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Tyre, Lebanon

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Tyre, Lebanon
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factoids
| pushpin_map = Lebanon| map_size = 275px| map_caption = | subdivision_type = CountryLebanon}}Governorates of Lebanon>GovernorateSouth Governorate>SouthDistricts of Lebanon>DistrictTyre District>Tyre| established_title = Established| established_date = 2750 BC| area_total_km2 = 4| area_metro_km2 = 17| population_total = 60000| population_metro = 174000Eastern European Time>EET| utc_offset = +2Eastern European Summer Time>EEST| utc_offset_DST = +3 embed=yes
| designation1 = WHS
| designation1_date = 1984 (8th session)
| designation1_type = Cultural
| designation1_criteria = iii, vi
| designation1_number = 299
| designation1_free1name = State Party
| designation1_free1value = {{LBN}}
| designation1_free2name
}}| website = | official_name = }}Tyre ( Ṣūr; Phoenician: {{script|Phnx|𐤑𐤓}} Ṣūr; Syriac-Aramaic: ܣܘܪ, Tzór; Greek: Τύρος Týros; ; Tir; ), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon. There were approximately 117,000 inhabitants in 2003.Lebanon – city population However, the government of Lebanon has released only rough estimates of population numbers since 1932, so an accurate statistical accounting is not possible.Lebanon Population Tyre juts out from the coast of the Mediterranean and is located about {{convert|80|km|0|abbr=on}} south of Beirut. The name of the city means "rock"Bikai, P., "The Land of Tyre", in Joukowsky, M., The Heritage of Tyre, 1992, chapter 2, p. 13 after the rocky formation on which the town was originally built. The demonym for Tyre is Tyrian, and the inhabitants are Tyrians.Tyre is an ancient Phoenician city and the legendary birthplace of Europa and Dido (Elissa). Today it is the fourth largest city in Lebanon after Beirut, Tripoli, Aley and Sidon,Tyre City, Lebanon and houses one of the nation's major ports. Tourism is a major industry. The city has a number of ancient sites, including its Roman Hippodrome, which was added to UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in 1979.Resolution 459Lebanon's Archaeological Heritage {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090311024355weblink |date=March 11, 2009 }}

History

(File:Tyre Triumphal Arch.jpg|thumb|The Triumphal Arch (reconstructed))File:TyreAlMina.jpg|thumb|Remains of ancient columns at Al Mina excavation site – supposed palaestrapalaestra(File:TyreAlMinaTheatre.jpg|thumb|Rectangular theatre at Al Mina excavation site)(File:Tyre2009b.JPG|thumb|The modern south part of Tyre)Tyre originally consisted of two distinct urban centres: Tyre itself, which was on an island just off shore, and the associated settlement of Ushu on the adjacent mainland. Alexander the Great connected the island to the mainland by constructing a causeway during his siege of the city,Presutta, David. The Biblical Cosmos Versus Modern Cosmology. 2007, page 225, referencing: Katzenstein, H.J., The History of Tyre, 1973, p.9 demolishing the old city to reuse its cut stone.Robin Lane Fox, Alexander the Great 1973:181f.The original island city had two harbours, one on the south side and the other on the north side of the island. It was the two harbours that enabled Tyre to gain the maritime prominence that it did; the harbour on the north side of the island was, in fact, one of the best harbours on the eastern end of the Mediterranean. The harbour on the south side has silted over, but the harbour on the north side (see Tyre harbor photo at top of page right) is still in use.See Jidejian, Nina. Tyre Through the Ages, 1969, for further information about the history of Tyre and its present condition.In ancient times, the island-city of Tyre was heavily fortified and the mainland settlement, originally called Ushu (later called Palaetyrus, meaning "Old Tyre," by the ancient Greeks) was actually more like a line of suburbs than any one city and was used primarily as a source of water and timber for the main island city.'Tyre' from Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed. Josephus records that the two fought against each other on occasion,Historical references to Tyre but most of the time, they supported one another because they both benefited from the island city's wealth from maritime trade and the mainland area's source of timber, water and burial grounds. {{citation needed|date=March 2016}}

