Hindu philosophy

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Hindu philosophy
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{{EngvarB|date=March 2015}} {{Use dmy dates|date=March 2013}}{{Hindu philosophy}}Hindu philosophy refers to a group of darśanas (philosophies, world views, teachings)Soken Sanskrit, darzana that emerged in ancient India. These include six systems (ṣaḍdarśana) – Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa and Vedanta.Andrew Nicholson (2013), Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History, Columbia University Press, {{ISBN|978-0231149877}}, pages 2-5 These are also called the Astika (orthodox) philosophical traditions and are those that accept the Vedas as authoritative, important source of knowledge.{{refn|group=note|M Chadha (2015), in The Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy of Religion, states that Vedas were knowledge source but interpreted differently by different schools of Hindu philosophy: "The sacred texts of the Hindus, the Vedas, are variously interpreted by the six traditional Hindu philosophical schools. Even within a single school, philosophers disagree on the import of Vedic statements. (...) Hindu intellectual traditions must be understood as standing for the collection of philosophical views that share a textual connection. There is no single, comprehensive philosophical doctrine shared by all intellectual traditions in Hinduism that distinguishes their view from other Indian religions such as Buddhism or Jainism on issues of epistemology, metaphysics, logic, ethics or cosmology. The Vedas are regarded as Apauruseya, but by the same token, they are not the Word of God either.M Chadha (2015), The Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy of Religion (Editor: Graham Oppy), Routledge, {{ISBN|978-1844658312}}, pages 127-128}}{{refn|group=note|Elisa Freschi (2012): The Vedas are not deontic authorities in absolute sense and may be disobeyed, but are recognized as an epistemic authority by an orthodox school of Hindu philosophy;Elisa Freschi (2012), Duty, Language and Exegesis in Prabhakara Mimamsa, BRILL, {{ISBN|978-9004222601}}, page 62 (Note: This differentiation between epistemic and deontic authority is true for all Indian religions)}} Ancient and medieval India was also the source of philosophies that share philosophical concepts but rejected the Vedas, and these have been called nāstika (heterodox or non-orthodox) Indian philosophies. Nāstika Indian philosophies include Buddhism, Jainism, Cārvāka, Ājīvika, and others.P Bilimoria (2000), Indian Philosophy (Editor: Roy Perrett), Routledge, {{ISBN|978-1135703226}}, page 88Scholars have debated the relationship and differences within āstika philosophies and with nāstika philosophies, starting with the writings of Indologists and Orientalists of the 18th and 19th centuries, which were themselves derived from limited availability of Indian literature and medieval doxographies. The various sibling traditions included in Hindu philosophies are diverse, and they are united by shared history and concepts, same textual resources, similar ontological and soteriological focus, and cosmology.BOOK, Frazier, Jessica, The Continuum companion to Hindu studies, 2011, Continuum, London, 978-0-8264-9966-0, 1–15, Carl Olson (2007), The Many Colors of Hinduism: A Thematic-historical Introduction, Rutgers University Press, {{ISBN|978-0813540689}}, pages 101-119 While Buddhism and Jainism are considered distinct philosophies and religions, some heterodox traditions such as Cārvāka are often considered as distinct schools within Hindu philosophy.R Thomas (2014), Hindu Perspectives on Evolution: Darwin, Dharma, and Design. Sociology of Religion, Vol. 75, No. 1, pages 164-165, Quote: "some of the ancient Hindu traditions like Carvaka have a rich tradition of materialism, in general, other schools..."KN Tiwari (1998), Classical Indian Ethical Thought, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120816077}}, page 67; Quote: "Of the three heterodox systems, the remaining one, the Cārvāka system, is a Hindu system.";V.V. Raman (2012), Hinduism and Science: Some Reflections, Zygon - Journal of Religion and Science, 47(3): 549–574, Quote (page 557): "Aside from nontheistic schools like the Samkhya, there have also been explicitly atheistic schools in the Hindu tradition. One virulently anti-supernatural system is/was the so-called Carvaka school.", {{doi|10.1111/j.1467-9744.2012.01274.x}}Bill Cooke (2005), Dictionary of Atheism, Skepticism, and Humanism, {{ISBN|978-1591022992}}, page 84;For a general discussion of Cārvāka and other atheistic traditions within Hindu philosophy, see Jessica Frazier (2014), Hinduism in The Oxford Handbook of Atheism (Editors: Stephen Bullivant, Michael Ruse), Oxford University Press, {{ISBN|978-0199644650}}, pages 367-378Hindu philosophy also includes several sub-schools of theistic philosophies that integrate ideas from two or more of the six orthodox philosophies, such as the realism of the Nyāya, the naturalism of the Vaiśeṣika, the dualism of the Sāṅkhya, the monism and knowledge of Self as essential to liberation of Advaita, the self-discipline of yoga and the asceticism and elements of theistic ideas.Klaus K. Klostermaier (1984), Mythologies and Philosophies of Salvation in the Theistic Traditions of India, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, {{ISBN|978-0889201583}}, pages 124-134, 164-173, 242-265{{sfn|Flood|1996|pp=132-136, 162-169, 231-232}}Teun Goudriaan and Sanjukta Gupta (1981), Hindu Tantric and Śākta Literature, A History of Indian Literature, Volume 2, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, {{ISBN|978-3447020916}}, pages 7-14 Examples of such schools include Pāśupata Śaiva, Śaiva siddhānta, Pratyabhijña, Raseśvara and Vaiṣṇava.{{sfn|Flood|1996|pp=132-136, 162-169, 231-232}} Some sub-schools share Tantric ideas with those found in some Buddhist traditions.Klaus K. Klostermaier (1984), Mythologies and Philosophies of Salvation in the Theistic Traditions of India, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, {{ISBN|978-0889201583}}, pages 219-223 The ideas of these sub-schools are found in the Puranas and Āgamas.Klaus K. Klostermaier (1984), Mythologies and Philosophies of Salvation in the Theistic Traditions of India, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, {{ISBN|978-0889201583}}, pages 28-35Jayandra Soni (1990), Philosophical Anthropology in Śaiva Siddhānta, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, {{ISBN|978-8120806320}}, pages vii-xiiHilko Schomerus and Humphrey Palme (2000), Śaiva Siddhānta: An Indian School of Mystical Thought, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, {{ISBN|978-8120815698}}, pages 13-19Each school of Hindu philosophy has extensive epistemological literature called pramāṇaśāstras,{{sfn|Potter|1991|p=172}}{{sfn|Guttorm Fløistad|1993|p=137-154}} as well as theories on metaphysics, axiology, and other topics.Karl H. Potter (1961), A Fresh Classification of India's Philosophical Systems, The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 21, No. 1, pages 25-32


{{further|Āstika and nāstika}}In the history of Hinduism, the six orthodox schools had emerged before the start of the Common Era.Students' Britannica India (2000), Volume 4, Encyclopædia Britannica, {{ISBN|978-0852297605}}, page 316 Some scholars have questioned whether the orthodox and heterodox schools classification is sufficient or accurate, given the diversity and evolution of views within each major school of Hindu philosophy, with some sub-schools combining heterodox and orthodox views.{{sfn|Potter|1991|p=98-102}}Since ancient times Indian philosophy has been categorized into āstika and nāstika schools of thought.{{sfn|Nicholson|2010}} The orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy have been called ṣaḍdarśana ("six systems"). This schema was created between the 12th and 16th centuries by Vedantins.BOOK, Nicholson, Andrew J., Unifying Hinduism: philosophy and identity in Indian intellectual history, 2014, Columbia University Press, New York,weblink 9780231149877, {{rp|2–3}} It was then adopted by the early Western Indologists, and pervades modern understandings of Hindu philosophy.{{rp|4–5}}


