }}{{sfn|Australian National University. Dept. of Far Eastern History|1986|p=90}} Pusuman Kuo (Pusuman Guo) referred to the country where they came from.BOOK, Gabriel Ronay, The Tartar Khan's Englishman, {{google books, hihtAAAAMAAJ, yes, 111, | accessdate = 2010-06-28| edition = illustrated| date = 1978-01-01| publisher = Cassell| isbn = 0-304-30054-3| page = 111 }}BOOK, {{google books, y, _GzXtdv_QHYC, 13, 13, |title=The journey of William of Rubruck to the eastern parts of the world, 1253-55: as narrated by himself, with two accounts of the earlier journey of John of Pian de Carpine|author=Willem van Ruysbroeck, Giovanni (da Pian del Carpine, Archbishop of Antivari)|editor=William Woodville Rockhill|year=1900|publisher=Printed for the Hakluyt Society|edition=|location=|page=13|isbn=|accessdate=2010-06-28}} The name "Pusuman zi" (pusuman script), was used to refer to the script that the HuiHui (Muslims) were using.{{sfn|Australian National University. Dept. of Far Eastern History|1986}}

"Muslim Chinese"

File:Beijing-Niujie-Minzu-Tuanjie-Da-Jiating-3660.JPG|left|thumb|A fence in NiujieNiujieThe term Chinese Muslim is sometimes used to refer to Hui people, given that they speak Chinese, in contrast to, e.g., Turkic speaking Salars. During the Qing Dynasty, Chinese Muslim (Han Hui) was sometimes used to refer to Hui people, which differentiated them from non-Chinese speaking Muslims. However, not all Hui are Muslims, nor are all Chinese Muslims Hui. For example, Li Yong is a famous Han Chinese who practices Islam and Hui Liangyu is a notable atheist Hui. In addition, most Uyghurs, Kazakhs, Kirghiz and Dongxiang in China are Muslims, but are not Hui.{{citation needed|date=April 2014}}John Stuart Thomson, who traveled in China called them "Mohammedan Chinese".BOOK, {{google books, y, OPUTAAAAIAAJ, 411, |title=China revolutionized|first=John Stuart |last=Thomson|year=1913|publisher=The Bobbs-Merrill company|location=|page=411|isbn=|accessdate=2010-06-28}} They have also been called "Chinese Mussulmans", when Europeans wanted to distinguish them from Han Chinese.BOOK, {{google books, y, Zv9WAAAAMAAJ, 203, |title=Chinese Central Asia|first=Sir Clarmont Percival |last=Skrine|year=1926|publisher=Methuen|location=|page=203|isbn=|accessdate=2010-06-28}}

In other countries


{{See also|Dungan people#Name}}File:Karakol-Dungan-Mosque-Minaret-3.jpg|thumb|190px|The minaret of the Dungan Mosque in KarakolKarakolDungan ({{zh|s = 东干族|t = 東干族|p = Dōnggānzú}}; ) is a term used in Central Asia and in Xinjiang to refer to Chinese-speaking Muslim people. In the censuses of Russia and Central Asian nations, the Hui are distinguished from Chinese, termed Dungans. However, in both China and Central Asia members of this ethnic group call themselves Lao Huihui or Zhongyuanren, rather than Dungan. Zhongyuan 中原, literally means "The Central Plain," and is the historical name of Shaanxi and Henan provinces. Most Dungans living in Central Asia are descendants of Hui people from Gansu and Shaanxi.{{citation needed|date = September 2014}}Hui people are referred to by Central Asian Turkic speakers and Tajiks by the ethnonym Dungan. Joseph Fletcher cited Turkic and Persian manuscripts related to the preaching of the 17th century Kashgarian Sufi master Muhammad Yūsuf (or, possibly, his son Afaq Khoja) inside the Ming Empire (in today's Gansu and/or Qinghai), where the preacher allegedly converted ulamā-yi Tunganiyyāh (i.e., "Dungan ulema") into Sufism.Lipman (1997), p. 59, based on: Joseph Fletcher, "The Naqshbandiya in Northwest China", in BOOK, Studies on Chinese and Islamic Inner Asia, Beatrcie Manz, London, Variorum, 1995, In English and German was noted as early as the 1830s, Dungan, in various spellings, as referring to the Hui people of Xinjiang. For example, Prinsep in 1835 mentioned Muslim "Túngánis" in "Chinese Tartary".BOOK, James, Prinsep, Memoir on Chinese Tartary and Khoten, The Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 48, December 1835, 655, {{google books, nK4IAAAAQAAJ, yes, 655, |isbn=1-4021-5631-6}} The word (mostly in the form "Dungani" or "Tungani", sometimes "Dungens" or "Dungans") acquired currency in English and other western languages when books in the 1860–70s discussed the Dungan Revolt.Later authors continued to use variants of the term for Xinjiang Hui people. For example, Owen Lattimore, writing ca. 1940, maintained the terminological distinction between these two related groups: the "Tungkan" (the older Wade-Giles spelling for "Dungan"), described by him as the descendants of the Gansu Hui people resettled in Xinjiang in 17–18th centuries, vs. e.g. the "Gansu Moslems" or generic "Chinese Moslems".BOOK, Owen, Lattimore, Owen Lattimore, Inner Asian Frontiers of China, 183, The name "Dungan" sometimes referred to all Muslims coming from China proper, such as Dongxiang and Salar in addition to Hui. Reportedly, the Hui disliked the term Dungan, calling themselves either HuiHui or Huizi.{{sfn|Hastings|Selbie|Gray|1916|p = 892}}In the Soviet Union and its successor countries, the term "Dungans" (дунгане) became the standard name for the descendants of Chinese-speaking Muslims who emigrated to the Russian Empire (mostly to today's Kyrgyzstan and south-eastern Kazakhstan) in the 1870s and 1880s.{{sfn|Gladney|1996|pp = 33, 399}}


File:Kunming - Riverside Halal Beef Restaurant - P1340576.JPG|thumb|Muslim restaurant in KunmingKunmingPanthays are a group of Chinese Muslims in Burma. In Thailand, Chinese Muslims are referred to as Chin Ho (จีนฮ่อ) and in Burma and Yunnan Province, as Panthay. Zhongyuan ren was used by Turkic Muslims to refer to ethnic Chinese. When Central Asian invaders from Kokand invaded Kashgar, in a letter the Kokandi commander criticised the Kashgari Turkic Muslim Ishaq for allegedly not behaving like a Muslim and wanting to be a Zhongyuan ren (Chinese).{{sfn|Millward|1998|p = 215}}BOOK, Laura, Newby, The Empire and the Khanate: a political history of Qing relations with Khoqand c. 1760-1860, {{google books, KTmO416hNQ8C, yes, 148, | accessdate = 2010-11-28| year = 2005| publisher = BRILL| isbn = 90-04-14550-8| page = 148 }}


(File:Muslim_meat_shop_halal_sign,_Hankow_China,_1935.jpg|right|thumb|A halal meat store sign in Hankou, ca. 1934–1935.)The official definition by the Chinese government is as a nationality without regard to religion.{{sfn|Gillette|2000|p = 12}} It identifies Hui by their ancestry only, and includes those who do not practice Islam.{{sfn|Gillette|2000|p = 13}} In 1913, a westerner noted that many people in Fujian province had Arab ancestry, but were no longer Muslim.BOOK, {{google books, y, OPUTAAAAIAAJ, 310, |title=China revolutionized|first=John Stuart |last=Thomson|year=1913|publisher=The Bobbs-Merrill company|location=INDIANAPOLIS|page=387|isbn=|accessdate=2010-06-28}}


Throughout history the identity of Hui people has been fluid, changing as was convenient.BOOK, {{google books, y, o5gvAQAAIAAJ, |title=Dissertation abstracts international: The humanities and social sciences, Issue 12|author=University Microfilms, University Microfilms International|year=2002|publisher=University Microfilms International|accessdate=2011-06-13}} Some identified as Hui out of interest in their ancestry or because of government benefits. These Hui are concentrated on the southeast coast of China, especially Fujian province.BOOK, Bettina, Gransow, Pál, Nyíri, Shiaw-Chian, Fong, China: new faces of ethnography, {{google books, y, nPmAAAAAMAAJ, 125, | accessdate = 2010-06-28| year = 2005| publisher = Lit Verlag| isbn = 3-8258-8806-1| page = 125 }}Some Hui clans around Quanzhou in Fujian, such as the Ding and Guo families, identify themselves by nationality but do not practice Islam. In recent years more of these clans identified as Hui, increasing the official population.{{sfn|Gladney|2004|p = 294}}BOOK, Robert W., Hefner, Market cultures: society and morality in the new Asian capitalisms, {{google books, y, YOjZAAAAMAAJ, 113, | accessdate = 2010-06-28| year = 1998| publisher = Westview Press| isbn = 0-8133-3360-1| page = 113 }}{{sfn|Gladney|1996|p = 287}} They provided evidence of their ancestry and were recognized as Hui.{{sfn|Gladney|1996|p = 287}} Many clans across Fujian had genealogies that demonstrated Hui ancestry.BOOK, Chibli, Mallat, Jane Frances, Connors, Islamic family law, {{google books, y, goEwYQVb6HIC, 364, | accessdate = 2010-06-28| year = 1990| publisher = BRILL| isbn = 1-85333-301-8| page = 364 }} These clans inhabited Fujian, Taiwan, Singapore, Indonesia and the Philippines.{{sfn|Oi|Walder|1999|p = 62}}On Taiwan, some Hui who came with Koxinga no longer observe Islam. The Taiwan branch of the Guo (Kuo in Taiwan) family does not practice Islam, yet does not offer pork at ancestral shrines. The Chinese Muslim Association counts these people as Muslims.NEWS, Islam in Taiwan, Peter G., Gowing, SAUDI ARAMCO World, July–August 1970,weblink 2010-10-05,weblink 2014-09-11, dead, Also on Taiwan, one branch of this Ding (Ting) family descended from Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar and resides in Taisi Township in Yunlin County. They trace their descent through him via the Quanzhou Ding family of Fujian. While pretending to be Han Chinese in Fujian, they initially practiced Islam when they came to Taiwan 200 years ago, but became Buddhist or Daoist.NEWS, FEATURE : Taisi Township re-engages its Muslim roots, Loa, Iok-Sin, Taipei Times, 4, Aug 31, 2008,weblink May 29, 2011, An attempt was made by the Chinese Islamic Society to convert the Fujian Hui of Fujian back to Islam in 1983, sending 4 Ningxia Imams to Fujian.BOOK, {{google books, y, irRGAAAAMAAJ, 499, |title=The Journal of Asian studies, Volume 46, Issues 3-4|year=1987|publisher=Association for Asian Studies|location=|page=499|accessdate=2011-06-13}} This futile endeavour ended in 1986, when the final Ningxia Imam left. A similar endeavour in Taiwan also failed.{{sfn|Gladney|1996|p = 279}}Before 1982, it was possible for a Han to "become" Hui by converting. Thereafter converted Han counted instead as "Muslim Han". Hui people consider other Hui who do not observe Islamic practices to still be Hui. They consider it impossible to lose their Hui nationality.{{sfn|Gladney|1996|p = 245}} For both these reasons, simply calling them "Chinese Muslims" is no longer strictly speaking accurate, just as with the Bosniaks in the former Yugoslavia.


{{See also|History of Islam in China|Iranians in China}}


File:Prayers at Dongguan mosque.jpg|thumb|right|Hui people praying in Dongguan Mosque, XiningXiningHui have diverse origins. Many are direct descendants of Silk Road travelers. In the southeast coast (e.g., Guangdong, Fujian) and in major trade centers elsewhere in China some are of mixed local and foreign descent. The foreign element, although greatly diluted, came primarily from Persian (Bosi) traders, who brought Islam to China. These foreigners settled and gradually intermarried, converting them to Islam, while assimilating Chinese culture.{{sfn|Lipman|1997|pp=24}}Early European explorers speculated that T'ung-kan (Dungans, i.e. Hui, called "Chinese Mohammedan") in Xinjiang, originated from Khorezmians who were transported to China by the Mongols, and that they descended from a mixture of Chinese, Iranian and Turkic peoples. They also reported that the T'ung-kan were Shafi'ites, as were the Khorezmians.BOOK, Roerich Museum, George Roerich, Journal of Urusvati Himalayan Research Institute, Volumes 1-3, {{google books, yBO3pmzzhWkC, y, 526, | accessdate = 2010-06-28| date = August 2003| publisher = Vedams eBooks (P) Ltd| isbn = 81-7936-011-3| page = 526 }}Another description applies to the Hui people of Yunnan and Northwestern China, whose origin might result from the convergence of Mongol, Turkic, Iranian or other Central Asian settlers who were recruited by the Yuan Dynasty either as officials (the semu), who formed the second-highest stratum in the Yuan ethnic hierarchy (after the Mongols but above Chinese) or artisans.{{sfn|Lipman|1997|pp=31}}{{sfn|Dillon|1999|pp=19-21}} A proportion of the ancestral nomad or military ethnic groups were originally Nestorian Christians, many of whom later converted to Islam under the Ming and Qing Dynasties.{{citation needed|date=April 2014}}(File:Hui man.jpg|thumb|220px|right|An elderly Hui man.)Southeastern Muslims have a much longer tradition of synthesizing Confucian teachings with Qur'anic teachings and were reported to have contributed to Confucianism from the Tang period. Among the Northern Hui Central Asian Sufi schools such as Kubrawiyya, Qadiriyya, Naqshbandiyya (Khufiyya and Jahriyya) were strong influences, mostly of the Hanafi Madhhab (whereas among the Southeastern communities the Shafi'i Madhhab is more common). Before the "Yihewani" movement, a Chinese Muslim sect inspired by the Middle Eastern reform movement, Northern Hui Sufis blended Taoist teachings and martial arts practices with Sufi philosophy.Faced with the devastating An Lushan Rebellion, Tang Emperor Suzong wrote to Al-Mansur requesting armed assistance. Al-Mansur sent 7,000 cavalry. Those Muslim warriors were the originators of the Hui people.WEB,weblink Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation : Jewel of Chinese Muslim's Heritage,, 2016-09-17,