Bronze and Iron Ages

According to Herodotus, Tyre was founded around 2750 BC and originally built as a walled city upon the mainland.BOOK, Bement, R B, Tyre; the history of Phoenicia, Palestine and Syria, and the final captivity of Israel and Judah by the Assyrians, Ulan Press, B009WP2MR8, 47, Tyre's name appears on monuments as early as 1300 BC. Philo of Byblos (in Eusebius) quotes the antiquarian authority Sanchuniathon as stating that it was first occupied by Hypsuranius. Sanchuniathon's work is said to be dedicated to "Abibalus king of Berytus"—possibly the Abibaal who was king of Tyre.Vance, Donald R. (March 1994) "Literary Sources for the History of Palestine and Syria: The PhÅ“nician Inscriptions" The Biblical Archaeologist 57(1), pp. 2–19There are ten Amarna letters dated 1350 BC from the mayor, Abimilku, written to Akenaten. The subject is often water, wood and the Habiru overtaking the countryside of the mainland and how that affected the island-city. {{citation needed|date=March 2016}}Commerce from throughout ancient world was gathered into the warehouses of Tyre.Tyre became one of the more powerful cities in Phoenicia. One of its kings, the priest Ithobaal (887–856 BC), ruled Phoenicia as far north as Beirut, and part of Cyprus. Carthage was founded in 814 BC under Pygmalion of Tyre (820–774 BC)weblink The collection of city-states constituting Phoenicia came to be characterized by outsiders and the Phoenicians as Sidonia or Tyria. Phoenicians and Canaanites alike were called Sidonians or Tyrians, as one Phoenician city came to prominence after another.The city of Tyre was particularly known for the production of a rare and extraordinarily expensive sort of purple dye, produced from the murex shellfish, known as Tyrian purple. The colour was, in ancient cultures, reserved for the use of royalty or at least the nobility.Bariaa Mourad. "Du Patrimoine à la Muséologie : Conception d'un musée sur le site archéologique de Tyr",(Thesis); Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle (MNHN), Study realised in cooperation with the Unesco, Secteur de la Culture, Division du Patrimoine Culturel, Paris, 1998Phoenicians from Tyre settled in houses around Memphis in Egypt, south of the temple of Hephaestus in a district called the Tyrian Camp.BOOK, Herodotus, The Histories, Oxford World's Classics, 9780199535668, 137, 2008-04-17, Tyre was often attacked by Egypt and was besieged by Assyrian king Shalmaneser V, who was assisted by the Phoenicians of the mainland, for five years. From 586 until 573 BC, the city was besieged by Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon until it agreed to pay a tribute.BOOK, Bement, R B, Tyre; the history of Phoenicia, Palestine and Syria, and the final captivity of Israel and Judah by the Assyrians, Ulan Press, B009WP2MR8, 48,

Persian period

(File:A naval action during the siege of Tyre by Andre Castaigne (1898-1899).jpg|right|thumb|A naval action during the siege of Tyre (332 BC). Drawing by , 1888–89.)The Achaemenid Empire of King Cyrus the Great conquered the city in 539 BC and kept it under its rule until 332 BC.JOURNAL, Tyre in the early Persian period (539-486 B.C), The Biblical Archaeologist, 42, 1, 23–34, 3209545, Katzenstein, H. Jacob, 1979, The Persians then divided Phoenicia into four vassal kingdoms: Sidon, Tyre, Arwad, and Byblos. They prospered, furnishing fleets for Persian kings. Phoenician influence declined after this.