There are six āstika (orthodox) schools of thought.{{refn|group=note|For an overview of the six orthodox schools, with detail on the grouping of schools, see: Radhakrishnan and Moore, "Contents", and pp. 453–487.}} Each is called a darśana, and each darśana accepts the Vedas as authoritative and the premise that ātman (soul, eternal self) exists.Klaus Klostermaier (2007), Hinduism: A Beginner's Guide, {{ISBN|978-1851685387}}, Chapter 2, page 26John Plott, James Dolin and Russell Hatton (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120801585}}, pages 60-62 The {{IAST|āstika}} schools are:
  1. Samkhya, an atheistic and strongly dualist theoretical exposition of consciousness and matter.
  2. Yoga, a school emphasising meditation, contemplation and liberation.
  3. Nyāya or logic, which explores sources of knowledge. Nyāya Sūtras.
  4. Vaiśeṣika, an empiricist school of atomism.
  5. Mīmāṃsā, an anti-ascetic and anti-mysticist school of orthopraxy.
  6. Vedānta, the last segment of knowledge in the Vedas, or jñānakāṇḍa. Vedānta came to be the dominant current of Hinduism in the post-medieval period.


{{see also|Buddhist philosophy|Jain philosophy}}Schools that do not accept the authority of the Vedas are nāstika philosophies, of which four {{IAST|nāstika}} (heterodox) schools are prominent:
  1. Cārvāka, a materialism school that accepted the existence of free will.
  2. Ājīvika, a materialism school that denied the existence of free will.James Lochtefeld, "Ajivika", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing. {{ISBN|978-0823931798}}, page 22AL Basham (2009), History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas - a Vanished Indian Religion, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120812048}}, Chapter 1
  3. Buddhism, a philosophy that denies existence of ātman (soul, self)Steven Collins (1994), Religion and Practical Reason (Editors: Frank Reynolds, David Tracy), State Univ of New York Press, {{ISBN|978-0791422175}}, page 64; Quote: "Central to Buddhist soteriology is the doctrine of not-self (Pali: anattā, Sanskrit: anātman, the opposed doctrine of ātman is central to Brahmanical thought). Put very briefly, this is the [Buddhist] doctrine that human beings have no soul, no self, no unchanging essence.";John C. Plott et al (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120801585}}, page 63, Quote: "The Buddhist schools reject any Ātman concept. As we have already observed, this is the basic and ineradicable distinction between Hinduism and Buddhism"KN Jayatilleke (2010), Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, {{ISBN|978-8120806191}}, pages 246–249, from note 385 onwards;Katie Javanaud (2013), Is The Buddhist 'No-Self' Doctrine Compatible With Pursuing Nirvana?, Philosophy Now (2013, Subscription Required); and is based on the teachings and enlightenment of Gautama Buddha.
  4. Jainism, a philosophy that accepts the existence of the ātman (soul, self), and is based on the teachings and enlightenment of twenty-four teachers known as tirthankaras, with Rishabha as the first and Mahavira as the twenty-fourth.Paul Dundas (2002), The Jains, 2nd Edition, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0415266055}}, pages 1-19, 40-44

Other schools

Besides the major orthodox and non-orthodox schools, there have existed syncretic sub-schools that have combined ideas and introduced new ones of their own. The medieval scholar Madhva Acharya (CE 1238–1317) includes the following, along with BuddhismCowell and Gough (1882, Translators), The Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha or Review of the Different Systems of Hindu Philosophy by Madhva Acharya, Trubner's Oriental Series, pages 12-35 and Jainism,Cowell and Gough (1882, Translators), The Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha or Review of the Different Systems of Hindu Philosophy by Madhva Acharya, Trubner's Oriental Series, pages 36-63 as sub-schools of Hindu philosophy: The above sub-schools introduced their own ideas while adopting concepts from orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy such as realism of the Nyāya, naturalism of Vaiśeṣika, monism and knowledge of Self (Atman) as essential to liberation of Advaita, self-discipline of Yoga, asceticism and elements of theistic ideas. Some sub-schools share Tantric ideas with those found in some Buddhist traditions.">