Converted Han

According to legend, a Muhuyindeni person converted an entire village of Han with the surname Zhang to Islam.{{sfn|Dillon|1999|p=127}} Another source for the Hui comes from Hui adopting Han children and raising them as Hui.BOOK, {{google books, y, 5LSvkQvvmAMC, 283, |title=The religious traditions of Asia: religion, history, and culture|first=Joseph Mitsuo |last=Kitagawa|year=2002|publisher=Routledge|location=|page=283|isbn=0-7007-1762-5|accessdate=2010-06-28}}Hui in Gansu with the surname Tang (唐) and Wang (汪) descended from Han Chinese who converted to Islam and married Muslim Hui or Dongxiang people, switching their ethnicity and joining the Hui and Dongxiang ethnic groups, both of which were Muslim. Tangwangchuan and Hanjiaji were notable as towns with a multi-ethnic community, with both non-Muslims and Muslims.{{sfn|Lipman|1997|p= {{google books|id=Y8Nzux7z6KAC|title=145|p=145}}}}Kuomintang official Ma Hetian visited Tangwangchuan and met an "elderly local literatus from the Tang clan" while he was on his inspection tour of Gansu and Qinghai.BOOK, {{google books, m1RuAAAAMAAJ, y, 119, | title=Inner Asia, Volume 4, Issues 1-2| volume=| year=2002| author=University of Cambridge. Mongolia Inner Asia Studies Unit| editor=| publisher=The White Horse Press for the Mongolia and Inner Asia Studies Unit at the University of Cambridge| edition=| location=| isbn=| page=119WEBSITE=INGENTACONNECT.COM ACCESSDATE=2016-09-17, In Gansu province in the 1800s, a Muslim Hui woman married into the Han Chinese Kong lineage of Dachuan, which was descended from Confucius. The Han Chinese groom and his family converted to Islam after the marriage by their Muslim relatives.BOOK, Jun Jing, The Temple of Memories: History, Power, and Morality in a Chinese Village, {{google books, 3leAld7M7p0C, y, 26, | accessdate = 2010-06-29| date = 1998-10-01| publisher = Stanford University Press| isbn = 0-8047-2757-0| page = 26}}. In 1715 in Yunnan province, a few Han Chinese descendants of Confucius surnamed Kong married Hui women and converted to Islam.WEB,weblink New Confucius Genealogy out next year, Zhou, Jing,, 2010-06-28, Archives on this are stored in Xuanwei city. The non-Muslim branches of the Kong family disowned them for marrying Muslim women and converting and struck the Muslim branches off their genealogies.Many of the Muslim descendants of Confucius are descended from the marriage of Ma Jiaga (), a Muslim woman, and Kong Yanrong (), 59th generation descendant of Confucius in the year 1480 and their descendants are found among the Hui and Dongxiang peoples.WEB, 3139,weblink zh:孔子后裔中有14个少数民族 有宗教信仰也传承家风-文化-人民网,, 2014-12-14, 2016-09-17, WEB,weblink zh:西北生活着孔子回族后裔-文化-人民网,, 2008-04-24, 2016-09-17, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2016-04-13, zh:孔子后裔有回族_文化_中华民族文化网 民族网 56民族文化网, 2016-09-17, Around 1376 the 30-year-old Chinese merchant Lin Nu visited Ormuz in Persia, converted to Islam, and married a Semu girl ("") (either a Persian or an Arab girl) and brought her back to Quanzhou in Fujian.WEB,weblink CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS vii. Persian Settlements in Southeastern China during the T'ang, Sung, and Yuan Dynasties, Chen, Da-Sheng, Encyclopedia Iranica, 2010-06-28, BOOK,weblink Science and civilisation in China, Volume 4, Joseph Needham, 1971, Cambridge University Press, 495, 0-521-07060-0, 2010-06-29, JOURNAL,weblink Asian culture, Issue 31, Singapore Society of Asian Studies, 2007, 59, 25 August 2014, The translator mistranslated xiyang (western ocean) as xiyu (western region) and mistranslated semu as "purple eyed". Original Chinese text says And ...WEB,weblink Zheng He and his Envoys' Visits to Cairo in 1414 and 1433, Wang Tai Peng, 17, 25 August 2014, The translator mistranslated xiyang (western ocean) as xiyu (western region) and mistranslated semu as "purple eyed". Original Chinese text says And The Confucian philosopher Li Zhi was their descendant.BOOK,weblink Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft: ZDMG, Volume 151, Contributor Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft, 2001, Kommissionsverlag F. Steiner, de, 420, 422, 25 August 2014, This was recorded in the Lin and Li genealogy . The main family disowned him and his descendants for converting to Islam and marrying a foreign woman and struck them off their genealogy.

Tang dynasty

Islam came to China during the Tang dynasty via Iranian traders, who were primarily concerned with trading and commerce and less concerned with spreading Islam. This low profile is indicated by the 845 anti-Buddhist edict during the Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution that said nothing about Islam.BOOK, Herbert Allen Giles, Confucianism and its rivals, {{google books, drPQaUGOJQIC, y, 139, | accessdate = 2011-12-14| year = 1926| publisher = Forgotten Books| isbn = 1-60680-248-8| page = 139 }} It seems that trade rather than evangelism occupied the attention of the early Muslim settlers; while they practiced their faith in China, they did not campaign against Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, or the State creed, and that they constituted a floating rather than a fixed element of the population, coming and going between China and the West.BOOK, {{google books, XJqCAAAAIAAJ, y, 150, |title=China: its history, arts and literature, Volume 2|author=Frank Brinkley|accessdate=2011-12-14 |edition=|series= |volume=Volumes 9-12 of Trübner's oriental series |year=1902 |publisher=J. B. Millet |location=BOSTON AND TOKYO |isbn=|pages=149, 150, 151, 152}}Original from the University of CaliforniaBOOK, {{google books, 5ukVAAAAYAAJ, y, 150, |title=Japan [and China]: China; its history, arts and literature|author=Frank Brinkley|accessdate=2011-12-14 |edition=|series= |volume=Volume 10 of Japan [and China]: Its History, Arts and Literature |year=1904 |publisher=Jack |location=LONDON 34 HENRIETTA STREET, W. C. AND EDINBURGH |isbn= |pages=149, 150, 151, 152}}Original from Princeton University

Song dynasty

During the Song Dynasty, Muslims played a major role in foreign trade.{{sfn|BBC|2002|loc = Origins}}{{sfn|Lipman|1997|p = 79}} The office of the Director General of Shipping was consistently held by a Muslim.{{sfn|Ting|1958|p = 346}} The Song Dynasty hired Muslim mercenaries from Bukhara to fight against Khitan nomads. 5,300 Muslims from Bukhara were invited to move to China in 1070 by Song emperor Shenzong to help battle the Liao empire in the northeast and repopulate ravaged areas. These men settled between the Sung capital of Kaifeng and Yenching (modern day Beijing). The provinces of the north and north-east were settled in 1080 when 10,000 more Muslims were invited into China.{{harvnb|Israeli|2002|p = 283}} They were led by the Amir of Bukhara, Sayyid "So-fei-er" in Chinese. He is called the "Father" of Chinese Islam. Islam was named by the Tang and Song Chinese as Dashi fa ("law of the Arabs").{{harvnb|Israeli|2002|p = {{google books|id=KoiD_yafPT8C|title=283 |p=283}}}}; Tashi or Dashi is the Chinese rendering of Tazi-the name the Persians used for the Arabs
He gave Islam the new name of Huihui Jiao ("the Religion of the Huihui").{{harvnb|Israeli|2002|p = {{google books|id=KoiD_yafPT8C||title=284|p=284}}}}
Guangzhou (Canton) had a community which included Persians women in the 10th-12th centuries, found in Liu Chang's harem in the 10th century and in Song dynasty era Guangzhou in the 12th century the Persian women () there were observed wearing many earrings.BOOK, University of California (1868-1952), University of California (System), University of California, Berkeley, 1951, University of California Publications in Semitic Philology, Volumes 11-12,weblink University of California Press, WEB,weblink zh:唐朝境内的波斯人及其活动, 2017-07-03, Sohu, BOOK, zh:(南宋)庄绰, zh:《鸡肋篇》卷, Zhonghua Book Company, 1983, 53, WEB,weblink zh:宋建三城商都繁盛, Guangzhou History of Civilization, WEB,weblink zh:第三章广州海洋文明文物撷萃, Liu, Bo (刘波), Guangzhou Almanac, WEB,weblink zh:鲜为人知唐代大惨案,黄巢攻占广州杀十二万外国商人, 2010-05-24, Wenxue City, NEWS, 2017-06-29, zh:唐朝境內的波斯人及其活動,weblink NEWS, Zhu Yinghao (), zh:标题:泉州——被遗忘的光明之城,weblink NEWS, Bei Suni (), 2006-10-13, zh:伊斯蘭教東傳與黃巢"滅回"問題(修改補充版),weblink Duping (), {{full citation needed|date=November 2018}}NEWS, zh:宋建三城商都繁盛,weblink Guangzhou History of Civilization, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2018-04-20, dead, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2018-04-22, 2018-04-22, The Muslim women in Guangzhou were called either Persian women () or Pusaman () which may be from "Mussulman" or "Bussulman" which means Muslim in Persian.NEWS, 2010-04-01, zh:蕃坊里的回族先民,weblink, 17 August 2018, BOOK, 2005-04-10, zh:伊斯兰教传入中国的两个阶段,weblink BOOK, Tōyō Bunko (Japan). Kenkyūbu, 1928, Volume 10171 of Harvard anthropology preservation microfilm project, Publications - Tōyō Bunko. Ser. B, Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko (the Oriental Library)., Issue 2,weblink Toyo Bunko, 34, BOOK, Tōyō Bunko (Japan), Tokyo Bunko publications, Memoirs of the Research Department,weblink 34, BOOK, Jaschok, Maria, Shui, Jingjun, 2000, The History of Women's Mosques in Chinese Islam: A Mosque of Their Own,weblink Psychology Press, illustrated, 73, 0700713026,

Yuan Dynasty

The Yuan Dynasty, which was ruled by Mongols, deported hundreds of thousands of Muslims, Jews and Christians from West Asia and central Asia into China where they formed the Semu class. Semu people like Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar, who served the Yuan dynasty in administrative positions became progenitors of many Hui. Despite the high position given to Muslims, some Yuan policies discriminated against them, forbidding halal slaughter, circumcision and kosher practices, forcing them to eat the Mongol way.{{sfn|Leslie|1986|p = 12}} Later, corruption and persecution became so severe that Muslim Generals rebelled with Han against the Mongols. Ming founder Zhu Yuanzhang enlisted Muslim Generals such as Lan Yu who defeated the Mongols in combat. Some Muslim communities had the name in Chinese which meant "barak” (‘blessing’ in Arabic) or "thanks" showing that their role in overthrowing the Mongols was valued by the Han, and consequently gave them their name.{{sfn|Gladney|1996|p = 234}} Semu Muslims revolted against the Yuan dynasty in the Ispah Rebellion, but the rebellion was crushed and the Muslims were massacred by Yuan loyalist commander Chen Youding.{{citation needed|date=September 2014}}

