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{{short description|Former princely state, now a conflict territory between India and Pakistan}}{{Distinguish|Kashmar}}{{other uses}}{{Coord|34.5|N|76|E|scale:3000000|display=title}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2014}}{{EngvarB|date=June 2015}}File:Kashmir region 2004.jpg|thumb|Political map of the Kashmir region districts, showing the Pir Panjal range and the Kashmir ValleyKashmir ValleyFile:Pahalgam Valley.jpg|thumb|Pahalgam Valley, Kashmir.]]File:Nanga parbat, Pakistan by gul791.jpg|thumb|Nanga ParbatNanga ParbatFile:Karakash River in the Western Kunlun Shan, seen from the Tibet-Xinjiang highway.jpg|thumb|The Karakash River (Black Jade River) which flows north from its source near the town of Sumde in Aksai Chin, to cross the Kunlun MountainsKunlun MountainsKashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal Range. Today, it denotes a larger area that includes the Indian-administered territory of Jammu and Kashmir (which includes the divisions Jammu, Kashmir Valley, and Ladakh), the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan, and Chinese-administered territories of Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Kashmir: region, Indian subcontinent, Encyclopædia Britannica, 16 July 2016,weblink Quote: "Kashmir, region of the northwestern Indian subcontinent. It is bounded by the Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang to the northeast and the Tibet Autonomous Region to the east (both parts of China), by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south, by Pakistan to the west, and by Afghanistan to the northwest. The northern and western portions are administered by Pakistan and comprise three areas: Azad Kashmir, Gilgit, and Baltistan, ... The southern and southeastern portions constitute the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. The Indian- and Pakistani-administered portions are divided by a “line of control” agreed to in 1972, although neither country recognizes it as an international boundary. In addition, China became active in the eastern area of Kashmir in the 1950s and since 1962 has controlled the northeastern part of Ladakh (the easternmost portion of the region)."WEB, Kashmir territories profile, BBC, 16 July 2016,weblink Quote: "The Himalayan region of Kashmir has been a flashpoint between India and Pakistan for over six decades.Since India's partition and the creation of Pakistan in 1947, the nuclear-armed neighbours have fought three wars over the Muslim-majority territory, which both claim in full but control in part. Today it remains one of the most militarised zones in the world. China administers parts of the territory."WEB, Kashmir profile—timeline, BBC News, 16 July 2016,weblink 1950s—China gradually occupies eastern Kashmir (Aksai Chin).1962—China defeats India in a short war for control of Aksai Chin.1963—Pakistan cedes the Trans-Karakoram Tract of Kashmir to China., In the first half of the first millennium, the Kashmir region became an important centre of Hinduism and later of Buddhism; later still, in the ninth century, Kashmir Shaivism arose.Basham, A. L. (2005) The wonder that was India, Picador. Pp. 572. {{ISBN|0-330-43909-X}}, p. 110. In 1339, Shah Mir became the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir, inaugurating the Salatin-i-Kashmir or Shah Mir dynasty.Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume 15. 1908. Oxford University Press, Oxford and London. pp. 93–95. Kashmir was part of the Mughal Empire from 1586 to 1751, and thereafter, until 1820, of the Afghan Durrani Empire. That year, the Sikhs, under Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir. In 1846, after the Sikh defeat in the First Anglo-Sikh War, and upon the purchase of the region from the British under the Treaty of Amritsar, the Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh, became the new ruler of Kashmir. The rule of his descendants, under the paramountcy (or tutelage) of the British Crown, lasted until the partition of India in 1947, when the former princely state of the British Indian Empire became a disputed territory, now administered by three countries: India, Pakistan, and China.

Etymology

The word Kashmir was derived from the ancient Sanskrit language and was referred to as {{IAST|káśmīra}}.WEB,weblink A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages, Dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu, 2015-05-29, The Nilamata Purana describes the valley's origin from the waters, a lake called Sati-saras.{{citation |last=Akbar |first=M. J. |authorlink=M. J. Akbar |title=Kashmir, behind the vale |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=XURuAAAAMAAJ |year=1991 |publisher=Viking |p=9}}{{citation|last=Raina|first=Mohini Qasba|title=Kashur The Kashmiri Speaking People|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=5cXqAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA3|date=October 2013|publisher=Trafford Publishing|isbn=978-1-4907-0165-3|pages=3–}} A popular, but uncertain, local etymology of Kashmira is that it is land desiccated from water.{{citation|last=Snedden|first=Christopher|title=Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=s5KMCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA22|year=2015|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-1-84904-342-7|pages=22–}}An alternative, but also uncertain, etymology derives the name from the name of the Hindu sage Kashyapa who is believed to have settled people in this land. Accordingly, Kashmir would be derived from either kashyapa-mir (Kashyapa's Lake) or kashyapa-meru (Kashyapa's Mountain).The word has been referenced to in a Hindu scripture mantra worshipping the Hindu goddess Sharada and is mentioned to have resided in the land of kashmira, or which might have been a reference to the Sharada Peeth.The Ancient Greeks called the region Kasperia, which has been identified with Kaspapyros of Hecataeus of Miletus ((:wikt:apud|apud) Stephanus of Byzantium) and Kaspatyros of Herodotus (3.102, 4.44). Kashmir is also believed to be the country meant by Ptolemy's Kaspeiria.BOOK,weblink's%20Kaspeiria., Who Killed Kasheer?, Khan, Ruhail, 2017-07-06, Notion Press, 9781947283107, en, The earliest text which directly mentions the name Kashmir is in Ashtadhyayi written by the Sanskrit grammarian Pāṇini during the 5th century BC. Pāṇini called the people of Kashmir Kashmirikas.BOOK,weblink India and Central Asia: Classical to Contemporary Periods, Kumāra, Braja Bihārī, 2007, Concept Publishing Company, 9788180694578, 64, en, BOOK,weblink Kashur The Kashmiri Speaking People, Raina, Mohini Qasba, 2014-11-13, Partridge Publishing Singapore, 9781482899450, 11, en, BOOK,weblink Kashmir and It's People: Studies in the Evolution of Kashmiri Society, Kaw, M. K., 2004, APH Publishing, 9788176485371, en, Some other early references to Kashmir can also be found in Mahabharata in Sabha Parva and in puranas like Matsya Purana, Vayu Purana, Padma Purana and Vishnu Purana and Vishnudharmottara Purana.BOOK,weblink Cultural Heritage of Kashmiri Pandits, Toshakhānī, Śaśiśekhara, Warikoo, Kulbhushan, 2009, Pentagon Press, 9788182743984, 2–3, en, Huientsang, the Buddhist scholar and Chinese traveller, called Kashmir kia-shi-milo, while some other Chinese accounts referred to Kashmir as ki-pin and ache-pin.Cashmere is an archaic spelling of modern Kashmir, and in some countries{{which|date=August 2019}} it is still spelled this way.In the Kashmiri language, Kashmir itself is known as Kasheer.P. iv 'Kashmir Today' by Government, 1998