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! style="width:12em" | School! Samkhya! Yoga! Nyāya! Vaiśeṣika! Mīmāṃsā! AdvaitaAdvaita, Vishishtadvaita and Dvaita have evolved from an older Vedanta school and all of them accept Upanishads and Brahma Sutras as standard texts.! Vishishtadvaita! Dvaita! Achintya Bheda Abheda! Pashupata! Shaiva Siddhanta! Kashmir Shaivism! Raseśvara! PāṇiniDarśana! Akshar-Purushottam Darśana
! {{rh}} | Classification
rationalism,Mike Burley (2012), Classical Samkhya and Yoga - An Indian Metaphysics of Experience, Routledge, {{ISBN>978-0415648875}}, pages 43-46Tom Flynn and Richard Dawkins (2007), The New Encyclopedia of Unbelief, Prometheus, {{ISBNDualism (Indian philosophy)>dualism, atheismDualism (Indian philosophy)>dualism, spiritual practicePhilosophical realism>realism,Nyaya Realism, in Perceptual Experience and Concepts in Classical Indian Philosophy, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2015) logic, analytic philosophynaturalism (philosophy)>naturalism,Dale Riepe (1996), Naturalistic Tradition in Indian Thought, {{ISBN|978-8120812932}}, pages 227-246 atomism| exegesis, philology, ritualism| monism, non-dualism| qualified monism, panentheismDualism (Indian philosophy)>dualism, theologymonism and Dualism (Indian philosophy)>dualism| theism, spiritual practice| Monotheism| theistic monism, idealism| alchemy| linguistics, philosophy of language| qualified monism, panentheism
! {{rh}} | Philosophers
Kapila, Iśvarakṛṣṇa, Vācaspati Miśra, Guṇaratna Samkhya#Literature>more..| Patañjali, Yajnavalkya, VyasaVyasa wrote a commentary on the Yoga Sutras called Samkhyapravacanabhasya.(Radhankrishnan, Indian Philosophy, London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1971 edition, Volume II, p. 344.)Aksapada Gautama, Vātsyāyana, Udayana, Jayanta Bhatta Nyaya#Literature of Nyaya>more..Kanada (philosopher)>Kanada, Praśastapāda, Śridhara's Nyāyakandalī more..Jaimini, Kumārila Bhaṭṭa, Prabhākara Mimamsa#Mimamsa texts>more..Gaudapada, Adi Shankara, Madhusudana Saraswati, Vidyaranya List of teachers of Advaita Vedanta>more..Yamunacharya, Ramanuja Vishishtadvaita#Philosophers>more..| Madhvacharya, Jayatirtha, Vyasatirtha, Raghavendra SwamiChaitanya Mahaprabhu, Six Goswamis of Vrindavana, Visvanatha Chakravarti, Krishnadasa Kaviraja, Baladeva Vidyabhushana, Rupa Goswami, Gaudiya Vaishnavism>more..| Haradattacharya, Lakulish| Tirumular, Meikandadevar, Appayya Dikshita, Sadyojyoti, Aghorasiva| Vasugupta, Abhinavagupta, Jayaratha| Govinda Bhagavat, Sarvajña Rāmeśvara| Pāṇini, Bhartṛhari, Kātyāyana| Bhagwan Swaminarayan, Shastriji Maharaj, Bhadreshdas Swami
! {{rh}} | Texts
Samkhyapravachana Sutra, Samkhyakarika, Sāṁkhya tattvakaumudī Samkhya#Literature>more..Yoga Sutras of Patanjali>Yoga Sutras, Yoga Yajnavalkya, Samkhya pravacana bhasyaNyāya Sūtras, Nyāya Bhāṣya, Nyāya Vārttika Nyaya#Literature of Nyaya>more..Vaiśeṣika Sūtra, Padārtha dharma saṁgraha, Daśapadārtha śāstra Vaiseshika#Literature of Vaisheshika>more..Purva Mimamsa Sutras, Mimamsasutra bhāshyam Mimamsa#Mimamsa texts>more..Brahma Sutras, Prasthanatrayi, Avadhuta Gita, Ashtavakra Gita, Vidyaranya#Pañcadaśī>Pañcadaśī more..| Siddhitrayam, Sri Bhasya, Vedartha Sangraha| AnuVyakhana, Brahma Sutra Bahshya, Sarva Shāstrārtha Sangraha, Tattva prakashika, Nyaya Sudha, Nyayamruta, Tarka Tandava, DwaitaDyumani| Bhagavata Purana, Bhagavad Gita, Sat Sandarbhas, Govinda Bhashya, Chaitanya Charitamrita,| Gaṇakārikā, Pañchārtha bhāshyadipikā, Rāśikara bhāshyaĀgama (Hinduism)>Sivagamas, Tirumurais, Meikanda Sastras| Shiva Sutras of Vasugupta, Tantraloka| Rasārṇava, Rasahṛidaya, Raseśvara siddhānta| Vākyapadīya, Mahabhashya, VārttikakāraBhadreshdas Swami#Swaminarayan Bhashyam>Swaminarayan Bhashyam, Swaminarayan-Siddhanta-Sudha
! {{rh}} | Concepts Originated| Purusha, Prakṛti, Guṇa, Satkāryavāda
Yamas>Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dhāraṇā, Dhyana, SamadhiAnumana>Anumāna, Upamāna, Anyathakyati vada, Niḥśreyasa more..| Padārtha, Dravya, Sāmānya, Viśeṣa, Samavāya, Paramāṇu| Apauruṣeyātva, Arthāpatti, Anuapalabdhi, Satahprāmāṇya vādaJivanmukta, Mahāvākyas, Advaita Vedanta#Sādhana Chatuṣṭaya>Sādhana Chatuṣṭaya, three orders of reality, VivartavadaVishishtadvaita#Antarvyāpi>Antarvyāpi, Vishishtadvaita#Bahuvyāpi Vishishtadvaita#Brahman>more..| Prapacha, Mukti-yogyas, Nitya-samsarins, Tamo-yogyas| Sambandha, Abhidheya, Prayojana (Relationship, Process, Ultimate Goal)Pashupati, Pashupata Shaivism#Overview>eight pentads| Charya, Mantramārga, Rodha ŚaktiKashmir Shaivism#Anuttara, the Supreme>Anuttara, Aham, SvatantryaMercury (element)>mercurySphoṭa, Pāṇini#Ashtadhyayi>Ashtadhyayi| Akshar Purushottam Upasana



Epistemology is called pramāṇa.{{sfn|Lochtefeld|2002|p=520-521}} It has been a key, much debated field of study in Hinduism since ancient times. Pramāṇa is a Hindu theory of knowledge and discusses means by which human beings gain accurate knowledge.{{sfn|Lochtefeld|2002|p=520-521}} The focus of pramāṇa is how correct knowledge can be acquired, how one knows, how one doesn't, and to what extent knowledge pertinent about someone or something can be acquired.{{sfn|Potter|1991|p=172}}Ancient and medieval Hindu texts identify six pramāṇas as correct means of accurate knowledge and truths: pratyakṣa (perception), anumāṇa (inference), upamāṇa (comparison and analogy), arthāpatti (postulation, derivation from circumstances), anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof) and śabda (word, testimony of past or present reliable experts){{sfn|Flood|1996|p=225}} Each of these are further categorized in terms of conditionality, completeness, confidence and possibility of error, by the different schools. The schools vary on how many of these six are valid paths of knowledge.{{sfn|Guttorm Fløistad|1993|p=137-154}} For example, the Cārvāka nāstika philosophy holds that only one (perception) is an epistemically reliable means of knowledge,{{sfn|Grimes|1989|p=238}} the Samkhya school holds that three are (perception, inference and testimony),{{sfn|Grimes|1989|p=238}} while the Mīmāṃsā and Advaita schools hold that all six are epistemically useful and reliable means to knowledge.{{sfn|Grimes|1989|p=238}}{{sfn|Perrett|2000|pp=245-248}}


Samkhya is the oldest of the orthodox philosophical systems in Hinduism,{{sfn|Flood|1996|pp=232}} with origins in the 1st millennium BCE.Sharma, C. (1997). A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|81-208-0365-5}}, p.149 It is a rationalist school of Indian philosophy, and had a strong influence on other schools of Indian philosophies.Roy Perrett, Indian Ethics: Classical traditions and contemporary challenges, Volume 1 (Editor: P Bilimoria et al), Ashgate, {{ISBN|978-0754633013}}, pages 149-158 Sāmkhya is an enumerationist philosophy whose epistemology accepted three of six pramāṇas as the only reliable means of gaining knowledge. These were pratyakṣa (perception), anumāṇa (inference) and sabda (Āptavacana, word/testimony of reliable sources).Eliott Deutsche (2000), in Philosophy of Religion : Indian Philosophy Vol 4 (Editor: Roy Perrett), Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0815336112}}, pages 245-248{{sfn|Grimes|1989|p=238}}Samkhya school espouses dualism between consciousness and matter.{{citation |last = Michaels |first = Axel |title = Hinduism: Past and Present |year = 2004 |publisher = Princeton University Press |page=264 |isbn = 0-691-08953-1 }} It regards the universe as consisting of two realities: Puruṣa (consciousness) and prakriti (matter). Jiva (a living being) is that state in which puruṣa is bonded to prakriti in some form. This fusion, state the Samkhya scholars, led to the emergence of buddhi (awareness, intellect) and ahankara (individualized ego consciousness, “I-maker”). The universe is described by this school as one created by Purusa-Prakriti entities infused with various permutations and combinations of variously enumerated elements, senses, feelings, activity and mind.Samkhya - Hinduism Encyclopædia Britannica (2014)Samkhya philosophy includes a theory of gunas (qualities, innate tendencies, psyche).Gerald James Larson (2011), Classical Sāṃkhya: An Interpretation of Its History and Meaning, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120805033}}, pages 154-206 Guna, it states, are of three types: Sattva being good, compassionate, illuminating, positive, and constructive; Rajas guna is one of activity, chaotic, passion, impulsive, potentially good or bad; and Tamas being the quality of darkness, ignorance, destructive, lethargic, negative. Everything, all life forms and human beings, state Samkhya scholars, have these three gunas, but in different proportions.James G. Lochtefeld, Guna, in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M, Vol. 1, Rosen Publishing, {{ISBN|9780823931798}}, page 265 The interplay of these gunas defines the character of someone or something, of nature and determines the progress of life.T Bernard (1999), Hindu Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-81-208-1373-1}}, pages 74–76Haney, William S., Culture and Consciousness: Literature Regained, Bucknell University Press (1 August 2002). P. 42. {{ISBN|1611481724}}. Samkhya theorises a pluralism of souls (Jeevatmas) who possess consciousness, but denies the existence of Ishvara (God).BOOK, Dasgupta, Surendranath, A history of Indian philosophy, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1992, 258,weblink 978-81-208-0412-8, Classical Samkhya is considered an atheist or non-theistic Hindu philosophy.Mike Burley (2012), Classical Samkhya and Yoga - An Indian Metaphysics of Experience, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0415648875}}, page 39Lloyd Pflueger (2008), Person Purity and Power in Yogasutra, in Theory and Practice of Yoga (Editor: Knut Jacobsen), Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120832329}}, pages 38-39John C. Plott et al (1984), Global History of Philosophy: The period of scholasticism, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-0895816788}}, page 367The Samkhya karika, one of the key texts of this school of Hindu philosophy, opens by stating its goal to be "threeadhyatmika, adhibhautika and adhidaivika - that is, suffering caused internally by self, cause by other human beings, caused by acts of nature kinds of human suffering" and means to prevent them.Samkhya karika by Iswara Krishna, Henry Colebrooke (Translator), Oxford University Press The text then presents a distillation of its theories on epistemology, metaphysics, axiology and soteriology. For example, it states,The soteriology in Samkhya aims at the realization of Puruṣa as distinct from Prakriti; this knowledge of the Self is held to end transmigration and lead to absolute freedom (kaivalya).Larson, Gerald James. Classical Sāṃkhya: An Interpretation of Its History and Meaning. Motilal Banarasidass, 1998. P. 13. {{ISBN|81-208-0503-8}}.