Hellenistic period

After his conquest of Persia, Alexander the Great moved his armies south towards Lebanon, eventually sieging and sacking the City of Tyre. Alexander the Great connected the island to the mainland by constructing a causeway during his siege of the city in 332 BC, demolishing the old city to reuse its cut stone.WEB,weblink Strolling in old Tyr – LebanonUntravelled.com, en-US, 2019-02-13, In 315 BC, Alexander's former general Antigonus began his own siege of Tyre,315 B.C. – events and references taking the city a year later.314 B.C. – events and referencesIn 126 BC, Tyre regained its independence from the Seleucid Empire.126 B.C. – events and references

Roman period

Tyre was allowed to keep much of its independence, as a "civitas foederata",E. G. Hardy, Roman Laws and Charters, New Jersey 2005, p.95 when the area became a Roman province in 64 BC.64 B.C. – events and references Tyre continued to maintain much of its commercial importance until AD. The Tyrians, or "people of Tyre" during the Roman period, extended their areas of hegemony over the adjoining regions, such as in northern Palestine region, settling in cities such as Kedesh,Josephus, Wars of the Jews (ii.xviii.§1; iv.ii.§3) Mount CarmelJosephus, Wars of the Jews (iii.iii.§1) and north of Baca.Josephus, De Bello Judaico (Wars of the Jews III, 35 (Wars of the Jews'' 3.3.1) It is stated in the New Testament that Jesus visited the region of Tyre and Sidon and healed a Gentile ({{bibleref|Matthew|15:21}}; {{bibleref|Mark|7:24}}) and from this region many came forth to hear him preaching (Mark 3:8; Gospel of Luke 6:17, Matthew 11:21–23). A congregation was founded here soon after the death of St. Stephen. Paul the Apostle, on his return from his third missionary journey, spent a week in conversation with the disciples there. According to Irenaeus of Lyon in On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis, the female companion of Simon Magus came from here.The famous "Arch of Hadrian" and one of the best hippodromes in the region were constructed during the Roman empire.Video showing the Roman hippodrome of Tyre

Byzantine period

In 395 Tyre became part of the Byzantine Empire. The city remained under Byzantine control until 638, when it was occupied by the Arabs.

Early Muslim period

In the Revolt of Tyre (996–998), the populace of the city rose against Fatimid rule, led by an ordinary sailor named 'Allaqa - but were brutally suppressed in May 998. In 1086 it fell into the hands of the Seljuks who lost it in 1089 to the Fatimids.

Crusader period

{{see also|Lordship of Tyre}}After the first failed siege in 1111, Tyre was captured during the aftermath of the First Crusade on July 7, 1124 and became one of the most important cities of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. It was part of the royal domain, but there were also autonomous trading colonies there for the Italian merchant cities. The city was the see of a Roman Catholic archbishopric, whose archbishop was a suffragan of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem; its archbishops often acceded to the Patriarchate. The most notable of the Latin archbishops was the historian William of Tyre.After the loss of the First Crusader Kingdom in the wake of the 1187 Battle of Hattin and the reconquest of Acre by Richard I of England on July 12, 1191, the seat of the kingdom moved there, but coronations were held in Tyre. In the 13th century, Tyre was separated from the royal domain as the Lordship of Tyre.

Mamluk period

In 1291, Tyre was retaken by the Mamluk Sultanate.

Ottoman period

The Ottoman Empire conquered the region in 1516-17 and held it until World War I.

