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{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2013}}{{Use Indian English|date=July 2013}}Indology or South Asian studies is the academic study of the history and cultures, languages, and literature of India and as such is a subset of Asian studies.NEWS, Pattanaik, Devdutt, 21 February 2016, Devdutt Pattanaik: Four types of Indology,weblink mid-day, WEB,weblink Indology | Definition of Indology by Lexico, Lexico Dictionaries | English, The term Indology (in German) Indologie is often associated with German scholarship, and is used more commonly in departmental titles in German and continental European universities than in the anglophone academy. In the Netherlands the term Indologie was used to designate the study of Indonesian history and culture in preparation for colonial service in the Dutch East Indies.Specifically, Indology includes the study of Sanskrit literature and Hinduism along with the other Indian religions, Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Pāli literature.Dravidology is the separate branch dedicated to the Dravidian languages of South India. Hindu texts in Dravidian languages are considered disciplines in Indology.Some scholars distinguish Classical Indology from Modern Indology, the former more focussed on Sanskrit and other ancient language sources, the latter on contemporary India, its politics and sociology.



The beginnings of the study of India by travellers from outside the subcontinent date back at least to Megasthenes (ca. 350–290 BC), a Greek ambassador of the Seleucids to the court of Chandragupta (ruled 322-298 BC), founder of the Mauryan Empire. Based on his life in India Megasthenes composed a four-volume Indica, fragments of which still exist, and which influenced the classical geographers Arrian, Diodor and Strabo.JOURNAL, Bosworth, A. B., April 1996, The Historical Setting of Megasthenes' Indica, Classical Philology (journal), Classical Philology, The University of Chicago Press, 91, 2, 113–127, 10.1086/367502, 270500, Megasthenes reported that the caste system dominated an essentially illiterate India.Panthapalli A. Augustine: Social equality in Indian society: the elusive goal, Concept Publishing Company, 1991, {{ISBN|9788170223030}}, p. 40John Duncan Martin Derrett: Essays in Classical and Modern Hindu Law: Consequences of the intellectual exchange with the foreign powers, Brill 1976, {{ISBN|9789004048089}}, p. 1Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (973–1048) in Tarikh Al-Hind (Researches on India) recorded the political and military history of India and covered India's cultural, scientific, social and religious history in detail.JOURNAL, Khan, M. S., 1976, al-Biruni and the Political History of India, Oriens, Brill, 25/26, 86–115, 10.2307/1580658, 1580658, He studied the anthropology of India, engaging in extensive participant observation with various Indian groups, learning their languages and studying their primary texts, and presenting his findings with objectivity and neutrality using cross-cultural comparisons.JOURNAL, Ahmed, Akbar S., February 1984, Al-Beruni: The First Anthropologist, RAIN, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 60, 9–10, 10.2307/3033407, 3033407,

