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| image = Ramanujacharya.jpg| birth_date = 1017 CE| birth_place = Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu, IndiataIḷaiyāḻvār}},{{citation needed|date=February 2016}}| death_date = 1137 CE| death_place = Sri Rangam, Tamil Nadu, India| philosophy = Vishishtadvaita| free_label = Propagator| free_text = Vishishtadvaita Vedanta | honors = Emberumānār, Udaiyavar, Yatirāja'' (king of sannyasis)| literary_works = Traditionally 9 Sanskrit texts, including Vedartha Sangraham, Sri Bhashyam, Gita Bhashyam}}{{Hindu philosophy}}Ramanuja (traditionally, 1017–1137 CE; {{IAST3|Rāmānuja}}; {{IPA-sa|raːmaːnud͡ʑə|}} ) was a Hindu theologian, philosopher, and one of the most important exponents of the Sri Vaishnavism tradition within Hinduism.{{Sfn|C. J. Bartley|2013|pp=1–4, 52–53, 79}} He was born in a Tamil Brāhmin family in the village of Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu. His philosophical foundations for devotionalism were influential to the Bhakti movement.{{Sfn|C. J. Bartley|2013|pp=1–4, 52–53, 79}}BOOK, Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India,weblink 2004, Routledge, 978-0-415-32920-0, 149, {{IAST|Rāmānuja}}'s guru was Yādava Prakāśa, a scholar who was a part of the more ancient Advaita Vedānta monastic tradition.BOOK, Patrick Olivelle, The Samnyasa Upanisads : Hindu Scriptures on Asceticism and Renunciation: Hindu Scriptures on Asceticism and Renunciation,weblink 1992, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-536137-7, 10–11, 17–18, Sri Vaishnava tradition holds that {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} disagreed with his guru and the non-dualistic Advaita Vedānta, and instead followed in the footsteps of Indian Alvārs tradition, the scholars Nāthamuni and Yamunāchārya.{{Sfn|C. J. Bartley|2013|pp=1–4, 52–53, 79}} {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} is famous as the chief proponent of Vishishtadvaita subschool of Vedānta,{{Sfn|C. J. Bartley|2013|pp=1-2}}{{Sfn|Carman|1974|p=24}} and his disciples were likely authors of texts such as the Shatyayaniya Upanishad. {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} himself wrote influential texts, such as bhāsya on the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita, all in Sanskrit.{{Sfn|Carman|1994|pp=82-87 with footnotes}}His Vishishtadvaita (qualified monism) philosophy has competed with the Dvaita (theistic dualism) philosophy of Madhvāchārya, and Advaita (monism) philosophy of Ādi Shankara, together the three most influential Vedantic philosophies of the 2nd millennium.BOOK, William M. Indich, Consciousness in Advaita Vedanta,weblink 1995, Motilal Banarsidass, 978-81-208-1251-2, 1–2, 97–102, BOOK, Bruce M. Sullivan, The A to Z of Hinduism,weblink 2001, Rowman & Littlefield, 978-0-8108-4070-6, 239, {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} presented the epistemic and soteriological importance of bhakti, or the devotion to a personal God (Vishnu in {{IAST|Rāmānuja}}'s case) as a means to spiritual liberation. His theories assert that there exists a plurality and distinction between Ātman (soul) and Brahman (metaphysical, ultimate reality), while he also affirmed that there is unity of all souls and that the individual soul has the potential to realize identity with the Brahman.{{Sfn|C. J. Bartley|2013|pp=1-2, 9-10, 76-79, 87-98}}BOOK, Sean Doyle, Synthesizing the Vedanta: The Theology of Pierre Johanns, S.J.,weblink 2006, Peter Lang, 978-3-03910-708-7, 59–62,