Modern Lebanon

File:Tyre in Lebanon marking as protected cultural property.jpg|thumb|right|A large sign which marks the ancient city of Tyre as protected cultural property according to the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed ConflictHague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed ConflictThe modern state of Lebanon was declared in 1920.The present city of Tyre covers a large part of the original island and has expanded onto and covers most of the causeway, which had increased greatly in width over the centuries because of extensive silt depositions on either side. The part of the original island not covered by the modern city of Tyre is mostly of an archaeological site showcasing remains of the city from ancient times.After numerous attacks and reprisals involving the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Israel invaded, as part of the so-called 1978 South Lebanon conflict, and Tyre was badly damaged. Following an assassination attempt on Israeli ambassador Argov in London it was damaged again in the 1982 Lebanon War. The city was used as a base by the PLO and was nearly destroyed by Israeli artillery.The toll of three cities, The Economist June 19, 1982. p. 26. After the 1982 war, the city was the site of an Israeli military post. In late 1982, and again in November 1983, buildings housing Israeli headquarters were destroyed by bombs, causing dozens of deaths in both cases and known in Israel as the First and Second Tyre Catastrophes. The 1983 explosion by a suicide truck happened only 10 days after similar attacks, the 1983 Beirut barracks bombings of US Marines and French paratroop barracks. Israel and the US blame Iran and Hezbollah for all explosions, but they have denied any involvement.During Israel's invasion in the 2006 Lebanon War, several rocket-launching sites used by Hezbollah to attack Israel were located in rural areas around the city.Butcher, Tim. Rebels were ready for attacks. Sydney Morning Herald 27 July 2006. At least one village near the city was bombed by Israel as well as several sites within the city, causing civilian deaths and adding to the food shortage problem inside Tyre.Engel, Richard. Desperation descends on Tyre, Lebanon. MSNBC 25 July 2006. Shayetet 13 (Israeli naval commandos) also raided Hezbollah targets within the city.Israeli commandos stage Tyre raid BBC 5 August 2006.

Coast Nature Reserve

The Tyre Coast Nature Reserve covers over {{convert|380|ha|acre}} and divided into three zones: the Tourism zone (public beaches, the old city and Souks, the ancient port), the Agricultural and Archaeological zone, and the Conservation zone that includes the Phoenician springs of Ras El Ain. Due to its diverse flora and fauna, the reserve is a designated Ramsar Site. It is an important nesting site for migratory birds and the endangered Loggerhead and green sea turtle and the shelter of the Arabian spiny mouse and many other important creatures (including wall lizards, common pipistrelle, and european badger).WEB, Protecting marine biodiversity in Lebanon,weblink International Union for Conservation of Nature, International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), 2 May 2012, 17 August 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140811180131weblink">weblink 11 August 2014, yes, dmy-all, WEB, Hany El Shaer, Ms. Lara Samaha, Ghassan Jaradi, Lebanon's Marine Protected Area Strategy,weblink Lebanese Ministry of Environment, Dec 2012,

Cultural heritage

(File:Roman Hippodrome in Tyre, Lebanon.jpg|thumb|Roman Hippodrome in Tyre)Threats to Tyre's ancient cultural heritage include development pressures and the illegal antiquities trade.NEWS, Lebanon's Archaeological Heritage, Helga Seeden, December 2, 2000, A highway, planned for 2011, was expected to be built in areas that are deemed archaeologically sensitive.{{Citation needed|date=February 2019}} A small-scale geophysical survey indicated the presence of archaeological remains at proposed construction sites. The sites have not been investigated. Despite the relocation of a proposed traffic interchange, the lack of precise site boundaries confuses the issue of site preservation.Toubekis, Georgios (2010). "Lebanon: Tyre (Sour)". In Christoph Machat, Michael Petzet and John Ziesemer (Eds.), WEB,weblink Heritage at Risk: ICOMOS World Report hey a report 2008-2010 on Monuments and Sites in Danger, . Berlin: hendrik Bäßler verlag, 2010, pg. 118.(File:Tyre-109945.jpg|thumb|left|Columns with tourists)The hostilities of the 2006 Lebanon War put the ancient structures of Tyre at risk. This prompted UNESCO's Director-General to launch a "Heritage Alert" for the site.NEWS,weblink UNESCO Director-General Launches "Heritage Alert" for the Middle East, UNESCO World Heritage Centre, Koïchiro Matsuura, The Director-General of UNESCO, August 11, 2006, Following the cessation of hostilities in September 2006, a visit by conservation experts to Lebanon observed no direct damage to the ancient city of Tyre. However, bombardment had damaged frescoes in a Roman funerary cave at the Tyre Necropolis. Additional site degradation was also noted, including "the lack of maintenance, the decay of exposed structures due to lack of rainwater regulation and the decay of porous and soft stones". Like many of the cities in the Levant and in Lebanon, the architecture since the Lebanese Civil War in the 1970s has been of poor quality, which tend to threaten the cultural heritage in the built environment before the war.{{citation needed|date=March 2016}}