Ming Dynasty

{{See also|The Hundred-word Eulogy}}The Ming were tolerant of Islam, while their racial policy towards ethnic minorities was of integration through forced marriage. Muslims were allowed to practice Islam, but if they were not Han, they were required by law to intermarry. Hui often married Han, with the Han often converting to Islam.{{sfn|Jaschok|Shui|2000|p = 771}}Both Mongol and Central Asian Semu Muslim women and men of both sexes were required by Ming Code to marry Han Chinese after the first Ming Emperor Hongwu passed the law in Article 122.BOOK, Farmer, Edward L., Zhu Yuanzhang and Early Ming Legislation: The Reordering of Chinese Society Following the Era of Mongol Rule, 1995, BRILL, 9004103910, 82,weblink BOOK, Jiang, Yonglin, The Mandate of Heaven and The Great Ming Code, 2011, University of Washington Press, 978-0295801667, 125,weblink BOOK, The Great Ming Code / Da Ming lu, 2012, University of Washington Press, 978-0295804002, 88,weblink During the war fighting the Mongols, among the Ming Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang's armies was the Hui Muslim Feng Sheng.WEB,weblink China's Islamic Communities Generate Local Histories - China Heritage Quarterly, The Ming Dynasty employed many Muslims. Some Hui people claimed that the first Ming Emperor Ming Taizu might have been a Muslim, but this is rejected by most scholars.{{sfn|Dillon|1999|p = {{google books |id=hUEswLE4SWUC|title=29|p=29}}}} The Ming used Hui troops to crush the Miao and other aboriginal rebels during the Miao Rebellions, and settled in Changde, where their descendants remain.BOOK, Chih-yu, Shih, Zhiyu, Shi, Negotiating ethnicity in China: citizenship as a response to the state, {{google books, y, 0rhxU662vQsC, 133, | accessdate = 2010-06-28| year = 2002| publisher = Psychology Press| isbn = 0-415-28372-8| page = 133 }} Muslims were citizens and lived freely in Beijing, with no restrictions placed on their religious practices or freedom of worship. By contrast Tibetan Buddhists and Catholics suffered restrictions and censure in Beijing.BOOK, Susan, Naquin, Peking: temples and city life, 1400-1900, {{google books, y, bANasl7nayUC, 214, | accessdate = 2010-11-28| year = 2000| publisher = University of California Press| isbn = 0-520-21991-0| page = 214 }}Marriage between upper class Han Chinese and Hui Muslims was uncommon, since upper class Han men both refused to marry Muslims and forbade their daughters from marrying Muslims, since they did not want to convert and lose their upper class status. Only low status Han would convert to marry a Hui woman. Ming law allowed Han men and women to marry each other.{{sfn|Jaschok|Shui|2000|p=771}}BOOK, Jiang Yonglin, The Mandate of Heaven and the Great Ming Code, {{google books, y, w68uObIhx9MC, 24, | accessdate = December 20, 2011| volume = Volume 21 of Asian law series| date = 2011-01-12| publisher = University of Washington Press| isbn = 978-0-295-99065-1| page = 241| quote = loose-rein (jimi) policy, 104, 124 Lord of Resplendent Heaven, 106 Lord on High, 3, 25, 82, 93, 94 loyalty, ... Donald, 36, 39, 54 Muslims, Qincha Hui, 124, 128, 131 "mutual production and mutual destruction," 79 Nanjing, 22--23, }}BOOK, Gek Nai Cheng, Osman Bakar, Islam and Confucianism: a civilizational dialogue, {{google books, y, UyHYAAAAMAAJ, 77, | accessdate = December 20, 2011| year = 1997| publisher = Published and distributed for the Centre for Civilizational Dialogue of University of Malaya by University of Malaya Press| isbn = 983-100-038-2| page = 77 }}The Hongwu Emperor decreed the building of mosques throughout China. A Nanjing mosque was built by the Xuande Emperor.{{harvnb|Jaschok|Shui|2000|p=77}} An anti pig slaughter edict by the Zhengde Emperor has led to speculation he adopted Islam due to his use of Muslim eunuchs whose influence in turn may have led to the imperial production of porcelain with Persian and Arabic inscriptions in white and blue color,BOOK, Jay A. Levenson, National Gallery of Art (U.S.), Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration,weblink 1991, Yale University Press, 978-0-300-05167-4, 477–, WEB,weblink A rare blue and white screen Zhengde six-character mark and of the period, Bonhams, 2016-09-17, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2012-03-21, Crossing Culture in the Blue-and-White with Arabic or Persian inscriptions under Emperor Zhengde (r. 1506-21), BOOK, Suzanne G. Valenstein, A Handbook of Chinese Ceramics,weblink 1988, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 978-0-8109-1170-3, 187–, but it is unknown who really was behind the anti-pig slaughter edict.BOOK, B. J. ter Haar, Telling Stories: Witchcraft And Scapegoating in Chinese History,weblink 2006, BRILL, 90-04-14844-2, 4–, Muslim eunuchs contributed money in 1496 to repairing Niujie Mosque. The speculation of the Zhengde Emperor becoming a Muslim is based in part on his excessive and debauched behavior along with his concubines of foreign origin.BOOK, Frank Trentmann, The Oxford Handbook of the History of Consumption,weblink 22 March 2012, OUP Oxford, 978-0-19-162435-3, 47–, BOOK, Frank Trentmann, The Oxford Handbook of the History of Consumption,weblink 22 March 2012, OUP Oxford, 978-0-19-162435-3, Central Asian Uighur women BOOK, Association for Asian Studies. Ming Biographical History Project Committee, Luther Carrington Goodrich, 房兆楹, Dictionary of Ming Biography, 1368-1644, were provided to the Zhengde Emperor by a Muslim guard, Yun YungBOOK, Association for Asian Studies. Ming Biographical History Project Committee, Luther Carrington Goodrich, Dictionary of Ming Biography, 1368-1644,weblink 1976, Columbia University Press, 978-0-231-03801-0, 309–, and Hami women by a Muslim leader from the Kumul Hami, Sayyid Hussain.BOOK, Susan Naquin, Peking: Temples and City Life, 1400-1900,weblink 16 December 2000, University of California Press, 978-0-520-92345-4, 213–, Muslim Central Asian girls were favored by Zhengde like how Korean girls were favored by Xuande,BOOK, John W. Dardess, Ming China, 1368-1644: A Concise History of a Resilient Empire,weblink 2012, Rowman & Littlefield, 978-1-4422-0491-1, 47–, and foreign Central Asian Uighur, Mongol (Tatar),BOOK, Frederick W. Mote, Imperial China 900-1800,weblink 2003, Harvard University Press, 978-0-674-01212-7, 657–, and Muslim SemuWEB,weblink Culture, Courtiers, and Competition : The Ming Court (1368-1644),, 2016-09-17, WEB,weblink Sino-Platonic Papers, October 2000,, 2016-09-17, concubines were kept by him.BOOK, Peter C Perdue, China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia,weblink 30 June 2009, Harvard University Press, 978-0-674-04202-5, 64–, Ni'ergan () was the name of one of his Muslim concubines.WEB,weblink zh:澳門海洋文化的若干問題,, 2016-09-17,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-02-02, dead, When the Qing dynasty invaded the Ming dynasty in 1644, Muslim Ming loyalists in Gansu led by Muslim leaders MilayinBOOK, Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864, James A., Millward, illustrated, 1998, Stanford University Press,weblink 298, 0804729336, 24 April 2014, harv, and Ding Guodong led a revolt in 1646 against the Qing during the Milayin rebellion in order to drive the Qing out and restore the Ming Prince of Yanchang Zhu Shichuan to the throne as the emperor.BOOK, Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China, Jonathan Neaman, Lipman, 1998, University of Washington Press,weblink 53, 0295800550, 24 April 2014, harv, The Muslim Ming loyalists were supported by Hami's Sultan Sa'id Baba and his son Prince Turumtay.BOOK, Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China, Jonathan Neaman, Lipman, 1998, University of Washington Press,weblink 54, 0295800550, 24 April 2014, harv, BOOK, Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864, James A., Millward, illustrated, 1998, Stanford University Press,weblink 171, 0804729336, 24 April 2014, harv, BOOK, Salar: A Study in Inner Asian Language Contact Processes, Part 1, Arienne M., Dwyer, illustrated, 2007, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag,weblink 8, 978-3447040914, 24 April 2014, harv, The Muslim Ming loyalists were joined by Tibetans and Han Chinese in the revolt.BOOK, Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China, Jonathan Neaman, Lipman, 1998, University of Washington Press,weblink 55, 0295800550, 24 April 2014, harv, After fierce fighting, and negotiations, a peace agreement was agreed on in 1649, and Milayan and Ding nominally pledged allegiance to the Qing and were given ranks as members of the Qing military.BOOK, GREAT ENTERPRISE, FREDERIC, WAKEMAN JR., 1986, University of California Press,weblink 802, 0520048040, 24 April 2014, harv, When other Ming loyalists in southern China made a resurgence and the Qing were forced to withdraw their forces from Gansu to fight them, Milayan and Ding once again took up arms and rebelled against the Qing.BOOK, GREAT ENTERPRISE, FREDERIC, WAKEMAN JR., 1986, University of California Press,weblink 803, 0520048040, 24 April 2014, harv, The Muslim Ming loyalists were then crushed by the Qing with 100,000 of them, including Milayin, Ding Guodong, and Turumtay killed in battle.The Confucian Hui Muslim scholar Ma Zhu (1640–1710) served with the southern Ming loyalists against the Qing.BOOK, Charities in the Non-Western World: The Development and Regulation of Indigenous and Islamic Charities, Rajeswary Ampalavanar, Brown, Justin, Pierce, 2013, Routledge,weblink 978-1317938521, 24 April 2014, harv, Zhu Yu'ai, the Ming Prince Gui was accompanied by Hui refugees when he fled from Huguang to the Burmese border in Yunnan and as a mark of their defiance against the Qing and loyalty to the Ming, they changed their surname to Ming.BOOK, Michael Dillon, China's Muslim Hui Community: Migration, Settlement and Sects,weblink 16 December 2013, Taylor & Francis, 978-1-136-80940-8, 45–, In Guangzhou, three Ming loyalist Muslims who were killed while fighting in battle against the Qing in the Manchu conquest of China, and these Ming Muslim loyalists were called "jiaomen sanzhong" ("Three defenders of the faith" or "The Muslim's Loyal Trio").BOOK,weblink International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania, Trudy Ring, Robert M. Salkin, Sharon La Boda, 306, 2016-09-17, 9781884964046, 1994,

Qing Dynasty

The Qing Dynasty grouped minorities by language and forced Hui to wear the queue, while most Turkic-speaking Chinese did not, except for their leaders.BOOK, Morris, Rossabi, Governing China's Multiethnic Frontiers, {{google books, y, RTROdDIiaT8C, 22, | accessdate = 2010-06-28| date = 2005-07-30| publisher = University of Washington Press| isbn = 0-295-98412-0| page = 22 }} During the Qing Salar Muslim men shaved their hair bald while when they went to journey in public they put on artificial queues.BOOK, Arienne M. Dwyer, Salar,weblink 2007, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 978-3-447-04091-4, 22, Uyghur men shaved their hair bald during the Qing.BOOK, Pamela Kyle Crossley, Helen F. Siu, Donald S. Sutton, Empire at the Margins: Culture, Ethnicity, and Frontier in Early Modern China,weblink January 2006, University of California Press, 978-0-520-23015-6, 127, The Qing authorities considered both Han and Hui to be Chinese, and in Xinjiang both Hui and Han were classified as merchants, regardless of profession.{{sfn|Millward|1998|p = {{google books |id=MC6sAAAAIAAJ |title=138|p=138 }}}} Laws were passed segregating the different races, in theory keeping Turkic Muslims apart from Hui and Han, however, the law was not followed.{{sfn|Millward|1998|p = {{google books |id=MC6sAAAAIAAJ |title=144 |p=144}}}} Hui and Han households were built closer together in the same area while Turkic Muslims would live farther away from town.{{sfn|Bellér-Hann|2007|p = 75}}

Muslim revolts

In the Jahriyya revolt sectarian violence between two suborders of the Naqshbandi Sufis, the Jahriyya Sufi Muslims and their rivals, the Khafiyya Sufi Muslims, led to a Jahriyya Sufi Muslim rebellion which the Qing dynasty in China crushed with the help of the Khafiyya Sufi Muslims.BOOK, Jonathan N. Lipman, Jonathan Neaman Lipman, Stevan Harrell, Violence in China: Essays in Culture and Counterculture,weblink 1990, SUNY Press, 978-0-7914-0113-2, 76, During the Afaqi Khoja revolts Turkic Muslim raiders from Kokand abducted Hui Muslims and sold them as slaves in Central Asia.During the mid-nineteenth century, civil wars erupted throughout China, led by various groups against the Qing dynasty. These include the Taiping Rebellion in Southern China (whose leaders were Evangelical Christians of ethnic Han Chinese Hakka and Zhuang background), the Muslim Rebellion in Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai and Ningxia in Northwestern China and Yunnan, and the Miao people Revolt in Hunan and Guizhou. These revolts were eventually put down by the Manchu government. The Dungan people were descendants of the Muslim rebels and fled to the Russian Empire after the rebellion was suppressed by the joint forces of Hunan Army led by Zuo Zongtang (左宗棠) with support from local Hui elites.The Manchu official Shuxing'a started an anti-Muslim massacre which led to the Panthay Rebellion. Shuxing'a developed a deep hatred of Muslims after an incident where he was stripped naked and nearly lynched by a mob of Muslims. He ordered several Muslim rebels to be slowly sliced to death.BOOK, Atwill, David G., The Chinese Sultanate: Islam, Ethnicity, and the Panthay Rebellion in Southwest China, 1856-1873, 2005, Stanford University Press, 0804751595, 89, illustrated,weblink BOOK, Wellman, Jr., James K., Belief and Bloodshed: Religion and Violence across Time and Tradition, 2007, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 978-0742571341, 121,weblink The Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics, Volume 8 stated that the Dungan and Panthay revolts by the Muslims was set off by racial antagonism and class warfare, rather than religion.{{sfn|Hastings|Selbie|Gray|1916|p=893}} The Russian government spent thousands of rubles on an unsuccessful expedition trying to determine the cause of the revolt.WEB,weblink Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture - 南山宗教文化研究所, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2007-06-30, File:Capture of the Provincial Capital Dali, Yunnan.jpg|thumb|250px|Capture of Dali, the capital of the Pingnan Sultanate in YunnanYunnanThe Panthay Rebellion started when a Muslim from a Han family that had converted to Islam, Du Wenxiu, led some Hui to attempt to drive the Manchu out of China and establish a unified Han and Hui state. Du established himself as a Sultan in Yunnan during this revolt. A British military observer testified that the Muslims did not rebel for religious reasons and that the Chinese were tolerant of different religions and were unlikely to have caused the revolt by interfering with Islam.{{sfn|Fytche|1878|p=301}} Loyalist Muslim forces helped Qing crush the rebel Muslims.BOOK, {{google books, y, 5LSvkQvvmAMC, 283, |title=The religious traditions of Asia: religion, history, and culture|author=Joseph Mitsuo Kitagawa|year=2002|publisher=Routledge|location=|page=283|isbn=0-7007-1762-5|accessdate=2010-06-28}} During the Panthay Rebellion, the Qing dynasty did not massacre Muslims who surrendered. Muslim General Ma Rulong, who surrendered and join the Qing campaign to crush the rebel Muslims, was promoted and became the most powerful military official in the province.BOOK, {{google books, y, Tw8MAAAAYAAJ, 443, |title=The history of China, Volume 2|author=Demetrius Charles de Kavanagh Boulger|year=1898|publisher=Publisher W. Thacker co.|location=|page=443|isbn=|accessdate=2010-06-28}}.The Dungan Revolt (1862–77) erupted over a pricing dispute over bamboo poles that a Han merchant was selling to a Hui. After the revolt broke out, Turkic Andijanis from the Kokand Khanate under Yaqub Beg invaded Xinjiang and fought both Hui rebels and Qing forces. Yaqub Beg's Turkic Kokandi Andijani Uzbek forces declared jihad against Dungans under T'o Ming (Tuo Ming a.k.a. Daud Khalifa) during the revolt. Yaqub Beg enlisted non-Muslim Han Chinese militia under Hsu Hsuehkung in the Battle of Ürümqi (1870). T'o Ming's forces were defeated by Yaqub, who planned to conquer Dzungharia. Yaqub intended to seize all Dungan territory.BOOK, {{google books, y, pEfWaxPhdnIC, 223, |title=Late Ch'ing, 1800-1911|author=John King Fairbank |author2=Kwang-ching Liu |author3=Denis Crispin Twitchett|year=1980|publisher=Cambridge University Press|location=|isbn=0-521-22029-7|page=223|accessdate=2010-06-28}}BOOK, {{google books, y, pEfWaxPhdnIC, 224, |title=The Cambridge History of China|first1=John King |last1=Fairbank |first2=Kwang-ching |last2=Liu |first3=Denis Crispin |last3=Twitchett|year=1980|publisher=Cambridge University Press|location=|isbn=0-521-22029-7|page=224|accessdate=2010-06-28}}BOOK, {{google books, FoIE4laY7JcC, y, 45, |title=The Modernization of Inner Asia|author=Cyril E. Black |author2=Louis Dupree |author3=Elizabeth Endicott-West |author4=Eden Naby|year=1991|publisher=M.E. Sharpe|location=|isbn=0-87332-779-9|page=45|accessdate=2010-11-28}} Poems were written about Yaqub Beg's victories.BOOK, Ildikó Bellér-Hann, Community matters in Xinjiang, 1880-1949: towards a historical anthropology of the Uyghur, {{google books, y, cF4lMj8skvoC, 74, | accessdate = 2010-06-28| year = 2008| publisher = BRILL| isbn = 978-90-04-16675-2| page = 74 }} Hui rebels battled Turkic Muslims in addition to fighting the Qing. Yaqub Beg seized Aksu from Hui forces and forced them north of the Tien Shan mountains, massacring the Dungans (Hui). Reportedly in 1862 the number of Hui in China proper numbered 30,000,000.BOOK, {{google books, y, gitcAAAAQAAJ, 5, |title=Accounts and papers of the House of Commons|author=Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons|year=1871|publisher=Ordered to be printed|location=|page=34|isbn=|accessdate=2010-12-28}} During the revolt, loyalist Hui helped the Qing crush the rebels and reconquer Xinjiang from Yaqub Beg. Despite a substantial population loss, the military power of Hui increased, because some Hui who had defected to the Qing side were granted high positions in the Imperial Army. One of them, Ma Anliang, became a military warlord in northwest China, and other Generals associated with him grew into the Ma Clique of the Republican era.{{sfn|Lipman|1997|p = 206}}Beijing's Hui population was unaffected by the Dungan revolt.BOOK, Hugh D. R. Baker, Hong Kong images: people and animals, 2011-06-19, 1990, Hong Kong University Press, 962-209-255-1, 55,weblink Samuel Wells Williams wrote that "they must obey the laws of the land and honor the Emperor as good subjects. They have done so, and, generally speaking, have never been molested on account of their beliefs. Their chief strength lies in the northern part. The recent struggle in the north-western provinces, which cost so many lives, began almost wholly at the instigation of Turk or Tartar sectaries, and was a simple trial of strength as to who should rule. While cities and towns in Kansuh occupied by them were destroyed (in 1860–73), the two hundred thousand Moslems in Peking remained perfectly quiet and were unmolested by the authorities. Some hold office, and pass through the examinations to obtain it, most of them being military men. In their mosques they exhibit a tablet with the customary ascription of reverence to the Emperor, but place the Prophet's name behind."BOOK, S. Wells Williams, The Middle Kingdom,weblink 1901, 269–, Allès wrote that the relationship between Hui and Han peoples continued normally in the Henan area, with no ramifications from the rebellions. Allès wrote, "The major Muslim revolts in the middle of the nineteenth century which involved the Hui in Shaanxi, Gansu and Yunnan, as well as the Uyghurs in Xinjiang, do not seem to have had any direct effect on this region of the central plain."WEB,weblink Notes on some joking relationships between Hui and Han villages in Henan, Allès, Elizabeth, French Centre for Research on Contemporary China, 6, October 2003, 2011-07-20, Another revolt erupted in 1895 and was suppressed by loyalist Muslim troops.

