Pablo Picasso

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Pablo Picasso
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{{Redirect|Picasso}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|20th-century Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage designer}}{{Use British English Oxford spelling|date=March 2017}}{{Use dmy dates|date=December 2013}}

| birth_place = Málaga, Spaindf=yes4188125}}| death_place = Mougins, France| resting_place= Château of Vauvenargues43.554142region:FR}}| nationality = Spanishsculpture, printmaking, Ceramics (art)>ceramics, stage design, writing| training = José Ruiz y Blasco (father) Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando| movement = Cubism, SurrealismLa Vie (painting)>La Vie (1903)Family of Saltimbanques (1905)Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907)Portrait of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler (1910)Girl before a Mirror (1932)''Le Rêve (Picasso) (1932)Guernica (painting)>Guernica (1937)The Weeping Woman'' (1937)| patrons =| awards =Olga Khokhlova1955d.Jacqueline Roque|1961}}| partner = Marie-Thérèse WalterDora MaarFrançoise Gilot}}Pablo Ruiz PicassoThis is a Spanish name, the first or paternal family name is Ruiz and the second or maternal family name is Picasso. ({{IPAc-en|UK|ˈ|p|æ|b|l|oʊ|_|p|ɪ|ˈ|k|æ|s|oʊ}}, {{IPAc-en|US|ˈ|p|ɑː|b|l|oʊ|_|p|ɪ|ˈ|k|ɑː|s|oʊ|,_|-|ˈ|k|æ|s|-}}, {{IPA-es|ˈpaβlo piˈkaso|lang}}; 25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France. Regarded as one of the most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907), and Guernica (1937), a dramatic portrayal of the bombing of Guernica by the German and Italian airforces during the Spanish Civil War.Picasso demonstrated extraordinary artistic talent in his early years, painting in a naturalistic manner through his childhood and adolescence. During the first decade of the 20th century, his style changed as he experimented with different theories, techniques, and ideas. After 1906, the Fauvist work of the slightly older artist Henri Matisse motivated Picasso to explore more radical styles, beginning a fruitful rivalry between the two artists, who subsequently were often paired by critics as the leaders of modern art.Picasso's work is often categorized into periods. While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are the Blue Period (1901–1904), the Rose Period (1904–1906), the African-influenced Period (1907–1909), Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), and Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), also referred to as the Crystal period. Much of Picasso's work of the late 1910s and early 1920s is in a neoclassical style, and his work in the mid-1920s often has characteristics of Surrealism. His later work often combines elements of his earlier styles.Exceptionally prolific throughout the course of his long life, Picasso achieved universal renown and immense fortune for his revolutionary artistic accomplishments, and became one of the best-known figures in 20th-century art.

Early life

(File:Pablo Picasso with his sister Lola, 1889.jpg|thumb|upright|Pablo Picasso with his sister Lola, 1889)Picasso was baptized Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso, a series of names honouring various saints and relatives. Ruiz y Picasso were included for his father and mother, respectively, as per Spanish tradition. Born in the city of Málaga in the Andalusian region of Spain, he was the first child of Don José Ruiz y Blasco (1838–1913) and María Picasso y López. Though baptized a Catholic, Picasso would later become an atheist.The surname "Picasso" comes from Liguria, a coastal region of north-western Italy; its capital is Genoa. There was a painter from the area named {{Interlanguage link|Matteo Picasso|fr}} (1794–1879), born in Recco (Genoa), of late neoclassical style portraiture, though investigations have not definitively determined his kinship with the branch of ancestors related to Pablo Picasso. The direct branch from Sori, Liguria (Genoa), can be traced back to Tommaso Picasso (1728–1813). His son Giovanni Battista, married to Isabella Musante, was Pablo's great-great-grandfather. Of this marriage was born Tommaso (Sori, 1787–Málaga, 1851). Pablo's maternal great-grandfather, Tommaso Picasso moved to Spain around 1807.Picasso's family was of middle-class background. His father was a painter who specialized in naturalistic depictions of birds and other game. For most of his life Ruiz was a professor of art at the School of Crafts and a curator of a local museum. Ruiz's ancestors were minor aristocrats.Picasso showed a passion and a skill for drawing from an early age. According to his mother, his first words were "piz, piz", a shortening of lápiz, the Spanish word for "pencil". From the age of seven, Picasso received formal artistic training from his father in figure drawing and oil painting. Ruiz was a traditional academic artist and instructor, who believed that proper training required disciplined copying of the masters, and drawing the human body from plaster casts and live models. His son became preoccupied with art to the detriment of his classwork.The family moved to A Coruña in 1891, where his father became a professor at the School of Fine Arts. They stayed almost four years. On one occasion, the father found his son painting over his unfinished sketch of a pigeon. Observing the precision of his son's technique, an apocryphal story relates, Ruiz felt that the thirteen-year-old Picasso had surpassed him, and vowed to give up painting, though paintings by him exist from later years.In 1895, Picasso was traumatized when his seven-year-old sister, Conchita, died of diphtheria. After her death, the family moved to Barcelona, where Ruiz took a position at its School of Fine Arts. Picasso thrived in the city, regarding it in times of sadness or nostalgia as his true home. Ruiz persuaded the officials at the academy to allow his son to take an entrance exam for the advanced class. This process often took students a month, but Picasso completed it in a week, and the jury admitted him, at just 13. As a student, Picasso lacked discipline but made friendships that would affect him in later life. His father rented a small room for him close to home so he could work alone, yet he checked up on him numerous times a day, judging his drawings. The two argued frequently.Picasso's father and uncle decided to send the young artist to Madrid's Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, the country's foremost art school. At age 16, Picasso set off for the first time on his own, but he disliked formal instruction and stopped attending classes soon after enrollment. Madrid held many other attractions. The Prado housed paintings by Diego Velázquez, Francisco Goya, and Francisco Zurbarán. Picasso especially admired the works of El Greco; elements such as his elongated limbs, arresting colours, and mystical visages are echoed in Picasso's later work.{{-}}


Before 1900

File:Pablo Picasso, 1904, Paris, photograph by Ricard Canals i Llambí.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Picasso in 1904. Photograph by Ricard CanalsRicard CanalsPicasso's training under his father began before 1890. His progress can be traced in the collection of early works now held by the Museu Picasso in Barcelona, which provides one of the most comprehensive records extant of any major artist's beginnings. During 1893 the juvenile quality of his earliest work falls away, and by 1894 his career as a painter can be said to have begun. The academic realism apparent in the works of the mid-1890s is well displayed in The First Communion (1896), a large composition that depicts his sister, Lola. In the same year, at the age of 14, he painted Portrait of Aunt Pepa, a vigorous and dramatic portrait that Juan-Eduardo Cirlot has called "without a doubt one of the greatest in the whole history of Spanish painting."In 1897, his realism began to show a Symbolist influence, for example, in a series of landscape paintings rendered in non-naturalistic violet and green tones. What some call his Modernist period (1899–1900) followed. His exposure to the work of Rossetti, Steinlen, Toulouse-Lautrec and Edvard Munch, combined with his admiration for favourite old masters such as El Greco, led Picasso to a personal version of modernism in his works of this period.Picasso made his first trip to Paris, then the art capital of Europe, in 1900. There, he met his first Parisian friend, journalist and poet Max Jacob, who helped Picasso learn the language and its literature. Soon they shared an apartment; Max slept at night while Picasso slept during the day and worked at night. These were times of severe poverty, cold, and desperation. Much of his work was burned to keep the small room warm. During the first five months of 1901, Picasso lived in Madrid, where he and his anarchist friend Francisco de Asís Soler founded the magazine Arte Joven (Young Art), which published five issues. Soler solicited articles and Picasso illustrated the journal, mostly contributing grim cartoons depicting and sympathizing with the state of the poor. The first issue was published on 31 March 1901, by which time the artist had started to sign his work Picasso. From 1898 he signed his works as "Pablo Ruiz Picasso", then as "Pablo R. Picasso" until 1901. The change does not seem to imply a rejection of the father figure. Rather, he wanted to distinguish himself from others; initiated by his Catalan friends who habitually called him by his maternal surname, much less current than the paternal Ruiz.Fermigier, André (1969). Picasso, Le Livre de Poche, Série Art. Paris, Librairie Génerale Française, p. 9, {{ISBN|2-253-02455-4}}{{-}}