Scriptural

The Bible makes several references to Tyre:
  • According to {{bibleverse|Joshua|19:29|KJV|}}, Tyre is referred to as a "strong city," and was allotted to the Tribe of Asher.
  • King Hiram I was a contemporary of David and Solomon in {{bibleverse|2|Samuel|5:11|KJV|}}, {{bibleverse|1|Kings|5:1|KJV|}}, and {{bibleverse|1|Chronicles|14:1|KJV|}}.
  • Tyre is mentioned in the Book of Isaiah ({{Bibleref2|Isaiah|23}}), the Book of Jeremiah ({{Bibleref2|Jer|25:22}}, {{Bibleref2|Jer|47:4}}), the Book of Ezekiel ({{bibleverse||Ezekiel|26-28|KJV|}}), the Book of Joel ({{Bibleref2|Joel|3:4-8}}), the Book of Amos ({{Bibleref2|Amos|1:9-10}}), the Psalms, and the Book of Zechariah ({{Bibleref2|Zechariah|9:3-4}}), which prophesied its destruction.
  • Jesus visited the region or "coasts" (King James Version) of Tyre and Sidon ({{bibleref|Matthew|15:21}}; {{bibleref|Mark|7:24}}) and from this region many came forth to hear him preaching (Mark 3:8; Luke 6:17), leading to the stark contrast in {{bibleref|Matthew|11:21–23}} to his reception in Korazin and Bethsaida.
  • In the Book of Revelation, {{bibleverse||Revelation|18|KJV|}} alludes extensively to the mercantile description of Tyre in Ezekiel 26-28.

Other writings

Education

{{expand section|date=June 2016}}Collège Élite, a French international school, is in Tyre.Jaafareya High School was the first intermediate and secondary school in south of Lebanon.{{citation needed|date=July 2017}}

Demographics

The population of Tyre is a predominantly Shia Muslim with a small but noticeable Christian community. However, the city of Tyre is home for more than 60,000 Palestinian refugees who are mainly Sunni Muslim. The Amal Movement and Hezbollah are the most popular parties, representing all of the Shi'a seats in the city as of the 2009 elections.{{citation needed|date=July 2017}} In 2010, it was estimated that Christians accounted for 15% of Tyre's population.WEB,weblink Bishop of Tyre: Christians in Lebanon have become a minority in their country,

Gallery

File:TyreAlMinaCollonnadedStreet.jpg|Main colonnaded street at Al Mina excavation siteFile:TyreAlMinaAgora.jpg|Al Mina excavation area – supposed Roman agoraFile:TyreNarrowStChrQrt.jpg|A typical narrow street in the Christian quarterFile:TyreFishingHarbourOldTown.jpg|Tyre harborFile:Tyre-109949.jpg|A half-column giving view to the seaFile:Tyre-109953.jpg|Remains seen at the excavation siteFile:Tyre-109955.jpg|Sarcophagus in Tyre

Twin towns â€“ sister cities

Tyre is twinned with:

Notable people

See also

References

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

  • Bikai, Patricia Maynor. The Pottery of Tyre. Warminster: Aris and Phillips, 1978.
  • Bullitt, Orville H. Phoenicia and Carthage: A Thousand Years to Oblivion. Philadelphia: Dorrance, 1978.
  • Joukowsky, Martha, and Camille Asmar. The Heritage of Tyre: Essays On the History, Archaeology, and Preservation of Tyre. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co., 1992.
  • Woolmer, Mark. Ancient Phoenicia: An Introduction. London: Bristol Classical Press, 2011.

External links

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{{Eastons}}{{Phoenician cities and colonies navbox|state=autocollapse}}{{World Heritage Sites in Lebanon}}{{Third Journey of Paul of Tarsus}}{{Lebanon topics}}{{Archaeological sites in Lebanon}}{{Roman colonies in ancient Levant}}{{Ancient states and regions of the Levant |state=collapsed}}{{Tyre District}}

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