History

{{Further|Timeline of the Kashmir conflict|Kashmir conflict}}

Hinduism and Buddhism in Kashmir

{{Further|Buddhism in Kashmir|Kashmir Shaivism}}File:Buddhist tope baramula1868.jpg|thumb|left|This general view of the unexcavated Buddhist stupa near Baramulla, with two figures standing on the summit, and another at the base with measuring scales, was taken by John Burke in 1868. The stupa, which was later excavated, dates to 500 CE.]]During the ancient and medieval periods, Kashmir was an important centre for the development of a Hindu-Buddhist syncretism, in which Madhyamaka and Yogachara were blended with Shaivism and Advaita Vedanta. The Buddhist Mauryan emperor Ashoka is often credited with having founded the old capital of Kashmir, Shrinagari, now ruins on the outskirts of modern Srinagar. Kashmir was long a stronghold of Buddhism.A.K. Warder, Indian Buddhism. Motilal Banarsidass 2000, page 256. As a Buddhist seat of learning, the Sarvastivada school strongly influenced Kashmir.A.K. Warder, Indian Buddhism. Motilal Banarsidass 2000, pages 263–264. East and Central Asian Buddhist monks are recorded as having visited the kingdom. In the late 4th century CE, the famous Kuchanese monk KumārajÄ«va, born to an Indian noble family, studied DÄ«rghāgama and Madhyāgama in Kashmir under Bandhudatta. He later became a prolific translator who helped take Buddhism to China. His mother JÄ«va is thought to have retired to Kashmir. Vimalāká¹£a, a Sarvāstivādan Buddhist monk, travelled from Kashmir to Kucha and there instructed KumārajÄ«va in the Vinayapiá¹­aka.{{multiple image|perrow=2|total_width=450|caption_align=center! Administered by !! Area !! Population !! % Muslim !! % Hindu !! % Buddhist !! % Other|||Ladakh|~0.25 million (250,000)|46%|–|50%|3%||Gilgit–Baltistan|~2 million (2 million)|99%|–|–|–|
caption1=Martand Sun Temple Central shrine, dedicated to the deity Surya. The temple complex was built by the third ruler of the Karkota dynasty, Emperor Lalitaditya Muktapida, in the 8th century CE. It is one of the largest temple complexes on the Indian subcontinent.caption2=Ruins of the Martand Sun Temple. The temple was completely destroyed on the orders of Muslim Sultan Sikandar Butshikan in the early 15th century, with demolition lasting a year.}}Karkoá¹­a Empire (625–885 CE) was a powerful Hindu empire, which originated in the region of Kashmir.BOOK,weblink Life in India, Issue 1, dmy-all, Ram, P., 2014-12-01, {{dead link|date=April 2018|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}} It was founded by Durlabhvardhana during the lifetime of Harsha. The dynasty marked the rise of Kashmir as a power in South Asia.Kalhana (1147–1149); Rajatarangini. Avanti Varman ascended the throne of Kashmir on 855 CE, establishing the Utpala dynasty and ending the rule of Karkoá¹­a dynasty.BOOK, Ancient Indian History and Civilization, Sailendra Nath, Sen, New Age International, 1999, 295, 978-8122-411-98-0, According to tradition, Adi Shankara visited the pre-existing {{IAST|SarvajñapÄ«á¹­ha}} (Sharada Peeth) in Kashmir in the late 8th century or early 9th century CE. The Madhaviya Shankaravijayam states this temple had four doors for scholars from the four cardinal directions. The southern door of Sarvajna Pitha was opened by Adi Shankara.Shyama Kumar Chattopadhyaya (2000) The Philosophy of Sankar's Advaita Vedanta, Sarup & Sons, New Delhi {{ISBN|81-7625-222-0}}, {{ISBN|978-81-7625-222-5}} According to tradition, Adi Shankara opened the southern door by defeating in debate all the scholars there in all the various scholastic disciplines such as MÄ«māṃsā, Vedanta and other branches of Hindu philosophy; he ascended the throne of Transcendent wisdom of that temple.{{Citation| last=Tapasyananda| first=Swami| year=2002| title=Sankara-Dig-Vijaya| pages=186–195}}Abhinavagupta (c. 950–1020 CETriadic Heart of Shiva, Paul E. Muller-Ortega, page 12Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 27) was one of India's greatest philosophers, mystics and aestheticians. He was also considered an important musician, poet, dramatist, exegete, theologian, and logicianRe-accessing Abhinavagupta, Navjivan Rastogi, page 4Key to the Vedas, Nathalia Mikhailova, page 169 â€“ a polymathic personality who exercised strong influences on Indian culture.The Pratyabhijñā Philosophy, Ganesh Vasudeo Tagare, page 12Companion to Tantra, S.C. Banerji, page 89 He was born in the Kashmir ValleyDoctrine of Divine Recognition, K. C. Pandey, page V in a family of scholars and mystics and studied all the schools of philosophy and art of his time under the guidance of as many as fifteen (or more) teachers and gurus.Introduction to the Tantrāloka, Navjivan Rastogi, page 35 In his long life he completed over 35 works, the largest and most famous of which is Tantrāloka, an encyclopaedic treatise on all the philosophical and practical aspects of Trika and Kaula (known today as Kashmir Shaivism). Another one of his very important contributions was in the field of philosophy of aesthetics with his famous AbhinavabhāratÄ« commentary of Nāṭyaśāstra of Bharata Muni.Luce dei Tantra, Tantrāloka, Abhinavagupta, Raniero Gnoli, page LXXVIIIn the 10th century Mokshopaya or Moksopaya Shastra, a philosophical text on salvation for non-ascetics (moksa-upaya: 'means to release'), was written on the Pradyumna hill in Srinagar.Slaje, Walter. (2005). "Locating the Moká¹£opāya", in: Hanneder, Jürgen (Ed.). The Moká¹£opāya, Yogavāsiṣṭha and Related Texts Aachen: Shaker Verlag. (Indologica Halensis. Geisteskultur Indiens. 7). p. 35.Gallery â€“ The journey to the PradyumnaÅ›ikhara {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20051223133656weblink |date=23 December 2005 }} It has the form of a public sermon and claims human authorship and contains about 30,000 shloka's (making it longer than the Ramayana). The main part of the text forms a dialogue between Vashistha and Rama, interchanged with numerous short stories and anecdotes to illustrate the content.{{Harvnb|Leslie|2003|pp=104–107}}Lekh Raj Manjdadria. (2002?) The State of Research to date on the Yogavastha (Moksopaya) {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130915014438weblink |date=15 September 2013 }}. This text was later (11th to the 14th century CE)Hanneder, Jürgen; Slaje, Walter. Moksopaya Project: Introduction. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20051228130128weblink |date=28 December 2005 }} expanded and vedanticised, which resulted in the Yoga Vasistha.{{Citation |last1=Chapple |first1=Christopher |authorlink=Christopher Chapple |last2=Venkatesananda |title=The Concise Yoga Vāsiṣṭha |contribution=Introduction |publisher=State University of New York Press |location=Albany |year=1984 |isbn=978-0-87395-955-1 |oclc=11044869|pages=x–xi}}Queen Kota Rani was medieval Hindu ruler of Kashmir, ruling until 1339. She was a notable ruler who is often credited for saving Srinagar city from frequent floods by getting a canal constructed, named after her "Kutte Kol". This canal receives water from Jhelum River at the entry point of city and again merges with Jhelum river beyond the city limits.Culture and political history of Kashmir, Prithivi Nath Kaul Bamzai, M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd., 1994.