Blue Period: 1901–1904

{{details|Picasso's Blue Period}}{{multiple image
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}}Picasso's Blue Period (1901–1904), characterized by sombre paintings rendered in shades of blue and blue-green, only occasionally warmed by other colours, began either in Spain in early 1901, or in Paris in the second half of the year. Many paintings of gaunt mothers with children date from the Blue Period, during which Picasso divided his time between Barcelona and Paris. In his austere use of colour and sometimes doleful subject matter – prostitutes and beggars are frequent subjects – Picasso was influenced by a trip through Spain and by the suicide of his friend Carlos Casagemas. Starting in autumn of 1901 he painted several posthumous portraits of Casagemas, culminating in the gloomy allegorical painting La Vie (1903), now in the Cleveland Museum of Art.The same mood pervades the well-known etching The Frugal Repast (1904), which depicts a blind man and a sighted woman, both emaciated, seated at a nearly bare table. Blindness is a recurrent theme in Picasso's works of this period, also represented in The Blindman's Meal (1903, the Metropolitan Museum of Art) and in the portrait of Celestina (1903). Other Blue Period works include Portrait of Soler and Portrait of Suzanne Bloch.

Rose Period: 1904–1906

{{details|Picasso's Rose Period}}File:Pablo Picasso, 1905, Au Lapin Agile (At the Lapin Agile), oil on canvas, 99.1 x 100.3 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art.jpg|thumb|Pablo Picasso, 1905, Au Lapin Agile (At the Lapin Agile) (Arlequin tenant un verre), oil on canvas, 99.1 × 100.3 cm, Metropolitan Museum of ArtMetropolitan Museum of ArtThe Rose Period (1904–1906) is characterized by a lighter tone and style utilizing orange and pink colours, and featuring many circus people, acrobats and harlequins known in France as saltimbanques. The harlequin, a comedic character usually depicted in checkered patterned clothing, became a personal symbol for Picasso. Picasso met Fernande Olivier, a bohemian artist who became his mistress, in Paris in 1904. Olivier appears in many of his Rose Period paintings, many of which are influenced by his warm relationship with her, in addition to his increased exposure to French painting. The generally upbeat and optimistic mood of paintings in this period is reminiscent of the 1899–1901 period (i.e. just prior to the Blue Period) and 1904 can be considered a transition year between the two periods.File:GertrudeStein.JPG|thumb|left|upright|Portrait of Gertrude Stein, 1906, Metropolitan Museum of ArtMetropolitan Museum of ArtBy 1905, Picasso became a favourite of American art collectors Leo and Gertrude Stein. Their older brother Michael Stein and his wife Sarah also became collectors of his work. Picasso painted portraits of both Gertrude Stein and her nephew Allan Stein. Gertrude Stein became Picasso's principal patron, acquiring his drawings and paintings and exhibiting them in her informal Salon at her home in Paris. At one of her gatherings in 1905, he met Henri Matisse, who was to become a lifelong friend and rival. The Steins introduced him to Claribel Cone and her sister Etta who were American art collectors; they also began to acquire Picasso and Matisse's paintings. Eventually Leo Stein moved to Italy. Michael and Sarah Stein became patrons of Matisse, while Gertrude Stein continued to collect Picasso.In 1907, Picasso joined an art gallery that had recently been opened in Paris by Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler. Kahnweiler was a German art historian and art collector who became one of the premier French art dealers of the 20th century. He was among the first champions of Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque and the Cubism that they jointly developed. Kahnweiler promoted burgeoning artists such as André Derain, Kees van Dongen, Fernand Léger, Juan Gris, Maurice de Vlaminck and several others who had come from all over the globe to live and work in Montparnasse at the time.

African art and primitivism: 1907–1909

File:Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.jpg|thumb|right|Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907), Museum of Modern ArtMuseum of Modern Art{{See also|Picasso's African Period|Proto-Cubism}}Picasso's African-influenced Period (1907–1909) begins with his painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. Picasso painted this composition in a style inspired by Iberian sculpture, but repainted the faces of the two figures on the right after being powerfully impressed by African artefacts he saw in June 1907 in the ethnographic museum at Palais du Trocadéro. When he displayed the painting to acquaintances in his studio later that year, the nearly universal reaction was shock and revulsion; Matisse angrily dismissed the work as a hoax. Picasso did not exhibit Le Demoiselles publicly until 1916.Other works from this period include Nude with Raised Arms (1907) and Three Women (1908). Formal ideas developed during this period lead directly into the Cubist period that follows.

Analytic cubism: 1909–1912

Analytic cubism (1909–1912) is a style of painting Picasso developed with Georges Braque using monochrome brownish and neutral colours. Both artists took apart objects and "analyzed" them in terms of their shapes. Picasso and Braque's paintings at this time share many similarities.In Paris, Picasso entertained a distinguished coterie of friends in the Montmartre and Montparnasse quarters, including André Breton, poet Guillaume Apollinaire, writer Alfred Jarry and Gertrude Stein. In 1911, Picasso was arrested and questioned about the theft of the Mona Lisa from the Louvre. Suspicion for the crime had initially fallen upon Apollinaire due to his links to Géry Pieret, an artist with a history of thefts from the gallery. Apollinaire in turn implicated his close friend Picasso, who had also purchased stolen artworks from the artist in the past. Afraid of a conviction that could result in his deportation to Spain, Picasso denied having ever met Apollinaire. Both were later cleared of any involvement in the painting's disappearance.

