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{{EngvarB|date=November 2017}}{{Use dmy dates|date=April 2013}}{{Hinduism}}Ishvara (Sanskrit: ईश्वर, IAST: Īśvara) is a concept in Hinduism, with a wide range of meanings that depend on the era and the school of Hinduism. In ancient texts of Indian philosophy, depending on the context, Ishvara can mean supreme soul, ruler, lord, king, queen or husband. In medieval era Hindu texts, depending on the school of Hinduism, Ishvara means God, Supreme Being, personal god, or special Self.In Shaivism and for many Hindus, Ishvara is synonymous with "Shiva", sometimes as Maheshvara or Parameshvara meaning the "Supreme lord", or as an Ishta-deva (personal god).BOOK, Roshen Dalal, Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide,weblink 2010, Penguin Books, 978-0-14-341421-6, 235, 379–380, Similarly for Vaishnavists and many Hindus, it is synonymous with Vishnu. In traditional Bhakti movements, Ishvara is one or more deities of an individual's preference from Hinduism's polytheistic canon of deities. In modern sectarian movements such as Arya Samaj and Brahmoism, Ishvara takes the form of a monotheistic God. In Yoga school of Hinduism, it is any "personal deity" or "spiritual inspiration". In Advaita Vedanta school, Ishvara is a monistic Universal Absolute that connects and is the Oneness in everyone and everything.Lance Nelson (1996), Living liberation in Shankara and classical Advaita, in Living Liberation in Hindu Thought (Editors: Andrew O. Fort, Patricia Y. Mumme), State University of New York Press, {{ISBN|978-0791427064}}, pages 38-39, 59 (footnote 105)


The root of the word Ishvara comes from īś- (ईश, Ish) which means "capable of" and "owner, ruler, chief of",Arthur Anthony Macdonell (2004), A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120820005}}, page 47. The second part of the word Ishvara is vara which means depending on context, "best, excellent, beautiful", "choice, wish, blessing, boon, gift", and "suitor, lover, one who solicits a girl in marriage".Arthur Anthony Macdonell (2004), A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120820005}}, page 270 The composite word, Ishvara literally means "owner of best, beautiful", "ruler of choices, blessings, boons", or "chief of suitor, lover".As a concept, Ishvara in ancient and medieval Sanskrit texts, variously means God, Supreme Being, Supreme Soul, lord, king or ruler, rich or wealthy man, god of love, deity Shiva, one of the Rudras, prince, husband and the number eleven.Monier Williams, Sanskrit-English dictionary, Search for Izvara, University of Cologne, GermanyApte Sanskrit-English dictionary, Search for Izvara, University of Cologne, GermanyJames Lochtefeld, "Ishvara", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing. {{ISBN|0-8239-2287-1}}, page 306The word Īśvara never appears in Rigveda. However, the verb īś- does appear in Rig veda, where the context suggests that the meaning of it is "capable of, able to".Madhav Deshpande (1991), Sense and Syntax in Vedic (Editors: Joel Brereton and Stephenie Jamison), Volumes 4-5, Brill, {{ISBN|978-9004093560}}, pages 23-27 It is absent in Samaveda, is rare in Atharvaveda, appears in Samhitas of Yajurveda. The contextual meaning, however as the ancient Indian grammarian Pāṇini explains, is neither god nor supreme being.The word Ishvara appears in numerous ancient Dharmasutras. However, Patrick Olivelle states that there Ishvara does not mean God, but means Vedas. Deshpande states that Ishvara in Dharmasutras could alternatively mean king, with the context literally asserting that "the Dharmasutras are as important as Ishvara (the king) on matters of public importance".Patrick Olivelle (2006), Between the Empires : Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE: Society in India, Oxford University Press, {{ISBN|978-0195305326}}, page 176In Saivite traditions of Hinduism, the term is used as part of the compound "Maheshvara" ("great lord") as a name for Shiva. In Mahayana Buddhism it is used as part of the compound "Avalokiteśvara" ("lord who hears the cries of the world"), the name of a bodhisattva revered for his compassion. When referring to divine as female, particularly in Shaktism, the feminine {{IAST|Īśvarī}} is sometimes used.BOOK, Roshen Dalal, Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide,weblink 2010, Penguin Books, 978-0-14-341421-6, 376,