Biography

{{Vaishnavism}}The details of historic {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} () are unknown.He was born in a Tamil Brāhmin family in the village of Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu. His followers in the Vaishnava tradition wrote hagiographies, some of which were composed in centuries after his death, and which the tradition believes to be true.BOOK, Jon Paul Sydnor, Rāmānuja and Schleiermacher: Toward a Constructive Comparative Theology,weblink 2012, Casemate, 978-0227680247, 20–22 with footnote 32, {{Sfn|Keith E. Yandell | 2001| pp=7, 148}}The traditional hagiographies of {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} state he was born to mother Kānthimathi and father Asuri Kesava Somayāji, in Sriperumbudur, near modern Chennai, Tamil Nādu.{{Sfn|Jones |Ryan |2006| p=352}}. He is believed to have been born in the month of Chitra under the star Tiruvatarai.BOOK, Sri Ramanuja, Madabhushini Narasimhacharya, Sahitya Akademi, 2004 - Hindu saints - 51 pages, 17, They place his life in the period of 1017–1137 CE, yielding a lifespan of 120 years.{{Sfn|Carman|1994|pp=45, 80}} These dates have been questioned by modern scholarship, based on temple records and regional literature of 11th- and 12th-century outside the Sri Vaishnava tradition, and modern era scholars suggest that {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} may have lived between 1077-1157.{{Sfn|Carman|1974|pp=27-28, 45}}BOOK, Rāmānuja (ca. 1077–ca. 1157) in Encyclopedia of Global Religion (Editors: Mark Juergensmeyer & Wade Clark Roof), Mishra, Patit Paban, 2012, 10.4135/9781412997898.n598, {{Sfn|Jones |Ryan |2006| p=352}}{{IAST|Rāmānuja}} married, moved to Kānchipuram, studied in an Advaita Vedānta monastery with Yādava Prakāśa as his guru.J.A.B. van Buitenen (2008), Rāmānuja - Hindu theologian and Philosopher{{dead link|date=April 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}, Encyclopædia Britannica {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} and his guru frequently disagreed in interpreting Vedic texts, particularly the Upanishads. {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} and Yādava Prakāśa separated, and thereafter {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} continued his studies on his own.He attempted to meet another famed Vedanta scholar of 11th-century Yamunāchārya, but Sri Vaishnava tradition holds that the latter died before the meeting and they never met. However, some hagiographies assert that the corpse of Yamunāchārya miraculously rose and named {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} as the new leader of Sri Vaishnava sect previously led by Yamunāchārya. One hagiography states that after leaving Yādava Prakāśa, {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} was initiated into Sri Vaishnavism by Periya Nambi, also called Māhapurna, another Vedānta scholar. {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} renounced his married life, and became a Hindu monk.BOOK, Alkandavilli Govindāchārya, The Life of Râmânujâchârya: The Exponent of the Viśistâdvaita Philosophy,weblink 1906, S. Murthy, 62–70, However, states Katherine Young, the historical evidence on whether {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} led a married life or he did renounce and became a monk is uncertain.{{IAST|Rāmānuja}} became a priest at the Varadharāja Perumal temple (Vishnu) at Kānchipuram, where he began to teach that moksha (liberation and release from samsara) is to be achieved not with metaphysical, nirguna Brahman but with the help of personal god and saguna Vishnu.BOOK, Jon Paul Sydnor, Rāmānuja and Schleiermacher: Toward a Constructive Comparative Theology,weblink 2012, Casemate, 978-0227680247, 84–87, {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} has long enjoyed foremost authority in the Sri Vaishnava tradition.{{Sfn|Carman|1994|p=82 with footnotes}}

Hagiographies

A number of traditional biographies of {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} are known, some written in 12th century, but some written centuries later such as the 17th or 18th century, particularly after the split of the {{IAST|Śrīvaiṣṇava}} community into the {{IAST|Vadakalais}} and {{IAST|Teṉkalais}}, where each community created its own version of {{IAST|Rāmānuja}}'s hagiography.BOOK, Katherine Young, Steven Rosen, Vaiṣṇavī,weblink 1996, Motilal Banarsidass, 978-81-208-1437-0, 286–288, {{Sfn|Keith E. Yandell | 2001| pp=149-150}} The {{IAST|Muvāyirappaṭi Guruparamparāprabhāva}} by Brahmatantra Svatantra Jīyar represents the earliest {{IAST|Vadakalai}} biography, and reflects the {{IAST|Vadakalai}} view of the succession following {{IAST|Rāmānuja}}. {{IAST|Ārāyirappaṭi Guruparamparāprabhāva}}, on the other hand, represents the Tenkalai biography.{{citation needed|date=February 2016}} Other late biographies include the Yatirajavaibhavam by Andhrapurna.Modern scholarship has questioned the reliability of these hagiographies.{{Sfn|Keith E. Yandell | 2001| pp=149-150}} Scholars question their reliability because of claims which are impossible to verify, or whose historical basis is difficult to trace with claims such as {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} learned the Vedas when he was an eight-day-old baby, he communicated with God as an adult, that he won philosophical debates with Buddhists, Advaitins and others because of supernatural means such as turning himself into "his divine self Sesha" to defeat the Buddhists, or God appearing in his dream when he prayed for arguments to answer Advaita scholars.{{Sfn|Keith E. Yandell | 2001| pp=149-150}} According to J. A. B. van Buitenen, the hagiographies are "legendary biographies about him, in which a pious imagination has embroidered historical details".