Synthetic cubism: 1912–1919

File:Pablo Picasso, summer 1912.jpg|thumb|upright|Picasso in front of his painting The Aficionado (Kunstmuseum BaselKunstmuseum BaselSynthetic cubism (1912–1919) was a further development of the genre of cubism, in which cut paper fragments â€“ often wallpaper or portions of newspaper pages â€“ were pasted into compositions, marking the first use of collage in fine art.Between 1915 and 1917, Picasso began a series of paintings depicting highly geometric and minimalist Cubist objects, consisting of either a pipe, a guitar or a glass, with an occasional element of collage. "Hard-edged square-cut diamonds", notes art historian John Richardson, "these gems do not always have upside or downside". "We need a new name to designate them," wrote Picasso to Gertrude Stein: Maurice Raynal suggested "Crystal Cubism". These "little gems" may have been produced by Picasso in response to critics who had claimed his defection from the movement, through his experimentation with classicism within the so-called return to order following the war.After acquiring some fame and fortune, Picasso left Olivier for Marcelle Humbert, whom he called Eva Gouel. Picasso included declarations of his love for Eva in many Cubist works. Picasso was devastated by her premature death from illness at the age of 30 in 1915.At the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, Picasso was living in Avignon. Braque and Derain were mobilized and Apollinaire joined the French artillery, while the Spaniard Juan Gris remained from the Cubist circle. During the war, Picasso was able to continue painting uninterrupted, unlike his French comrades. His paintings became more sombre and his life changed with dramatic consequences. Kahnweiler's contract had terminated on his exile from France. At this point Picasso's work would be taken on by the art dealer Léonce Rosenberg. After the loss of Eva Gouel, Picasso had an affair with Gaby Lespinasse. During the spring of 1916, Apollinaire returned from the front wounded. They renewed their friendship, but Picasso began to frequent new social circles.File:Costume design by Pablo Picasso representing skyscrapers and boulevards, for Serge Diaghilev's Ballets Russes performance of Parade at Théâtre du Châtelet, Paris 18 May 1917.jpg|thumb|upright|Costume design by Pablo Picasso representing skyscrapers and boulevards, for Serge Diaghilev's Ballets Russes performance of Parade at Théâtre du Châtelet, Paris 18 May 1917]]{{Further|Picasso and the Ballets Russes}}Towards the end of World War I, Picasso became involved with Serge Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. Among his friends during this period were Jean Cocteau, Jean Hugo, Juan Gris, and others. In the summer of 1918, Picasso married Olga Khokhlova, a ballerina with Sergei Diaghilev's troupe, for whom Picasso was designing a ballet, Erik Satie's Parade, in Rome; they spent their honeymoon near Biarritz in the villa of glamorous Chilean art patron Eugenia Errázuriz.File:Pablo Picasso and scene painters sitting on the front cloth for Parade (Ballets Russes) at the Théâtre du Châtelet, Paris, 1917, Lachmann photographer.jpg|thumb|left|Pablo Picasso and scene painters sitting on the front cloth for Léonide Massine's ballet Parade, staged by Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets RussesBallets RussesAfter returning from his honeymoon and in need of money, Picasso started his exclusive relationship with the French-Jewish art dealer Paul Rosenberg. As part of his first duties, Rosenberg agreed to rent the couple an apartment in Paris at his own expense, which was located next to his own house. This was the start of a deep brother-like friendship between two very different men, that would last until the outbreak of World War II.Khokhlova introduced Picasso to high society, formal dinner parties, and other dimensions of the life of the rich in 1920s Paris. The two had a son, Paulo Picasso, who would grow up to be a motorcycle racer and chauffeur to his father. Khokhlova's insistence on social propriety clashed with Picasso's bohemian tendencies and the two lived in a state of constant conflict. During the same period that Picasso collaborated with Diaghilev's troupe, he and Igor Stravinsky collaborated on Pulcinella in 1920. Picasso took the opportunity to make several drawings of the composer.In 1927, Picasso met 17-year-old Marie-Thérèse Walter and began a secret affair with her. Picasso's marriage to Khokhlova soon ended in separation rather than divorce, as French law required an even division of property in the case of divorce, and Picasso did not want Khokhlova to have half his wealth. The two remained legally married until Khokhlova's death in 1955. Picasso carried on a long-standing affair with Marie-Thérèse Walter and fathered a daughter with her, named Maya. Marie-Thérèse lived in the vain hope that Picasso would one day marry her, and hanged herself four years after Picasso's death.{{-}}File:Pablo Picasso, 1909, Femme assise (Sitzende Frau), oil on canvas, 100 x 80 cm, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Neue Nationalgalerie.jpg|1909, Femme assise (Sitzende Frau), oil on canvas, 100 × 80 cm, Staatliche Museen, Neue Nationalgalerie, BerlinFile:Pablo Picasso, 1909-10, Figure dans un Fauteuil (Seated Nude, Femme nue assise), oil on canvas, 92.1 x 73 cm, Tate Modern, London.jpg|1909–10, Figure dans un Fauteuil (Seated Nude, Femme nue assise), oil on canvas, 92.1 × 73 cm, Tate Modern, London. This painting from the collection of Wilhelm Uhde was confiscated by the French state and sold at the Hôtel Drouot in 1921File:Pablo Picasso, 1910, Woman with Mustard Pot (La Femme au pot de moutarde), oil on canvas, 73 x 60 cm, Gemeentemuseum, The Hague. Exhibited at the Armory Show, New York, Chicago, Boston 1913.jpg|1910, Woman with Mustard Pot (La Femme au pot de moutarde), oil on canvas, 73 × 60 cm, Gemeentemuseum, The Hague. Exhibited at the Armory Show, New York, Chicago, Boston 1913File:Pablo Picasso, 1910, Girl with a Mandolin (Fanny Tellier), oil on canvas, 100.3 x 73.6 cm, Museum of Modern Art New York..jpg|1910, Girl with a Mandolin (Fanny Tellier), oil on canvas, 100.3 × 73.6 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New YorkFile:Picasso Portrait of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler 1910.jpg|1910, Portrait of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, The Art Institute of Chicago. Picasso wrote of Kahnweiler "What would have become of us if Kahnweiler hadn't had a business sense?"File:Pablo Picasso, 1910-11, Guitariste, La mandoliniste, Woman playing guitar, oil on canvas.jpg|1910–11, Guitariste, La mandoliniste (Woman playing guitar or mandolin), oil on canvasFile:Pablo Picasso, c.1911, Le Guitariste.jpg|c.1911, Le Guitariste. Reproduced in Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger, Du "Cubisme", 1912File:Pablo Picasso, 1911, Still Life with a Bottle of Rum, oil on canvas, 61.3 x 50.5 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.jpg|1911, Still Life with a Bottle of Rum, oil on canvas, 61.3 × 50.5 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New YorkFile:Pablo Picasso, 1911, The Poet (Le poète), Céret, oil on linen, 131.2 × 89.5 cm, The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice.jpg|1911, The Poet (Le poète), oil on linen, 131.2 × 89.5 cm (51 5/8 × 35 1/4 in), The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, Peggy Guggenheim Collection, VeniceFile:Pablo Picasso, 1911-12, Violon (Violin), oil on canvas, Kröller-Müller Museum, Otterlo, Netherlands.jpg|1911–12, Violon (Violin), oil on canvas, 100 × 73 cm (oval), Kröller-Müller Museum, Otterlo, Netherlands. This painting from the collection of Wilhelm Uhde was confiscated by the French state and sold at the Hôtel Drouot in 1921File:Pablo Picasso, 1913, Bouteille, clarinette, violon, journal, verre.jpg|1913, Bouteille, clarinet, violon, journal, verre, 55 × 45 cm. This painting from the collection of Wilhelm Uhde was confiscated by the French state and sold at the Hôtel Drouot in 1921File:Pablo Picasso, 1913-14, Woman in a Chemise in an Armchair, oil on canvas, 149.9 x 99.4 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art.jpg|1913, Femme assise dans un fauteuil (Eva), Woman in a Chemise in an Armchair, oil on canvas, 149.9 × 99.4 cm, Leonard A. Lauder Cubist Collection, Metropolitan Museum of ArtFile:Pablo Picasso, 1913-14, Head (Tête), cut and pasted colored paper, gouache and charcoal on paperboard, 43.5 x 33 cm, Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh.jpg|1913–14, Head (Tête), cut and pasted coloured paper, gouache and charcoal on paperboard, 43.5 × 33 cm, Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, EdinburghFile:Pablo Picasso, 1913-14, L'Homme aux cartes (Card Player), oil on canvas, 108 x 89.5 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York.jpg|1913–14, L'Homme aux cartes (Card Player), oil on canvas, 108 × 89.5 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New YorkFile:Pablo Picasso, 1914-15, Nature morte au compotier (Still Life with Compote and Glass), oil on canvas, 63.5 x 78.7 cm (25 x 31 in), Columbus Museum of Art, Ohio.jpg|1914–15, Nature morte au compotier (Still Life with Compote and Glass), oil on canvas, 63.5 × 78.7 cm (25 × 31 in), Columbus Museum of Art, OhioFile:Pablo Picasso, 1916, L'anis del mono (Bottle of Anis del Mono) oil on canvas, 46 x 54.6 cm, Detroit Institute of Arts, Michigan.jpg|1916, L'anis del mono (Bottle of Anis del Mono), oil on canvas, 46 × 54.6 cm, Detroit Institute of Arts, MichiganFile:Parade Picasso.jpg|Parade, 1917, curtain designed for the ballet Parade. The work is the largest of Picasso's paintings. Centre Pompidou-Metz, Metz, France, May 2012{{-}}