Shah Mir Dynasty

File:Zeinulabuddin-tomb-srinagar1866.JPG|thumb|Gateway of enclosure, (once a Hindu temple) of Zein-ul-ab-ud-din's Tomb, in Srinagar. Probable date 400 to 500 CE, 1868. John Burke. Oriental and India Office Collection. British Library.]]Shams-ud-Din Shah Mir (reigned 1339–42) was the first Muslim ruler of KashmirConcise Encyclopeida Of World History By Carlos Ramirez-Faria, page 412 and founder of the Shah Mir dynasty.The Pearson Indian History Manual for the UPSC Civil Services Page 104 "However, the situation changed with the ending of the Hindu rule and founding of the Shahmiri dynasty by Shahmir or Dhams-ud-din (1339–1342). The devastating attack on Kashmir in 1320 by the Mongol leader, Dalucha, was a prelude to it. It is said ... The Sultan was himself a learned man, and composed poetry. He was ..." Kashmiri historian Jonaraja, in his Dvitīyā Rājataraṅginī mentioned Shah Mir was from the country of Panchagahvara (identified as the Panjgabbar valley between Rajouri and Budhal), and his ancestors were Kshatriya, who converted to Islam.{{citation |last=Sharma |first=R. S. |authorlink=Ram Sharan Sharma |title=A Comprehensive History of India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ucQKAQAAIAAJ |year=1992 |publisher=Orient Longmans |isbn=978-81-7007-121-1 |p=628 |quote="Jonaraja records two events of Suhadeva's reign (1301-20), which were of far-reaching importance and virtually changed the course of the history of Kashmir. The first was the arrival of Shah Mir in 1313. He was a Muslim condottiere from the border of Panchagahvara, an area situated to the south of the Divasar pargana in the valley of river Ans, a tributary of the Chenab."}}{{citation |last=Zutshi |first=N. K. |title=Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin of Kashmir: an age of enlightenment |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=AzluAAAAMAAJ |year=1976 |publisher=Nupur Prakashan |pp=6–7}}
Scholar A. Q. Rafiqi states:
}}}}Rinchan, from Ladakh, and Lankar Chak, from Dard territory near Gilgit, came to Kashmir and played a notable role in the subsequent political history of the Valley. All the three men were granted Jagirs (feudatory estates) by the King. Rinchan became the ruler of Kashmir for three years.Shah Mir was the first ruler of the Shah Mir dynasty, which was established in 1339. Muslim ulama, such as Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani, arrived from Central Asia to proselytize in Kashmir and their efforts converted thousands of Kashmiris to IslamBOOK,weblink Kashmir, Amin, Tahir, Schofield, Victoria, The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, A large number of Muslim ʿulamāʿ came from Central Asia to Kashmir to preach; Sayyid Bilāl Shāh, Sayyid Jalāluddīn of Bukhara, Sayyid Tajuddīn, his brother Sayyid Ḥusayn Sīmānī, Sayyid ʿAlī Ḥamadānī, his son Mir Muḥammad Hamadānī, and Shaykh Nūruddīn are some of the well-known ʿulamāʿ who played a significant role in spreading Islam., and Hamadani's son also convinced Sikander Butshikan to enforce Islamic law. By the late 1400s most Kashmiris had accepted Islam.BOOK,weblink Kashmir, Amin, Tahir, Schofield, Victoria, The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, The contribution of Sayyid ʿAlī Hamadānī, popularly known as Shah-yi Hamadān, is legendary. Born at Hamadān (Iran) in 1314 and belonging to the Kubrawīyah order of Ṣūfīs, a branch of the Suhrawardīyah, he paid three visits to Kashmir in 1372, 1379, and 1383; together with several hundred followers, he converted thousands of Kashmiris to Islam. His son Sayyid Muḥammad Hamadānī continued his work, vigorously propagating Islam as well as influencing the Muslim ruler Sikander (1389–1413) to enforce Islamic law and to establish the office of the Shaykh al-Islām (chief religious authority). By the end of the fifteenth century, the majority of the people had embraced Islam., Persian was introduced in Kashmir by the Šāh-Miri dynasty (1349-1561) and started to flourish under Sultan Zayn-al-ʿĀbedin (1420–70).WEB,weblink Kashmir, 2012, Encyclopedia Iranica,

Mughal rule

File:Nishat Bagh (14545903241).jpg|thumb|Nishat Bagh, a Persian Garden built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Srinagar, Kashmir]]The Mughal padishah (emperor) Akbar conquered Kashmir from 1585–86, taking advantage of Kashmir's internal Sunni-Shia divisions,BOOK,weblink Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris, Snedden, Christopher, Oxford University Press, 2015, 9781849043427, 29, Similarly, Sunni and Shia Kashmiris had troubles at times, with their differences offering the third Mughal Emperor, Akbar (ruled 1556–1605), a pretext to invade Kashmir, and capture it, in 1586., and thus ended indigenous Kashmiri Muslim rule.{{citation|last=Puri|first=Balraj|title=5000 Years of Kashmir|date=June 2009|url=https://books.google.com.au/books?id=5EWo7eszcbgC&pg=PA45#v=onepage&q=end%20of%20muslim%20rule%20in%20kashmir|number=6|quote=It was emperor Akbar who brought an end to indigenous Kashmiri Muslim rule that had lasted 250 years. The watershed in Kashmiri history is not the beginning of the Muslim rule as is regarded in the rest of the subcontinent but the changeover from Kashmiri rule to a non-Kashmiri rule.|authorlink=Balraj Puri|newspaper=Epilogue|volume=3|access-date=31 December 2016|pp=43–45|via=}} Akbar added it to the Kabul Subah (encompassing modern-day northeastern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan and the Kashmir Valley of India), but Shah Jahan carved it out as a separate subah (imperial top-level province) with its seat at Srinagar. Kashmir became the northern-most region of Mughal India as well as a pleasure ground in the summertime. They built Persian water-gardens in Srinagar, along the shores of Dal Lake, with cool and elegantly proportioned terraces, fountains, roses, jasmine and rows of chinar trees.WEB,weblink Between the Mountains, Hilton, Isabel, 2002, The New Yorker,