In Indian philosophy, Yoga is, among other things, the name of one of the six āstika philosophical schools.For a brief overview of the Yoga school of philosophy see: Chatterjee and Datta, p. 43. The Yoga philosophical system aligns closely with the dualist premises of the Samkhya school.Edwin Bryant (2011, Rutgers University), The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali IEPChatterjee and Datta, p. 43. The Yoga school accepts Samkhya psychology and metaphysics, but is considered theistic because it accepts the concept of personal god (Ishvara), unlike Samkhya.BOOK, Radhakrishnan, S., Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Moore, CA, A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy, 1967, Princeton, 0-691-01958-4, 453, Müller (1899), Chapter 7, "Yoga Philosophy", p. 104.BOOK, Zimmer, Heinrich, Heinrich Zimmer, Philosophies of India, 1951, Princeton University Press, New York City, 0-691-01758-1, Bollingen Series XXVI; Edited by Joseph Campbell, page 280 The epistemology of the Yoga school, like the Sāmkhya school, relies on three of six prāmaṇas as the means of gaining reliable knowledge:{{sfn|Grimes|1989|p=238}} pratyakṣa (perception), anumāṇa (inference) and śabda (āptavacana, word/testimony of reliable sources).{{sfn|Perrett|2000|pp=245-248}}{{sfn|Grimes|1989|p=238}}The universe is conceptualized as a duality in Yoga school: puruṣa (consciousness) and prakṛti (matter); however, the Yoga school discusses this concept more generically as "seer, experiencer" and "seen, experienced" than the Samkhya school.Mike Burley (2012), Classical Samkhya and Yoga - An Indian Metaphysics of Experience, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0415648875}}, pages x-xi, 101-107, 142 and Introduction chapterA key text of the Yoga school is the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Patanjali may have been, as Max Müller explains, "the author or representative of the Yoga-philosophy without being necessarily the author of the Sutras."Max Müeller, The six systems of Indian philosophy, Longmans, page 410 Hindu philosophy recognizes many types of Yoga, such as rāja yoga, jñāna yoga,The Encyclopedia of Yoga and Tantra by Georg Feuerstein karma yoga, bhakti yoga, tantra yoga, mantra yoga, laya yoga, and hatha yoga.The Encyclopedia of Yoga and Tantra, Georg FeuersteinThe Yoga school builds on the Samkhya school theory that jñāna (knowledge) is a sufficient means to moksha. It suggests that systematic techniques/practice (personal experimentation) combined with Samkhya's approach to knowledge is the path to moksha. Yoga shares several central ideas with Advaita Vedanta, with the difference that Yoga is a form of experimental mysticism while Advaita Vedanta is a form of monistic personalism.BOOK, Stephen H., Phillips, Classical Indian Metaphysics: Refutations of Realism and the Emergence of "New Logic", Open Court Publishing, 1995, 12–13, Personalism Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2013)Northrop Frye (2006), Educated Imagination and Other Writings on Critical Theory, 1933-1962, University of Toronto Press, {{ISBN|978-0802092090}}, page 291 Like Advaita Vedanta, the Yoga school of Hindu philosophy holds that liberation/freedom in this life is achievable, and that this occurs when an individual fully understands and realizes the equivalence of Atman (soul, self) and Brahman.Mike McNamee and William J. Morgan (2015), Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0415829809}}, pages 135-136, Quote: "As a dualistic philosophy largely congruent with Samkhya's metaphysics, Yoga seeks liberation through the realization that Atman equals Brahman; it involves a cosmogonic dualism: purusha an absolute consciousness, and prakriti original and primeval matter."Mike Burley (2012), Classical Samkhya and Yoga - An Indian Metaphysics of Experience, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0415648875}}, pages 141-142


The Vaiśeṣika philosophy is a naturalist school. It is a form of atomism in natural philosophy.Analytical philosophy in early modern India J Ganeri, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy It postulates that all objects in the physical universe are reducible to paramāṇu (atoms), and that one's experiences are derived from the interplay of substance (a function of atoms, their number and their spatial arrangements), quality, activity, commonness, particularity and inherence. Knowledge and liberation are achievable by complete understanding of the world of experience, according to Vaiśeṣika school. The Vaiśeṣika darśana is credited to Kaṇāda Kaśyapa from the second half of the first millennium BCE.Oliver Leaman, Key Concepts in Eastern Philosophy. Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0415173629}}, 1999, page 269.Michael Brannigan (2009), Striking a Balance: A Primer in Traditional Asian Values, Rowman & Littlefield, {{ISBN|978-0739138465}}, page 7 The foundational text, the Vaiśeṣika Sūtra, opens as follows:, pages 38-54}}The Vaiśeṣika school is related to the Nyāya school but features differences in its epistemology, metaphysics and ontology.DPS Bhawuk (2011), Spirituality and Indian Psychology (Editor: Anthony Marsella), Springer, {{ISBN|978-1-4419-8109-7}}, pages 172-175 The epistemology of the Vaiśeṣika school, like Buddhism, accepted only two means to knowledge as reliable – perception and inference.{{sfn|Perrett|2000|pp=245-248}}{{sfn|Grimes|1989|p=225}} The Vaiśeṣika school and Buddhism both consider their respective scriptures as indisputable and valid means to knowledge, the difference being that the scriptures held to be a valid and reliable source by Vaiśeṣikas were the Vedas.{{sfn|Perrett|2000|pp=245-248}}Vaiśeṣika metaphysical premises are founded on a form of atomism, that reality is composed of four substances (earth, water, air, and fire). Each of these four are of two types: atomic (paramāṇu) and composite. An atom is, according to Vaiśeṣika scholars, that which is indestructible (anitya), indivisible, and has a special kind of dimension, called “small” (aṇu). A composite, in this philosophy, is defined to be anything which is divisible into atoms. Whatever human beings perceive is composite, while atoms are invisible. The Vaiśeṣikas stated that size, form, truths and everything that human beings experience as a whole is a function of atoms, their number and their spatial arrangements, their guṇa (quality), karma (activity), sāmānya (commonness), viśeṣa (particularity) and amavāya (inherence, inseparable connectedness of everything).M Hiriyanna (1993), Outlines of Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120810860}}, pages 228-237