Neoclassicism and surrealism: 1919–1929

File:Pablo Picasso, 1921, Nu assis s'essuyant le pied (Seated Nude Drying her Foot), pastel, 66 x 50.8 cm, Berggruen Museum.jpg|thumb|upright|Pablo Picasso, 1921, Nu assis s'essuyant le pied (Seated Nude Drying her Foot), pastel, 66 x 50.8 cm, Berggruen MuseumBerggruen MuseumIn February 1917, Picasso made his first trip to Italy. In the period following the upheaval of World War I, Picasso produced work in a neoclassical style. This "return to order" is evident in the work of many European artists in the 1920s, including André Derain, Giorgio de Chirico, Gino Severini, Jean Metzinger, the artists of the New Objectivity movement and of the Novecento Italiano movement. Picasso's paintings and drawings from this period frequently recall the work of Raphael and Ingres.In 1925 the Surrealist writer and poet André Breton declared Picasso as 'one of ours' in his article Le Surréalisme et la peinture, published in Révolution surréaliste. Les Demoiselles was reproduced for the first time in Europe in the same issue. Yet Picasso exhibited Cubist works at the first Surrealist group exhibition in 1925; the concept of 'psychic automatism in its pure state' defined in the Manifeste du surréalisme never appealed to him entirely. He did at the time develop new imagery and formal syntax for expressing himself emotionally, "releasing the violence, the psychic fears and the eroticism that had been largely contained or sublimated since 1909", writes art historian Melissa McQuillan. Although this transition in Picasso's work was informed by Cubism for its spatial relations, "the fusion of ritual and abandon in the imagery recalls the primitivism of the Demoiselles and the elusive psychological resonances of his Symbolist work", writes McQuillan. Surrealism revived Picasso's attraction to primitivism and eroticism.File:Pablo Picasso, 1918, Pierrot, oil on canvas, 92.7 x 73 cm, Museum of Modern Art.jpg|Pablo Picasso, 1918, Pierrot, oil on canvas, 92.7 × 73 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New YorkFile:Pablo Picasso, 1919, Sleeping Peasants, gouache, watercolor and pencil on paper, 31.1 x 48.9 cm, Museum of Modern Art, New York.jpg|Pablo Picasso, 1919, Sleeping Peasants, gouache, watercolor and pencil on paper, 31.1 × 48.9 cm, Museum of Modern ArtFile:Pablo Picasso, 1917-18, Portrait d'Olga dans un fauteuil (Olga in an Armchair), oil on canvas, 130 x 88.8 cm, Musée Picasso, Paris, France.jpg|Portrait d'Olga dans un fauteuil (Olga in an Armchair), 1918, Musée Picasso, Paris, France

The Great Depression to MoMA exhibition: 1930–1939

During the 1930s, the minotaur replaced the harlequin as a common motif in his work. His use of the minotaur came partly from his contact with the surrealists, who often used it as their symbol, and it appears in Picasso's Guernica. The minotaur and Picasso's mistress Marie-Thérèse Walter are heavily featured in his celebrated Vollard Suite of etchings.File:PicassoGuernica.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|Guernica, 1937, Museo Reina SofiaMuseo Reina SofiaArguably Picasso's most famous work is his depiction of the German bombing of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War – Guernica. This large canvas embodies for many the inhumanity, brutality and hopelessness of war. Asked to explain its symbolism, Picasso said, "It isn't up to the painter to define the symbols. Otherwise it would be better if he wrote them out in so many words! The public who look at the picture must interpret the symbols as they understand them." Guernica was exhibited in July 1937 at the Spanish Pavilion at the Paris International Exposition, and then became the centerpiece of an exhibition of 118 works by Picasso, Matisse, Braque and Henri Laurens that toured Scandinavia and England. After the victory of Francisco Franco in Spain, the painting was sent to the United States to raise funds and support for Spanish refugees. Until 1981 it was entrusted to the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York City, as it was Picasso's expressed desire that the painting should not be delivered to Spain until liberty and democracy had been established in the country.In 1939 and 1940, the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, under its director Alfred Barr, a Picasso enthusiast, held a major retrospective of Picasso's principal works until that time. This exhibition lionized the artist, brought into full public view in America the scope of his artistry, and resulted in a reinterpretation of his work by contemporary art historians and scholars. According to Jonathan Weinberg, "Given the extraordinary quality of the show and Picasso's enormous prestige, generally heightened by the political impact of Guernica ... the critics were surprisingly ambivalent". Picasso's "multiplicity of styles" was disturbing to one journalist, another described the artist as "wayward and even malicious"; Alfred Frankenstein's review in ARTnews concluded that Picasso was both charlatan and genius.{{-}}

World War II and late 1940s: 1939–1949

File:Pablo Picasso in NMW.jpg|thumb|left|Stanisław Lorentz guides Pablo Picasso through the National Museum in WarsawNational Museum in WarsawDuring the Second World War, Picasso remained in Paris while the Germans occupied the city. Picasso's artistic style did not fit the Nazi ideal of art, so he did not exhibit during this time. He was often harassed by the Gestapo. During one search of his apartment, an officer saw a photograph of the painting Guernica. "Did you do that?" the German asked Picasso. "No," he replied, "You did".Retreating to his studio, he continued to paint, producing works such as the Still Life with Guitar (1942) and The Charnel House (1944–48). Although the Germans outlawed bronze casting in Paris, Picasso continued regardless, using bronze smuggled to him by the French Resistance.Around this time, Picasso wrote poetry as an alternative outlet. Between 1935 and 1959 he wrote over 300 poems. Largely untitled except for a date and sometimes the location of where it was written (for example "Paris 16 May 1936"), these works were gustatory, erotic and at times scatological, as were his two full-length plays Desire Caught by the Tail (1941) and The Four Little Girls (1949).In 1944, after the liberation of Paris, Picasso, then 63 years old, began a romantic relationship with a young art student named Françoise Gilot. She was 40 years younger than he was. Picasso grew tired of his mistress Dora Maar; Picasso and Gilot began to live together. Eventually they had two children: Claude Picasso, born in 1947 and Paloma Picasso, born in 1949. In her 1964 book Life with Picasso, Gilot describes his abusive treatment and myriad infidelities which led her to leave him, taking the children with her. This was a severe blow to Picasso.File:Paolo Monti - Servizio fotografico (Milano, 1953) - BEIC 6356204.jpg|thumb|upright|Pablo Picasso photographed in 1953 by Paolo Monti during an exhibition at Palazzo Reale in Milan (Fondo Paolo Monti, BEIC).]]Picasso had affairs with women of an even greater age disparity than his and Gilot's. While still involved with Gilot, in 1951 Picasso had a six-week affair with Geneviève Laporte, who was four years younger than Gilot. By his 70s, many paintings, ink drawings and prints have as their theme an old, grotesque dwarf as the doting lover of a beautiful young model. Jacqueline Roque (1927–1986) worked at the Madoura Pottery in Vallauris on the French Riviera, where Picasso made and painted ceramics. She became his lover, and then his second wife in 1961. The two were together for the remainder of Picasso's life.His marriage to Roque was also a means of revenge against Gilot; with Picasso's encouragement, Gilot had divorced her then husband, Luc Simon, with the plan to marry Picasso to secure the rights of her children as Picasso's legitimate heirs. Picasso had already secretly married Roque, after Gilot had filed for divorce. His strained relationship with Claude and Paloma was never healed.By this time, Picasso had constructed a huge Gothic home, and could afford large villas in the south of France, such as Mas Notre-Dame-de-Vie on the outskirts of Mougins, and in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. He was an international celebrity, with often as much interest in his personal life as his art.