Academic discipline

Indology as generally understood by its practitionersBOOK,weblink Einführung in die Indologie: Stand, Methoden, Aufgaben, Bechert, Heinz, Simson, Georg von, Bachmann, Peter, 1993, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 3534054660, Darmstadt, German, began in the later Early Modern period and incorporates essential features of modernity, including critical self-reflexivity, disembedding mechanisms and globalization, and the reflexive appropriation of knowledge.BOOK,weblink The consequences of modernity, Giddens, Anthony, 1991, Polity Press, Cambridge, U.K., English, An important feature of Indology since the its beginnings in the late eighteenth century has been the development of networks of academic communication and trustBOOK,weblink Personal knowledge: towards a post-critical philosophy, Polanyi, Michael, Nye, Mary Jo, 2015, 9780226232621, English, through the creation of learned societies like the Asiatic Society of Bengal, and the creation of learned journals like the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society and Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute.One of the defining features of Indology is the application of scholarly methodologies developed in European Classical Studies or "Classics" to the languages, literatures and cultures of South Asia.In the wake of eighteenth century pioneers like William Jones, Henry Thomas Colebrooke, Gerasim Lebedev or August Wilhelm Schlegel, Indology as an academic subject emerged in the nineteenth century, in the context of British India, together with Asian studies in general affected by the romantic Orientalism of the time. The Asiatic Society was founded in Calcutta in 1784, Société Asiatique founded in 1822, the Royal Asiatic Society in 1824, the American Oriental Society in 1842, and the German Oriental Society (Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft) in 1845, the Japanese Association of Indian and Buddhist StudiesEnglish Summary {{webarchive |url= |date=15 September 2009 }}. Retrieved on 20 November 2011. in 1949.Sanskrit literature included many pre-modern dictionaries, especially the Nāmaliṅgānuśāsana of Amarasiṃha, but a milestone in the Indological study of Sanskrit literature was publication of the St. Petersburg Sanskrit-Wörterbuch during the 1850s to 1870s. Translations of major Hindu texts in the Sacred Books of the East began in 1879. Otto von Böhtlingk's edition of Pāṇini's grammar appeared in 1887. Max Müller's edition of the Rigveda appeared in 1849–75. Albrecht Weber commenced publishing his pathbreaking journal Indologische Studien in 1849, and in 1897 Sergey Oldenburg launched a systematic edition of key Sanskrit texts, "Bibliotheca Buddhica".

Fueling anti-Semitism

German indologists arbitrarily identified "layers" in the Mahabharata and Bhagavad Gita with the objective of fueling European anti-Semitism via the then popular aryan invasion theory.BOOK, Vishwa, Adluri. Bagchee Joydeep, The Nay Science: A History of German Indology,weblink 2014, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 289–426, This required equating Brahmins with Jews, resulting in anti-Brahmanism.

Indology and the modern world

{{POV section|date=June 2018}}As with many academic subjects which seem to have no direct bearing on modern concerns, Indology has come in for criticism. This has prompted a vigorous response from a number of eminent scholars, among them J. Bronkhorst.Bronkhorst, Johannes. (2011). "Indology, what is it good for?" Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 161.1: 115-122. Available online:weblink

Professional literature and associations

{{further|Indomania}}Indologists typically attend conferences such as the American Association of Asian Studies, the American Oriental Society annual conference, the World Sanskrit Conference, and national-level meetings in the UK, Germany, India, Japan, France and elsewhere.They may routinely read and write in journals such as Indo-Iranian Journal,weblink" title="">description&changeHeader=true& International Publisher Science, Technology, Medicine. Springer. Retrieved on 20 November 2011. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society,R A S – Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland {{webarchive |url= |date=22 October 2007 }}. Retrieved on 20 November 2011. Journal of the American Oriental Society,JAOS Front Matter {{webarchive |url= |date=7 February 2007 }}. Retrieved on 20 November 2011. Journal asiatique,{{nl icon}} Journal Asiatique. Retrieved on 20 November 2011. the Journal of the German Oriental Society (ZDMG),WEB,weblink Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft (ZDMG), Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft (DMG), Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde Südasiens,Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde Südasiens (WZKS) Vienna Journal for South Asian Studies. Retrieved on 20 November 2011. Journal of Indian Philosophy,Journal of Indian Philosophy {{webarchive |url= |date=25 October 2007 }}. Retrieved on 20 November 2011. Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies (Indogaku Bukkyogaku Kenkyu), Bulletin de l'École française d'Extrême Orient,Bulletin de l'EFEO. Retrieved on 20 November 2011. and others.They may be members of such professional bodies as the American Oriental Society, the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, the Société Asiatique, the Deutsche Morgenlāndische Gesellschaft and others.