Schools of thought

Among the six systems of Hindu philosophy, Samkhya and Mimamsa do not consider the concept of Ishvara, i.e., a supreme being, relevant. Yoga, Vaisheshika, Vedanta and Nyaya schools of Hinduism discuss Ishvara, but assign different meanings.Desmarais states that Isvara is a metaphysical concept in Yogasutras.Michele Marie Desmarais (2008), Changing Minds : Mind, Consciousness And Identity In Patanjali's Yoga-Sutra, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120833364}}, page 131 It does not mention deity anywhere, nor does it mention any devotional practices (Bhakti), nor does it give Ishvara characteristics typically associated with a deity. In Yoga school of Hinduism, states Whicher, Isvara is neither a creator God nor the universal Absolute of Advaita Vedanta school of Hinduism. Whicher also notes that some theistic sub-schools of Vedanta philosophy of Hinduism, inspired by the Yoga school, explain the term Ishvara as the "Supreme Being that rules over the cosmos and the individuated beings".Ian Whicher, The Integrity of the Yoga Darsana, State University of New York press, {{ISBN|978-0791438152}}, pages 82-86 Malinar states that in Samkhya-Yoga schools of Hinduism, Isvara is neither a creator-God, nor a savior-God.A Malinar (2014), Current Approaches: Articles on Key Themes, in The Bloomsbury Companion to Hindu Studies (Editor: Jessica Frazier), Bloomsbury Academic, {{ISBN|978-1472511515}}, page 79Zimmer in his 1951 Indian philosophies book noted that the Bhakti sub-schools refer to Isvara as a Divine Lord, or the deity of specific Bhakti sub-school.Zimmer (1951), Philosophies of India, Reprinted by Routledge in 2008, {{ISBN|978-0415462327}}, pages 242-243, 309-311 Modern sectarian movements have emphasized Ishvara as Supreme Lord; for example, Hare Krishna movement considers Krishna as the Lord,Karel Werner (1997), A Popular Dictionary of Hinduism, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0700710492}}, page 54 Arya Samaj and Brahmoism movements – influenced by Christian and Islamic movements in India – conceptualize Ishvara as a monotheistic all powerful Lord.RK Pruthi (2004), Arya Samaj and Indian Civilization, {{ISBN|978-8171417803}}, pages 5-6, 48-49 In traditional theistic sub-schools of Hinduism, such as the Vishishtadvaita Vedanta of Ramanuja and Dvaita Vedanta of Madhva, Ishvara is identified as Lord Vishnu/Narayana, that is distinct from the prakriti (material world) and purusha (soul, spirit).Radhakrishnan and Moore state that these variations in Isvara concept is consistent with Hinduism's notion of "personal God" where the "ideals or manifestation of individual's highest Self values that are esteemed".Radhakrishnan and Moore (1967, Reprinted 1989), A Source Book in Indian Philosophy, Princeton University Press, {{ISBN|978-0691019581}}, pages 37-39, 401-403, 498-503 Riepe, and others,Mircea Eliade (2009), Yoga: Immortality and Freedom, Princeton University Press, {{ISBN|978-0691142036}}, pages 73-76 state that schools of Hinduism leave the individual with freedom and choice of conceptualizing Isvara in any meaningful manner he or she wishes, either in the form of "deity of one's choice" or "formless Brahman (Absolute Reality, Universal Principle, true special Self)".Dale Riepe (1961, Reprinted 1996), Naturalistic Tradition in Indian Thought, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120812932}}, pages 177-184, 208-215RC Zaehner (1975), Our savage god: The perverse use of eastern thought, {{ISBN|978-0836206111}}, pages 69-72RC Zaehner (1966), Hinduism, Oxford University Press, 1980 edition: pages 126-129, Reprinted in 1983 as {{ISBN|978-0198880127}}

In Samkhya school of Hinduism

Samkhya is called one of the several major atheistic schools of Hinduism by some scholars.Lloyd Pflueger, Person Purity and Power in Yogasutra, in Theory and Practice of Yoga (Editor: Knut Jacobsen), Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120832329}}, pages 38-39Mike Burley (2012), Classical Samkhya and Yoga - An Indian Metaphysics of Experience, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0415648875}}, page 39Richard Garbe (2013), Die Samkhya-Philosophie, Indische Philosophie Volume 11, {{ISBN|978-1484030615}}, pages 25-27 (in German) Others, such as (:no:Knut A. Jacobsen|Jacobsen), Samkhya is more accurately described as non-theistic.Knut Jacobsen (2008), Theory and Practice of Yoga : 'Essays in Honour of Gerald James Larson, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120832329}}, pages 15-16 Isvara is considered an irrelevant concept, neither defined nor denied, in Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy.Knut Jacobsen (2008), Theory and Practice of Yoga : 'Essays in Honour of Gerald James Larson, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120832329}}, pages 76-77