Religious allowances

File:NRA Generals Northern Expedition.jpg|thumb|240px|left|Chinese generals pay tribute to the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum at the Temple of the Azure Clouds on July 6, 1928 in Beijing after the success of the Northern Expedition. From right to left, are Gen. Cheng Jin, Gen. Zhang Zuobao, Gen. Chen Diaoyuan, Gen. Chiang Kai-shek, Gen. Woo Tsin-hang, Gen. Wen Xishan, Muslim Gen. Ma Fuxiang, Gen. Ma Sida and Muslim Gen. Bai ChongxiBai ChongxiDuring the Qing Dynasty, at the entrances of Hui Mosques, a tablet was placed upon which "Huángdì wànsuì, wànsuì, wànwànsuì" () was inscribed, which means, "The Emperor, may he live forever".BOOK,weblink Islam in China: A Neglected Problem, Marshall Broomhall, 290, 2016-09-17, 1910, Westerners traveling in China noted the presence of these tablets at mosques in Yunnan and Ningbo.BOOK,weblink The Chinese repository, Volumes 11-15, 1842, Printed for the proprietors., 33, 2010-06-28, The Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics: Life and Death stated that "The religious attitude of the Chinese Muslims is—outwardly, at least— characterized by moderation. They make concessions to the ruling power, hoping thus to gain security for person and property, and the most capable and resolute of those who enter the government service take part in the ceremonial of the national cult. The hatred of foreigners sometimes shown by Muslim officers of high rank, like that displayed by the Chinese themselves, is to be referred, not to religious motives, but to the exasperation provoked by the highhanded way in which foreigners interfere with the internal affairs of the country."BOOK, James Hastings, James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray, Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics: Life and death-Mulla,weblink 1916, T. & T. Clark, 893–,

Republic of China

(File:Anti-Japanese Muslim guerillas in Northwest China, c. 1939.jpg|thumb|250px|right|1939, Northwest China, Chinese Muslim fighters gather to fight against the JapaneseBOOK, Lin, Hsiao-ting, 4 War and new frontier designs, Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West,weblink Routledge Studies in the Modern History of Asia, 13 September 2010, 978-1-136-92393-7, Routledge, 66, BOOK, Lin, Hsiao-ting, 4 War and new frontier designs, Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West,weblink Routledge Studies in the Modern History of Asia, 13 September 2010, 978-1-136-92392-0, Routledge, 137, )File:Horrible death, Nanking Massacre.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Dead bodies of the Chinese Hui Muslim Ha family who were slaughtered and raped by the Japanese in Nanjing. The photo comes from Case 5 of (John Magee (missionary)|John Magee]]'s film: on December 13, 1937, about 30 Japanese soldiers murdered all but two of 11 Chinese Hui Muslims from the Ha family in the house at No. 5 Xinlukou. A woman and her two teenaged daughters were raped, and Japanese soldiers rammed a bottle and a cane into her vagina. An eight-year-old girl was stabbed, but she and her younger sister survived. They were found alive two weeks after the killings by the elderly woman shown in the photo. Bodies of the victims can also be seen in the photo.John G. Gagee, Case 9, Film 4, Folder 7, Box 263, Record Group 8, Special Collection, Yale Divinity School Library, cited in Suping Lu. They were in Nanjing: the Nanjing Massacre witnessed by American and British nationals. Hong Kong University Press, 2004BOOK,weblink John Rabe, Erwin Wickert. The good man of Nanking: the diaries of John Rabe. A.A. Knopf, 1998. page 281-282, 2008-09-08, 2011-03-06, )The Hui Muslim community was divided in its support for the 1911 Xinhai Revolution. The Hui Muslims of Shaanxi supported the revolutionaries and the Hui Muslims of Gansu supported the Qing. The native Hui Muslims (Mohammedans) of Xi'an (Shaanxi province) joined the Han Chinese revolutionaries in slaughtering the entire 20,000 Manchu population of Xi'an.BOOK, Backhouse, Sir Edmund, Otway, John, Bland, Percy, Annals & Memoirs of the Court of Peking: (from the 16th to the 20th Century), 1914, Houghton Mifflin, 209, reprint,weblink BOOK, The Atlantic, Volume 112, 1913, Atlantic Monthly Company, 779,weblink BOOK, The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 112, 1913, Atlantic Monthly Company, 779,weblink The native Hui Muslims of Gansu province led by general Ma Anliang sided with the Qing and prepared to attack the anti-Qing revolutionaries of Xi'an city. Only some wealthy Manchus who were ransomed and Manchu females survived. Wealthy Han Chinese seized Manchu girls to become their slavesBOOK, Rhoads, Edward J. M., Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861–1928, 2000, University of Washington Press, 0295980400, 192, illustrated, reprint,weblink and poor Han Chinese troops seized young Manchu women to be their wives.BOOK, Rhoads, Edward J. M., Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861–1928, 2000, University of Washington Press, 0295980400, 193, illustrated, reprint,weblink Young pretty Manchu girls were also seized by Hui Muslims of Xi'an during the massacre and brought up as Muslims.BOOK, Fitzgerald, Charles Patrick, Kotker, Norman, Kotker, Norman, The Horizon history of China, 1969, American Heritage Pub. Co., 365, illustrated,weblink Before the 1911 Xinhai Revolution, when the revolutionaries faced the ideological dilemma on how to unify the country while at the same time acknowledging ethnic minorities, Hui people were noted as Chinese Muslims, separate from Uyghurs.BOOK, Pamela Kyle, Crossley, Orphan warriors: three Manchu generations and the end of the Qing world, {{google books, y, NUTE8V-WhwoC, 185, | accessdate = 2010-06-28| year = 1991| publisher = Princeton University Press| isbn = 0-691-00877-9| page = 185 }} Jahriyya Sufi leader Ma Yuanzhang said in response to accusations that Muslims were disloyal to China:
"Our lives, livelihoods, and graves are in China. . . . We have been good citizens among the Five Nationalities!".BOOK, Gail, Hershatter, Remapping China: fissures in historical terrain, {{google books, y, AvDOudr5M6MC, 107, | accessdate = 2010-06-28| year = 1996| publisher = Stanford University Press| location = Stanford California| isbn = 0-8047-2509-8| page = 107}}
Ma Fuxiang encouraged Confucian-style assimilation for Muslims into Chinese culture and set up an assimilationist group for this purpose.BOOK, {{google books, y, 5LSvkQvvmAMC, 368, |title=The religious traditions of Asia: religion, history, and culture|first=Joseph Mitsuo |last=Kitagawa|year=2002|publisher=Routledge|location=|page=368|isbn=0-7007-1762-5|accessdate=2010-06-28}} Imams such as Hu Songshan encouraged Chinese nationalism in their mosques and the Yihewani was led by many nationalist Imams.{{sfn|Lipman|1997|p = 210}}BOOK, {{google books, y, lSxYAAAAMAAJ, 30, |title=Papers from the Conference on Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of Dominance, Banff |date= August 20–24, 1987 |volume=3|location=|page=30|isbn=|accessdate=2010-06-28}}The Kuomintang party and Chiang Kai-shek both considered all Chinese minority peoples, including the Hui, to be descendants of the Yellow Emperor, the mythical founder of the Chinese nation, and thus members of the Chinese Nation Zhonghua Minzu. He introduced this into the Kuomintang's ideology, which was propagated by the educational system of the Republic of China.BOOK, Murray A., Rubinstein, The Other Taiwan: 1945 to the present, {{google books, y, YujNjFgTuGMC, 416, | accessdate = 2010-06-28| year = 1994| publisher = M.E. Sharpe| isbn = 1-56324-193-5| page = 416 }}BOOK, James A., Millward, Eurasian crossroads: a history of Xinjiang, {{google books, y, 8FVsWq31MtMC, 208, | accessdate = 2010-06-28| date = 2007-03-15| publisher = Columbia University Press| isbn = 978-0-231-13924-3| page = 208 }}BOOK, {{google books, y, CLiFAAAAIAAJ, 409, |title=The Far East: a history of the Western impact and the Eastern response (1830-1970)|first=Burton F. |last=Beers |year=1971|publisher=Prentice-Hall|location=|page=409|isbn=|accessdate=2010-06-28}}During the Second Sino-Japanese war the Japanese destroyed many mosques. According to Wan Lei, "Statistics showed that the Japanese destroyed 220 mosques and killed countless Hui people by April 1941." After the Rape of Nanking, Nanjing mosques were filled with corpses.The Japanese devastation left many Hui jobless and homeless. Another policy was one of deliberate humiliation. Soldiers smeared mosques with pork fat, forced Hui to butcher pigs to feed soldiers and forced young women to serve as sex slaves under the pretense of training them as geishas and singers. Hui cemeteries were destroyed.JOURNAL, LEI, Wan, February 2010, The Chinese Islamic "Goodwill Mission to the Middle East" During the Anti-Japanese War,weblink Dîvân Disiplinlerarasi ÇaliÅŸmalar Dergisi, cilt 15, sayı 29, 139–141, 19 June 2014, Many Hui fought against Japan. Many Hui Muslim county of Dachang was killed by the Japanese.On 10 February 1938, Legation Secretary of the German Embassy, Rosen, wrote to his Foreign Ministry about a film made in December by Reverend John Magee about the Nanking Massacre to recommend its purchase. Here is an excerpt from his letter and a description of some of its shots, kept in the Political Archives of the Foreign Ministry in Berlin. One of the victims killed by the Japanese was a Muslim (Mohammedan) whose name was Ha and his family.During the Japanese reign of terror in Nanking – which, by the way, continues to this day to a considerable degree â€“ the Reverend John Magee, a member of the American Episcopal Church Mission who has been here for almost a quarter of a century, took motion pictures that eloquently bear witness to the atrocities committed by the Japanese ... One will have to wait and see whether the highest officers in the Japanese army succeed, as they have indicated, in stopping the activities of their troops, which continue even today.BOOK, John E., Woods, The Good man of Nanking, the Diaries of John Rabe, 1998, 187, On December 13, about 30 soldiers came to a Chinese house at #5 Hsing Lu Koo in the southeastern part of Nanking, and demanded entrance. The door was open by the landlord, a Mohammedan named Ha. They killed him immediately with a revolver and also Mrs. Ha, who knelt before them after Ha's death, begging them not to kill anyone else. Mrs. Ha asked them why they killed her husband and they shot her. Mrs. Hsia was dragged out from under a table in the guest hall where she had tried to hide with her 1 year old baby. After being stripped and raped by one or more men, she was bayoneted in the chest, and then had a bottle thrust into her vagina. The baby was killed with a bayonet. Some soldiers then went to the next room, where Mrs. Hsia's parents, aged 76 and 74, and her two daughters aged 16 and 14. They were about to rape the girls when the grandmother tried to protect them. The soldiers killed her with a revolver. The grandfather grasped the body of his wife and was killed. The two girls were then stripped, the elder being raped by 2–3 men, and the younger by 3. The older girl was stabbed afterwards and a cane was rammed in her vagina. The younger girl was bayoneted also but was spared the horrible treatment that had been meted out to her sister and mother. The soldiers then bayoneted another sister of between 7–8, who was also in the room. The last murders in the house were of Ha's two children, aged 4 and 2 respectively. The older was bayoneted and the younger split down through the head with a sword.John E. Woods,The Good man of Nanking, the Diaries of John Rabe, p. 281. On 5 February 2009, the Japanese Supreme Court ordered Shyudo Higashinakano and the publisher Tendensha to pay 4 million yen in damages to Mrs. Shuqin Xia who claims to be "7–8 years old girl" appears in Magee's film. Higashinakano was unable to prove that she and the girl were different persons, and that she was not a witness of the Nanking massacre, contrary to what he had claimed in his book., Chinese hail Nanjing massacre witness' libel suite victory,, Author on Nanjing loses libel appeal, {{webarchive|url= |date=2009-05-22 }}JOURNAL, Lu, Suping, 2009, Courage under the Reign of Terror Minnie Vautrin's Efforts in Protecting Women Refugees from Japanese Atrocities during the Nanjing Massacre,weblink DEP, 10, 15, 1824-4483, Woods, John E. The Good man of Nanking, the Diaries of John Rabe, p.281.BOOK, Rodney Stich, Japanese and U.S. World War II Plunder and Intrigue,weblink 2010, Silverpeak Enterprises, 978-0-932438-70-6, 10–, BOOK, China Information Committee, Pictorial evidence of Japanese atrocities,weblink 1938, The China Information Committee, 16–, BOOK, Pamphlets on the Chinese-Japanese War, 1939-1945,weblink 1941, 80–, BOOK, Chinese-Japanese Wars: Pamphlets,weblink 1932, 266, In 1939, in order to gain backing for China in Muslim countries, Hui Muslim Ma Fuliang (),WEB,weblink zh:新疆回族的抗日救国活动述略_论文_百度文库, Uyghur Muslim Isa Yusuf Alptekin, Wang Zengshan, Xue Wenbo, and Lin Zhongming visited various Muslim countries, such as Egypt, Syria, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey.BOOK, Hsiao-ting Lin, Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West,weblink 4 August 2010, Taylor & Francis, 978-0-203-84497-7, 90–, BOOK, Hsiao-ting Lin, Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West,weblink 13 September 2010, Routledge, 978-1-136-92392-0, 90–, BOOK, Hsiao-ting Lin, Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West,weblink 13 September 2010, Routledge, 978-1-136-92393-7, 90–, WEB,weblink zh:中国首批留埃学生林仲明_中国论文网,, 2016-09-17, The Hindu leaders Tagore and Gandhi and Muslim Jinnah both discussed the war with the Chinese Muslim delegation under Ma Fuliang while in Turkey Ä°smet Ä°nönü.WEB,,weblink zh:回族知识条目|中国回族文献库,, 2016-09-17, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2016-09-19, dead, Newspapers in China reported the visit.WEB,weblink ćĄčżŽč‰žć˛™éŚŹčłŚč‰Żă€€ćš¨čż'ć?ąĺ?"ĺœ‹ć–°ç–†ć¸ĺœ‹ĺ¸ç"&#x; č'‰ćœąäşŒć°?ć˜¨čˆ‰čĄŒčŒśćœƒ :: ć°'ĺœ‹38ĺš´ĺ‰?é‡?čŚ 剪ĺ ąčł‡ć–™ĺşŤ,, 1940-07-03, 2016-09-17, Ma Fuliang and Isa were working for Zhu Jiahua.WEB,weblink ¹úÃñµ³ÅÉϵÔÚÇຣµÄ¶·Õù,, 2009-11-27, 2016-09-17, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2016-05-13, The Hui Muslim Imam Da Pusheng () also toured the Middle East for 8 months to confront Japanese propagandists in Arab countries and denounce their invasion to the Islamic world. He directly confronted Japanese agents in Arab countries and challenged them in public over their propaganda. He went to British India, Hejaz in Saudi Arabia and Cairo in Egypt.BOOK, Zhufeng Luo, Religion Under Socialism in China,weblink January 1991, M.E. Sharpe, 978-0-87332-609-4, 50–, BOOK, Archives de sciences sociales des religions,weblink 2001, Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France), 29, From 1938 to 1948 Da served on China's National Military Council. Da was educated at Al Azhar in 1923.BOOK, Wolfgang Bartke, Who was Who in the People's Republic of China: With more than 3100 Portraits,weblink 1 January 1997, Walter de Gruyter, 978-3-11-096823-1, 71–, Da is consider one of China's Four Great Imams who modernized Chinese Islam.BOOK, Stephane A. Dudoignon, Komatsu Hisao, Kosugi Yasushi, Intellectuals in the Modern Islamic World: Transmission, Transformation and Communication,weblink 27 September 2006, Routledge, 978-1-134-20597-4, 321–, WEB,weblink When Islam Was an Ally: China's Changing Concepts of Islamic State and Islamic World, John T. Chen, March 13, 2015, Middle East Institute, The bombardment of Chinese Muslims by the warplanes of the Japanese was reported in the newspapers of Syria. The Foreign Minister, Prime Minister, and President of Turkey met with the Chinese Muslim delegation after they came via Egypt in May 1939. Gandhi and Jinnah met with the Hui Ma Fuliang and Uyghur Isa Alptekin as they denounced Japan.WEB,weblink zh:西北回族在抗战中的贡献_中国论文网, 中国论文网, Archived copy, 2016-08-24,weblink" title="">weblink 2017-08-27, dead, The Hui Muslim delegation under Wang Zengshan in Turkey denounced the Japanese invaders through the Turkish media. During a meeting of ambassadors in Turkey the Japanese ambassador was forced to be quiet after being told to shut up by the Soviet Russian ambassador when the Japanese tried to insinuate that the Hui representatives did not represent ordinary Muslims.WEB,weblink The Chinese Islamic "Goodwill Mission to the Middle East" - Japonya'ya Karşı SavaÅŸta Çinli Müslümanların "Orta DoÄŸu ıyi Niyet Heyeti" - Wan LEI, File:Taichung Mosque.JPG|thumb|Taichung Mosque in Taiwan. About 20,000 Muslims fled mainland China with the Nationalist Government to TaiwanTaiwanIn 1937, during the Battle of Beiping–Tianjin the Chinese government was notified by Muslim General Ma Bufang of the Ma clique that he was prepared to bring the fight to the Japanese in a telegram message.NEWS, He Offers Aid to Fight Japan, Central Press, Herald-Journal, 30 Jul 1937,weblink 2010-11-28, Immediately after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Ma Bufang arranged for a cavalry division under the Muslim General Ma Biao to be sent east to battle the Japanese.WEB,weblink zh:让日军闻风丧胆地回族抗日名将,, 2016-09-17, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2017-07-02, Ethnic Turkic Salar Muslims made up the majority of the first cavalry division which was sent by Ma Bufang.WEB,weblink zh:还原真实的西北群马之马步芳 骑八师中原抗日 - 历史 - 穆斯林在线-打造全球最大的伊斯兰中文门户网站,, 2016-09-17, Ma Bufang's army battled extensively in bloody battles against the Japanese in Henan province. The Qinghai Chinese, Salar, Chinese Muslim, Dongxiang, and Tibetan troops were under the commander of Ma Biao, being sent to fight to the death against the Imperial Japanese Army. When they defeated the Japanese, the Muslim troops slaughtered all of them except for a few prisoners to send back to Qinghai prove that they were victorious. In September 1940, when the Japanese made an offensive against the Muslim Qinghai troops, the Muslims ambushed them and killed so many of them they were forced to retreat.WEB,weblink zh:马家军悲壮的抗战:百名骑兵集体投河殉国-军事频道-中华网-中国最大军事网站,, 2008-09-19, 2016-09-17,weblink" title="">weblink 2011-04-11, dead, WEB,weblink zh:民国少数民族将军(组图)2,, 2016-09-17, Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 2018-12-14, dead, Panglong, a Chinese Muslim town in British Burma, was entirely destroyed by the Japanese invaders in the Japanese invasion of Burma.NEWS, Forbes, Andrew, Henley, David, December 2015, 'Saharat Tai Doem' Thailand in Shan State, 1941–45,weblink CPA Media, NEWS, Forbes, Andrew, 2002, A Forgotten Invasion: Thailand in Shan State, 1941-45,weblinkviewtopic.php?f=65&t=60485&start=30, This article was originally published in the Bangkok Post., The Hui Muslim Ma Guanggui became the leader of the Hui Panglong self defense guard created by Su who was sent by the Kuomintang government of the Republic of China to fight against the Japanese invasion of Panglong in 1942. The Japanese destroyed Panglong, burning it and driving out the over 200 Hui households out as refugees. Yunnan and Kokang received Hui refugees from Panglong driven out by the Japanese. One of Ma Guanggui's nephews was Ma Yeye, a son of Ma Guanghua and he narrated the history of Panglang included the Japanese attack.BOOK, Wen-Chin Chang, Beyond Borders: Stories of Yunnanese Chinese Migrants of Burma,,+surnamed+Su,+to+organize+guard+Panglong+Ma+Guanggui+Guang+hua+Japanese+came+burned+down+village+two+hundred+Hui+households+flee+escaped#v=onepage&q=The%20Chinese%20Nationalist%20government%20sent%20a%20delegate%2C%20surnamed%20Su%2C%20to%20organize%20guard%20Panglong%20Ma%20Guanggui%20Guang%20hua%20Japanese%20came%20burned%20down%20village%20two%20hundred%20Hui%20households%20flee%20escaped&f=false, 16 January 2015, Cornell University Press, 978-0-8014-5450-9, 122–, An account of the Japanese attack on the Hui in Panglong was written and published in 1998 by a Hui from Panglong called "Panglong Booklet".BOOK, Wen-Chin Chang, Beyond Borders: Stories of Yunnanese Chinese Migrants of Burma,weblink 16 January 2015, Cornell University Press, 978-0-8014-5450-9, 124–, The Japanese attack in Burma caused the Hui Mu family to seek refuge in Panglong but they were driven out again to Yunnan from Panglong when the Japanese attacked Panglong.BOOK, Wen-Chin Chang, Beyond Borders: Stories of Yunnanese Chinese Migrants of Burma,weblink 16 January 2015, Cornell University Press, 978-0-8014-5450-9, 129–,