Afghan rule

The Afghan Durrani dynasty's Durrani Empire controlled Kashmir from 1751, when 15th Mughal padshah (emperor) Ahmad Shah Bahadur's viceroy Muin-ul-Mulk was defeated and reinstated by the Durrani founder Ahmad Shah Durrani (who conquered, roughly, modern day Afghanistan and Pakistan from the Mughals and local rulers), until the 1820 Sikh triumph. The Afghan rulers brutally repressed Kashmiris of all faiths (according to Kashmiri historians).BOOK,weblink Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the Making of Kashmir, Zutshi, Chitralekha, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2004, 9781850657002, 35, Most historians of Kashmir agree on the rapacity of the Afghan governors, a period unrelieved by even brief respite devoted to good work and welfare for the people of Kashmir. According to these histories, the Afghans were brutally repressive with all Kashmiris, regardless of class or religion,

Sikh rule

In 1819, the Kashmir Valley passed from the control of the Durrani Empire of Afghanistan to the conquering armies of the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh of the Punjab,Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume 15. 1908. "Kashmir: History". pp. 94–95. thus ending four centuries of Muslim rule under the Mughals and the Afghan regime. As the Kashmiris had suffered under the Afghans, they initially welcomed the new Sikh rulers.{{Harvnb|Schofield, Kashmir in Conflict|2003|pp=5–6}} However, the Sikh governors turned out to be hard taskmasters, and Sikh rule was generally considered oppressive,{{Harvnb|Madan, Kashmir, Kashmiris, Kashimiriyat|2008|p=15}} protected perhaps by the remoteness of Kashmir from the capital of the Sikh Empire in Lahore.{{Harvnb|Zutshi, Languages of Belonging|2004|pp=39–41}} The Sikhs enacted a number of anti-Muslim laws, which included handing out death sentences for cow slaughter, closing down the Jamia Masjid in Srinagar, and banning the adhan, the public Muslim call to prayer. Kashmir had also now begun to attract European visitors, several of whom wrote of the abject poverty of the vast Muslim peasantry and of the exorbitant taxes under the Sikhs.BOOK,weblink Kashmir, Amin, Tahir, Schofield, Victoria, The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, During both Sikh and Dogra rule, heavy taxation, forced work without wages (begār), discriminatory laws, and rural indebtedness were widespread among the largely illiterate Muslim population., High taxes, according to some contemporary accounts, had depopulated large tracts of the countryside, allowing only one-sixteenth of the cultivable land to be cultivated. Many Kashmiri peasants migrated to the plains of the Punjab.BOOK,weblink Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the Making of Kashmir, Zutshi, Chitralekha, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2004, 9781850656944, 40, Kashmiri histories emphasize the wretchedness of life for the common Kashmiri during Sikh rule. According to these, the peasantry became mired in poverty and migrations of Kashmiri peasants to the plains of the Punjab reached high proportions. Several European travelers' accounts from the period testify to and provide evidence for such assertions., However, after a famine in 1832, the Sikhs reduced the land tax to half the produce of the land and also began to offer interest-free loans to farmers; Kashmir became the second highest revenue earner for the Sikh Empire. During this time Kashmiri shawls became known worldwide, attracting many buyers, especially in the West.The state of Jammu, which had been on the ascendant after the decline of the Mughal Empire, came under the sway of the Sikhs in 1770. Further in 1808, it was fully conquered by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Gulab Singh, then a youngster in the House of Jammu, enrolled in the Sikh troops and, by distinguishing himself in campaigns, gradually rose in power and influence. In 1822, he was anointed as the Raja of Jammu.{{sfn|Panikkar|1930|p=10–11, 14–34}} Along with his able general Zorawar Singh Kahluria, he conquered and subdued Rajouri (1821), Kishtwar (1821), Suru valley and Kargil (1835), Ladakh (1834–1840), and Baltistan (1840), thereby surrounding the Kashmir Valley. He became a wealthy and influential noble in the Sikh court.{{sfn|Schofield, Kashmir in Conflict|2003|pp=6–7}}

Princely state

File:NWFP-Kashmir1909-a.jpg|thumb|1909 Map of the Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu. The names of regions, important cities, rivers, and mountains are underlined in red.]]In 1845, the First Anglo-Sikh War broke out. According to The Imperial Gazetteer of IndiaGulab Singh contrived to hold himself aloof till the battle of Sobraon (1846), when he appeared as a useful mediator and the trusted advisor of Sir Henry Lawrence. Two treaties were concluded. By the first the State of Lahore (i.e. West Punjab) handed over to the British, as equivalent for one crore indemnity, the hill countries between the rivers Beas and Indus; by the second the British made over to Gulab Singh for 75 lakhs all the hilly or mountainous country situated to the east of the Indus and the west of the Ravi i.e. the Vale of Kashmir)."Drafted by a treaty and a bill of sale, and constituted between 1820 and 1858, the Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu (as it was first called) combined disparate regions, religions, and ethnicities:Bowers, Paul. 2004. "Kashmir." Research Paper 4/28 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090326182755weblink |date=26 March 2009 }}, International Affairs and Defence, House of Commons Library, United Kingdom. to the east, Ladakh was ethnically and culturally Tibetan and its inhabitants practised Buddhism; to the south, Jammu had a mixed population of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs; in the heavily populated central Kashmir valley, the population was overwhelmingly Sunni Muslim, however, there was also a small but influential Hindu minority, the Kashmiri brahmins or pandits; to the northeast, sparsely populated Baltistan had a population ethnically related to Ladakh, but which practised Shia Islam; to the north, also sparsely populated, Gilgit Agency, was an area of diverse, mostly Shi'a groups; and, to the west, Punch was Muslim, but of different ethnicity than the Kashmir valley. After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, in which Kashmir sided with the British, and the subsequent assumption of direct rule by Great Britain, the princely state of Kashmir came under the suzerainty of the British Crown.In the British census of India of 1941, Kashmir registered a Muslim majority population of 77%, a Hindu population of 20% and a sparse population of Buddhists and Sikhs comprising the remaining 3%.{{Harvnb|Bose, Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace|2003|pp=15–17}} That same year, Prem Nath Bazaz, a Kashmiri Pandit journalist wrote: "The poverty of the Muslim masses is appalling. ... Most are landless laborers, working as serfs for absentee [Hindu] landlords ... Almost the whole brunt of official corruption is borne by the Muslim masses."Quoted in {{Harvnb|Bose, Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace|2003|pp=15–17}} Under the Hindu rule, Muslims faced hefty taxation, discrimination in the legal system and were forced into labor without any wages.{{citation |last1=Amin |first1=Tahir |last2=Schofield |first2=Victoria |chapter=Kashmir |title=The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World |year=2009 |chapter-url=http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t236/e0433 |access-date=19 June 2018}} Conditions in the princely state caused a significant migration of people from the Kashmir Valley to Punjab of British India.BOOK,weblink Transforming India, 2013, Harvard University Press, 978-0-674-72820-2, 211, Sumantra Bose, For almost a century until the census, a small Hindu elite had ruled over a vast and impoverished Muslim peasantry.{{Harvnb|Talbot|Singh|2009|p=54}} Driven into docility by chronic indebtedness to landlords and moneylenders, having no education besides, nor awareness of rights, the Muslim peasants had no political representation until the 1930s.