Historical background

{{IAST|Rāmānuja}} grew up in the Tamil culture, in a stable society during the rule of the Hindu Cholas dynasty.{{Sfn|Carman|1994|p=80}} This period was one of pluralistic beliefs, where Vaishnava, Shaiva, Smarta traditions, Buddhism and Jainism thrived together. In Hindu monastic tradition, Advaita Vedānta had been dominant, and {{IAST|Rāmānuja}}'s guru Yādava Prākāsha belonged to this tradition. Prior to {{IAST|Rāmānuja}}, the Sri Vaishnava sampradaya was already an established organization under Yamunāchārya, and bhakti songs and devotional ideas already a part of south Indian culture because of the twelve Alvārs.BOOK, Jon Paul Sydnor, Rāmānuja and Schleiermacher: Toward a Constructive Comparative Theology,weblink 2012, Casemate, 978-0227680247, 10–11, {{IAST|Rāmānuja}}'s fame grew because he was considered the first thinker in centuries that disputed Shankara's theories, and offered an alternate interpretation of Upanishadic scriptures.{{Sfn|Carman|1994|p=80}}Some hagiographies, composed centuries after {{IAST|Rāmānuja}}'s death, state that he was expelled by a Chola king, Kulottunga II, {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} then moved to Hoysala kingdom for 14 years, converted a Jain king, Bitti Deva to Hinduism after miraculously healing his daughter. Bitti Deva changed his name to Vishnuvardhana and donated a piece of land in current day Melukote and helped Ramanuja build the temple town. Ramanuja later returned on his own to Tamil Nādu. However, verifiable historical evidence for these legends have been lacking, and epigraphical evidence establishes that Kulottunga II came to power in 1133 CE, while {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} died in 1137 CE according to sources that claim {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} was expelled.BOOK, K.V. Raman, Sri Varadarajaswami Temple, Kanchi: A Study of Its History, Art and Architecture,weblink 2003, Abhinav Publications, 978-81-7017-026-6, 15, According to John Carman, {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} and his Srīvaiṣṇava disciples lived under the relatively stable and non-sectarian climate of the Chola empire, before its decline in the late 12th and 13th centuries.{{Sfn|Carman|1974|p=27}}

Writings

The Sri Vaisnava tradition attributes nine Sanskrit texts to {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} – Vedārthasangraha (literally, "Summary of the Vedas meaning"), Sri Bhāshya (a review and commentary on the Brahma Sutras), Bhagavad Gita Bhāshya (a review and commentary on the Bhagavad Gita), and the minor works titled Vedāntapida, Vedāntasāra, Gadya Trayam (which is a compilation of three texts called the Saranāgati Gadyam, Sriranga Gadyam and the Srivaikunta Gadyam), and Nitya Grantham.Some scholars have questioned the authenticity of all but the three of the largest works credited to {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} – Shri Bhāshya, Vedārthasangraha and the Bhagavad Gita Bhāshya.Robert Lester (1966), Rāmānuja and Shri Vaishnavism: the Concept of Prapatti or Sharanagati, History of Religion, Volume 5, Issue 2, pages 266-282BOOK, Jon Paul Sydnor, Rāmānuja and Schleiermacher: Toward a Constructive Comparative Theology,weblink 2012, Casemate, 978-0227680247, 3–4,