In Yoga school of Hinduism

The Yogasutras of Patanjali, the foundational text of Yoga school of Hinduism, uses the term Ishvara in 11 verses: I.23 through I.29, II.1, II.2, II.32 and II.45. Ever since the Sutra's release, Hindu scholars have debated and commented on who or what is Isvara? These commentaries range from defining Isvara from a "personal god" to "special self" to "anything that has spiritual significance to the individual".Hariharānanda Āraṇya (2007), Parabhaktisutra, Aporisms on Sublime Devotion, (Translator: A Chatterjee), in Divine Hymns with Supreme Devotional Aphorisms, Kapil Math Press, Kolkata, pages 55-93; Hariharānanda Āraṇya (2007), Eternally Liberated Isvara and Purusa Principle, in Divine Hymns with Supreme Devotional Aphorisms, Kapil Math Press, Kolkata, pages 126-129 Whicher explains that while Patanjali's terse verses can be interpreted both as theistic or non-theistic, Patanjali's concept of Isvara in Yoga philosophy functions as a "transformative catalyst or guide for aiding the yogin on the path to spiritual emancipation".Ian Whicher (1999), The Integrity of the Yoga Darsana: A Reconsideration of Classical Yoga, State University of New York Press, {{ISBN|978-0791438152}}, page 86Patanjali defines Isvara (Sanskrit: ईश्वर) in verse 24 of Book 1, as "a special Self (पुरुषविशेष, puruṣa-viśeṣa)",BOOK, Āgāśe, K. S., Pātañjalayogasūtrāṇi, 1904, Ānandāśrama, Puṇe, 25,weblink Sanskrit: {{IAST|क्लेश कर्म विपाकाशयैःपरामृष्टः पुरुषविशेष ईश्वरः ॥२४॥}}– Yoga Sutras I.24This sutra of Yoga philosophy of Hinduism adds the characteristics of Isvara as that special Self which is unaffected (अपरामृष्ट, aparamrsta) by one's obstacles/hardships (क्लेश, klesha), one's circumstances created by past or one's current actions (कर्म, karma), one's life fruits (विपाक, vipâka), and one's psychological dispositions/intentions (आशय, ashaya).aparAmRSTa, kleza, karma, vipaka and ashaya; Sanskrit English Dictionary, Koeln University, GermanyLloyd Pflueger (2008), Person Purity and Power in Yogasutra, in Theory and Practice of Yoga (Editor: Knut Jacobsen), Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120832329}}, pages 31-45Patanjali's concept of Isvara is neither a creator God nor the universal Absolute of Advaita Vedanta school of Hinduism.(:no:Knut A. Jacobsen|Knut Jacobsen) (2008), Theory and Practice of Yoga : 'Essays in Honour of Gerald James Larson, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120832329}}, page 77

In Vaisesika school of Hinduism

Vaiśeṣika school of Hinduism, as founded by Kanada in 1st millennium BC, neither required nor relied on Ishvara for its atomistic naturalism philosophy. To it, substances and paramāṇu (atoms) were eternal, they moved and interacted based on impersonal, eternal adrsta (अदृष्ट, invisible) laws of nature.A Goel (1984), Indian philosophy: Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika and modern science, Sterling, {{ISBN|978-0865902787}}, pages 149-151 The concept of Ishvara, among others, entered into Vaisheshika school many centuries later in 1st millennium AD.R Collins (2000), The sociology of philosophies, Harvard University Press, {{ISBN|978-0674001879}}, page 836 This evolution in ideas aimed to explain how and why its so-called "atoms" have a particular order and proportions. These later-age ancient Vaiśeṣika scholars retained their belief that substances are eternal, added Ishvara as another eternal who is also omniscient and omnipresent (not omnipotent). Ishvara did not create the world, according to this school of Hindu scholars, but He only created invisible laws that operate the world and then He becomes passive and lets those hidden universal laws do its thing. Thus, Vaisheshika's Ishvara mirrors Deus otiosus of Deism. Vaisheshika school's Ishvara, states Klaus Klostermaier, can be understood as an eternal God who co-exists in the universe with eternal substances and atoms, but He "winds up the clock, and lets it run its course".Klaus Klostermaier (2007), A Survey of Hinduism, Third Edition, State University of New York, {{ISBN|978-0791470824}}, page 337