1947 and 1948

{{Further|Kashmir conflict|Timeline of the Kashmir conflict|1947 Poonch Rebellion|Indo-Pakistani War of 1947|1947 Jammu massacres|1947 Mirpur massacre}}(File:Brit IndianEmpireReligions3.jpg|thumb|The prevailing religions by district in the 1901 Census of the Indian Empire.)Ranbir Singh's grandson Hari Singh, who had ascended the throne of Kashmir in 1925, was the reigning monarch in 1947 at the conclusion of British rule of the subcontinent and the subsequent partition of the British Indian Empire into the newly independent Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.In the run up to 1947 partition, there were two major parties in the princely state: the National Conference and the Muslim Conference. The former was led by the charismatic Kashmiri leader Sheikh Abdullah, who tilted towards the accession of the state to India, whilst the latter tilted towards accession to Pakistan.BOOK,weblink's%20political%20scene%20was%20dominated%20by%20two%20parties%3A%20the%20All%20J%26K%20National%20Conference%20(commonly%20called%20the%20National%20Conference)%20and%20the%20All%20J%26K%20Muslim%20Conference, Kashmir-The Untold Story, Snedden, Christopher, HarperCollins Publishers India, 2013, 9789350298985, 22, In 1947, J&K's political scene was dominated by two parties: the All J&K National Conference (commonly called the National Conference) and the All J&K Muslim Conference (commonly called the Muslim Conference). Each conference had a different aspiration for J&K's status: the National Conference opposed J&K joining Pakistan; the Muslim Conference favoured this option., The National Conference enjoyed popular support in the Kashmir Valley whilst the Muslim Conference was more popular in the Jammu region.BOOK,weblink's%20political%20scene%20was%20dominated%20by%20two%20parties%3A%20the%20All%20J%26K%20National%20Conference%20(commonly%20called%20the%20National%20Conference)%20and%20the%20All%20J%26K%20Muslim%20Conference, Kashmir-The Untold Story, Snedden, Christopher, HarperCollins Publishers India, 2013, 9789350298985, The National Conference was strongest in the Kashmir Valley... conversely, outside the Kashmir Valley its support was much less, with perhaps five to 15 per cent of the population supporting it. The Muslim Conference had a lot of support in Jammu Province and much less in the Kashmir Valley., The Hindus and Sikhs of the state were firmly in favour of joining India, as were the Buddhists.BOOK,weblink The Untold Story of the People of Azad Kashmir, Snedden, Christopher, Hurst, 2012, 9781849041508, 35, Those Hindus and Sikhs who comprised a majority in the eastern parts of Jammu province were strongly pro-Indian. Their dislike of Pakistan and pro-Pakistani J&K Muslims was further heightened by the arrival of angry and agitated Hindu and Sikh refugees from western (Pakistani) Punjab after 15 August 1947. Accession to Pakistan therefore, would almost certainly have seen these people either fight to retain their land or take flight to India. In the event of accession to Pakistan, Hindu Pandits and Sikhs in the Kashmir Valley, most of whom probably favoured J&K joining India, might also have fled to pro-Indian parts of J&K, or to India. Although their position is less clear, Ladakhi Buddhists probably favoured India also., 30 December 2016, However, the sentiments of the state's Muslim population were divided. Scholar Christopher Snedden states that the Muslims of Western Jammu, and also the Muslims of the Frontier Districts Province, strongly wanted Jammu and Kashmir to join Pakistan.BOOK,weblink Kashmir-The Untold Story, Snedden, Christopher, HarperCollins Publishers India, 2013, 9789350298985, Similarly, Muslims in Western Jammu Province, particularly in Poonch, many of whom had martial capabilities, and Muslims in the Frontier Districts Province strongly wanted J&K to join Pakistan., The ethnic Kashmiri Muslims of the Kashmir Valley, on the other hand, were ambivalent about Pakistan (possibly due to their secular nature).BOOK,weblink Kashmir-The Untold Story, Snedden, Christopher, HarperCollins Publishers India, 2013, 9789350298985, An important trait evident among Kashmiris partially explains why Kashmiri Muslims were ambivalent about Pakistan in 1947., BOOK,weblink Kashmir-The Untold Story, Snedden, Christopher, HarperCollins Publishers India, 2013, 9789350298985, One significant result of the concept of Kashmiriness was that Kashmiris may have been naturally attracted to secular thinking., BOOK,weblink The Untold Story of the People of Azad Kashmir, Snedden, Christopher, Hurst, 2012, 9781849041508, 24, The CMG, the best-informed English-language newspaper on J&K affairs, on 21 October 1947 reported that the southern Kashmir Valley, which apparently was the 'stronghold' of the Kisan Mazdoor Conference, 'last week witnessed a massive upsurge in favour of Pakistan'. However, the CMG's report predated the tribal invasion of Kashmir Province by one day, after which support for pro-Pakistan parties may have lessened, at least in the short term, even though southern Kashmir was not directly affected by this invasion., 30 December 2016, BOOK, D. A. Low, Political Inheritance of Pakistan,weblink 18 June 1991, Palgrave Macmillan UK, 978-1-349-11556-3, 237–, BOOK,weblink The Untold Story of the People of Azad Kashmir, Snedden, Christopher, Hurst, 2012, 9781849041508, 24, According to The Times' Special Correspondent in late October 1947, it was 'a moot point how far Abdullah's influence extends among the Kashmiri Muslims...but in Srinagar his influence is paramount'., 30 December 2016, The fact that Kashmiris were not particularly enamoured with the idea of Pakistan reflected the failure of the idea of Pan-Islamic identity in satisfying the political urges of Kashmiris.BOOK,weblink Jammu and Kashmir: Politics of Identity and Separatism, Chowdhary, Rekha, Routledge, 2015, 9781317414049, That is why, Kashmiris were not particularly enamoured with the idea of Pakistan. The developments of 1930s (when Muslim Conference was converted into the National Conference) and 1940s (when Kashmiri leadership took a deliberated decision to demand self-government) clearly reflected the failure of pan-Islamic identity satisfying the political urges of Kashmiris., At the same time there was also a lack of interest in merging with Indian nationalism.BOOK,weblink Jammu and Kashmir: Politics of Identity and Separatism, Chowdhary, Rekha, Routledge, 2015, 9781317414056, 20, However, even while rejecting Pakistan, Sheikh did not agree to accept union with India in an unconditional manner. He was very firm about protecting the rights and identity of Kashmiris. As Puri argues, it was the same reason that compelled the Kashmiri leaders to distance themselves from the Muslim politics of pre-partition India, which reflected a lack of urge to merge with Indian nationalism., According to Burton Stein's History of IndiaKashmir was neither as large nor as old an independent state as Hyderabad; it had been created rather off-handedly by the British after the first defeat of the Sikhs in 1846, as a reward to a former official who had sided with the British. The Himalayan kingdom was connected to India through a district of the Punjab, but its population was 77 per cent Muslim and it shared a boundary with Pakistan. Hence, it was anticipated that the maharaja would accede to Pakistan when the British paramountcy ended on 14–15 August. When he hesitated to do this, Pakistan launched a guerrilla onslaught meant to frighten its ruler into submission. Instead the Maharaja appealed to MountbattenViscount Louis Mountbatten, the last Viceroy of British India, stayed on in independent India from 1947 to 1948, serving as the first Governor-General of the Union of India. for assistance, and the governor-general agreed on the condition that the ruler accede to India. Indian soldiers entered Kashmir and drove the Pakistani-sponsored irregulars from all but a small section of the state. The United Nations was then invited to mediate the quarrel. The UN mission insisted that the opinion of Kashmiris must be ascertained, while India insisted that no referendum could occur until all of the state had been cleared of irregulars.Stein, Burton. 2010. A History of India. Oxford University Press. 432 pages. {{ISBN|978-1-4051-9509-6}}. Page 358.In the last days of 1948, a ceasefire was agreed under UN auspices. However, since the referendum demanded by the UN was never conducted, relations between India and Pakistan soured, and eventually led to two more wars over Kashmir in 1965 and 1999.File:Kashmir top.jpg|thumb|Topographic mapTopographic map