Later works to final years: 1949–1973

File:2004-09-07 1800x2400 chicago picasso.jpg|thumb|upright|right|The Chicago Picasso, a 50-foot high public Cubist sculptureCubist sculpturePicasso was one of 250 sculptors who exhibited in the 3rd Sculpture International held at the Philadelphia Museum of Art in mid-1949. In the 1950s, Picasso's style changed once again, as he took to producing reinterpretations of the art of the great masters. He made a series of works based on Velázquez's painting of Las Meninas. He also based paintings on works by Goya, Poussin, Manet, Courbet and Delacroix.In addition to his artistic accomplishments, Picasso made a few film appearances, always as himself, including a cameo in Jean Cocteau's Testament of Orpheus (1960). In 1955, he helped make the film Le Mystère Picasso (The Mystery of Picasso) directed by Henri-Georges Clouzot.(File:Pablo picasso 1.jpg|thumb|left|alt=An elderly Pablo Picasso in a cloth cap, grinning at the camera|upright|Picasso in 1962)He was commissioned to make a maquette for a huge {{convert|50|ft|m|adj=on}}-high public sculpture to be built in Chicago, known usually as the Chicago Picasso. He approached the project with a great deal of enthusiasm, designing a sculpture which was ambiguous and somewhat controversial. What the figure represents is not known; it could be a bird, a horse, a woman or a totally abstract shape. The sculpture, one of the most recognizable landmarks in downtown Chicago, was unveiled in 1967. Picasso refused to be paid $100,000 for it, donating it to the people of the city.Picasso's final works were a mixture of styles, his means of expression in constant flux until the end of his life. Devoting his full energies to his work, Picasso became more daring, his works more colourful and expressive, and from 1968 to 1971 he produced a torrent of paintings and hundreds of copperplate etchings. At the time these works were dismissed by most as pornographic fantasies of an impotent old man or the slapdash works of an artist who was past his prime. Only later, after Picasso's death, when the rest of the art world had moved on from abstract expressionism, did the critical community come to see the late works of Picasso as prefiguring Neo-Expressionism.Pablo Picasso died on 8 April 1973 in Mougins, France from pulmonary edema and heart failure, while he and his wife Jacqueline entertained friends for dinner. He was interred at the Château of Vauvenargues near Aix-en-Provence, a property he had acquired in 1958 and occupied with Jacqueline between 1959 and 1962. Jacqueline Roque prevented his children Claude and Paloma from attending the funeral. Devastated and lonely after the death of Picasso, Jacqueline Roque killed herself by gunshot in 1986 when she was 59 years old.

Political views

File:Picasso Massacre in Korea.jpg|thumb|upright=1.25|Massacre in KoreaMassacre in KoreaPicasso remained aloof from the Catalan independence movement during his youth despite expressing general support and being friendly with activists within it. He did not join the armed forces for any side or country during World War I, the Spanish Civil War, and World War II. As a Spanish citizen living in France, Picasso was under no compulsion to fight against the invading Germans in either world war. However, in 1940, he did apply for French citizenship, but it was refused on the grounds of his "extremist ideas evolving towards communism". This information was not revealed until 2003.At the start of the Spanish Civil War in 1936, Picasso was 54 years of age. Soon after hostilities began, the Republicans appointed him "director of the Prado, albeit in absentia", and "he took his duties very seriously", according to John Richardson, supplying the funds to evacuate the museum's collection to Geneva. The war provided the impetus for Picasso's first overtly political work. He expressed anger and condemnation of Francisco Franco and fascists in The Dream and Lie of Franco (1937), which was produced "specifically for propagandistic and fundraising purposes". This surreal fusion of words and images was intended to be sold as a series of postcards to raise funds for the Spanish Republican cause.In 1944, Picasso joined the French Communist Party, attended the World Congress of Intellectuals in Defense of Peace in Poland, and in 1950 received the Stalin Peace Prize from the Soviet government. Party criticism in 1953 of his portrait of Stalin as insufficiently realistic cooled Picasso's interest in Soviet politics, though he remained a loyal member of the Communist Party until his death. His dealer, D-H. Kahnweiler, a socialist, termed Picasso's communism "sentimental" rather than political, saying "He has never read a line of Karl Marx, nor of Engels of course." In a 1945 interview with Jerome Seckler, Picasso stated: "I am a Communist and my painting is Communist painting. ... But if I were a shoemaker, Royalist or Communist or anything else, I would not necessarily hammer my shoes in a special way to show my politics." His commitment to communism, common among continental intellectuals and artists at the time, has long been the subject of some controversy; a notable demonstration thereof was a quote commonly attributed to Salvador Dalí (with whom Picasso had a rather strained relationship):
Picasso es pintor, yo también; [...] Picasso es español, yo también; Picasso es comunista, yo tampoco. (Picasso is a painter, so am I; [...] Picasso is a Spaniard, so am I; Picasso is a communist, neither am I.)
In the late 1940s, his old friend the surrealist poet and Trotskyist and anti-Stalinist André Breton was more blunt; refusing to shake hands with Picasso, he told him: "I don't approve of your joining the Communist Party nor with the stand you have taken concerning the purges of the intellectuals after the Liberation".Picasso was against the intervention of the United Nations and the United States in the Korean War and he depicted it in Massacre in Korea. The art critic Kirsten Hoving Keen says that it is "inspired by reports of American atrocities" and considers it one of Picasso's communist works.In 1962, he received the Lenin Peace Prize. Biographer and art critic John Berger felt his talents as an artist were "wasted" by the communists. According to Jean Cocteau's diaries, Picasso once said to him in reference to the communists: "I have joined a family, and like all families, it's full of shit".

Style and technique

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}}Picasso was exceptionally prolific throughout his long lifetime. The total number of artworks he produced has been estimated at 50,000, comprising 1,885 paintings; 1,228 sculptures; 2,880 ceramics, roughly 12,000 drawings, many thousands of prints, and numerous tapestries and rugs.The medium in which Picasso made his most important contribution was painting. In his paintings, Picasso used colour as an expressive element, but relied on drawing rather than subtleties of colour to create form and space. He sometimes added sand to his paint to vary its texture. A nanoprobe of Picasso's The Red Armchair (1931) by physicists at Argonne National Laboratory in 2012 confirmed art historians' belief that Picasso used common house paint in many of his paintings.Moskowitz, Clara (8 February 2013). "Picasso's Genius Revealed: He Used Common House Paint", Live Science. Retrieved 9 February 2013. Much of his painting was done at night by artificial light.Picasso's early sculptures were carved from wood or modelled in wax or clay, but from 1909 to 1928 Picasso abandoned modelling and instead made sculptural constructions using diverse materials. An example is Guitar (1912), a relief construction made of sheet metal and wire that Jane Fluegel terms a "three-dimensional planar counterpart of Cubist painting" that marks a "revolutionary departure from the traditional approaches, modeling and carving".File:Pablo Picasso, 1921, Nous autres musiciens (Three Musicians), oil on canvas, 204.5 x 188.3 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art.jpg|thumb|Pablo Picasso, 1921, Nous autres musiciens (Three Musicians), oil on canvas, 204.5 x 188.3 cm, Philadelphia Museum of ArtPhiladelphia Museum of ArtFrom the beginning of his career, Picasso displayed an interest in subject matter of every kind, and demonstrated a great stylistic versatility that enabled him to work in several styles at once. For example, his paintings of 1917 included the pointillist Woman with a Mantilla, the Cubist Figure in an Armchair, and the naturalistic Harlequin (all in the Museu Picasso, Barcelona). In 1919, he made a number of drawings from postcards and photographs that reflect his interest in the stylistic conventions and static character of posed photographs. In 1921 he simultaneously painted several large neoclassical paintings and two versions of the Cubist composition Three Musicians (Museum of Modern Art, New York; Philadelphia Museum of Art). In an interview published in 1923, Picasso said, "The several manners I have used in my art must not be considered as an evolution, or as steps towards an unknown ideal of painting ... If the subjects I have wanted to express have suggested different ways of expression I have never hesitated to adopt them."Although his Cubist works approach abstraction, Picasso never relinquished the objects of the real world as subject matter. Prominent in his Cubist paintings are forms easily recognized as guitars, violins, and bottles. When Picasso depicted complex narrative scenes it was usually in prints, drawings, and small-scale works; Guernica (1937) is one of his few large narrative paintings.Picasso painted mostly from imagination or memory. According to William Rubin, Picasso "could only make great art from subjects that truly involved him ... Unlike Matisse, Picasso had eschewed models virtually all his mature life, preferring to paint individuals whose lives had both impinged on, and had real significance for, his own." The art critic Arthur Danto said Picasso's work constitutes a "vast pictorial autobiography" that provides some basis for the popular conception that "Picasso invented a new style each time he fell in love with a new woman". The autobiographical nature of Picasso's art is reinforced by his habit of dating his works, often to the day. He explained: "I want to leave to posterity a documentation that will be as complete as possible. That's why I put a date on everything I do."