In Nyaya school of Hinduism

Early Nyaya school scholars considered the hypothesis of Ishvara as a creator God with the power to grant blessings, boons and fruits. However, the early Nyaya scholars rejected this hypothesis, and were non-theistic or atheists.John Clayton (2010), Religions, Reasons and Gods: Essays in Cross-cultural Philosophy of Religion, Cambridge University Press, {{ISBN|978-0521126274}}, page 150G Oberhammer (1965), Zum problem des Gottesbeweises in der Indischen Philosophie, Numen, 12: 1-34 Later scholars of Nyaya school reconsidered this question and offered counter arguments for what is Ishvara and various arguments to prove the existence of Ishvara.Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries, Oxford University Press, {{ISBN|978-0199738724}}, pages 18-19, 35-39In Nyayasutra's Book 4, Chapter 1 examines what causes production and destruction of entities (life, matter) in universe. It considers many hypotheses, including Ishvara. Verses 19-21, postulates Ishvara exists and is the cause, states a consequence of postulate, then presents contrary evidence, and from contradiction concludes that the postulate must be invalid.English translation: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries, Oxford University Press, {{ISBN|978-0199738724}}, page 37}}Centuries later, the 5th century CE Nyaya school scholar Prastapada revisited the premise of Ishvara. He was followed by Udayana, who in his text Nyayakusumanjali, interpreted "it" in verse 4.1.21 of Nyaya Sutra above, as "human action" and "him" as "Ishvara", then he developed counter arguments to prove the existence of Ishvara.Sharma, C. (1997). A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|81-208-0365-5}}, pp. 209-10 In developing his arguments, he inherently defined Ishvara as efficient cause, omnipotent, omniscient, infallible, giver of gifts, ability and meaning to humanity, divine creator of the world as well as the moral principles, and the unseen power that makes the karma doctrine work.VR Rao (1987), Selected Doctrines from Indian Philosophy, {{ISBN|81-70990009}}, pages 11-12

In Mimamsa school of Hinduism

Mīmāṃsā scholars of Hinduism questioned what is Ishvara (God)?FX Clooney (1997), What’s a god? The quest for the right understanding of devatā in Brāhmaṅical ritual theory (Mīmāṃsā), International Journal of Hindu Studies, August 1997, Volume 1, Issue 2, pages 337-385 They used their pramana tools to cross examine answers offered by other schools of Hinduism. For example, when Nyaya scholars stated God is omnipotent, omniscient and infallible, that the world is the result of God's creation which is proved by the presence of creatures, just like human work proves human existence, Mimamsa scholars asked, why does this God create the world, for what reason? Further, they added, it cannot be because of Ishvara's love to human beings because this world – if Ishvara created it – is imperfect and human souls are suffering in it. Mimamsa scholars of Hinduism raised numerous objections to any definition of Ishvara along with its premises, deconstructed justifications offered, and considered Ishvara concept unnecessary for a consistent philosophy and moksha (soteriology).P. Bilimoria (2001), Hindu doubts about God: Towards Mimamsa Deconstruction, in Philosophy of Religion: Indian Philosophy (Editor: Roy Perrett), Volume 4, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0-8153-3611-2}}, pages 87-106