Current status and political divisions

India has control of about half the area of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, which continues the name Jammu and Kashmir, while Pakistan controls a third of the region, divided into two de facto provinces, Gilgit-Baltistan and Azad Kashmir.According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "Although there was a clear Muslim majority in Kashmir before the 1947 partition and its economic, cultural, and geographic contiguity with the Muslim-majority area of the Punjab (in Pakistan) could be convincingly demonstrated, the political developments during and after the partition resulted in a division of the region. Pakistan was left with territory that, although basically Muslim in character, was thinly populated, relatively inaccessible, and economically underdeveloped. The largest Muslim group, situated in the Valley of Kashmir and estimated to number more than half the population of the entire region, lay in Indian-administered territory, with its former outlets via the Jhelum valley route blocked."The eastern region of the former princely state of Kashmir is also involved in a boundary dispute that began in the late 19th century and continues into the 21st. Although some boundary agreements were signed between Great Britain, Afghanistan and Russia over the northern borders of Kashmir, China never accepted these agreements, and China's official position has not changed following the communist revolution of 1949 that established the People's Republic of China. By the mid-1950s the Chinese army had entered the north-east portion of Ladakh.Kashmir. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 27 March 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080113042440weblink |date=13 January 2008 }}By 1956–57 they had completed a military road through the Aksai Chin area to provide better communication between Xinjiang and western Tibet. India's belated discovery of this road led to border clashes between the two countries that culminated in the Sino-Indian war of October 1962.The region is divided amongst three countries in a territorial dispute: Pakistan controls the northwest portion (Northern Areas and Kashmir), India controls the central and southern portion (Jammu and Kashmir) and Ladakh, and the People's Republic of China controls the northeastern portion (Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract). India controls the majority of the Siachen Glacier area, including the Saltoro Ridge passes, whilst Pakistan controls the lower territory just southwest of the Saltoro Ridge. India controls {{convert|101338|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}} of the disputed territory, Pakistan controls {{convert|85846|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}, and the People's Republic of China controls the remaining {{convert|37555|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}.Jammu and Azad Kashmir lie outside Pir Panjal range,{{clarify|date=December 2018}} and are under Indian and Pakistani control respectively. These are populous regions. Gilgit–Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas, is a group of territories in the extreme north, bordered by the Karakoram, the western Himalayas, the Pamir, and the Hindu Kush ranges. With its administrative centre in the town of Gilgit, the Northern Areas cover an area of {{convert|72,971|km2}} and have an estimated population approaching 1 million (10 lakhs).Ladakh is a region in the east, between the Kunlun mountain range in the north and the main Great Himalayas to the south.{{Citation |title=Ladakh: The Land and the People |last=Jina |first=Prem Singh |year=1996 |publisher=Indus Publishing |isbn=978-81-7387-057-6 }} Main cities are Leh and Kargil. It is under Indian administration and is part of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is one of the most sparsely populated regions in the area and is mainly inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent. Aksai Chin is a vast high-altitude desert of salt that reaches altitudes up to {{convert|5000|m|ft}}. Geographically part of the Tibetan Plateau, Aksai Chin is referred to as the Soda Plain. The region is almost uninhabited, and has no permanent settlements.Though these regions are in practice administered by their respective claimants, neither India nor Pakistan has formally recognised the accession of the areas claimed by the other. India claims those areas, including the area "ceded" to China by Pakistan in the Trans-Karakoram Tract in 1963, are a part of its territory, while Pakistan claims the entire region excluding Aksai Chin and Trans-Karakoram Tract. The two countries have fought several declared wars over the territory. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 established the rough boundaries of today, with Pakistan holding roughly one-third of Kashmir, and India one-half, with a dividing line of control established by the United Nations. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 resulted in a stalemate and a UN-negotiated ceasefire.