List of Indologists

The following is a list of prominent academically qualified Indologists.{{div col|colwidth=27em}} {{div col end}}

Contemporary Indologists with university posts in Indian Studies

{{div col|colwidth=27em}}

Other contributors to Indology

Indology organisations

{{div col|colwidth=30em}} {{div col end}}

See also

{{div col|colwidth=27em}} {{div col end}}



Further reading

  • Balagangadhara, S.N. (1994). "The Heathen in his Blindness..." Asia, the West, and the Dynamic of Religion. Leiden, New York: E. J. Brill
  • Balagangadhara, S. N. (2012). Reconceptualizing India studies. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
  • Vishwa Adluri, Joydeep Bagchee: The Nay Science: A History of German Indology. Oxford University Press, New York 2014, {{ISBN|978-0199931361}} (Introduction, p. 1–29).
  • Joydeep Bagchee, Vishwa Adluri: "The passion of Paul Hacker: Indology, orientalism, and evangelism." In: Joanne Miyang Cho, Eric Kurlander, Douglas T McGetchin (Eds.), Transcultural Encounters Between Germany and India: Kindred Spirits in the Nineteenth Century. Routledge, New York 2013, p. 215–229.
  • Joydeep Bagchee: "weblink" title="">German Indology." In: Alf Hiltebeitel (Ed.), Oxford Bibliographies Online: Hinduism. Oxford University Press, New York 2014.
  • Chakrabarti, Dilip K.: Colonial Indology, 1997, Munshiram Manoharlal: New Delhi.
  • Jean Filliozat and Louis Renou – L'inde classique – ISBN B0000DLB66.
  • Halbfass, W. India and Europe: An Essay in Understanding. SUNY Press, Albany: 1988
  • Inden, R. B. (2010). Imagining India. Bloomington, Ind: Indiana University Press.
  • Vishwa Adluri, Joydeep Bagchee: The Nay Science: A History of German Indology. Oxford University Press, New York 2014, {{ISBN|978-0199931361}}
  • Gauri Viswanathan, 1989, Masks of Conquest
  • Rajiv Malhotra (2016), (The Battle for Sanskrit|Battle for Sanskrit: Dead or Alive, Oppressive or Liberating, Political or Sacred?) (Publisher: Harper Collins India; {{ISBN|978-9351775386}})
  • Rajiv Malhotra (2016), (Academic Hinduphobia|Academic Hinduphobia: A Critique of Wendy Doniger's Erotic School of Indology) (Publisher: Voice of India; {{ISBN|978-9385485015}})
  • Antonio de Nicolas, Krishnan Ramaswamy, and Aditi Banerjee (eds.) (2007), (Invading the Sacred|Invading the Sacred: An Analysis Of Hinduism Studies In America) (Publisher: Rupa & Co.)
  • Shourie, Arun. 2014. Eminent historians: their technology, their line, their fraud. HarperCollins. {{ISBN|9789351365921}}
  • Trautmann, Thomas. 1997. Aryans and British India, University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Windisch, Ernst. Geschichte der Sanskrit-Philologie und Indischen Altertumskunde. 2 vols. Strasbourg. Trübner, K.J., 1917–1920
  • Zachariae, Theodor. Opera minora zur indischen Wortforschung, zur Geschichte der indischen Literatur und Kultur, zur Geschichte der Sanskritphilologie. Ed. Claus Vogel. Wiesbaden 1977, {{ISBN|3-515-02216-3}}.

External links

{{commons category|Indology}} Institutes{{div col|colwidth=20em}} {{div col end}}

Library guides

  • WEB,weblink University of California, Berkeley, South/Southeast Asia Library, South Asia Resources, USA,
  • WEB,weblink University of California, Research Guides, South Asian Studies, Los Angeles,
  • WEB,weblink Columbia University Libraries, South & Southeast Asian Studies Research Guides, New York, USA,
  • WEB,weblink London School of Economics and Political Science, Library, India Studies, Topic Guides, UK, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 August 2014,
  • WEB,weblink School of Oriental and African Studies Library, University of London, South Asia, Subject Guides,
  • WEB,weblink University of Oxford, Bodleian Libraries, South Asia, Oxford LibGuides, Oxford, UK,
  • WEB,weblink University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries, Research Guides, South/Southeast Asia, USA,
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