Current situation

File:Jiangwan Mosque - Eid Al-Adha.JPG|thumb|Hui people during Eid al-Adha at Jiangwan Mosque, ShanghaiShanghaiFile:XianNight2.jpg|thumb|Muslim restaurant in Xi'anXi'anThe Cultural Revolution wreaked much havoc on minority cultures and ethnicities in China. The massacre of Hui people at the hands of the People's Liberation Army in Yunnan, known as the Shadian incident, reportedly claimed over 1,600 lives in 1975.Yongming Zhou, Anti-drug crusades in twentieth-century China : nationalism, history, and state building, Lanham [u.a.] Rowman & Littlefield 1999, p. 162 Different Muslim ethnic groups in different regions are treated differently by the Chinese government in regards to religious freedom. A greater freedom is permitted for Hui Muslims, who can practice their religion, build Mosques, and have their children attend Mosques, while more controls are placed specifically on Uyghurs in Xinjiang.BOOK, Annual Report on International Religious Freedom, 2004, Senate (U S ) Committee on Foreign Relations, State Dept (U S ), Compiled by State Dept (U S ), illustrated, 2005, Government Printing Office,weblink 159–60, 0160725526, 24 April 2014, harv, Since the 1980s Islamic private schools have been supported and permitted by the Chinese government among Muslim areas, only specifically excluding Xinjiang due of separatist sentiment there.BOOK, Kees Versteegh, Mushira Eid, Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics: A-Ed,weblink 2005, Brill, 978-90-04-14473-6, 383–, The People's Republic, founded in 1949, banned private confessional teaching from the early 1950s to the 1980s, until a more liberal stance allowed religious mosque education to resume and private Muslim schools to open. Moreoever, except in Xinjiang for fear of secessionist feelings, the government allowed and sometimes encouraged the founding of private Muslim schools in order to provide education for people who could not attend increasingly expensive state schools or who left them early, for lack of money or lack of satisfactory achievements., Although religious education for children is officially forbidden by law in China, the Communist party allows Hui Muslims to have their children educated in the religion and attend Mosques while the law is enforced on Uyghurs. After secondary education is completed, China then allows Hui students who are willing to embark on religious studies under an Imam.JOURNAL,weblink Chinese Islam: Unity and Fragmentation, Religion, State & Society, 31, 2003, 2016-09-17, China does not enforce the law against children attending Mosques on non-Uyghurs in areas outside of Xinjiang.BOOK, Annual Report on International Religious Freedom, 2004, Senate (U S ) Committee on Foreign Relations, State Dept (U S ), Compiled by State Dept (U S ), illustrated, 2005, Government Printing Office,weblink 160, 0160725526, 24 April 2014, harv, WEB, Szadziewski, Henryk, Religious Repression of Uyghurs in East Turkestan,weblink Venn Institute, 26 June 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-03-27, dead, Hui religious schools are also allowed to establish a large autonomous network of mosques and schools run by a Hui Sufi leader, which was formed with the approval of the Chinese government even though he admitted to attending an event where Bin Laden spoke.BOOK, The Uyghurs: Strangers in Their Own Land, Gardner, Bovingdon, illustrated, 2013, Columbia University Press,weblink 68, 978-0231519410, 24 April 2014, harv, Savadove, Bill. 2005. "Faith Flourishes in an Arid Wasteland; Muslim Sect in Ningxia Accepts Beijing's Authority and Is Allowed to Build a Virtual Religious State." South China Morning Post, August 17.Hui Muslims who are employed by the state are allowed to fast during Ramadan unlike Uyghurs in the same positions. The number of Hui going on Hajj is expanding, while Uyghurs find it difficult to get passports to go on Hajj; Hui women are also allowed to wear veils, while Uyghur women are discouraged from wearing them.NEWS, Beech, Hannah, If China Is Anti-Islam, Why Are These Chinese Muslims Enjoying a Faith Revival?,weblink 25 June 2015, TIME magazine, 12 August 2014, Many Hui women wear veils and headscarves.NEWS, Devonshire-Ellis, Chris, August 19, 2010, Ningxia: Small but Beautiful and Productive,weblink CHINA BRIEFING, There is a major halal industry and Islamic clothing industry to manufacture Muslim attire such as skull caps, veils, and headscarves in the Hui region of Ningxia.NEWS, Sarkar, Sudeshna, Zhao, Wei, July 30, 2015, Building on Faith,weblink 31, BEIJING REVIEW, China banned a book titled Xing Fengsu ("Sexual Customs") which insulted Islam and placed its authors under arrest in 1989 after protests in Lanzhou and Beijing by Chinese Hui Muslims, during which the Chinese police provided protection to the Hui Muslim protestors, and the Chinese government organized public burnings of the book.BOOK,weblink Minority Rules: The Miao and the Feminine in China's Cultural Politics, Louisa, Schein, 2000, 154, 9780822324447, BOOK,weblink Collaborative Nationalism: The Politics of Friendship on China's Mongolian Frontier, Uradyn E., Bulag, 2010, 104, 9781442204331, BOOK,weblink Muslim Diversity: Local Islam in Global Contexts, Dru C., Gladney, 2013, 144, 9781136818578, BOOK,weblink Handbook of Global Legal Policy, Stuart Nagel, Barry, Sautman, 2000, 79, 9780824778927, The Chinese government assisted them and gave into their demands because Hui do not have a separatist movement, unlike the Uyghurs.BOOK
, China: a history
, Harold Miles Tanner
, 2009
, Hackett Publishing
, 581, fn 50
, 978-0872209152
, 2010-06-28
, Hui Muslim protesters who violently rioted by vandalizing property during the protests against the book were let off by the Chinese government and went unpunished while Uyghur protestors were imprisoned.BOOK,weblink Dislocating China: Muslims, Minorities, and Other Subaltern Subjects, Dru C. Gladney, 232, April 2004, 2016-09-17, 9780226297767, In 2007, anticipating the coming "Year of the Pig" in the Chinese calendar, depictions of pigs were banned from CCTV "to avoid conflicts with ethnic minorities".WEB,weblink Ban Thwarts 'Year of the Pig' Ads in China, Lim, Louisa, 6 February 2007, National Public Radio, This is believed to refer to China's population of 20 million Muslims (to whom pigs are considered "unclean").In response to the 2015 Charlie Hebdo shooting Chinese state-run media attacked Charlie Hebdo for publishing the cartoons insulting Muhammad, with the state-run Xinhua advocated limiting freedom of speech, while another state-run newspaper Global Times said the attack was "payback" for what it characterised as Western colonialism and accusing Charlie Hebdo of trying to incite a clash of civilizations.WEB,weblink Charlie Hebdo Attack Shows Need for Press Limits, Xinhua Says, The Wall Street Journal, 14 January 2015, WEB,weblink Beijing jumps onto Paris attack to feed state propaganda machine, Japan Times, 14 January 2015, At least one million Uyghurs, Hui Muslims and other ethnic Muslims have been detained in mass detention camps, termed "reeducation camps", aimed at changing the political thinking of detainees, their identities, and their religious beliefs.NEWS,weblink Majlis Podcast: The Repercussions Of Beijing's Policies In Xinjiang, 9 December 2018, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, NEWS,weblink Internment camps make Uighurs' life more colourful, says Xinjiang governor, 16 October 2018, The Guardian, NEWS,weblink Chinese officials defensive over Muslim re-education camps, 15 November 2018, Christian Science Monitor, Associated Press, NEWS,weblink 'Afraid We Will Become The Next Xinjiang': China's Hui Muslims Face Crackdown, Feng, Emily, September 26, 2019, NPR, October 8, 2019,