Demographics

In the 1901 Census of the British Indian Empire, the population of the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu was 2,905,578. Of these, 2,154,695 (74.16%) were Muslims, 689,073 (23.72%) Hindus, 25,828 (0.89%) Sikhs, and 35,047 (1.21%) Buddhists (implying 935 (0.032%) others).The Hindus were found mainly in Jammu, where they constituted a little less than 60% of the population.Imperial Gazetteer of India, volume 15. 1908. Oxford University Press, Oxford and London. pp. 99–102. In the Kashmir Valley, the Hindus represented "524 in every 10,000 of the population (i.e. 5.24%), and in the frontier wazarats of Ladhakh and Gilgit only 94 out of every 10,000 persons (0.94%)." In the same Census of 1901, in the Kashmir Valley, the total population was recorded to be 1,157,394, of which the Muslim population was 1,083,766, or 93.6% and the Hindu population 60,641. Among the Hindus of Jammu province, who numbered 626,177 (or 90.87% of the Hindu population of the princely state), the most important castes recorded in the census were "Brahmans (186,000), the Rajputs (167,000), the Khattris (48,000) and the Thakkars (93,000)."In the 1911 Census of the British Indian Empire, the total population of Kashmir and Jammu had increased to 3,158,126. Of these, 2,398,320 (75.94%) were Muslims, 696,830 (22.06%) Hindus, 31,658 (1%) Sikhs, and 36,512 (1.16%) Buddhists. In the last census of British India in 1941, the total population of Kashmir and Jammu (which as a result of the second world war, was estimated from the 1931 census) was 3,945,000. Of these, the total Muslim population was 2,997,000 (75.97%), the Hindu population was 808,000 (20.48%), and the Sikh 55,000 (1.39%).JOURNAL, Brush, J. E., 1949, The Distribution of Religious Communities in India, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 39, 2, 81–98, 10.1080/00045604909351998, The Kashmiri Pandits, the only Hindus of the Kashmir valley, who had stably constituted approximately 4 to 5% of the population of the valley during Dogra rule (1846–1947), and 20% of whom had left the Kashmir valley by 1950,{{Harvnb|Zutshi|2003|p=318}} Quote: "Since a majority of the landlords were Hindu, the (land) reforms (of 1950) led to a mass exodus of Hindus from the state. ... The unsettled nature of Kashmir's accession to India, coupled with the threat of economic and social decline in the face of the land reforms, led to increasing insecurity among the Hindus in Jammu, and among Kashmiri Pandits, 20 per cent of whom had emigrated from the Valley by 1950." began to leave in much greater numbers in the 1990s. According to a number of authors, approximately 100,000 of the total Kashmiri Pandit population of 140,000 left the valley during that decade.{{Harvnb|Bose|1997|p=71}}, {{Harvnb|Rai|2004|p=286}}, {{Harvnb|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p=274}} Quote: "The Hindu Pandits, a small but influential elite community who had secured a favourable position, first under the maharajas, and then under the successive Congress regimes, and proponents of a distinctive Kashmiri culture that linked them to India, felt under siege as the uprising gathered force. Of a population of some 140,000, perhaps 100,000 Pandits fled the state after 1990; their cause was quickly taken up by the Hindu right." Other authors have suggested a higher figure for the exodus, ranging from the entire population of over 150{{Harvnb|Malik|2005|p=318}} to 190 thousand (1.5 to 190,000) of a total Pandit population of 200 thousand (200,000){{Harvnb|Madan|2008|p=25}} to a number as high as 300 thousandCIA Factbook: India–Transnational Issues (300,000).People in Jammu speak Hindi, Punjabi and Dogri, the Vale of Kashmir speaks Kashmiri and the sparsely inhabited Ladakh region speaks Tibetan and Balti.NEWS,weblink Kashmir {{!, region, Indian subcontinent|work=Encyclopædia Britannica|access-date=2017-04-05|language=en}}The total population of India's division of Jammu and Kashmir is 12,541,302WEB,weblink India, Jammu and Kashmir population statistics, GeoHive, 2015-05-29, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150419221846weblink">weblink 19 April 2015, dmy-all, and Pakistan's division of Kashmir is 2,580,000 and Gilgit-Baltistan is 870,347.WEB,weblink Pakistan population statistics, GeoHive, 2015-05-29, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130406012611weblink">weblink 6 April 2013, dmy-all, {| class="wikitable"
{{IND}}|Kashmir Valley|~4 million (4 million)|95%|4%*|–|–
Jammu Division>Jammu|~3 million (3 million)|30%|66%|–|4%
{{PAK}}|Azad Kashmir|~4 million (4 million)|100%|–|–|–
{{PRC}}|Aksai Chin|–|–|–|–|–
Trans-Karakoram Tract>Trans-Karakoram|–|–|–|–|–
File:Muslim-shawl-makers-kashmir1867.jpg|A Muslim shawl-making family shown in Cashmere shawl manufactory, 1867, chromolithograph, William Simpson.File:KashmirPundit1895BritishLibrary.jpg|A group of Pundits, or Brahmin priests, in Kashmir, photographed by an unknown photographer in the 1890s.File:Kashmir Ladakh women in local costume.jpg|Brokpa women from Kargil, northern Ladakh, in local costumes

Economy

{{Further|Azad Kashmir#Economy|Jammu and Kashmir#Economy}}Kashmir's economy is centred around agriculture. Traditionally the staple crop of the valley was rice, which formed the chief food of the people. In addition, Indian corn, wheat, barley and oats were also grown. Given its temperate climate, it is suited for crops like asparagus, artichoke, seakale, broad beans, scarletrunners, beetroot, cauliflower and cabbage. Fruit trees are common in the valley, and the cultivated orchards yield pears, apples, peaches, and cherries. The chief trees are deodar, firs and pines, chenar or plane, maple, birch and walnut, apple, cherry.Historically, Kashmir became known worldwide when Cashmere wool was exported to other regions and nations (exports have ceased due to decreased abundance of the cashmere goat and increased competition from China). Kashmiris are well adept at knitting and making Pashmina shawls, silk carpets, rugs, kurtas, and pottery. Saffron, too, is grown in Kashmir. Srinagar is known for its silver-work, papier-mâché, wood-carving, and the weaving of silk. The economy was badly damaged by the 2005 Kashmir earthquake which, as of 8 October 2005, resulted in over 70,000 deaths in the Pakistan-controlled part of Kashmir and around 1,500 deaths in Indian-controlled Kashmir.{{Wide image|Srinagar pano.jpg|800px|Srinagar, the largest city of Kashmir|center}}

Transport

Transport is predominantly by air or road vehicles in the region.WEB,weblink Local Transport in Kashmir – Means of Transportation Kashmir – Mode of Transportation Kashmir India, Bharatonline.com, 3 August 2012, Kashmir has a {{convert|135|km|abbr=on|0}} long modern railway line that started in October 2009, and was last extended in 2013 and connects Baramulla, in the western part of Kashmir, to Srinagar and Banihal. It is expected to link Kashmir to the rest of India after the construction of the railway line from Katra to Banihal is completed.WEB,weblink How to Reach Kashmir by Train, Air, Bus?, Baapar.com, 22 January 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160308230308weblink">weblink 8 March 2016, dead, dmy-all,