The Nyāya school is a realist āstika philosophy.Nyaya: Indian Philosophy Encyclopædia Britannica (2014){{sfn|Flood|1996|pp=221-227}} The school's most significant contributions to Indian philosophy were its systematic development of the theory of logic, methodology, and its treatises on epistemology.B Gupta (2012), An Introduction to Indian Philosophy: Perspectives on Reality, Knowledge and Freedom, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0415800037}}, pages 171-189PT Raju (1985), Structural Depths of Indian Thought: Toward a Constructive Postmodern Ethics, State University of New York Press, {{ISBN|978-0887061394}}, page 223 The foundational text of the Nyāya school is the Nyāya Sūtras of the first millennium BCE. The text is credited to Aksapada Gautama and its composition is variously dated between the sixth and second centuries BCE.B. K. Matilal "Perception. An Essay on Classical Indian Theories of Knowledge" (Oxford University Press, 1986), p. xiv.Nyāya epistemology accepts four out of six prāmaṇas as reliable means of gaining knowledge – pratyakṣa (perception), anumāṇa (inference), upamāṇa (comparison and analogy) and śabda (word, testimony of past or present reliable experts).{{sfn|Grimes|1989|p=238}}DPS Bhawuk (2011), Spirituality and Indian Psychology (Editor: Anthony Marsella), Springer, {{ISBN|978-1-4419-8109-7}}, page 172{{sfn|Flood|1996|p=225}}In its metaphysics, the Nyāya school is closer to the Vaiśeṣika school than the others. It holds that human suffering results from mistakes/defects produced by activity under wrong knowledge (notions and ignorance).Vassilis Vitsaxis (2009), Thought and Faith, Somerset Hall Press, {{ISBN|978-1935244042}}, page 131 Moksha (liberation), it states, is gained through right knowledge. This premise led Nyāya to concern itself with epistemology, that is, the reliable means to gain correct knowledge and to remove wrong notions. False knowledge is not merely ignorance to Naiyayikas; it includes delusion. Correct knowledge is discovering and overcoming one's delusions, and understanding the true nature of the soul, self and reality.BK Matilal (1997), Logic, Language and Reality: Indian Philosophy and Contemporary Issues, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120807174}}, pages 353-357 The Nyāya Sūtras begin:
(Editor: N Sinha)}}


The Mīmāṃsā school emphasized hermeneutics and exegesis.Mimamsa Encyclopædia Britannica (2014) It is a form of philosophical realism.M. Hiriyanna (1993), Outlines of Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120810860}}, page 323-325 Key texts of the Mīmāṃsā school are the Purva Mimamsa Sutras of Jaimini.M. Hiriyanna (1993), Outlines of Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120810860}}, page 298-335 The classical Mīmāṃsā school is sometimes referred to as pūrvamīmāṃsā or Karmamīmāṃsā in reference to the first part of the Vedas.Chris Bartley (2013), Purva Mimamsa, in Encyclopaedia of Asian Philosophy (Editor: Oliver Leaman), Routledge, 978-0415862530, page 443-445The Mīmāṃsā school has several sub-schools defined by epistemology. The Prābhākara subschool of Mīmāṃsā accepted five means to gaining knowledge as epistimetically reliable: pratyakṣa (perception), anumāṇa (inference), upamāṇa (comparison and analogy), arthāpatti (postulation, derivation from circumstances), and śabda (word, testimony of past or present reliable experts).{{sfn|Flood|1996|p=225}} The Kumārila Bhaṭṭa sub-school of Mīmāṃsā added a sixth way of knowing to its canon of reliable epistemology: anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof).{{sfn|Grimes|1989|p=238}}The metaphysics of the Mīmāṃsā school consists of both atheistic and theistic doctrines, and the school showed little interest in systematic examination of the existence of God. Rather, it held that the soul is an eternal, omnipresent, inherently active spiritual essence, then focussed on the epistemology and metaphysics of dharma.BOOK, Neville, Robert, Religious truth, 2001, SUNY Press, BOOK, Worthington, Vivian, A history of yoga, 1982, Routledge,weblink 66, To them, dharma meant rituals and duties, not devas (gods), because devas existed only in name. The Mīmāṃsākas held that the Vedas are "eternal authorless infallible", that Vedic vidhi (injunctions) and mantras in rituals are prescriptive karya (actions), and that the rituals are of primary importance and merit. They considered the Upanishads and other texts related to self-knowledge and spirituality to be of secondary importance, a philosophical view that the Vedanta school disagreed with.Mīmāṃsā gave rise to the study of philology and the philosophy of language.Peter M. Scharf, The Denotation of Generic Terms in Ancient Indian Philosophy (1996), Chapter 3 While their deep analysis of language and linguistics influenced other schools,Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus (2011), Sound and Communication: An Aesthetic Cultural History of Sanskrit Hinduism, Walter de Gruyter GmbH (Berlin), {{ISBN|978-3110181593}}, pages 23-24, 551-663 their views were not shared by others. Mīmāṃsākas considered the purpose and power of language was to clearly prescribe the proper, correct and right. In contrast, Vedantins extended the scope and value of language as a tool to also describe, develop and derive. Mīmāṃsākas considered orderly, law-driven, procedural life as the central purpose and noblest necessity of dharma and society, and divine (theistic) sustenance means to that end. The Mimamsa school was influential and foundational to the Vedanta school, with the difference that Mīmāṃsā developed and emphasized karmakāṇḍa (the portion of the śruti which relates to ceremonial acts and sacrificial rites, the early parts of the Vedas), while the Vedanta school developed and emphasized jñānakāṇḍa (the portion of the Vedas which relates to knowledge of monism, the latter parts of the Vedas).Oliver Leaman (2006), Shruti, in Encyclopaedia of Asian Philosophy, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0415862530}}, page 503