Artistic legacy

(File:Stamp P.JPG|thumb|upright|left|Postage stamp, USSR, 1973. Picasso has been honoured on stamps worldwide.)Picasso's influence was and remains immense and widely acknowledged by his admirers and detractors alike. On the occasion of his 1939 retrospective at MoMA, Life magazine wrote: "During the 25 years he has dominated modern European art, his enemies say he has been a corrupting influence. With equal violence, his friends say he is the greatest artist alive." In 1998, Robert Hughes wrote of him: "To say that Pablo Picasso dominated Western art in the 20th century is, by now, the merest commonplace. ... No painter or sculptor, not even Michelangelo, had been as famous as this in his own lifetime. ... Though Marcel Duchamp, that cunning old fox of conceptual irony, has certainly had more influence on nominally vanguard art over the past 30 years than Picasso, the Spaniard was the last great beneficiary of the belief that the language of painting and sculpture really mattered to people other than their devotees."File:HotelSale hinten.JPG|thumb|right|Musée PicassoMusée PicassoAt the time of Picasso's death many of his paintings were in his possession, as he had kept off the art market what he did not need to sell. In addition, Picasso had a considerable collection of the work of other famous artists, some his contemporaries, such as Henri Matisse, with whom he had exchanged works. Since Picasso left no will, his death duties (estate tax) to the French state were paid in the form of his works and others from his collection. These works form the core of the immense and representative collection of the Musée Picasso in Paris. In 2003, relatives of Picasso inaugurated a museum dedicated to him in his birthplace, Málaga, Spain, the Museo Picasso Málaga.File:Museu Picasso Barcelona.jpg|thumb|upright|Museu Picasso is located in the gothic palaces of Montcada street in BarcelonaBarcelonaThe Museu Picasso in Barcelona features many of his early works, created while he was living in Spain, including many rarely seen works which reveal his firm grounding in classical techniques. The museum also holds many precise and detailed figure studies done in his youth under his father's tutelage, as well as the extensive collection of Jaime Sabartés, his close friend and personal secretary.Guernica was on display in New York's Museum of Modern Art for many years. In 1981, it was returned to Spain and was on exhibit at the Casón del Buen Retiro of the Museo del Prado. In 1992, the painting was put on display in Madrid's Reina Sofía Museum when it opened.In the 1996 movie Surviving Picasso, Picasso is portrayed by actor Anthony Hopkins. Picasso is also a character in Steve Martin's 1993 play, Picasso at the Lapin Agile. In A Moveable Feast by Ernest Hemingway, Hemingway tells Gertrude Stein that he would like to have some Picassos, but cannot afford them. Later in the book, Hemingway mentions looking at one of Picasso's paintings. He refers to it as Picasso's nude of the girl with the basket of flowers, possibly related to Young Naked Girl with Flower Basket.File:Art Museum Pablo Picasso Münster Arkaden.jpg|thumb|right|Art Museum Pablo Picasso MünsterMünsterOn 8 October 2010, Picasso: Masterpieces from the Musée National Picasso, Paris, an exhibition of 150 paintings, sculptures, drawings, prints and photographs from the Musée National Picasso in Paris, opened at the Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, Washington, US. The exhibition subsequently travelled to Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, Virginia: the M.H. de Young Memorial Museum, San Francisco, California, US.; the Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; and the Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.{{As of|2015}}, Picasso remained the top-ranked artist (based on sales of his works at auctions) according to the Art Market Trends report. More of his paintings have been stolen than any other artist's; in 2012, the Art Loss Register had 1,147 of his works listed as stolen. The Picasso Administration functions as his official Estate. The US copyright representative for the Picasso Administration is the Artists Rights Society.Picasso is played by Antonio Banderas in the 2018 season of Genius, which focuses on his life and art.

Auction history

File:Garçon à la pipe.jpg|thumb|right|Pablo Picasso, 1905, Garçon à la pipe, (Boy with a Pipe), private collection, Rose PeriodRose PeriodSeveral paintings by Picasso rank among the most expensive paintings in the world. Garçon à la pipe sold for US$104 million at Sotheby's on 4 May 2004, establishing a new price record. Dora Maar au Chat sold for US$95.2 million at Sotheby's on 3 May 2006. On 4 May 2010, Nude, Green Leaves and Bust was sold at Christie's for $106.5 million. The 1932 work, which depicts Picasso's mistress Marie-Thérèse Walter reclining and as a bust, was in the personal collection of Los Angeles philanthropist Frances Lasker Brody, who died in November 2009. On 11 May 2015 his painting Women of Algiers set the record for the highest price ever paid for a painting when it sold for US$179.3 million at Christie's in New York.On 21 June 2016, a painting by Pablo Picasso titled Femme Assise (1909) sold for £43.2 million ($63.4 million) at Sotheby's London, exceeding the estimate by nearly $20 million, setting a world record for the highest price ever paid at auction for a Cubist work.On 17 May 2017, The Jerusalem Post in an article titled "Picasso Work Stolen By Nazis Sells for $45 Million at Auction" reported the sale of a portrait painted by Picasso, the 1939 Femme assise, robe bleu, which was previously misappropriated during the early years of WWII. The painting has changed hands several times since its recovery, most recently through auction in May 2017 at Christie's in New York City.In March 2018, his Femme au Béret et à la Robe Quadrillée (1937), a portrait of Marie-Thérèse Walter, sold for £49.8m at Sotheby's in London.

Personal life

Throughout his life Picasso maintained several mistresses in addition to his wife or primary partner. Picasso was married twice and had four children by three women: Photographer and painter Dora Maar was also a constant companion and lover of Picasso. The two were closest in the late 1930s and early 1940s, and it was Maar who documented the painting of Guernica.

Catalogue raisonné

Picasso entrusted Christian Zervos to constitute the catalogue raisonné of his work (painted and drawn). The first volume of the catalog, Works from 1895 to 1906, published in 1932, entailed the financial ruin of Zervos, self-publishing under the name Cahiers d'art, forcing him to sell part of his art collection at auction to avoid bankruptcy.From 1932 to 1978, Zervos constituted the catalogue raisonné of the complete works of Picasso in the company of the artist who had become one of his friends in 1924. Following the death of Zervos, Mila Gagarin supervised the publication of 11 additional volumes from 1970 to 1978.The 33 volumes cover the entire work from 1895 to 1972, with close to 16,000 black and white photographs, in accord with the will of the artist.
  • 1932: tome I, Å’uvres de 1895 à 1906. Introduction p. XI–[XXXXIX], 185 pages, 384 reproductions
  • 1942: tome II, vol.1, Å’uvres de 1906 à 1912. Introduction p. XI–[LV], 172 pages, 360 reproductions
  • 1944: tome II, vol.2, Å’uvres de 1912 à 1917. Introduction p. IX–[LXX–VIII], 233 p. pp. 173 to 406, 604 reproductions
  • 1949: tome III, Å’uvres de 1917 à 1919. Introduction p. IX–[XIII], 152 pages, 465 reproductions
  • 1951: tome IV, Å’uvres de 1920 à 1922. Introduction p. VII–[XIV], 192 pages, 455 reproductions
  • 1952: tome V, Å’uvres de 1923 à 1925. Introduction p. IX–[XIV], 188 pages, 466 reproductions
  • 1954: tome VI, Supplément aux tomes I à V. Sans introduction, 176 pages, 1481 reproductions
  • 1955: tome VII, Å’uvres de 1926 à 1932. Introduction p. V–[VII], 184 pages, 424 reproductions
  • 1978: Catalogue raisonné des Å“uvres de Pablo Picasso, Paris, éditions Cahiers d'art
Further publications by Zervos
  • Picasso. Å’uvres de 1920 à 1926, Cahiers d'art, Paris
  • Dessins de Picasso 1892–1948, Paris, éditions Cahiers d'art, 1949
  • Picasso. Dessins (1892–1948), Hazan, 199 reproductions, 1949