Tensions between Hui and Uyghurs

Tensions between Hui Muslims and Uyghurs have arisen because Hui troops and officials often dominated the Uyghurs and crushed Uyghur revolts.{{sfn|Starr|2004|p=311}} Xinjiang's Hui population increased by more than 520 per cent between 1940 and 1982, an average annual growth of 4.4 percent, while the Uyghur population only grew at 1.7 percent. This dramatic increase in Hui population led inevitably to significant tensions between the Hui and Uyghur populations. Many Hui Muslim civilians were killed by Uyghur rebellion troops known as Kizil massacre (1933).BOOK,weblink Great Britain and Chinese, Russian and Japanese interests in Sinkiang, 1918-1934, Lars-Erik Nyman, 1977, Esselte studium, Stockholm, 91-24-27287-6, 111, 2010-06-28, Some Uyghurs in Kashgar remember that the Hui army at the Battle of Kashgar (1934) massacred 2,000 to 8,000 Uyghurs, which causes tension as more Hui moved into Kashgar from other parts of China.{{sfn|Starr|2004|p=113}} Some Hui criticize Uyghur separatism and generally do not want to get involved in conflict in other countries.WEB,weblink" title="*weblink">weblink Uyghur Muslim Ethnic Separatism in Xinjiang, China, Van Wie Davis, Elizabath, Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, 2010-06-28, Hui and Uyghur live separately, attending different mosques.BOOK, William, Safran, Nationalism and ethnoregional identities in China, {{google books, y, MT0VFdKklYoC, 35, | accessdate = 2011-01-11| year = 1998| publisher = Psychology Press| isbn = 0-7146-4921-X| page = 35 }} During the 2009 rioting in Xinjiang that killed around 200 people, "Kill the Han, kill the Hui." is a common cry spread across social media among Uyghur extremists.WEB,weblink If China Is Anti-Islam, Why Are These Chinese Muslims Enjoying a Faith Revival, Beech, Hannah, TIME, August 12, 2014, Time magazine, June 17, 2017, The Uyghur militant organization East Turkestan Islamic Movement's magazine Islamic Turkistan has accused the Chinese "Muslim Brotherhood" (the Yihewani) of being responsible for the moderation of Hui Muslims and the lack of Hui joining militant jihadist groups in addition to blaming other things for the lack of Hui Jihadists, such as the fact that for more than 300 years Hui and Uyghurs have been enemies of each other, no separatist Islamist organizations among the Hui, the fact that the Hui view China as their home, and the fact that the "infidel Chinese" language is the language of the Hui.JOURNAL, Zenn, Jacob, March 17, 2011, Jihad in China? Marketing the Turkistan Islamic Party,weblink[tt_news]=37662&no_cache=1#.Vf3TiJdGQrc, Terrorism Monitor, The Jamestown Foundation, 9, 11, 18 September 2015, WEB,weblink Terrorism and Islamic Radicalization in Central Asia A Compendium of Recent Jamestown Analysis, Zenn, Jacob, February 2013, The Jamestown Foundation, 57, 18 September 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, Even among Hui Salafis (Sailaifengye) and Uyghur Salafis, there is little coordination or cooperation and the two have totally different political agendas, with the Hui Salafists content to carry out their own teachings and remain politically neutral.WEB,weblink Chinese Salafism and the Saudi Connection, al-Sudairi, Mohammed, October 28, 2014, Mouqawamah Music, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 22, 2015, WEB,weblink Chinese Salafism and the Saudi Connection, al-Sudairi, Mohammed, October 23, 2014, The Diplomat, However, in recent years, the Hui Salafi movement has begun to receive massive investments from the Gulf states like Saudi Arabia and Qatar, which functioned Salafism as the major Islamic sect, resulted with expansion of Hui Salafism and a number of Hui Salafis started to share sympathy with Uyghur separatism, which was a major change from the past.Hui Muslim drug dealers are accused by Uyghur Muslims of pushing heroin onto Uyghurs.BOOK, Safran William, Nationalism and Ethnoregional Identities in China,weblink 13 May 2013, Routledge, 978-1-136-32423-9, 36–, BOOK, Huan Gao, Women and Heroin Addiction in China's Changing Society,weblink 15 July 2011, Taylor & Francis, 978-1-136-66156-3, There is a typecast image in the public eye of heroin being the province of Hui dealers.BOOK, Yongming Zhou, Anti-drug Crusades in Twentieth-century China: Nationalism, History, and State Building,weblink 1999, Rowman & Littlefield, 978-0-8476-9598-0, 128–, Hui have been involved in the Golden Triangle drug area.BOOK, Susan K. McCarthy, Communist multiculturalism: ethnic revival in southwest China,weblink 15 December 2011, University of Washington Press, 978-0-295-80041-7, 140–, Despite the general animosity between Hui and Uyghurs, the Taoyuan Uyghurs and Hui have a high rate of intermarriage.{{citation needed|date=February 2019}}

Tibetan-Muslim sectarian violence

File:A new Muslim Mosque in Lhasa.jpg|thumb|The Lhasa Great MosqueLhasa Great MosqueIn Tibet, the majority of Muslims are Hui people. Antagonism between Tibetans and Muslims stems from events during the Muslim warlord Ma Bufang's rule such as the Ngolok rebellions (1917–49) and the Sino-Tibetan War, but such hostility was suppressed after the Communist invasion and takeover in 1949. However, renewed Tibetan-Muslim violence broke out in the wake of the gradual liberalization of China, that resulted in increased movement of people, such as Han and Hui Chinese, into Tibetan areas. Riots broke out between Muslims and Tibetans over incidents such as bones in soups and prices of balloons, and Tibetans accused Muslims of being cannibals who cooked humans in their soup and of contaminating food with urine.{{citation needed|date=February 2017}} Muslim restaurants were attacked, and apartments and shops of Muslims were set on fire in the riots in mid-March 2008, resulting in death and injury. Tibetans also boycotted Muslim owned businesses.{{rp|17}} In August 2008, the main Mosque in Lhasa was burned down by Tibetans during the 2008 Tibetan unrest.NEWS, March 28, 2008, Police shut Muslim quarter in Lhasa,weblink CNN, LHASA, Tibet, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 4, 2008, Some Muslims avoided overt display of religious identity in the wake of the violence. Many Hui Muslims also supported the repression of Tibetan separatism by the Chinese government, complicating their relationship.NEWS,weblink Tibetan-Muslim tensions roil China, Demick, Barbara, Los Angeles Times, 2010-06-28, dead, 23 June 2008,weblink" title="">weblink June 22, 2010, Problems also exist between Chinese-speaking Hui and Tibetan Hui (the Tibetan speaking Kache minority of Muslims).BOOK, Shail, Mayaram, The other global city, {{google books, y, tOZ1pBTJvp4C, | accessdate = 2010-07-30| year = 2009| publisher = Taylor Francis US| isbn = 978-0-415-99194-0| page = 75 }}

Sectarian conflict

There have been many occurrences of violent sectarian fighting between different Hui sects, mostly began from the Qing dynasty. Sectarian fighting between Hui sects led to the Jahriyya rebellion in the 1780s and the 1895 revolt. After a hiatus after the People's Republic of China came to power, sectarian infighting resumed in the 1990s in Ningxia between different sects. Several sects refuse to intermarry with each other. One Sufi sect circulated an anti-Salafi pamphlet in Arabic.In recent years, the Salafi movement in China has increased rapidly among Hui population due to investment from the Gulf nations like Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Kuwait; as an exchange for Chinese increasing investments in the Gulf nations as part of One Belt, One Road initiative. This resulted with more mosques occupied under Salafis in China, and a small but growing number of Huis had supported or even joined the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. Chinese officials were believed to have ignored growing Hui Sufis' resentment against growing Salafi movement.

Sects of Islam

File:5741-Linxia-Huasi-Gongbei.jpg|thumb|The Sufi mausoleum (gongbei) of Ma Laichi in Linxia CityLinxia CityHui are all Sunni Muslim following different Sufi schools. Ma Tong recorded that the 6,781,500 Sunni Hui in China followed 58.2% Gedimu, 21% Yihewani, 10.9% Jahriyya, 7.2% Khuffiya, 1.4% Qadariyya and 0.7% Kubrawiyya Sufi schools.{{sfn|Esposito|2000|p = 443–444, 462 }}

Relations with other religions

Some Hui believed that Islam was the true religion through which Confucianism could be practiced, accusing Buddhists and Daoists of "heresy", like most other Confucian scholars. They claimed Islam's superiority to "barbarian" religions.JOURNAL, Lipman, Jonathan N., July 1984, Ethnicity and Politics in Republican China: The Ma Family Warlords of Gansu, Modern China, Sage Publications, Inc., 10, 3, 297, 189017, harv, Muslim general Ma Bufang allowed polytheists to openly worship and Christian missionaries to station themselves in Qinghai. Ma and other high-ranking Muslim generals attended the Kokonuur Lake Ceremony where the God of the Lake was worshipped, and during the ritual, the Chinese National Anthem was sung, participants bowed to a Portrait of Kuomintang party founder Dr. Sun Zhongshan, and to the God of the Lake. Offerings were given to Dr. Sun by the participants, including Muslims.{{sfn|Bulag|2002|p=51}} Ma Bufang invited Kazakh Muslims to attend the Ceremony.{{sfn|Bulag|2002|p= 52}} Ma Bufang received audiences of Christian missionaries, who sometimes preached the Gospel.BOOK, {{google books, y, NrtBAAAAYAAJ, |title=Journal of the American Water Works Association, Volume 39, Part 1|author=American Water Works Association|year=1947|publisher=The Association|location=|page=24|isbn=|accessdate=2010-06-28}}BOOK, {{google books, y, eUAhAQAAIAAJ, |title=Journal of the American Water Works Association, Volume 39|author=American Water Works Association|year=1947|publisher=The Association|location=|page=24|isbn=|accessdate=2010-06-28}} His son Ma Jiyuan received a silver cup from the missionaries.JOURNAL, 10.1017/S135618630800905X, The Divine Word Missionaries in Gansu, Qinghai and Xinjiang, 1922–1953: A Bibliographic Note, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 19, 59–82, 2008, Horlemann, B., The Muslim Ma Zhu wrote "Chinese religions are different from Islam, but the ideas are the same."BOOK, {{google books, 1UJwAAAAMAAJ, y, 8, |title=Discrimination, corruption and moral decline: the historical background of the Muslim Hui uprising in Yunnan, China, 1856-1873|first=Jianping |last=Wang|year=1995|publisher=The Harry S. Truman Research Institute for the Advancement of Peace, The Hebrew University, 1995|location=|page=8|isbn=|accessdate=2010-06-28}}During the Panthay Rebellion, the Muslim leader Du Wenxiu said to a Catholic priest- "I have read your religious works and I have found nothing inappropriate. Muslims and Christians are brothers."BOOK, David G., Atwill, The Chinese sultanate: Islam, ethnicity, and the Panthay Rebellion in southwest China, 1856-1873, {{google books, Da2M_viEclEC, y, 167, | accessdate = 2010-06-28| year = 2005| publisher = Stanford University Press| isbn = 0-8047-5159-5| page = 167 }}




File:The Mosque in Guangzhou 27.JPG|thumb|The Xianxian Mosque in GuangzhouGuangzhouThe style of architecture of Hui Mosques varies according to their sect. The traditionalist Gedimu Hanafi Sunnis, influenced by Chinese culture, build Mosques which look like Chinese temples. The reformist modernist (but originally Wahhabi inspired) Yihewani build their Mosques to look like Middle Eastern Arab style Mosques.

Foot binding

Hui women once employed foot binding, at the time a common practice across China. It was particularly prevalent in Gansu.{{sfn|Hastings|Selbie|Gray|1916|p=893}} The Dungan people, descendants of Hui from northwestern China who fled to Central Asia, also practised foot binding until 1948.BOOK, Touraj, Atabaki, Sanjyot, Mehendale, Central Asia and the Caucasus: transnationalism and diaspora, {{google books, y, zwKBZmpBo5YC, 31, | accessdate = 2011-01-01| year = 2005| publisher = Psychology Press| isbn = 0-415-33260-5| page = 31 }} However, in southern China, in Canton, James Legge encountered a mosque that had a placard denouncing footbinding, saying Islam did not allow it since it violated God's creation.BOOK, {{google books, y, fpcuAAAAYAAJ, 111, |title=The religions of China: Confucianism and Tâoism described and compared with Christianity|first=James |last=Legge|year=1880|publisher=Hodder and Stoughton|location=|page=111|isbn=|accessdate=2010-06-28}}

Cultural practices

File:Hui family eid.jpg|thumb|right|An ethnic Hui family celebrating Eid ul-Fitr in NingxiaNingxiaFrench army Commandant Viscount D'Ollone reported in 1910 that Sichuanese Hui did not strictly enforce the Islamic practices of teetotaling, ritual washing and Friday prayers. Chinese practices like incense burning at ancestral tablets and honoring Confucius were adopted. One practice that was stringently observed was the ban on pork consumption.{{sfn|Dillon|1999|p=80}}(File:HuiChineseMuslim2.jpg|thumb|Hui men praying in a mosque)The Sunni Gedimu and the Yihewani burned incense during worship. This was viewed as Daoist or Buddhist influence.{{sfn|Rubin|2000|p=80}} The Hui were also known as the "White capped". Hui used incense during worship, while the Salar, also known as "black capped" Hui considered this to be a heathen ritual and denounced it.BOOK, {{google books, y, ynMqAAAAMAAJ, 680, |title=The Catholic encyclopedia: an international work of reference on the constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Catholic Church, Volume 3|author=Knights of Columbus Catholic Truth Committee|year=1913|publisher=Encyclopedia Press|location=|page=680|isbn=|accessdate=2011-01-23}}In Yunnan province, during the Qing Dynasty, tablets that wished the Emperor a long life were placed at mosque entrances. No minarets were available and no chanting accompanied the call to prayer. The mosques were similar to Buddhist Temples, and incense was burned inside.{{sfn|Dillon|1999|p=77}}Hui enlisted in the military and were praised for their martial skills.Circumcision in Islam is known as khitan. Islamic scholars agree that it is required (mandatory), or recommended the practice is seen as symbol of Muslim belief. Since circumcision in China does not have the weight of pre-existing traditions as it does elsewhere in the Muslim world, circumcision rates among Hui are much lower than among other Muslim communities (where the procedure is nearly universal).BOOK, Harriett, Gilbert, The sexual imagination from Acker to Zola: a feminist companion, {{google books, y, 2tsZAQAAIAAJ, 55, | accessdate = 2011-01-11| date = 1993-09-24| publisher = Cape| isbn = 0-224-03535-5| pages = 55, 117, 251 }}


The long history of Hui residence and mixing in China has led the Hui to adopt names typical of their Han neighbors; however, some common Hui names are actually Chinese renderings of common Muslim (i.e. Arabic), Persian, and Central Asian names. For instance, surname "Ma" for "Muhammad".Hui people usually have a Chinese name and a Muslim name in Arabic, although the Chinese name is used primarily. Some Hui do not remember their Muslim names.{{sfn|Dillon|1999|p=78}}Hui people who adopt foreign names may not use their Muslim names.BOOK, {{google books, y, nnlCAAAAYAAJ, 178, |title=Pakistan horizon, Volumes 1-3|year=1948|publisher=Pakistan Institute of International Affairs.|location=|page=178|isbn=|accessdate=2010-06-28}} An example of this is Pai Hsien-yung, a Hui author in America, who adopted the name Kenneth. His father was Muslim General Bai Chongxi, who had his children adopt western names.