The Vedānta school built upon the teachings of the Upanishads and Brahma Sutras from the first millennium BCEOliver Leaman (1999), Key Concepts in Eastern Philosophy, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0415173636}}, page xiv and is the most developed and best-known of the Hindu schools. The epistemology of the Vedantins included, depending on the sub-school, five or six methods as proper and reliable means of gaining any form of knowledge:P Bilimoria (1993), Pramāṇa epistemology: Some recent developments, in Asian philosophy - Volume 7 (Editor: G Floistad), Springer, {{ISBN|978-94-010-5107-1}}, pages 137-154 pratyakṣa (perception), anumāṇa (inference), upamāṇa (comparison and analogy), arthāpatti (postulation, derivation from circumstances), anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof) and śabda (word, testimony of past or present reliable experts).{{sfn|Perrett|2000|pp=245-248}}{{sfn|Grimes|1989|p=238}}{{sfn|Flood|1996|p=225}} All of these have been further categorized by each sub-school of Vedanta in terms of conditionality, completeness, confidence and possibility of error.The emergence of Vedanta school represented a period when a more knowledge-centered understanding began to emerge. These focussed on jnana (knowledge) driven aspects of the Vedic religion and the Upanishads. This included metaphysical concepts such as ātman and Brahman, and an emphasis on meditation, self-discipline, self-knowledge and abstract spirituality, rather than ritualism. The Upanishads were variously interpreted by ancient- and medieval-era Vedanta scholars. Consequently, the Vedanta separated into many sub-schools, ranging from theistic dualism to non-theistic monism, each interpreting the texts in its own way and producing its own series of sub-commentaries.Knut Jacobsen (2008), Theory and Practice of Yoga : 'Essays in Honour of Gerald James Larson, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120832329}}, page 77;JN Mohanty (2001), Explorations in Philosophy, Vol 1 (Editor: Bina Gupta), Oxford University Press, page 107-108Oliver Leaman (2000), Eastern Philosophy: Key Readings, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0415173582}}, page 251;R Prasad (2009), A Historical-developmental Study of Classical Indian Philosophy of Morals, Concept Publishing, {{ISBN|978-8180695957}}, pages 345-347


Advaita literally means "not two, sole, unity". It is a sub-school of Vedanta, and asserts spiritual and universal non-dualism.Advaita Vedanta Sangeetha Menon (2012), IEP{{Citation | last =Nakamura | first =Hajime | year =1990 | title =A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy. Part One | publisher =Motilal Banarsidass Publishers|pages=110–114}} Its metaphysics is a form of absolute monism, that is all ultimate reality is interconnected oneness.{{sfn|Flood|1996|pp=239-244}}Eliot Deutsch, Advaita Vedanta: A Philosophical Reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, {{ISBN|978-0824802714}}, pages 10-14 This is the oldest and most widely acknowledged Vedantic school. The foundational texts of this school are the Brahma Sutras and the early Upanishads from the 1st millennium BCE.{{sfn|Flood|1996|pp=239-244}} Its first great consolidator was the 8th century scholar Adi Shankara, who continued the line of thought of the Upanishadic teachers, and that of his teacher's teacher Gaudapada. He wrote extensive commentaries on the major Vedantic scriptures and is celebrated as one of the major Hindu philosophers from whose doctrines the main currents of modern Indian thought are derived.Adi Shankara, Sengaku Mayeda, Encyclopædia Britannica (2013)According to this school of Vedanta, all reality is Brahman, and there exists nothing whatsoever which is not Brahman.Richard Brooks (1969), The Meaning of 'Real' in Advaita Vedānta, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 19, No. 4, pages 385-398 Its metaphysics includes the concept of māyā and ātman. Māyā connotes "that which exists, but is constantly changing and thus is spiritually unreal".AC Das (1952), Brahman and Māyā in Advaita Metaphysics, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 2, No. 2, pages 144-154 The empirical reality is considered as always changing and therefore "transitory, incomplete, misleading and not what it appears to be".H.M. Vroom (1996), No Other Gods, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, {{ISBN|978-0802840974}}, page 57Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (1986), Dreams, Illusion, and Other Realities, University of Chicago Press, {{ISBN|978-0226618555}}, page 119Lynn Foulston and Stuart Abbott (2009), Hindu Goddesses: Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, {{ISBN|978-1902210438}}, pages 14-16 The concept of ātman is of soul, self within each person, each living being. Advaita Vedantins assert that ātman is same as Brahman, and this Brahman is within each human being and all life, all living beings are spiritually interconnected, and there is oneness in all of existence.John Koller (2007), in Chad Meister and Paul Copan (Editors): The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-1-134-18001-1}}, pages 98-106 They hold that dualities and misunderstanding of māyā as the spiritual reality that matters is caused by ignorance, and are the cause of sorrow, suffering. Jīvanmukti (liberation during life) can be achieved through Self-knowledge, the understanding that ātman within is same as ātman in another person and all of Brahman – the eternal, unchanging, entirety of cosmic principles and true reality.Michael Comans (1993), The question of the importance of Samadhi in modern and classical Advaita Vedanta, Philosophy East & West. Vol. 43, Issue 1, pages 19-38Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120820272}}, pages 19-40, 53-58, 79-86


Ramanuja (c. 1037–1137) was the foremost proponent of the philosophy of Viśiṣṭādvaita or qualified non-dualism. Viśiṣṭādvaita advocated the concept of a Supreme Being with essential qualities or attributes. Viśiṣṭādvaitins argued against the Advaitin conception of Brahman as an impersonal empty oneness. They saw Brahman as an eternal oneness, but also as the source of all creation, which was omnipresent and actively involved in existence. To them the sense of subject-object perception was illusory and a sign of ignorance. However, the individual's sense of self was not a complete illusion since it was derived from the universal beingness that is Brahman.BOOK, Christopher Etter, A Study of Qualitative Non-Pluralism,weblink 30 April 2006, iUniverse, 978-0-595-39312-1, 62–63, Ramanuja saw Vishnu as a personification of Brahman.


Dvaita refers to a theistic sub-school in Vedanta tradition of Hindu philosophy.Hindu Philosophy, IEP, Quote: "Dvaita: Madhva is one of the principal theistic exponents of Vedānta. On his account, Brahman is a personal God, and specifically He is the Hindu deity Viṣṇu. Also called as Tattvavāda and Bimbapratibimbavāda'', the Dvaita sub-school was founded by the 13th-century scholar Madhvacharya.BOOK, Jeaneane D. Fowler, Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism,weblink 2002, Sussex Academic Press, 978-1-898723-94-3, 340–344, The Dvaita Vedanta school believes that God (Vishnu, supreme soul) and the individual souls (jīvātman) exist as independent realities, and these are distinct.BOOK, Jeaneane D. Fowler, Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism,weblink 2002, Sussex Academic Press, 978-1-898723-94-3, 238–243, 288–293, 340–343, James Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 1 & 2, Rosen Publishing, {{ISBN|0-8239-2287-1}}, pages 12-13, 213-214, 758-759Dvaita Vedanta is a dualistic interpretation of the Vedas, espouses dualism by theorizing the existence of two separate realities. The first and the only independent reality, states the Dvaita school, is that of Vishnu or Brahman. Vishnu is the supreme Self, in a manner similar to monotheistic God in other major religions.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0700712571}}, pages 124-127 The distinguishing factor of Dvaita philosophy, as opposed to monistic Advaita Vedanta, is that God takes on a personal role and is seen as a real eternal entity that governs and controls the universe.Christopher Etter (2006), A Study of Qualitative Non-Pluralism, iUniverse, pp. 59-60, {{ISBN|0-595-39312-8}}. Like Vishishtadvaita Vedanta subschool, Dvaita philosophy also embraced Vaishnavism, with the metaphysical concept of Brahman in the Vedas identified with Vishnu and the one and only Supreme Being.BOOK, Edwin, Bryant, Krishna : A Sourcebook (Chapter 15 by Deepak Sarma), Oxford University Press, 2007, 978-0195148923, 358, WEB, Madhva (1238-1317), Valerie, Stoker, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2011, 29 February 2016,weblink However, unlike Vishishtadvaita which envisions ultimate qualified nondualism, the dualism of Dvaita was permanent.Salvation, in Dvaita, is achievable only through the grace of God Vishnu.BOOK, Philosophy of Śrī Madhvācārya, B. N. Krishnamurti, Sharma, Motilal Banarsidass (2014 Reprint), 978-8120800687, 1962, 417–424, BOOK, Sharma, Chandradhar, A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, 1994, Motilal Banarsidass, 81-208-0365-5, 373,