Philosophy

File:Shri Ramanujar pics 2.jpg|200px|thumb|right|The figure of Rāmānujacharya in Upadesa Mudra inside the Ranganathaswamy Temple, SrirangamRanganathaswamy Temple, Srirangam{{IAST|Rāmānuja}}'s philosophical foundation was qualified monism, and is called Vishishtadvaita in the Hindu tradition. His ideas are one of three subschools in Vedānta, the other two are known as Ādi Shankara's Advaita (absolute monism) and Madhvāchārya's Dvaita (dualism).{{IAST|Rāmānuja}} accepted that the Vedas are a reliable source of knowledge, then critiqued other schools of Hindu philosophy, including Advaita Vedānta, as having failed in interpreting all of the Vedic texts. He asserted, in his Sri Bhāshya, that purvapaksin (previous schools) selectively interpret those Upanishadic passages that support their monistic interpretation, and ignore those passages that support the pluralism interpretation. There is no reason, stated {{IAST|Rāmānuja}}, to prefer one part of a scripture and not other, the whole of the scripture must be considered on par.{{Sfn|Carman|1994|p=86}} One cannot, according to {{IAST|Rāmānuja}}, attempt to give interpretations of isolated portions of any scripture. Rather, the scripture must be considered one integrated corpus, expressing a consistent doctrine. The Vedic literature, asserted {{IAST|Rāmānuja}}, mention both plurality and oneness, therefore the truth must incorporate pluralism and monism, or qualified monism.Shyam Ranganathan (2011), {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} (c. 1017 - c. 1137){{dead link|date=April 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}, IEP, York UniversityThis method of scripture interpretation distinguishes {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} from Ādi Shankara.{{Sfn|Carman|1994|p=86}} Shankara's exegetical approach Samanvayat Tatparya Linga with Anvaya-Vyatireka,{{sfn|Mayeda|2006|pp=46–53}} states that for proper understanding all texts must be examined in their entirety and then their intent established by six characteristics, which includes studying what is stated by the author to be his goal, what he repeats in his explanation, then what he states as conclusion and whether it can be epistemically verified.Mayeda & Tanizawa (1991), Studies on Indian Philosophy in Japan, 1963–1987, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 41, No. 4, pages 529–535Michael Comans (1996), Śankara and the Prasankhyanavada, Journal of Indian Philosophy, Vol. 24, No. 1, pages 49–71 Not everything in any text, states Shankara, has equal weight and some ideas are the essence of any expert's textual testimony.{{Sfn|Carman|1994|p=86}} This philosophical difference in scriptural studies, helped Shankara conclude that the Principal Upanishads primarily teach monism with teachings such as Tat tvam asi, while helping {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} conclude that qualified monism is at the foundation of Hindu spirituality.{{Sfn|Carman|1994|pp=86-88}}Julius Lipner (1986), The Face of Truth: A Study of Meaning and Metaphysics in the Vedantic Theology of Rāmānuja, State University of New York Press, {{ISBN|978-0887060397}}, pages 120-123

Comparison with other Vedānta schools

File:Ramanuja embracing Lord Varadaraj.jpg|thumb|right|Rāmānujacharya depicted with Vaishnava TilakaTilaka{{IAST|Rāmānuja}}'s Vishishtadvaita shares the theistic devotionalism ideas with Madhvāchārya's Dvaita.{{Sfn|Sharma|1994|p=11-17, 372}} Both schools assert that Jīva (human souls) and Brahman (as Vishnu) are different, a difference that is never transcended.Stafford Betty (2010), Dvaita, Advaita, and Viśiṣṭādvaita: Contrasting Views of Mokṣa, Asian Philosophy: An International Journal of the Philosophical Traditions of the East, Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 215-224Edward Craig (2000), Concise Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0415223645}}, pages 517-518 God Vishnu alone is independent, all other gods and beings are dependent on Him, according to both Madhvāchārya and {{IAST|Rāmānuja}}.{{Sfn|Sharma|1994|p=373}} However, in contrast to Madhvāchārya's views, {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} asserts "qualified non-dualism",{{Sfn|Stoker|2011}} that souls share the same essential nature of Brahman,{{Sfn|Stoker|2011}} and that there is a universal sameness in the quality and degree of bliss possible for human souls, and every soul can reach the bliss state of God Himself.{{Sfn|Sharma|1994|pp=373-374}} While the 13th- to 14th-century Madhavāchārya asserted both "qualitative and quantitative pluralism of souls", {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} asserted "qualitative monism and quantitative pluralism of souls", states Sharma.{{Sfn|Sharma|1994|p=374}}{{IAST|Rāmānuja}}'s Vishishtadvaita school and Shankara's Advaita school are both nondualism Vedānta schools, both are premised on the assumption that all souls can hope for and achieve the state of blissful liberation; in contrast, Madhvāchārya believed that some souls are eternally doomed and damned.{{Sfn|Sharma|1994|pp=374-375}}{{Sfn|Bryant|2007|pp=361-362}} Shankara's theory posits that only Brahman and causes are metaphysical unchanging reality, while the empirical world (Maya) and observed effects are changing, illusive and of relative existence. Spiritual liberation to Shankara is the full comprehension and realization of oneness of one's unchanging Ātman (soul) as the same as Ātman in everyone else as well as being identical to the nirguna Brahman.BOOK, Christopher Etter, A Study of Qualitative Non-Pluralism,weblink 2006, iUniverse, 978-0-595-39312-1, 57–60, 63–65, BOOK, Roy W. Perrett, Philosophy of Religion: Indian Philosophy,weblink 2013, Routledge, 978-1-135-70322-6, 247–248, In contrast, {{IAST|Rāmānuja's}} theory posits both Brahman and the world of matter are two different absolutes, both metaphysically real, neither should be called false or illusive, and saguna Brahman with attributes is also real. God, like man, states {{IAST|Rāmānuja}}, has both soul and body, and all of the world of matter is the glory of God's body. The path to Brahman (Vishnu), asserted {{IAST|Rāmānuja}}, is devotion to godliness and constant remembrance of the beauty and love of personal god (saguna Brahman, Vishnu), one which ultimately leads one to the oneness with nirguna Brahman.