Hui people commonly believe that their surnames originated as "Sinified" forms of their foreign Muslim ancestors some time during the Yuan or Ming eras.{{sfn|Gladney|1996|p=250}} Common Hui surnames:BOOK, Susan Debra, Blum, Lionel M., Jensen, China off center: mapping the margins of the middle kingdom, {{google books, y, pA_MP4Q11qgC, 121, | accessdate = 2011-04-09| year = 2002| publisher = University of Hawaii Press| isbn = 0-8248-2577-2| page = 121 }}{{sfn|Gladney|1996|p=375}}{{sfn|Rubin|2000|p=79}}BOOK, Leif O., Manger, Muslim diversity: local Islam in global contexts, {{google books, y, uHjR3yeIWzUC, 132, | accessdate = 2011-04-09 | year = 1999| publisher = Routledge| isbn = 0-7007-1104-X| page = 132 }}{hide}columns-list|colwidth=22em| }}A legend in Ningxia states that four common Hui surnames—Na, Su, La, and Ding—originate with the descendants of Nasruddin, a son of Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar, who "divided" the ancestor's name (Nasulading, in Chinese) among themselves.{{sfn|Dillon|1999|p=22}}


The Han Kitab is a collection of Islamic and Confucian texts written by various Hui Authors in the 18th century, including Liu Zhi.New works were written by Hui intellectuals following education reform by Ma Clique Warlords and Bai Chongxi. Some texts were translated from Arabic.WEB,weblink The completion of the idea of dual loyalty towards China and Islam, Masumi, Matsumoto, 2010-06-28,weblink" title="">weblink 2015-05-04, dead, A new edition of a book by Ma Te-hsin, called Ho-yin Ma Fu-ch'u hsien-sheng i-shu Ta hua tsung kuei Ssu tien yaohui, first printed in 1865, was reprinted in 1927 by Ma Fuxiang.BOOK, Mary Clabaugh, Wright, Mary C. Wright, Last Stand of Chinese Conservatism the T'Ung-Chih, {{google books, y, VaOaAAAAIAAJ, 406, | accessdate = 2010-06-28| year = 1957| publisher = Stanford University Press| isbn = 0-8047-0475-9| page = 406}}General Ma Fuxiang invested in new editions of Confucian and Islamic texts.{{sfn|Lipman|1997|p=176}} He edited Shuofang Daozhi,BOOK, {{google books, y, PCktSQAACAAJ, |year=1926|title=Shuo fang dao zhi}}BOOK, {{google books, y, 5ybyHgAACAAJ, |script-title=zh:朔方道志: 31卷 |last1=Ma |first1=Fuxiang |authorlink1=Ma Fuxiang |year=1987|publisher=Tianjin Ancient Books Publishing House ()|location=|page=}} a gazette and books such as Meng Cang ZhuangKuang: Hui Bu Xinjiang fu.BOOK, {{google books, y, tVq1GwAACAAJ, |script-title=zh:蒙藏狀况: 回部新疆坿 |trans-title=Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Status: Mikurube Xinjiang Agricultural Experiment Station |last1=Ma |first1=Fuxiang |authorlink1=Ma Fuxiang |year=1931|publisher=Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission |location=|page=}}WEB,weblink inauthor:"马福祥" - Google Search,


The Hui of Yunnan (Burmese called them Panthays) were reported to be fluent in Arabic.{{sfn|Fytche|1878|p=301}} During the Panthay Rebellion, Arabic replaced Chinese as the official language of the rebel kingdom.JOURNAL, Evans, Brian L., March 1985, The Panthay Mission of 1872 and its Legacies, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 16, 1, 117–128, 10.1017/s0022463400012790, 20070843, In 1844 "The Chinese repository, Volume 13" was published, including an account of an Englishman who stayed in the Chinese city of Ningbo, where he visited the local mosque. The Hui running the mosque was from Shandong and descended from residents of the Arabian city of Medina. He was able to read and speak Arabic with ease, but was illiterate in Chinese, although he was born in China and spoke Chinese.BOOK, {{google books, y, 6wEMAAAAYAAJ, 31, |title=The Chinese repository, Volume 13|year=1844|page=31|isbn=|accessdate=2011-05-08}}


Hui marriages resemble typical Chinese marriages except that traditional Chinese rituals are not used.BOOK, Andreas, Graeser, Zenon von Kition, {{google books, y, dBuqWVXGTzAC, 368, | accessdate = 2010-11-28| year = 1975| publisher = Walter de Gruyter| isbn = 3-11-004673-3| page = 368 }}Endogamy is practiced by Hui, who mainly marry among themselves rather than with Muslims from other sects.BOOK, Zhongyi, Jia, The marriage customs among China's ethnic minoritiy groups, {{google books, y, 3BHkUYCkOnYC, 25, | accessdate = 2011-05-12| year = 2006| publisher = | isbn = 7-5085-1003-8| page = 25 }}However, the Hui Na family in Ningxia is known to practice both parallel and cross cousin marriage. The Najiahu village in Ningxia is named after this family, descended from Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar.{{sfn|Dillon|1999|p=22}}

Outside marriage

Intermarriage generally involves a Han Chinese converting to Islam when marrying a Hui, and marriage without conversion only takes place rarely. In Hui discourse, marriage between a Hui woman and a Han man is not allowed unless the Han converts to Islam, although it occurred repeatedly in Eastern China. Generally Han of both sexes have to convert to Islam before marrying. This practice helped increase the population of Hui.WEB,weblink Plurality and Unity in the Configuration of the Chinese People, FEI, XIAOTONG, November 15–17, 1988, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, THE TANNER LECTURES ON HUMAN VALUES, 30, 31 October 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 June 2010, . A case of switching nationality occurred in 1972 when a Han man married a Hui and was considered a Hui after converting.Zhao nuxu is a practice where the son-in-law moves in with the wife's family. Some marriages between Han and Hui are conducted this way. The husband does not need to convert, but the wife's family follows Islamic customs. No census data documents this type of marriage, reporting only cases in which the wife moves in with the groom's family.{{sfn|Gladney|1996|p=211}} In Henan province, a marriage was recorded between a Han boy and Hui girl without the Han converting, during the Ming Dynasty. Steles in Han and Hui villages record this story and Hui and Han members of the Lineage celebrate at the ancestral temple together.WEB,weblink Notes on some joking relationships between Hui and Han villages in Henan, Allès, Elizabeth, 2010-06-28, In Beijing Oxen street Gladney found 37 Han–Hui couples, two of which were had Hui wives and the other 35 had Hui husbands.{{sfn|Gladney|1996|p=209}} Data was collected in different Beijing districts. In Ma Dian 20% of intermarriages were Hui women marrying into Han families, in Tang Fang 11% of intermarriage were Hui women marrying into Han families. 67.3% of intermarriage in Tang Fang were Han women marrying into a Hui family and in Ma Dian 80% of intermarriage were Han women marrying into Hui families.{{sfn|Gladney|1996|p=210}}Li Nu, the son of Li Lu, from a Han Chinese Li family in Quanzhou visited Hormuz in Persia in 1376. He married a Persian or an Arab girl, and brought her back to Quanzhou. He then converted to Islam. Li Nu was the ancestor of Ming Dynasty reformer Li Chih.BOOK, {{google books, y, 067On0JgItAC, 817, |title=A-L, Volumes 1-2|author=Association for Asian studies (Ann Arbor;Michigan)|year=1976|publisher=Columbia University Press|location=|page=817|isbn=978-0231038010|accessdate=2010-06-29}}BOOK, Joseph, Needham, Science and civilisation in China, 4, {{google books, y, l6TVhvYLaEwC, | accessdate = 2010-06-29| date = 1971-04-01| publisher = Cambridge University Press| isbn = 0-521-07060-0| page = 495}}.In Gansu province in the 1800s, a Muslim Hui woman married into the Han Chinese Kong lineage of Dachuan, which was descended from Confucius. The Han Chinese groom and his family were only converted to Islam after the marriage by their Muslim relatives. In 1715 in Yunnan province, few Han Chinese married Hui women and converted to Islam.Jiang Xingzhou 姜興舟, a Han bannerman lieutenant from the Bordered Yellow Banner married a Muslim woman in Mukden during Qianlong's late reign. He fled his position due to fear of being punished for being a bannerman marrying a commoner woman. He was sentenced to death for leaving his official post but the sentence was commuted and he was not executed. 照文武官員負罪逃竄例絞侯SYD 52.1.7 (February 24, 1787).GZSL,juan1272, QL 52.1.8 (February 25, 1787). In the Dungan Revolt (1895–96) 400 Muslims in Topa w: did not join the revolt and proclaimed their loyalty to China. An argument between a Han Chinese and his Muslim wife led to these Muslims getting massacred, when she threatened that the Muslims from Topa would attack Tankar and give a signal to their co-religionists to rise up and open the gates by burning the temples atop the hills. The husband reported this to an official and the next day the Muslims were massacred with the exception of a few Muslim girls who were married off to Han Chinese.BOOK, With the Tibetans in Tent and Temple, Susie Carson, Rijnhart, M.D. (1868-1908), Chicago, New York & Toronto, Third, 1901, Fleming H. Revell Company,weblink CHAPTER VIII OUR REMOVAL TO TANKAR, 24 April 2014, harv, BOOK, Susie Carson Rijnhart, With the Tibetans in Tent and Temple: Narrative of Four Years' Residence on the Tibetan Borders and of a Journey Into the Far Interior,weblink 1999, Asian Educational Services, 978-81-206-1302-7, 135, BOOK, Mrs. Susie Carson Rijnhart, With the Tibetans in Tent and Temple: Narrative of Four Years' Residence on the Tibetan Border, and of a Journey Into the Far Interior,weblink 1901, Oliphant, Anderson, & Ferrier, 135, Hui men marrying Han women and Han men who marry Hui women achieve above average education.WEB,weblink The Cross-Cultural Patterns of Interracial Marriage, Heaton, Tim B., Jacobson, Cardell K., September 2004, 10, Department of Sociology Brigham Young University, 31 October 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 2011-07-17, dead,


Hui have supported modern education and reform. Hui such as Hu Songshan and the Ma Clique warlords promoted western, modern secular education.Elite Hui received both Muslim and Confucian education. They studied the Koran and Confucian texts like the Spring and Autumn Annals.{{sfn|Lipman|1997|p=168}}Hui people refused to follow the May Fourth Movement. Instead, they taught both western subjects such as science along with traditional Confucian literature and Classical Chinese, along with Islamic education and Arabic.{{sfn|Dudoignon|Komatsu|Kosugi|2006|p=251}}Hui warlord Ma Bufang built a girls' school in Linxia that taught modern secular subjects.{{sfn|Jaschok|Shui|2000|p=96}}Hui have had female Imams, called Nu Ahong for centuries. They are the world's only female Imams. They guide females in prayer but are not allowed to lead prayers.NEWS, Muslim women do it their way in Ningxia, AP, WUZHONG, CHINA, Taipei Times, 9, Dec 20, 2006,weblink May 29, 2011, File:F985680007.jpg|thumb|left|250px|Ma Jiyuan, a Muslim General, at his wedding with KuomintangKuomintang

