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{{short description|Genus of mammals}}{{About|the antelope species}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2013}}{{Automatic Taxobox| name = Gazelle| fossil_range = Pliocene to recent| image = Slender-horned gazelle (Cincinnati Zoo).jpg| image_caption = Rhim gazelle| taxon = Gazella! Genus !! Common and binomial names !! class="unsortable"| Image !! Range| Cuvier's gazelleG. cuvieri| Dorcas gazelleG. dorcas| Goitered gazelleG. subgutturosa| Arabian sand gazelleG. marica| Chinkara or Indian gazelleG. bennettii| Mountain gazelleG. gazella| Rhim gazelleG. leptoceros| Speke's gazelleG. spekei| †Saudi gazelleG. saudiyaParticipants at 4th International Conservation Workshop for the Threatened Fauna of Arabi 2003. Gazella saudiya. In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. . Downloaded on 7 October 2006.IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group 2008. Gazella saudiya. In: IUCN 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. . Downloaded on 18 December 2008.| | Arabian Peninsula| Red-fronted gazelleE. rufifrons| †Red gazelleE. rufina| Thomson's gazelleE. thomsonii| Grant's gazelleN. granti| Soemmerring's gazelleN. soemmerringii
Blainville]], 1816| subdivision_ranks = Species| subdivision = Several, see text}}A gazelle is any of many antelope species in the genus Gazella. This article also deals with the six species included in two further genera, Eudorcas and Nanger, which were formerly considered subgenera of Gazella. A third former subgenus, Procapra, includes three living species of Asian gazelles.Gazelles are known as swift animals. Some are able to run at bursts as high as {{Convert|60|mph|km/h|abbr=on|order=flip|sigfig=1}} or run at a sustained speed of {{Convert|30|mph|km/h|abbr=on|order=flip|sigfig=1}}."Gazelle". The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2007, Columbia University Press. Gazelles are found mostly in the deserts, grasslands, and savannas of Africa; but they are also found in southwest and central Asia and the Indian subcontinent. They tend to live in herds, and eat less coarse, easily digestible plants and leaves.Gazelles are relatively small antelopes, most standing {{convert|2|-|3.5|ft|cm|abbr=on|order=flip|-1}} high at the shoulder, and are generally fawn-colored.The gazelle genera are Gazella, Eudorcas, and Nanger. The taxonomy of these genera is confused, and the classification of species and subspecies has been an unsettled issue. Currently, the genus Gazella is widely considered to contain about 10 species.{{Citation |title=The curious case of Gazella arabica | author=Eva Verena Bärmann|display-authors=etal | journal=Mammalian Biology - Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde | year=2013 | volume=78 | issue=3 | pages=220–225 | doi=10.1016/j.mambio.2012.07.003}} Four further species are extinct: the red gazelle, the Arabian gazelle, the Queen of Sheba's gazelle, and the Saudi gazelle. Most surviving gazelle species are considered threatened to varying degrees. Closely related to the true gazelles are the Tibetan and Mongolian gazelles (species of the genus Procapra), the blackbuck of Asia, and the African springbok.One widely familiar gazelle is the African species Thomson's gazelle (Eudorcas thomsoni), which is around {{Convert|60|to|80|cm|in|sigfig=2|abbr=on}} in height at the shoulder and is coloured brown and white with a distinguishing black stripe. The males have long, often curved, horns. Like many other prey species, Tommies and springboks (as they are familiarly called) exhibit a distinctive behaviour of stotting (running and jumping high before fleeing) when they are threatened by predators, such as cheetahs, lions, African wild dogs, crocodiles, hyenas, and leopards.

Etymology and name

missing image!
- תמונה 1108.jpg -
Byzantine-era mosaic of gazelle in Caesarea, Israel
Gazelle is derived from {{transl|ar|DIN|ġazāl}},SKEAT, gazelle, 236, Maghrebi pronunciation {{transl|ar|DIN|ġazēl}}.WEB,weblink gazelle, CNRTL, To Europe it first came to Old Spanish and Old French, and then around 1600 the word entered the English language.Merriam-Webster - Gazelle, Accessed: 22 December 2009 The Arab people traditionally hunted the gazelle. Appreciated for its grace, it is a symbol most commonly associated in Arabic and Persian literature with female beauty.BOOK, Beauty in Arabic culture, Doris, Behrens-billAbouseif, Illustrated, Markus Wiener Publishers, 1999, 9781558761995,weblink 53, In many countries in Northwestern Sub-Saharan Africa, the gazelle is commonly referred to as "dangelo", meaning "swift deer".