Influence

Harold Coward describes {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} as "the founding interpreter of Sri Vaisnavite scripture."BOOK,weblink The Perfectibility of Human Nature in Eastern and Western Thought, Harold G., Coward, Harold Coward, 139–141, State University of New York Press, Albany, NY, 9780791473351, 2008, Wendy Doniger calls him "probably the single most influential thinker of devotional Hinduism".BOOK, Merriam-Webster's encyclopedia of world religions, Doniger, Wendy, 1999, Merriam-Webster, 904,weblink 978-0-87779-044-0, J. A. B. van Buitenen states {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} was highly influential, by giving "bhakti an intellectual basis", and his efforts made bhakti the major force within different traditions within Hinduism.(File:Srirangamlong view.jpg|thumb|Major Vaishnava temples are associated with the Rāmānuja's tradition, such as the above Srirangam Ranganatha temple in Tamil Nadu.)Modern scholars have compared the importance of {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} in Hinduism to that of scholar Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274) in Christianity.JOURNAL, Ganeri, Martin, Knowledge and Love of God in Rāmānuja and Aquinas, Journal of Hindu-Christian Studies, 20, 1, 2007, 10.7825/2164-6279.1381, JOURNAL, Carman, John B., Loving God as a Devoted Servant, Journal of Hindu-Christian Studies, 20, 1, 2007, 10.7825/2164-6279.1384, BOOK, Sean Doyle, Synthesizing the Vedanta: The Theology of Pierre Johanns, S.J.,weblink 2006, Peter Lang, 978-3-03910-708-7, 235–239, (File:Sri Ramanuja Shrine at The Ranganathasamy Temple in Srirangam.jpg|thumb|left|Sri Ramanuja Shrine at The Ranganathasamy Temple in Srirangam){{IAST|Rāmānuja}} reformed the Srirangam Ranganathaswamy temple complex, undertook India-wide tours and expanded the reach of his organization.{{Sfn|Carman|1994|p=82 with footnotes}} The temple organization became the stronghold of his ideas and his disciples.{{sfn|Narasimhachary | 2004| p= 23}} It is here that he wrote his influential Vishishtadvaita philosophy text, Sri Bhashyam, over a period of time.{{sfn|Dasgupta|1991|p=114}}{{IAST|Rāmānuja}} not only developed theories and published philosophical works, he organized a network of temples for Vishnu-Lakshmi worship. {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} set up centers of studies for his philosophy during the 11th- and 12th-century, by traveling through India in that era, and these influenced generations of poet saints devoted to the Bhakti movement. Regional traditions assert that his visits, debates and discourses triggered conversion of Jains and Buddhists to Vaishnavism in Mysore and Deccan region.BOOK, Joseph P. Schultz, Judaism and the Gentile Faiths: Comparative Studies in Religion,weblink 1981, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 978-0-8386-1707-6, 81–84, The birthplace of {{IAST|Rāmānuja}} near Chennai hosts a temple and is an active Vishishtadvaita school. His doctrines inspire a lively intellectual tradition in southern, northern and eastern states of India, his monastery and temple traditions are carried on in the most important and large Vaishnava centres – the Ranganātha temple in Srirangam, Tamil Nadu, and the Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala in Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh.