See also

{{wikipedia books|Key artists}}


NEWS, Adrian, Searle,weblink A momentous, tremendous exhibition, Guardian, UK, 7 May 2002, 13 February 2010, WEB,weblink Matisse and Picasso Paul Trachtman, Smithsonian, February 2003, WEB,weblink On-line Picasso Project, Antepasados y familiares de Picasso, Fundación Picasso, Museo Casa Natal, Ayuntamiento de MálagaENCYCLOPEDIA, Hamilton, George H., William D. Halsey, Collier's Encyclopedia, Picasso, Pablo Ruiz Y, 1976, Macmillan Educational Corporation, 19, New York, 25–26, BOOK, The Picasso Book, 2010, Tate Publishing, 978-1-85437-843-9, 124, Neil Cox, Unlike Matisse's chapel, the ruined Vallauris building had long since ceased to fulfill a religious function, so the atheist Picasso no doubt delighted in reinventing its use for the secular Communist cause of 'Peace'., Wertenbaker 1967, 9.Wertenbaker 1967, 11.WEB,weblink Picasso: Creator and Destroyer – 88.06,, 21 December 2009, Wertenbaker 1967, 13.Isabelle de Maison Rouge, Picasso, Le Cavalier Bleu, 2005, p. 50Marie-Laure Bernadac, Androula Michael, Picasso. Propos sur l'art, éditions Gallimard, 1998, p. 108, {{ISBN|978-2-07-074698-9}}Cirlot 1972, p. 6.Cirlot 1972, p. 14.Cirlot 1972, p. 37.Cirlot 1972, pp. 87–108.Cirlot 1972, p. 125.Cirlot 1972, p. 127.Wattenmaker, Distel, et al. 1993, p. 304.The Frugal Repast, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 11 March 2010.Wattenmaker, Distel, et al. 1993, p. 194.WEB,weblink Portrait of Gertrude Stein, Metropolitan Museum, 26 August 2010, PRESS RELEASE,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 26 May 2013, Special Exhibit Examines Dynamic Relationship Between the Art of Pablo Picasso and Writing, Yale University Art Gallery, PDF, BOOK,weblink James R. Mellow, Charmed Circle, Gertrude Stein and Company, WEB,weblink Cubism and its Legacy, Tate Liverpool, 26 August 2010, Rubin 1980, p. 87."Culture Shock", Retrieved 7 January 2017.{{Citation| last = Charney | first = Noah | author-link = | title = Pablo Picasso, art thief: the "affaire des statuettes" and its role in the foundation of modernist painting | journal = Arte, Individuo y Sociedad | volume = 26 (2) | pages = 187–197 | date = 23 January 2014 | url =weblink }}NEWS,weblink Art's Great Whodunit: The Mona Lisa Theft of 1911, Richard Lacayo, 7 April 2009, Time (magazine), TIME, Time Inc., 28 June 2013, John Richardson, A Life of Picasso: The Triumphant Years, 1917–1932, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, Dec 24, 2008, pp. 77–78, {{ISBN|0-307-49649-X}}Letter from Juan Gris to Maurice Raynal, 23 May 1917, Kahnweiler-Gris 1956, 18Paul Morand, 1996, 19 May 1917, p. 143–144Christopher Green, Cubism and its Enemies, Modern Movements and Reaction in French Art, 1916–1928, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1987, pp. 13–47Harrison, Charles; Frascina, Francis; Perry, Gillian (1993). BOOK,weblink Primitivism, Cubism, Abstraction, Google Books, 26 August 2010, WEB,weblink Melissa McQuillan, Primitivism and Cubism, 1906–15, War Years, From Grove Art Online, MoMA,, 1915-12-14, 2014-07-17, WEB,weblink Paul (Paolo) Picasso is born,, 3 February 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 April 2012, BOOK, Picasso: Between Cubism and Neoclassicism, 1915–1925, Berggruen, Olivier, Skira, 2018, 88-572-3693-5, Berggruen, Olivier, Milan, Stravinsky and Picasso: Elective Affinities, Cowling & Mundy 1990, p. 201.WEB,weblink Melissa McQuillan, Pablo Picasso, Interactions with Surrealism, 1925–35, from Grove Art Online, 2009 Oxford University Press, MoMA,, 1931-01-12, 2014-07-17, WEB,weblink Picasso, The Vollard Suite, British Museum, review, The Daily Telegraph, Richard Dorment, 19 May 2012, 8 May 2012, WEB,weblink Guernica Introduction,, 21 December 2009, The Spanish Wars of Goya and Picasso, Costa Tropical News {{webarchive|url= |date=9 May 2010 }}. Retrieved 4 June 2010.The MoMA retrospective of 1939–40 â€“ see Michael C. FitzGerald, Making Modernism: Picasso and the Creation of the Market for Twentieth-Century Art (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1995; Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), pp. 243–262.Weinberg, Jonathan (2001). Ambition & Love in Modern American Art. New Haven, CN: Yale University Press. p. 33. {{ISBN|0-300-08187-1}}BOOK, StanisÅ‚aw, Lorentz, Paris: capital of the arts, 1900–1968, 2002, Sarah Wilson, 429, Royal Academy of Arts, 0-900946-98-9, Regan, Geoffrey (1992). Military Anecdotes. Guinness Publishing. p. 25. {{ISBN|0-85112-519-0}}Kendall, L.R., Pablo Picasso (1881–1973): The Charnel House in Pieces... Occasional and Various April 2010Artnet, Fred Stern, Picasso and the War Year Retrieved 30 March 2011Rothenberg, Jerome. Pablo Picasso, The Burial of the Count of Orgaz & other poems. Exact Exchange Books, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2004, vii–xviiiPicasso the Playwright, Picasso's Little Recognised Contribution to the Performing Arts – with Images Retrieved April 2015Françoise Gilot and Carlton Lake, Life with Picasso, Random House. May 1989. {{ISBN|0-385-26186-1}}; first published in November 1964.NEWS,weblink Picasso's true passion, Daily Express, December 1, 2010, Pukas, Anna, Witham, Larry, and Pablo Picasso (2013). Picasso and the Chess Player: Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp and the Battle for the Soul of Modern Art. Hanover [u.a.]: Univ. Press of New England. p. 254. {{ISBN|978-1-61168-253-3}}.O'Brian, Patrick (1994). Pablo Ruiz Picasso: A Biography. New York: W.W. Norton. p. 472. {{ISBN|0-393-31107-4}}Filler, Martin (11 June 2009). "The Late Show". The New York Review of Books 56 (10): 28–29.Martin Filler says "the new constituency for late Picasso had much to do with new directions in avant-garde painting since his death, which made many people look quite differently at this startling final output." "The Late Show". The New York Review of Books 56 (10): 28–29.Zabel, William D (1996).The Rich Die Richer and You Can too. John Wiley and Sons, p. 1. {{ISBN|0-471-15532-2}}WEB, Kimmelman, Michael,weblink Picasso's Family Album,, New York Times, 28 April 1996, 26 August 2010, Philip Delves Broughton, "Picasso not the patriot he painted", The Sydney Morning Herald, 19 May 2003. Retrieved 18 April 2016Richardson, John (25 November 2010). "How Political Was Picasso?". The New York Review of Books, pp. 27–30.WEB, Picasso's commitment to the cause, PBS,weblink Treasures of the World, 1999, WEB, National Gallery of Victoria,weblink 2006, An Introduction to Guernica, 2 April 2013, MAGAZINE,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 25 July 2011, Picasso's Party Line, Eakin, Hugh, ARTnews, November 2000, 99, 10, dead, BOOK, Picasso on Art: A Selection of Views, 1988, Da Capo Press, 0-306-80330-5, 140, Ashton, Dore and Pablo Picasso, WEB,weblink Pablo Picasso desairó a Salvador Dalí, Failed attempts at correspondence between Dalí and Picasso, La República, Spanish, 14 April 2006, 14 February 2017, WEB,weblink Study on Salvador Dalí,, 7 May 2007, 26 August 2010, WEB,weblink Article on Dalí in 'El Mundo',,, 26 August 2010, {{Citation| last = Dannatt | first = Adrian| title = Picasso: Peace and Freedom. Tate Liverpool, 21 May – 30 August 2010 | publisher = Studio International |date=7 June 2010| url =weblink | accessdate= 14 February 2017}}Rivera, Breton and Trotsky Retrieved 9 August 2010BOOK, Picasso: Creator and Destroyer, 1988, Simon and Schuster, 978-0-7861-0642-4, 390, Huffington, Arianna S., David Hopkins, After modern art: 1945–2000 (Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 15. {{ISBN|0-19-284234-X|978-0-19-284234-3}}Picasso A Retrospective, Museum of Modern Art, edited by William Rubin, copyright MoMA 1980, p. 383Keen, Kirsten Hoving. "Picasso's Communist Interlude: The Murals of War and Peace". The Burlington Magazine, Vol. 122, No. 928, Special Issue Devoted to Twentieth Century Art, July, 1980. p. 464.WEB,weblink Pablo Ruiz Picasso (1881–1973) | Picasso gets Stalin Peace Prize | Event view,, 3 February 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 March 2012, BOOK, The Success and Failure of Picasso, 1965, Penguin Books, Ltd., 978-0-679-73725-4, 175, Berger, John, NEWS, Picasso nearly risked his reputation for Franco exhibition, Charlotte Higgins, The Guardian, UK, 28 May 2010,weblink Guardian News and Media, Antoni Gelonch-Viladegut, The most impacting Picasso's quotations, January 2011McQuillan, Melissa. "Picasso, Pablo." Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press, accessed February 1, 2014Rubin 1980, pp. 150–151.Cirlot 1972, p. 164.Cirlot 1972, pp. 158–159.Cowling & Mundy 1990, p. 208.Danto, Arthur (August 26/September 2, 1996). "Picasso and the Portrait". The Nation 263 (6): 31–35.Life 4 March 1940 "Picasso: Spanish Painter's Big Show Tours the Nation". Retrieved 12 January 2017.Hughes, Robert (8 June 1998). "The Artist Pablo Picasso". Time. Retrieved 12 January 2017.weblinkIMDBWEB,weblink Picasso: Masterpieces from the Musée National Picasso, Paris, deYoung Museum, 24 July 2011, WEB,weblink Art Gallery of New South Wales,, 2014-07-17, WEB,weblink The Art Market in 2015, Artprice and AMMA, PDF, 14 February 2017, S. Goodenough, 1500 Fascinating Facts, Treasure Press, London, 1987, p 241.NEWS, Art Loss Register Lists Most Stolen Artists,weblink ArtLyst, 28 January 2012, WEB,weblink Frequently Requested Member Artists, Artists Rights Society, March 2015, 14 February 2017, WEB,weblink Picasso portrait sells for $95.2 million, Today, Associated Press, 5 May 2006, NEWS, Vogel, Carol,weblink Christie's Wins Bid to Auction $150 Million Brody Collection,, 9 March 2010, 3 February 2012, WEB,weblink Picasso painting smashes art auction record in $179.4m sale, Adam Justice, International Business Times UK, WEB,weblink Early Picasso work sells for record $63.4M, 20 June 2016, Pablo Picasso, Femme Assise (1909), 43.269,000 GBP (Hammer Price with Buyer's Premium), Sotheby's London, 21 June 2016"Picasso Work Stolen By Nazis Sells for $45 Million at Auction", The Jerusalem Post, May 17, 2017. weblink.WEB,weblink 13 Picasso works bought for £113m by one London buyer, Rupert, Neate, 1 March 2018, the Guardian, 3 March 2018, Sale of the collection of Cahiers d'art at the Hôtel Drouot (Vente de la collection des Cahiers d'art à l'Hôtel Drouot), Wednesday 12 April 1933Javier Mañero Rodicio, Christian Zervos y Cahiers d’Art. La invención del arte contemporáneo, CU Felipe II, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 2009–10 (Spanish)À la découverte de Picasso, au travers des 16 000 Å“Å“uvres recensées dans le catalogue établi par Christian ZervosJulie L. Belcove, A Tome to Rival the Artist Himself, New York Times, 22 May 2013WEB,weblink Zervos Catalogue raisonné Pablo Picasso, une source, 17 June 2014, }}