In Vedanta school of Hinduism

Advaita Vedanta

Advaita Vedanta school of Hinduism proclaims that at the empirical level Ishvara is the cause of the universe and the one who awards the fruits of every action. He is defined as the one without likes and dislikes, as well embodied with compassion (vaiShamya NairgghruNya doSha vihInaH). Ishvara is that which is "free from avidya (ignorance), free from ahamkrti (ego-sense), free from bandhana (bondage)", a Self that is "pure, enlightened, liberated".John Koller (2012), Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion (Editors: Chad Meister, Paul Copan), Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0415782944}}, pages 99-107 Having accepted and established Ishvara, Advaita Vedanta proclaims that the real nature of Ishvara (existence, consciousness and bliss) is non different from the real nature of an individual. This gives room in Advaita Vedanta to show the nature of Ishvara as both the material and instrumental cause of this universe and the individual who is limited in his own capacities as unreal and declare that there is oneness between the two having negated the qualities. This establishes Ishvara as 'saguNa' or with attributes from the empirical existence and 'nirguNa' from the absolute sense. This oneness is accepted only at the level of 'mukti' or ultimate realization and not at the 'vyavahara' or empirical level. At the absolute level there is no otherness nor distinction between Jiva (living being) and Ishvara, and any attempts to distinguish the two is a false idea, one based on wrong knowledge, according to Advaita Vedanta.Paul Hacker (1978), Eigentumlichkeiten dr Lehre und Terminologie Sankara: Avidya, Namarupa, Maya, Isvara, in Kleine Schriften (Editor: L. Schmithausen), Franz Steiner Verlag, Weisbaden, pages 101-109 (in German), also pages 69-99Other Advaitin Hindu texts resonate with the monist views of Adi Shankara. For example, Isa Upanishad, in hymn 1.5-7, states Ishvara is "above everything, outside everything, beyond everything, yet also within everything"; he who knows himself as all beings and all beings as himself – he never becomes alarmed before anyone. He becomes free from fears, from delusions, from root cause of evil. He becomes pure, invulnerable, unified, free from evil, true to truth, liberated like Ishvara.William Indich (2000), Consciousness in Advaita Vedanta, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120812512}}, page 23-25Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 2, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120814677}}, pages 547-551

Vishishtadvaita Vedanta

Ishvara, in Vishishtadvaita Vedanta sub-school of Hinduism, is a composite concept of dualism and non-dualism, or "non-dualism with differentiation".McCasland et al. (1969), Religions of the world, Random House, {{ISBN|978-0394303840}}, page 471 Ishvara, Vishishtadvaitin scholars such as the 11th century Ramanuja state, is the supreme creator and synonymous with Brahman.BOOK, S. M. Srinivasa Chari, Tattvamuktākalāpa,weblink 1988, Motilal Banarsidass, 978-81-208-0266-7, 212, 231–233, Equated with Vishnu in Vishishtadvaita or one of his avatar,BOOK, S. M. Srinivasa Chari, Tattvamuktākalāpa,weblink 1988, Motilal Banarsidass, 978-81-208-0266-7, 18, 228, 340–341, he is both the material and efficient cause, transcendent and immanent. Ishvara manifests in five forms, believe Vishishtadvaitins: para (transcendent), vyuha (emanations), vibhava (incarnations), antaryamin (dwells inside), and arca (icons). According to this sub-school, states John Grimes, Ishvara possesses six divine qualities: jnana (knowledge), bala (strength), aisvarya (lordship), sakti (power), virya (virility) and tejas (splendor).John Grimes (1996), A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English, State University of New York Press, {{ISBN|978-0791430675}}, page 143Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita concepts provided the foundation for several Bhakti movements of Hinduism, such as those by Sri AurobindoThomas Padiyath (2014), The Metaphysics of Becoming, De Gruyter, {{ISBN|978-3110342550}}, page 151 and has been suggested as having influenced Basava's Lingayatism.Carl Olson (2007), The Many Colors of Hinduism: A Thematic-historical Introduction, Rutgers University Press, {{ISBN|978-0813540689}}, pages 243-244