Dvaitādvaita (Bhedabheda)

Dvaitādvaita was proposed by Nimbarka, a 13th-century Vaishnava Philosopher from the Andhra region. According to this philosophy there are three categories of existence: Brahman, soul, and matter. Soul and matter are different from Brahman in that they have attributes and capacities different from Brahman. Brahman exists independently, while soul and matter are dependent. Thus soul and matter have an existence that is separate yet dependent. Further, Brahman is a controller, the soul is the enjoyer, and matter the thing enjoyed. Also, the highest object of worship is Krishna and his consort Radha, attended by thousands of gopis; of the Vrindavan; and devotion consists in self-surrender.


Śuddhādvaita is the "purely non-dual" philosophy propounded by Vallabha Acharya (1479–1531). The founding philosopher was also the guru of the Vallabhā sampradāya ("tradition of Vallabh") or Puṣṭimārga, a Vaishnava tradition focused on the worship of Krishna. Vallabhacharya enunciates that Brahman has created the world without connection with any external agency such as Māyā (which itself is His power) and manifests Himself through the world.Devarshi Ramanath Shastri, “Shuddhadvaita Darshan (Vol.2)”, Published by Mota Mandir, Bhoiwada, Mumbai, India, 1917. That is why Shuddhadvaita is known as ‘Unmodified transformation’ or ‘Avikṛta Pariṇāmavāda’. Brahman or Ishvara desired to become many, and he became the multitude of individual souls and the world. The Jagat or Maya is not false or illusionary, the physical material world is. Vallabha recognises Brahman as the whole and the individual as a ‘part’ (but devoid of bliss) like sparks and fire.“Brahmavād Saṅgraha”, Pub. Vaishnava Mitra Mandal Sarvajanik Nyasa, Indore, India, 2014.

Acintya Bheda Abheda

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1534), stated that the soul or energy of God is both distinct and non-distinct from God, whom he identified as Krishna, Govinda, and that this, although unthinkable, may be experienced through a process of loving devotion (bhakti). He followed the Dvaita concept of Madhvacharya.Lord Chaitanya {{webarchive|url= |date=7 June 2002 }} ( "This is called acintya-bheda-abheda-tattva, inconceivable, simultaneous oneness and difference." This philosophy of "inconceivable oneness and difference".


The Cārvāka school is one of the nāstika or "heterodox" philosophies .R Thomas (2014), Hindu Perspectives on Evolution: Darwin, Dharma, and Design, Sociology of Religion, Vol. 75, No. 1, pages 164-165, Quote: "some of the ancient Hindu traditions like Carvaka have a rich tradition of materialism, in general, other schools..."Jessica Frazier (2014), Hinduism in The Oxford Handbook of Atheism (Editors: Stephen Bullivant, Michael Ruse), Oxford University Press, {{ISBN|978-0199644650}}, pages 367-378;Bill Cooke (2005), Dictionary of Atheism, Skepticism, and Humanism, {{ISBN|978-1591022992}}, page 84 It rejects supernaturalism, emphasizes materialism and philosophical skepticism, holding empiricism, perception and conditional inference as the proper source of knowledgeKN Tiwari (1998), Classical Indian Ethical Thought, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120816077}}, page 67;Roy W Perrett (1984), The problem of induction in Indian philosophy, Philosophy East and West, 34(2): 161-174V.V. Raman (2012), Hinduism and Science: Some Reflections, Zygon - Journal of Religion and Science, 47(3): 549–574, Quote (page 557): "Aside from nontheistic schools like the Samkhya, there have also been explicitly atheistic schools in the Hindu tradition. One virulently anti-supernatural system is/was the so-called Carvaka school.", {{doi|10.1111/j.1467-9744.2012.01274.x}} Cārvāka is an atheistic school of thought.BOOK, Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli and Moore, Charles, A Source Book in Indian Philosophy, 1957, Princeton University Press, 0-691-01958-4, 227–249, It holds that there is neither afterlife nor rebirth, all existence is mere combination of atoms and substances, feelings and mind are an epiphenomenon, and free will exists.R Bhattacharya (2011), Studies on the Carvaka/Lokayata, Anthem, {{ISBN|978-0857284334}}, pages 53, 94, 141-142>Johannes Bronkhorst (2012), Free will and Indian philosophy, Antiqvorvm Philosophia: An International Journal, Roma Italy, Volume 6, pages 19-30Bṛhaspati is sometimes referred to as the founder of Cārvāka (also called Lokayata) philosophy. Much of the primary literature of Carvaka, the Barhaspatya sutras (ca. 600 BCE), however, are missing or lost.Ramkrishna Bhattacharya (2013), The base text and its commentaries: Problem of representing and understanding the Carvaka / Lokayata, Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal, Issue 1, Volume 3, pages 133-150 Its theories and development has been compiled from historic secondary literature such as those found in the shastras, sutras and the Indian epic poetry as well as from the texts of Buddhism and from Jain literature.JOURNAL, Bhattacharya, Ramakrishna, Cārvāka Fragments: A New Collection, Journal of Indian Philosophy, 2002, 30, =6, 597–640, Dale Riepe (1996), Naturalistic Tradition in Indian Thought, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120812932}}, pages 53-58One of the widely studied principles of Cārvāka philosophy was its rejection of inference as a means to establish valid, universal knowledge, and metaphysical truths.BOOK, Cowell, E. B., Gough, A. E., The Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha or Review of the Different Systems of Hindu Philosophy, 1882,weblink 5–7, In other words, the Cārvāka epistemology states that whenever one infers a truth from a set of observations or truths, one must acknowledge doubt; inferred knowledge is conditional.MM Kamal (1998), The Epistemology of the Carvaka Philosophy, Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies, 46(2): 13-16


{{Saivism}}Early history of Shaivism is difficult to determine.{{Citation |last = Tattwananda |first = Swami |year = 1984 |title = Vaisnava Sects, Saiva Sects, Mother Worship |place = Calcutta |publisher = Firma KLM Private Ltd. |edition = First Revised |page=45 |isbn =}}. However, the {{IAST|Śvetāśvatara}} Upanishad (400 – 200 BCE){{sfn|Flood|1996|p=86}} is considered to be the earliest textual exposition of a systematic philosophy of Shaivism.{{Citation |last = Chakravarti |first = Mahadev |year = 1994 |title = The Concept of Rudra-Śiva Through The Ages |place = Delhi |publisher = Motilal Banarsidass |edition = Second Revised |page=9 |isbn = 81-208-0053-2 }}. Shaivism is represented by various philosophical schools, including non-dualist (abheda), dualist (bheda), and non-dualist-with-dualist ({{IAST|bhedābheda}}) perspectives. Vidyaranya in his works mentions three major schools of Shaiva thought—Pashupata Shaivism, Shaiva Siddhanta and Pratyabhijña (Kashmir Shaivism).Cowell and Gough (1882), p. xii.