Military service

File:Chiang Kaishek with Muslim General Ma Fushou.jpg|thumb|right|250px|Chiang Kai-shek, head of the Kuomintang with Muslim General Ma FushouMa FushouMuslims have served extensively in the Chinese military for a long time in Chinese history, as both officials and soldiers, often filling the more distinguished military positions.{{sfn|Hastings|Selbie|Gray|1916|p=893}} During the Tang dynasty, 3,000 Chinese soldiers and 3,000 Muslim soldiers were traded to each other in an agreement.{{sfn|Keim|1951|p=121}} In 756, over 4,000 Arab mercenaries joined the Chinese against An Lushan. They remained in China, and some of them become ancestors of the Hui people.{{sfn|Keim|1951|p=121}}BOOK, {{google books, y, 8rhPAAAAMAAJ, 129, |title=China: a history in art|first1=Bradley |last1=Smith |first2=Wango H. C. |last2=Weng|year=1972|publisher=Harper & Row|location=|page=129|isbn=|accessdate=2010-06-28}}BOOK, {{google books, y, CqkeAAAAIAAJ, 332, |title=China: a short cultural history|first=Charles Patrick |last=Fitzgerald|year=1961|publisher=Praeger|location=|page=332|isbn=|accessdate=2010-06-28}}During the Ming dynasty, Hui Generals and troops loyal to Ming fought against Mongols and Hui loyal to the Yuan Dynasty in the Ming conquest of Yunnan.{{sfn|Dillon|1999|p=34}}BOOK, Tan, Ta Sen, Dasheng, Chen, Cheng Ho and Islam in Southeast Asia, {{google books, y, RSRBMSvQHmQC, 170, | accessdate = 2010-06-28| date = 2009-10-19| publisher = Institute of Southeast Asian Studies| isbn = 978-981-230-837-5| page = 170 }} Hui also fought for the emperor against aboriginal tribes in southern China during the Miao Rebellions. Many Hui soldiers of the Ming dynasty then settled in Yunnan and Hunan provinces.During the Qing Dynasty, Hui troops in the Imperial army helped crush Hui rebels during the Dungan revolt and Panthay Rebellion. The Qing administration also preferred to use Hui in Xinjiang as police.BOOK, {{google books, y, 9skBUtc0YTwC, 68, |title=The Cambridge history of China, Volume 10|author1=Denis Crispin Twitchett |author2=John King Fairbank |year=1977|publisher=Cambridge University Press|location=|page=68|isbn=0-521-21447-5|accessdate=2010-06-28}} Yang Zengxin, the Han Chinese governor of Xinjiang, extensively relied on Hui Generals like Ma Shaowu and Ma Fuxing. Qing Muslim General Zuo Baogui (1837–1894), from Shandong province, was killed in Pingyang in Korea by Japanese cannon fire in 1894 while defending the city, where a memorial to him stands.BOOK, Aliya Ma, Lynn, Muslims in China, {{google books, y, s4Lp8tgr3esC, 44, | accessdate = 2010-06-28| date = 2007-08-01| publisher = University Press| isbn = 978-0-88093-861-7| page = 44}} Hui troops also fought western armies for the first time in the Boxer Rebellion, winning battles including the Battle of Langfang and Battle of Beicang. These troops were the Kansu Braves led by General Dong Fuxiang.Military service continued into the Republic of China. After the Kuomintang party took power, Hui participation in the military reached new levels. Qinghai and Ningxia were created out of Gansu province, and the Kuomintang appointed Hui Generals as military Governors of all three provinces. They became known as the Ma Clique. Many Muslim Salar joined the army in the Republic era; they and Dongxiang who have joined the army are described as being given "eating rations" meaning military service.BOOK, {{google books, y, u5soAAAAYAAJ, 379, |title=The Moslem World, Volume 10|author=Christian Literature Society for India, Hartford Seminary Foundation|editor=Samuel Marinus Zwemer|year=1920|publisher=Hartford Seminary Foundation|volume=|location=|isbn=|page=379|accessdate=2011-06-06}}BOOK,weblink Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia, James B., Minahan, 240, 9781610690188, 2014-02-10, The Chinese government appointed Ma Fuxiang as military governor of Suiyuan. Ma Fuxiang commented on the willingness for Hui people to become martyrs in Battle (see Martyrdom in Islam), saying:"They have not enjoyed the educational and political privileges of the Han Chinese, and they are in many respects primitive. But they know the meaning of fidelity, and if I say 'do this, although it means death,' they cheerfully obey".BOOK, Upton, Close, In the Land of the Laughing Buddha – The Adventures of an American Barbarian in China, {{google books, y, DpQa22PJutwC, 271, | accessdate = 2010-06-28| date = 2007-03-30| publisher = READ BOOKS| isbn = 978-1-4067-1675-7| page = 271}}.Hui Generals and soldiers fought for the Republic against Tibet in the Sino-Tibetan War, against Uyghur rebels in the Kumul Rebellion, the Soviet Union in the Soviet Invasion of Xinjiang and against Japan in the Second Sino Japanese War. The Japanese planned to invade Ningxia from Suiyuan in 1939 and create a Hui puppet state. The next year in 1940, the Japanese were defeated militarily by Kuomintang Muslim General Ma Hongbin. Ma Hongbin's Hui Muslim troops launched further attacks against Japan in the Battle of West Suiyuan.BOOK, = Xiaoyuan, Liu, Frontier passages: ethnopolitics and the rise of Chinese communism, 1921-1945, {{google books, y, impqApZWrJyIC, 131, | accessdate = 2010-06-28| year = 2004| publisher = Stanford University Press| isbn = 0-8047-4960-4| page = 131}}. The Chinese Islamic Association issued "A message to all Muslims in China from the Chinese Islamic Association for National Salvation" in Ramadan of 1940 during the Second Sino-Japanese War."We have to implement the teaching "the love of the fatherland is an article of faith" by the Prophet Muhammad and to inherit the Hui's glorious history in China. In addition, let us reinforce our unity and participate in the twice more difficult task of supporting a defensive war and promoting religion.... We hope that ahongs and the elite will initiate a movement of prayer during Ramadan and implement group prayer to support our intimate feeling toward Islam. A sincere unity of Muslims should be developed to contribute power towards the expulsion of Japan."Ahong is the Mandarin Chinese word for Imam. During the war against Japan, the Imams supported Muslim resistance, calling for Muslims to participate in the fight against Japan, claiming that casualties would become a shaheed (martyr).{{sfn|Dudoignon|Komatsu|Kosugi|2006|p=136}} Ma Zhanshan was a Hui guerilla fighter against the Japanese. File:1955 Ma Bufang with KMT ambassador to Saudi Arabia.jpg|thumb|left|250px|Ma BufangMa Bufang
Hui forces were known for their anti-communist sentiment, and had fought for the Kuomintang against the Communists in the Chinese Civil War, and against rebels during the Ili Rebellion. Bai Chongxi, a Hui General, was appointed to the post of Minister of National Defence, the highest Military position in the Republic of China. After the Communist victory, and evacuation of the Kuomintang to Taiwan, Hui people continued to serve in the military of the Republic as oppose to the Communist-led People's Republic. Ma Bufang became the ambassador of the Republic of China (Taiwan) to Saudi Arabia. His brother, Ma Buqing remained a military General on Taiwan. Bai Chongxi and Ma Ching-chiang were other Hui who served in Taiwan as military Generals.The PLA used Hui soldiers, who formally had served under Ma Bufang, as well as Salafi soldiers, to crush the Tibetan revolt in Amdo during the 1959 Tibetan uprising.BOOK, Warren W., Smith, The Tibetan nation: a history of Tibetan nationalism and Sino-Tibetan relations, {{google books, y, SbHtAAAAMAAJ, 443, | accessdate = 2010-06-28| date = 1996-10-24| publisher = Westview Press| isbn = 0-8133-3155-2| page = 443 }}


(File:General Ma Fuxiang.jpg|left|140px|thumb|Ma Fuxiang)File:NRA Generals Northern Expedition.jpg|thumb|220px|right|Chinese Generals pay tribute to the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Beijing in 1928 after the success of the Northern Expedition. From right to left, are Generals Cheng Jin, Zhang Zuobao, Chen Diaoyuan, Chiang Kai-shek, Woo Tsin-hang, Wen Xishan, Ma Fuxiang, Ma Sida and Muslim General Bai ChongxiBai ChongxiThe Majority of the Hui Muslim Ma Clique Generals were Kuomintang party members and encouraged Chinese nationalism in their provinces. Kuomintang members Ma Qi, Ma Lin (warlord), and Ma Bufang served as Military Governors of Qinghai, Ma Hongbin served as military Governor of Gansu, and Ma Hongkui served as military governor of Ningxia. General Ma Fuxiang was promoted to Governor of Anhui and became chairman of Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs. Ma Bufang, Ma Fuxiang, and Bai Chongxi were all members of the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang, which ruled China in a one-party state. Member Bai Chongxi helped build the Taipei Grand Mosque on Taiwan. Many members of the Hui Ma Clique were Kuomintang.Hui put Kuomintang Blue Sky with a White Sun party symbols on their Halal restaurants and shops. A Christian missionary in 1935 took a picture of a Muslim meat restaurant in Hankow that had Arabic and Chinese lettering indicating that it was Halal (fit for Muslim consumption). It had two Kuomintang party symbols on it.{{sfn|Gladney|1996|p=9}}WEB,weblink Hankow. Moslem meat shop sign.,, 2018-02-21,

Outside mainland China

{{further|Islam in Taiwan|Dungans|Chin Haw|Panthay|China–Egypt relations|China–Saudi Arabia relations|Sino-Arab relations|Ma Bufang|Ma Jiyuan}}A community of Hui migrated to Taiwan after the Communist takeover of China.In Southeast Asia, presence of Hui Muslims may date back 700 years to the time of Zheng He who was a Hui.WEB,weblink Chinese Muslims in Malaysia History and Development, Rosey Wang Ma, Hui also became part of the wave of Chinese migrants that peaked between 1875 and 1912, and they inhabited Penang, Sabah, Singapore and Pangkor prior to World War II. Most were Hokkien-speaking coolies and merchants originating from Fujian. The colonial British welfare system was commissioned according to language groups, so the Hui were classed as Hokkien. The small number of Hui may have become assimilated into mainstream Chinese society and local Muslim populations. In 1975, five Hui leaders started a campaign to get every clansman to put up a notice listing their ancestral for 40 generations, as a way of reminding them of their origins. The exact Hui population is unclear today as many families left Islam before independence. In 2000 official census figures gave the number of Muslim Chinese in Malaysia as 57,000 but most were Han converts. According to the Malaysian Chinese Muslim Association the surnames Koay, Ma, Ha, Ta, Sha, Woon, and An (or Ang) may indicate Hui ancestry.NEWS, Baiqi to Koay Jetty, Himanshu, Bhatt, New Straits Times, 1–3, March 6, 2005, Citing hajj as a reason to flee, Mecca became the new dwelling place of Hui General Ma Bufang.BOOK, Intelligence Digest,weblink 1948, Intelligence International Limited, lxxvi, Saudi Arabia was settled by hundreds of Hui Muslim soldiers under Ma Chengxiang after 1949.BOOK, Melvin Ember, Carol R. Ember, Ian Skoggard, Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Volume I: Overviews and Topics; Volume II: Diaspora Communities,weblink 30 November 2004, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-0-306-48321-9, For a while Cairo was the dwelling place of Ma Bukang and Ma Bufang in between the time they were in Saudi Arabia.BOOK, Lillian Craig Harris, China Considers the Middle East,weblink 15 December 1993, I. B. Tauris, 978-1-85043-598-3, 66, BOOK, Mi Kungmubu Hanʾguk Kungnae Sanghwang Kwallyŏn Munsŏ,weblink 168, The passing away in Jeddah on 27 February of Ma Jiyuan was greeted with sorrow by the Chinese consulate.WEB,weblink zh:驻吉达总领事对逝世台胞亲属表示慰问, 2012-02-28, Consulate-General of the People's Republic of China in Jeddah, Thailand and Myanmar are both home to Hui Muslims, while Hui in Central Asia are Dungans.

Ethnic tensions

{{further|Ethnic issues in the People's Republic of China|Xinjiang re-education camps}}Both Muslim and other Chinese resented the way foreigners handled Chinese affairs, rather than religion. In the military, imbalances in promotion and wealth were other motives for holding foreigners in poor regard.{{sfn|Hastings|Selbie|Gray|1916|p=893}}The Dungan and Panthay revolts were set off by racial antagonism and class warfare, rather than religion.{{sfn|Hastings|Selbie|Gray|1916|p=893}} During the Dungan revolt (1862–77) fighting broke out between Uyghur and Hui groups.{{sfn|Bellér-Hann|2007|p=74}}In 1936, after Sheng Shicai expelled 20,000 Kazakhs from Xinjiang to Qinghai, the Hui led by Ma Bufang massacred their fellow Muslims, the Kazakhs, until only 135 remained.BOOK, {{google books, y, m98sAAAAIAAJ, |title=The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 277|year=1951|publisher=American Academy of Political and Social Science|location=|page=152|isbn=|accessdate=2010-06-28}}The Hui people have had a long presence in Qinghai and Gansu, or what Tibetans call Amdo, although Tibetans have historically dominated local politics. The situation was reversed in 1931 when the Hui general Ma Bufang inherited the governorship of Qinghai, stacking his government with Hui and Salar and excluding Tibetans. In his power base in Qinghai's northeastern Haidong Prefecture, Ma compelled many Tibetans to convert to Islam and acculturate. Tensions also mounted when Hui started migrating into Lhasa in the 1990s. On February 2003, Tibetans rioted against Hui, destroying Hui-owned shops and restaurants.NEWS,weblink Tibetans, Muslim Huis clash in China, 2003-02-23, 2010-01-15, CNN, Local Tibetan Buddhist religious leaders led a regional boycott movement that encouraged Tibetans to boycott Hui-owned shops.JOURNAL,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2011-07-06, Close Encounters of an Inner Asian Kind: Tibetan–Muslim Co-Existence and Conflict in Tibet Past and Present, Fischer, Andrew Martin, Crisis States Research Centre Working Papers, 1, 68, September 2005, 2, 5, 10, 17–20, harv, Tensions with Uyghurs arose because Qing and Republican Chinese authorities used Hui troops and officials to dominate the Uyghurs and crush Uyghur revolts.{{sfn|Starr|2004|p=311}} Xinjiang's Hui population increased by over 520 percent between 1940 and 1982, an average annual growth of 4.4 percent, while the Uyghur population only grew at 1.7 percent. This dramatic increase in Hui population led inevitably to significant tensions between the Hui and Uyghur populations. Many Hui Muslim civilians were killed by Uyghur rebel troops in the Kizil massacre (1933). Some Uyghurs in Kashgar remember that the Hui army at the 1934 Battle of Kashgar massacred 2,000 to 8,000 Uyghurs, which causes tension as more Hui moved into Kashgar from other parts of China.{{sfn|Starr|2004|p=113}} Some Hui criticize Uyghur separatism and generally do not want to get involved in conflict in other countries. Hui and Uyghur live separately, attending different mosques. During the 2009 rioting in Xinjiang that killed around 200 people, "Kill the Han, kill the Hui." was the common cry spread across social media among Uyghur extremists.

Notable Hui people


Related group names

See also





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Further reading


, Chuah
, Osman
, April 2004
, Muslims in China: the social and economic situation of the Hui Chinese
, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs
, 24
, 1
, 155–162
, 10.1080/1360200042000212133
, harv
  • BOOK, Forbes, Andrew, Henley, David, 2011, China's Ancient Tea Horse Road, Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, B005DQV7Q2,
  • BOOK, Forbes, Andrew, Henley, David, 2011, Traders of the Golden Triangle, Chiang Mai, Cognoscenti Books, B006GMID5K,
  • BOOK, Gladney, Dru C., Dru C. Gladney, Ethnic Identity in China: The Making of a Muslim Minority Nationality (Case Studies in Cultural Anthropology), 1997, 0-15-501970-8, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Hillman, Ben, The Rise of the Community in Rural China: Village Politics, Cultural Identity and Religious Revival in a Hui Hamlet, The China Journal, 51, 2004, 53–73, 10.2307/3182146, 51, harv, 3182146,
  • BOOK,weblink Islam in China, Hui and Uyghurs: between modernization and sinicization, the study of the Hui and Uyghurs of China, Berlie, Jean, Jean Berlie, White Lotus Press, Bangkok, Thailand, 2004, 974-480-062-3,

External links

{{Commons category|Hui people}} {{Ethnic groups in China}}{{Authority control}}

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Eastern Philosophy
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