Dvaita Vedanta

The Dvaita (dualism) sub-school of Vedanta Hinduism, founded by 13th century Madhva, defines Ishvara as creator God that is distinct from Jiva (individual souls in living beings).R Prasad (2009), A Historical-developmental Study of Classical Indian Philosophy of Morals, Concept Publishing, {{ISBN|978-8180695957}}, pages 345-347 Narayana (Vishnu) is considered to be Ishvara, and the Vaishnavism movement arose on the foundation developed by Dvaita Vedanta sub-school.Oliver Leaman (2000), Eastern Philosophy: Key Readings, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0415173582}}, page 251Ishvara (God) is a complete, perfect and the highest reality to Dvaitins, and simultaneously the world is separate reality for them, unlike competing thoughts in other sub-schools of Vedanta. In Dvaita sub-school, Jiva (individual soul) is different, yet dependent on Ishvara (God). Both possess the attributes of consciousness, bliss and existence, but the individual soul is considered atomic, while God is all encompassing. The attributes of Jiva struggle to manifest, while of God it is fully manifested.Madhva states there are five permutations of differences between Jiva (individual souls) and Ishvara (God): between God and souls, between God and matter, between souls and matter, between one soul and another soul, and between one material thing and another material thing. The differences are both qualitative and quantitative. Unlike Advaita Vedantins who hold that knowledge can lead to Oneness with Everyone and fusion with Universal Absolute, to the state of moksha in this life, Dvaita Vedantins hold that moksha is possible only in after-life if God so wills (if not, then one's soul is reborn). Further, Madhva highlights that God creates individual souls, but the individual soul never was and never will become one with God; the best it can do is to experience bliss by getting infinitely close to God.Thomas Padiyath (2014), The Metaphysics of Becoming, De Gruyter, {{ISBN|978-3110342550}}, pages 155-157The world, called Maya, is held as the divine will of Ishvara. Jiva suffers, experiences misery and bondage, state Dvaitins, because of "ignorance and incorrect knowledge" (ajnana). Liberation occurs with the correct knowledge and attainment unto Lord Narayana. It is His grace that gives salvation according to Dvaita sub-school, which is achievable by predominance of sattva guna (moral, constructive, simple, kindness-filled life), and therefore Dvaitins must live a dharmic life while constantly remembering, deeply loving Ishvara.


{{IAST|Acintya bhedābheda}} is a sub-school of Vedanta representing the philosophy of inconceivable one-ness and difference, in relation to the power creation and creator, Ishvara, (Krishna).BOOK, Kaviraja, K.G., Sri Caitanya-caritamrita. Bengali text, translation, and commentary by AC Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, Madhya 20.108-109 {{webarchive|url= |date=11 May 2008 }} "It is the living entity's constitutional position to be an eternal servant of Krishna because he is the marginal energy of Krishna and a manifestation simultaneously one with and different from the Lord, like a molecular particle of sunshine or fire."{{IAST|Kṛṣṇa Upaniṣad}} 1.25: {{IAST| bhinnam. nā bhinnamābhirbhinno na vai vibhuḥ}}In Sanskrit achintya means 'inconceivable', bheda translates as 'difference', and abheda translates as 'one-ness'. Spirit souls are considered part of God and thus one with Him in quality, and yet at the same time different from Him in quantity. This is called acintya-bheda-abheda-tattva, inconceivable, simultaneous oneness and difference.BOOK, Spiritual Dialectics, Mukundananda, Swami, Jagadguru Kripaluji Yog, 2013, 96, Hence, he called his philosophy Achintya Bhedabhed vad, or Inconceivable Simultaneous Oneness and Difference., Caitanya's philosophy of acintya-bhedābheda-tattva completed the progression to devotional theism. Rāmānuja had agreed with {{IAST|Śaṅkara}} that the Absolute is one only, but he had disagreed by affirming individual variety within that oneness. Madhva had underscored the eternal duality of the Supreme and the Jīva: he had maintained that this duality endures even after liberation. Caitanya, in turn, specified that the Supreme and the jīvas are "inconceivably, simultaneously one and different" (acintya-bheda-abheda).BOOK, dasa Goswami, Satsvarupa, Satsvarupa dasa Goswami, Readings in Vedit Literature: The Tradition Speaks for Itself, Assoc Publishing Group, 1976, 240 pages, 0-912776-88-9,

In Carvaka school of Hinduism

Cārvāka, another atheist tradition in Hinduism, was materialist and a school of philosophical scepticism. They rejected all concepts of Ishvara as well as all forms of supernaturalism.Robert Flint, {{Google books|7es0AQAAIAAJ|Anti-theistic theories|page=463}}, Appendix Note VII - Hindu Materialism: The Charvaka System; William Blackwood, LondonV.V. Raman (2012), Hinduism and Science: Some Reflections, Zygon - Journal of Religion and Science, 47(3): 549–574, Quote (page 557): "Aside from nontheistic schools like the Samkhya, there have also been explicitly atheistic schools in the Hindu tradition. One virulently anti-supernatural system is/was the so-called Carvaka school.", {{doi|10.1111/j.1467-9744.2012.01274.x}}KN Tiwari (1998), Classical Indian Ethical Thought, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120816077}}, page 67, Quote: "Of the three heterodox systems, the remaining one, the Caravaka system, is a Hindu system."

See also

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{{Reflist|30em}}{{Hindudharma}}{{Names of God}}{{Burmese nats}}

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