Disciples

Names

He is also known as {{IAST|Śrī Rāmānujāchārya}}, Udaiyavar, Ethirājar (Yatirāja, king of monks), Bhashyakarar, Godāgrajar, Thiruppavai Jeeyar, Emberumānār and Lakshmana MuniNEWS, Sri Ramanuja's gift to the Lord,weblink The Hindu, 24 December 2012, India,

See also

References

{{reflist|30em}}

Bibliography

  • BOOK, Ayyangar, S. Krishnaswami, Chariar,, Rajagopala, Rangacharya, M, Sri Rāmānujacharya: a sketch of his life and times and His Philosophical System, 1911, G. A. Natesan & Co.,
  • BOOK, C. J. Bartley, The Theology of Rāmānuja: Realism and Religion,weblink 2013, Routledge, 978-1-136-85306-7, harv, 1–4, 52–53, 79,
  • BOOK, Edwin, Bryant, Krishna : A Sourcebook (Chapter 15 by Deepak Sarma), Oxford University Press, 2007, 978-0195148923, harv,
  • BOOK, Carman, John, The Theology of Rāmānuja: An essay in interreligious understanding, Yale University Press, 1974, 978-0300015218, harv,
  • BOOK, Majesty and Meekness: A Comparative Study of Contrast and Harmony in the Concept of God, John B., Carman, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1994, 978-0802806932,weblink harv,
  • BOOK,weblink Dasgupta, Surendranath, harv, A history of Indian philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass Publisher, 9788120804081, 1991,
  • BOOK, Dalal, Roshen, Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide,weblink 2011, Penguin Books India, 978-0-14-341421-6, 339, harv,
  • BOOK, Devamani, B. S., The Religion of Rāmānuja: A Christian Appraisal, Christian Literature Society, 1990,
  • BOOK, Duraisingh, Christopher, Toward an Indian-Christian Theology, Rāmānuja's Significance a Study of the Significance of Rāmānuja's Theological Hermeneutics for an Indian-Christian Understanding of the Relation Between God and All-else, Harvard University Press, 1979,
  • {{Citation | last1 =Jones | first1 =Constance | last2 =Ryan | first2 =James D. | year =2006 | title =Encyclopedia of Hinduism | publisher =Infobase Publishing | ref=harv}}
  • BOOK, Lott, Eric J., Eric J. Lott, God and the universe in the Vedāntic theology of Rāmānuja: a study in his use of the self-body analogy, Rāmānuja Research Society, 1976,
  • BOOK, Govindacharya, A., The Life of Rāmānuja, S. Murthy, 1960,
  • BOOK, Mayeda, Sengaku, 2006, A thousand teachings : the UpadeÅ›asāhasrÄ« of Åšaá¹…kara, Motilal Banarsidass, 978-81-208-2771-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Rao, T. A. Gopinatha, Sir Subrahmanya Ayyar Lectures on the History of {{IAST, ÅšrÄ« Vaiṣṇavas, |publisher=University of Madras, Government Press |year=1923}}
  • BOOK, Raghavachar, S. S., Vedartha Sangraha, 2010, Advaita Ashrama, 978-81-7505-118-8,
  • BOOK, Sampatkumaran, M. R., The {{IAST, GÄ«tābhāṣya, of Rāmānuja |year=1985 |publisher=Ananthacharya Indological Research Institute|location=Bombay}}
  • BOOK, Sastri, K. A. Nilakanta, K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India: From Prehistoric Times to the Fall of Vijayanagar, Oxford University Press, 1955,
  • BOOK, Sharma, Arvind, {{IAST, ViÅ›iṣṭādvaita Vedānta, : A study |publisher=Heritage Publishers |year=1978}}
  • BOOK, Sharma, Chandradhar, A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, 1994, Motilal Banarsidass, 81-208-0365-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Aiyengar, C. R. Srinivasa, R. Venkateshwar, n.d., The Life and Teachings of Sri Rāmānujacharya,
  • WEB, Madhva (1238-1317), Valerie, Stoker, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2011, 2 February 2016,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Subramanian, T. N., South Indian Temple Inscriptions, Madras Government Oriental Series, no. 157, 3, 2, 1957, 145–60,
  • JOURNAL, Ankur, Barua, God's Body at Work: Rāmānuja and Panentheism, International Journal of Hindu Studies, 14, 1, 2010, 1–30,
  • BOOK, Keith E. Yandell, Faith and Narrative,weblink 2001, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-535128-6, harv,

External links

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M.R.M. Parrott
Biographies
GETWIKI 20 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 19 AUG 2014
GETWIKI 18 AUG 2014
Wikinfo
Culture
CONNECT