  • BOOK, Becht-Jördens, Gereon, Wehmeier, Peter M., Picasso und die christliche Ikonographie: Mutterbeziehung und künstlerische Position,weblink 2003, Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin, 978-3-496-01272-6,
  • BOOK, Berger, John, John Berger, The Success and Failure of Picasso,weblink 1989, Pantheon Books, 978-0-679-72272-4,
  • BOOK, Cirlot, Juan Eduardo, Juan Eduardo Cirlot, Picasso, Birth of a Genius,weblink 1972, Praeger, New York and Washington,
  • BOOK, Cowling, Elizabeth, Mundy, Jennifer, On Classic Ground: Picasso, Léger, de Chirico and the New Classicism, 1910–1930,weblink 1990, Tate Gallery, London, 978-1-85437-043-3,
  • BOOK, Daix, Pierre, Pierre Daix, Picasso: Life and Art,weblink 1994, Icon Editions, 978-0-06-430201-2,
  • BOOK, FitzGerald, Michael C., Michael C. FitzGerald, Making Modernism: Picasso and the Creation of the Market for Twentieth-century Art,weblink 1996, University of California Press, Berkeley, 978-0-520-20653-3,
  • Gether, Christian, ed. (2019). Beloved by Picasso: The Power of the Model. ARKEN Museum of Modern Art. 978-87-78751-34-8.
  • BOOK, Granell, Eugenio Fernández, Eugenio Granell, Picasso's Guernica: The End of a Spanish Era,weblink 1981, UMI Research Press, Ann Arbor, Mich., 978-0-8357-1206-4,
  • BOOK, Krauss, Rosalind E., Rosalind E. Krauss, The Picasso Papers,weblink 1999, MIT Press, 978-0-262-61142-8,
  • BOOK, Mallén, Enrique, The Visual Grammar of Pablo Picasso,weblink 2003, Peter Lang, New York, 978-0-8204-5692-8,
  • BOOK, Mallén, Enrique, La sintaxis de la carne: Pablo Picasso y Marie-Thérèse Walter,weblink 2005, Red Internacional del Libro, Santiago de Chile, 978-956-284-455-0,
  • BOOK, Mallén, Enrique, A Concordance of Pablo Picasso's Spanish Writings,weblink 2009, Edwin Mellen Press, New York, 978-0-7734-4713-4,
  • BOOK, Mallén, Enrique, A Concordance of Pablo Picasso's French Writings,weblink 8 October 2010, 2010, Edwin Mellen Press, New York, 978-0-7734-1325-2,
  • Nill, Raymond M (1987). A Visual Guide to Pablo Picasso's Works. New York: B&H Publishers.
  • BOOK, Picasso, Olivier Widmaier, Picasso: The Real Family Story,weblink 2004, Prestel, 978-3-7913-3149-2,
  • BOOK, Rubin, William, Pablo Picasso: A Retrospective,weblink 1981, Little Brown & Co, 978-0-316-70703-9,
  • BOOK, Wattenmaker, Richard J., Great French Paintings from the Barnes Foundation: Impressionist, Post-impressionist, and Early Modern,weblink 1993, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 978-0-679-40963-2,
  • BOOK, Wertenbaker, Lael Tucker, The World of Picasso (1881– ),weblink 1967, Time-Life Books,

Further reading

  • Alexandra Schwartz, "Painted Love: The artist Françoise Gilot was Picasso's lover, helpmate, and muse. Then she wanted more", The New Yorker, 22 July 2019, pages 62–66. "[L]ives were trampled. Picasso died, at the age of ninety-one, in 1973. In 1977, Marie-Thérèse Walter hanged herself; eight years later, Jacqueline Roque, Gilot's successor and Picasso's second wife, shot herself in the head. Paulo, his son with Olga [Khokhlova], drank himself to death, in 1975, and Paulo's son, Pablito, killed himself by swallowing bleach when he was barred from attending his grandfather's funeral." (p. 66.)

External links

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