Symbolism or totemism in African families

The gazelle, like the antelope to which it is a family of, is the totem of many African families such as the Joof family of the Senegambia region,Faye, Louis Diène, Mort et naissance: le monde Sereer, Nouvelles Éditions africaines (1983), p. 74, {{ISBN|9782723608688}}Gastellu, Jean-Marc (M. Sambe - 1937), L'égalitarisme économique des Serer du Sénégal, IRD Editions (1981), p. 130, {{ISBN|9782709905916}} weblink the Bagananoa of Botswana in Southern Africa - said to be descended of the BaHurutshe,Chidester, David; Kwenda, Chirevo; Petty, Robert; Tobler, Judy; and Wratten, Darrel ; African Traditional Religion in South Africa: An Annotated Bibliography: An Annotated Bibliography, ABC-CLIO (1997), p. 341, {{ISBN|9780313032257}} weblink and the Eraraka (or Erarak) clan of Uganda.Roscoe, John, The Northern Bantu: An Account of Some Central African Tribes of the Uganda Protectorate, The University Press (1915), p. 262 As common in many African societies, it is forbidden for the Joof or Eraraka to kill or touch the family totem.


One of the traditional themes of Arabic love poetry involves comparing the gazelle with the beloved, and linguists theorize ghazal, the word for love poetry in Arabic, is related to the word for gazelle.BOOK, Muqarnas: An Annual on the Visual Culture of the Islamic World, Gülru, Necipoğlu, Gülru Necipoğlu, Illustrated, BRILL, 1997, 9789004108721,weblink It is related that the Caliph Abd al-Malik (646–705) freed a gazelle that he had captured because of her resemblance to his beloved:O likeness of Layla, never fear!For I am your friend, today, O wild deer!Then I say, after freeing her from her fetters:You are free for the sake of Layla, for ever!The theme is found in the ancient Hebrew Song of Songs. (8:14)Come away, my beloved,and be like a gazelleor like a young stagon the spice-laden mountains.


{{Hatnote|For gazelle species by population, see List of even-toed ungulates by population}}The gazelles are divided into three genera and numerous species.WEB, Antilopinae,weblink 2008-07-01, {| class="wikitable sortable"
Gazella| Arabian gazelleG. arabica120px)| Arabian Peninsula
120px)| Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia
120px)| North and saharan Africa, Sinai and Israel
120px)Azerbaijan, eastern Georgia(country)>Georgia, part of Iran, parts of Iraq and southwestern Pakistan, southeastern Turkey, Afghanistan and the Gobi Desert
120px)| Syrian Desert and Arabian Desert
120px)| Iran, Pakistan and India
120px)| Israel, the Golan Heights, and Turkey
120px)| Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan
120px)| Horn of Africa
Gazella erlangeri>Neumann's gazelleG. erlangeri| | Arabian Peninsula
Eudorcas| Mongalla gazelleE. albonotata120px)Sudanian Savanna>savanna of South Sudan
120px)| The Sahel region of central Africa
120px)| Mountain areas of North Africa
120px)| East Africa
Nanger| Dama gazelleN. dama120px)| Sahara desert and the Sahel
120px)| Northern Tanzania to South Sudan and Ethiopia, and from the Kenyan coast to Lake Victoria
120px)| Horn of Africa
† = extinct

Prehistoric extinctions

Fossils of genus Gazella are found in Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits of Eurasia and Africa. The tiny Gazella borbonica is one of the earliest European gazelles, characterized by its small size and short legs. Gazelles disappeared from Europe at the start of the Ice Age, but they survived in Africa and Middle East.{{citation needed|date=January 2019}}


File:Grants Gazelle Gazella granti in Tanzania 2645 Nevit.jpg|Grant's gazelle (male)File:Gazella dama mhorr 2.jpg|Mhorr gazelleFile:Cuvier's Gazelle.jpg|Cuvier's gazelle (female)File:Gazella thomsonii - Disney's Animal Kingdom Lodge, Orlando, Florida, USA - 20100916.jpg|Thomson's gazelle (male)File:Gazella spekei (Speke's Gazelle).jpg|Speke's gazelle (female)File:Group of Gazella subgutturosa.JPG|Goitered gazelle (females and young)File:Chinkara.jpg|Chinkara (female)File:Gazella-dorcas.jpg|Dorcas gazelle (female)File:Gazella rufifrons AB.jpg|Red-fronted gazelleFile:Gazella gazella.jpg|Mountain gazelle (male)File:GazellaSoemmerringiWolf.jpg|Soemmerring's gazelle (females)File:Slender-horned gazelle (Cincinnati Zoo).jpg|Slender-horned gazelle (male)File:Granada Alhambra gazelle Poterie 9019.JPG|Gazelles on one of the vases made for the Alhambra palace



External links

{{Commons category|Gazella}}

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