See also

Notes

{{Reflist|25em}}

Bibliography

General history

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Kashmir history

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  • {{citation |editor-last=Rao |editor-first=Aparna |title=The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture? |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=nIUMAQAAMAAJ |date=2008 |publisher=Manohar Publishers & Distributors |isbn=978-81-7304-751-0 |ref={{sfnref|Aparna Rao, The Valley of Kashmir Composite Culture|2008}}}}
    • {{citation |last=Evans |first=Alexander |chapter=Kashmiri Exceptionalism |pages=713–741 |editor-last=Rao |editor-first=Aparna |title=The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture? |date=2008 |ref={{sfnref|Alexander, Kashmiri Exceptionalism|2008}}}}
    • {{citation |last=Kaw |first=Mushtaq A. |chapter=Land Rights in Rural Kashmir: A Study in Continuity and Change from Late-Sixteenth to Late-Twentieth Centuries |pages=207–234 |editor-last=Rao |editor-first=Aparna |title=The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture? |date=2008 |ref={{sfnref|Kaw, Land Rights in Rural Kashmir|2008}}}}
    • {{citation |last=Khan |first=Mohammad Ishaq |chapter=Islam, State and Society in Medieval Kashmir: A Revaluation of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani's Historical Role |pages=97–198 |editor-last=Rao |editor-first=Aparna |title=The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture? |date=2008 |ref={{sfnref|Khan, Islam, State and Society in Medieval Kashmir|2008}}}}
    • {{citation |last=Madan |first=T. N. |authorlink=Triloki Nath Madan |chapter=Kashmir, Kashmiris, Kashmiriyat: An Introductory Essay |pages=1–36 |editor-last=Rao |editor-first=Aparna |title=The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture? |date=2008 |ref={{sfnref|Madan, Kashmir, Kashmiris, Kashimiriyat|2008}}}}
    • {{citation |last=Reynolds |first=Nathalène |chapter=Revisiting Key Episodes in Modern Kashmir History |pages=563–604 |editor-last=Rao |editor-first=Aparna |title=The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture? |date=2008 |ref={{sfnref|Reynolds, Revisiting Key Episodes in History|2008}}}}
    • {{citation |last=Witzel |first=Michael |authorlink=Michael Witzel |chapter=The Kashmiri Pandits: Their Early History |pages=37–96 |editor-last=Rao |editor-first=Aparna |title=The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture? |date=2008 |ref={{sfnref|Witzel, Kashmiri Pandits Early History|2008}}}}
    • {{citation |last=Zutshi |first=Chitraleka |chapter=Shrines, Political Authority, and Religious Identities in Late-Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth-century Kashmir |pages=235–258 |editor-last=Rao |editor-first=Aparna |title=The Valley of Kashmir: The Making and Unmaking of a Composite Culture? |date=2008 |ref={{sfnref|Zutshi, Shrines, Political Authority and Religious Identities|2008}}}}
  • {{citation |last=Schaffer |first=Howard B. |title=The Limits of Influence: America's Role in Kashmir |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=kyYOWdA5PNkC |date=2009 |publisher=Brookings Institution Press |isbn=978-0-8157-0370-9 |ref={{sfnref|Schaffer, The Limits of Influence|2009}}}}
  • {{citation |first=Victoria |last=Schofield |authorlink=Victoria Schofield |title=Kashmir in Conflict |publisher=I. B. Taurus & Co |location=London and New York |year=2003 |origyear=First published in 2000 |isbn=978-1860648984 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=rkTetMfI6QkC |ref={{sfnref|Schofield, Kashmir in Conflict|2003}}}}
  • {{citation |last=Singh |first=Bawa Satinder |title=Raja Gulab Singh's Role in the First Anglo-Sikh War |journal=Modern Asian Studies |volume=5 |pages=35–59 |number=1 |year=1971 |jstor=311654 |ref={{sfnref|Satinder Singh, Raja Gulab Singh's Role|1971}} |doi=10.1017/s0026749x00002845}}
  • {{citation |last=Zutshi |first=Chitralekha |title=Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the Making of Kashmir |url=https://books.google.com.au/books?id=dlBjzE-1ML8C&pg=PA318 |publisher=C. Hurst & Co. Publishers |isbn=978-1-85065-700-2 |ref={{sfnref|Zutshi, Languages of Belonging|2004}}|year=2004 }}

Historical sources

  • Blank, Jonah. "Kashmir–Fundamentalism Takes Root", Foreign Affairs, 78.6 (November/December 1999): 36–42.
  • Drew, Federic. 1877. The Northern Barrier of India: a popular account of the Jammoo and Kashmir Territories with Illustrations; 1st edition: Edward Stanford, London. Reprint: Light & Life Publishers, Jammu. 1971.
  • Evans, Alexander. Why Peace Won't Come to Kashmir, Current History (Vol 100, No 645) April 2001 p. 170–175.
  • Hussain, Ijaz. 1998. "Kashmir Dispute: An International Law Perspective", National Institute of Pakistan Studies.
  • Irfani, Suroosh, ed "Fifty Years of the Kashmir Dispute": Based on the proceedings of the International Seminar held at Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir 24–25 August 1997: University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, AJK, 1997.
  • Joshi, Manoj Lost Rebellion: Kashmir in the Nineties (Penguin, New Delhi, 1999).
  • Khan, L. Ali The Kashmir Dispute: A Plan for Regional Cooperation 31 Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 31, p. 495 (1994).
  • Knight, E. F. 1893. Where Three Empires Meet: A Narrative of Recent Travel in: Kashmir, Western Tibet, Gilgit, and the adjoining countries. Longmans, Green, and Co., London. Reprint: Ch'eng Wen Publishing Company, Taipei. 1971.
  • Knight, William, Henry. 1863. Diary of a Pedestrian in Cashmere and Thibet. Richard Bentley, London. Reprint 1998: Asian Educational Services, New Delhi.
  • Köchler, Hans. The Kashmir Problem between Law and Realpolitik. Reflections on a Negotiated Settlement. Keynote speech delivered at the "Global Discourse on Kashmir 2008." European Parliament, Brussels, 1 April 2008.
  • Moorcroft, William and Trebeck, George. 1841. Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and the Panjab; in Ladakh and Kashmir, in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz, and Bokhara... from 1819 to 1825, Vol. II. Reprint: New Delhi, Sagar Publications, 1971.
  • Neve, Arthur. (Date unknown). The Tourist's Guide to Kashmir, Ladakh, Skardo &c. 18th Edition. Civil and Military Gazette, Ltd., Lahore. (The date of this edition is unknown â€“ but the 16th edition was published in 1938).
  • Stein, M. Aurel. 1900. Kalhaṇa's Rājataraá¹…giṇī–A Chronicle of the Kings of KaÅ›mÄ«r, 2 vols. London, A. Constable & Co. Ltd. 1900. Reprint, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1979.
  • Younghusband, Francis and Molyneux, Edward 1917. Kashmir. A. & C. Black, London.
  • Norelli-Bachelet, Patrizia. "Kashmir and the Convergence of Time, Space and Destiny", 2004; {{ISBN|0-945747-00-4}}. First published as a four-part series, March 2002 â€“ April 2003, in 'Prakash', a review of the Jagat Guru Bhagavaan Gopinath Ji Charitable Foundation. weblink
  • Muhammad Ayub. An Army; Its Role & Rule (A History of the Pakistan Army from Independence to Kargil 1947–1999). Pittsburgh: Rosedog Books, 2005. {{ISBN|0-8059-9594-3}}.

External links

{{commons category}}{{wikivoyage|Kashmir}} {{Azad Kashmir topics}}{{Jammu and Kashmir topics}}{{Kashmir conflict}}{{Territorial disputes in East, South, and Southeast Asia}}{{Authority control}}

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