Pāśupata Shaivism

Pāśupata Shaivism (Pāśupata, "of Paśupati") is the oldest of the major Shaiva schools.Flood (2003), p. 206. The philosophy of Pashupata sect was systematized by Lakulish in the 2nd century CE. Paśu in Paśupati refers to the effect (or created world), the word designates that which is dependent on something ulterior. Whereas, Pati means the cause (or principium), the word designates the Lord, who is the cause of the universe, the pati, or the ruler.Cowell and Gough (1882), p. 104-105. Pashupatas disapproved of Vaishnava theology, known for its doctrine servitude of souls to the Supreme Being, on the grounds that dependence upon anything could not be the means of cessation of pain and other desired ends. They recognised that those depending upon another and longing for independence will not be emancipated because they still depend upon something other than themselves. According to Pāśupatas, soul possesses the attributes of the Supreme Deity when it becomes liberated from the 'germ of every pain'.Cowell and Gough (1882), p. 103Pāśupatas divided the created world into the insentient and the sentient. The insentient was the unconscious and thus dependent on the sentient or conscious. The insentient was further divided into effects and causes. The effects were of ten kinds, the earth, four elements and their qualities, colour etc. The causes were of thirteen kinds, the five organs of cognition, the five organs of action, the three internal organs, intellect, the ego principle and the cognising principle. These insentient causes were held responsible for the illusive identification of Self with non-Self. Salvation in Pāśupata involved the union of the soul with God through the intellect.Cowell and Gough (1882), p. 107

Shaiva Siddhanta

Considered normative Tantric Shaivism, Shaiva SiddhantaXavier Irudayaraj,"Saiva Siddanta," in the St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, Ed. George Menachery, Vol.III, 2010, pp.10 ff.Xavier Irudayaraj, "Self Understanding of Saiva Siddanta Scriptures" in the St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, Ed. George Menachery, Vol.III, 2010, pp.14 ff. provides the normative rites, cosmology and theological categories of Tantric Shaivism.Flood (2006), p. 120. Being a dualistic philosophy, the goal of Shaiva Siddhanta is to become an ontologically distinct Shiva (through Shiva's grace).Flood (2006), p. 122. This tradition later merged with the Tamil Saiva movement and expression of concepts of Shaiva Siddhanta can be seen in the bhakti poetry of the Nayanars.{{sfn|Flood|1996|p=168}}

Kashmir Shaivism

Kashmir Shaivism arose during the eighthKashmir Shaivism: The Secret Supreme, By Lakshman Jee or ninth century CEDyczkowski, p. 4. in Kashmir and made significant strides, both philosophical and theological, until the end of the twelfth century CE.The Trika Śaivism of Kashmir, Moti Lal Pandit, pp. 1 It is categorised by various scholars as monisticKashmir Shaivism: The Secret Supreme, Swami Lakshman Jee, pp. 103 idealism (absolute idealism, theistic monism, realistic idealism,Dyczkowski, p. 51. transcendental physicalism or concrete monism). It is a school of Śaivism consisting of Trika and its philosophical articulation Pratyabhijña.Flood (2005), pp. 56–68Even though, both Kashmir Shaivism and Advaita Vedanta are non-dual philosophies which give primacy to Universal Consciousness (Chit or Brahman),Singh, Jaideva. Pratyãbhijñahṛdayam. Moltilal Banarsidass, 2008. PP. 24–26. in Kashmir Shavisim, as opposed to Advaita, all things are a manifestation of this Consciousness.Dyczkowski, p. 44. This implies that from the point of view of Kashmir Shavisim, the phenomenal world (Śakti) is real, and it exists and has its being in Consciousness (Chit).Ksemaraja, trans. by Jaidev Singh, Spanda Karikas: The Divine Creative Pulsation, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, p.119 Whereas, Advaita holds that Brahman is inactive (niṣkriya) and the phenomenal world is an illusion (māyā).Shankarananda, (Swami). Consciousness is Everything, The Yoga of Kashmir Shaivism. PP. 56–59 The objective of human life, according to Kashmir Shaivism, is to merge in Shiva or Universal Consciousness, or to realize one's already existing identity with Shiva, by means of wisdom, yoga and grace.Mishra, K. Kashmir Saivism, The Central Philosophy of Tantrism. PP. 330–334.

See also

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  • BOOK, Chatterjee, Satischandra, Datta, Dhirendramohan, An Introduction to Indian Philosophy, 1984, University of Calcutta, Calcutta, Eighth Reprint,
  • BOOK, Cowell, E. B., Gough, A. E., The Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha or Review of the Different Systems of Hindu Philosophy: Trubner's Oriental Series,weblink 1882, Taylor & Francis, 978-0-415-24517-3,
  • BOOK, Dyczkowski, Mark S. G., The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of the Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir Shaivism, 1987, State University of New York Press, Albany, New York, 0-88706-432-9,
  • BOOK, harv, Guttorm Fløistad, Philosophie asiatique/Asian philosophy,weblink 28 February 1993, Springer Netherlands, 978-0-7923-1762-3,
  • BOOK, harv, Flood, Gavin, Gavin Flood, An Introduction to Hinduism,weblink 1996, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-43878-0,
  • BOOK, Flood, Gavin (Editor), The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism, 2003, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Malden, MA, 1-4051-3251-5,
  • BOOK, Flood, Gavin, The Tantric Body: The Secret Tradition of Hindu Religion, 2005, I. B. Tauris, 1845110110,
  • BOOK, harv, Grimes, John A., A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English,weblink 1989, SUNY Press, 978-0-7914-0100-2,
  • {{Citation | last =King | first =Richard | year =2007 | title =Indian Philosophy. An Introduction to Hindu and Buddhist Thought | publisher =Georgetown University Press}}
  • BOOK, harv, Lochtefeld, James G., The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z,weblink 2002, The Rosen Publishing Group, 978-0-8239-3180-4,
  • BOOK, Müeller, Max, Max Müller, 1899, Six Systems of Indian Philosophy; Samkhya and Yoga, Naya and Vaiseshika, Susil Gupta (India) Ltd., Calcutta, 0-7661-4296-5, Reprint edition; Originally published under the title of The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy.
  • {{Citation | last =Nicholson | first =Andrew J. | year =2010 | title =Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History | publisher =Columbia University Press}}
  • BOOK, harv, Perrett, Roy W., Philosophy of Religion,weblink 2000, Taylor & Francis, 978-0-8153-3611-2,
  • BOOK, harv, Potter, Karl H., Presuppositions of India's Philosophies,weblink 1991, Motilal Banarsidass Publishe, 978-81-208-0779-2,
  • BOOK, Radhakrishnan, S., Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Moore, CA, A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy, 1967, Princeton, 0-691-01958-4,

Further reading

  • Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli; and Moore, Charles A. A Source Book in Indian Philosophy. Princeton University Press; 1957. Princeton paperback 12th edition, 1989. {{ISBN|0-691-01958-4}}.
  • Rambachan, Anantanand. "The Advaita Worldview: God, World and Humanity." 2006.
  • Zilberman, David B., The Birth of Meaning in Hindu Thought. D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland, 1988. {{ISBN|90-277-2497-0}}. Chapter 1. "Hindu Systems of Thought as Epistemic Disciplines".

External links

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