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Harvard College
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factoids
. HARVARD AT A GLANCE>PUBLISHER=HARVARD UNIVERSITYACCESSDATE=2018-03-01, mdy-all, |campus = Urbanweblink}}}}Harvard College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Harvard University. Founded in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United StatesBOOK, Frederick, Rudolph, The American College and University, 1961, 3, 0-8203-1285-1, University of Georgia Press, and one of the most prestigious in the world.BOOK, Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University, Keller, Morton, Keller, Phyllis, Oxford University Press, 0-19-514457-0, Harvard's professional schools... won world prestige of a sort rarely seen among social institutions. (...) Harvard's age, wealth, quality, and prestige may well shield it from any conceivable vicissitudes., 2001, 463–481, BOOK, How Harvard Rules: Reason in the Service of Empire, ...[Harvard's] tremendous institutional power and prestige (...) Within the nation's (arguably) most prestigious institution of higher learning..., Sexual Shakedown, 326–336, 1989, South End Press, 0-89608-284-9, John, Spaulding, Christina, Trumpbour,
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History

(File:View of the ancient buildings belonging to Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass (NYPL b12349145-422857).jpg|thumb|upright=1.1|Colonial buildings belonging to Harvard College)File:HarvardYard.jpg|thumb|upright=1.1|alt=grass under trees with some buildings in the background|Freshman dormitories in Harvard YardHarvard YardThe school came into existence in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court (colonial legislature, second oldest in British America) of the Massachusetts Bay Colony—though without a single building, instructor, or student. In 1638, the college became home for North America's first known printing press, carried by the ship {{ship||John of London|ship|2}}.WEB, The instrument behind New England’s first literary flowering,weblink Harvard University, 2014-01-18, WEB, Rowley and Ezekiel Rogers, The First North American Printing Press,weblink Maritime Historical Studies Centre, University of Hull, 2014-01-18, Three years later, the college was renamed in honor of deceased Charlestown minister John Harvard (1607–1638) who had bequeathed to the school his entire library and half of his monetary estate.Harvard's first instructor was schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton (1610–1674); in 1639, he also became its first instructor to be dismissed, for overstrict discipline.Samuel Eliot Morison, Three Centuries of Harvard, 1636–1936 (1986) The school's first students were graduated in 1642. In 1665, Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck (c. 1643–1666) "from the Wampanoag … did graduate from Harvard, the first Indian to do so in the colonial period."Monaghan, E. J., 2005, p. 55, 59The colleges of England's Oxford and Cambridge Universities are communities within the larger university, each an association of scholars sharing room and board. Harvard's founders may have envisioned it as the first in a series of sibling colleges on the English model which would eventually constitute a university—though no further colleges materialized in colonial times. The Indian College was active from 1640 to no later than 1693, but it was a minor addition not operated in federation with Harvard according to the English model. Harvard began granting higher degrees in the late eighteenth century, and it was increasingly styled Harvard University, even as Harvard College was increasingly thought of as the university's undergraduate division in particular.{{Fix|text=citations needed throughout}}Today Harvard College is responsible for undergraduate admissions, advising, housing, student life, and athletics{{snd}}generally all undergraduate matters except instruction, which is the purview of Harvard University's Faculty of Arts and Sciences. The body known as The President and Fellows of Harvard College retains its traditional name despite having governance of the entire University. Radcliffe College (established 1879)BOOK, Sally, Schwager, Taking up the Challenge: The Origins of Radcliffe, Yards and Gates: Gender in Harvard and Radcliffe History, Laurel Thatcher Ulrich, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004, 1403960984, 87–115, originally paid Harvard faculty to repeat their lectures for women students. Since the 1970s, Harvard has been responsible for undergraduate governance matters for women; women were still formally admitted to and graduated from Radcliffe until a final merger in 1999.REPORT, Radcliffe Enters Historic Merger With Harvard, The Harvard Crimson,weblink May 6, 2016,

Academics

About 2,000 students are admitted each year, representing between five and ten percent of those applying; of those admitted, approximately three-quarters choose to attend.NEWS, Thompson, Daphne, Harvard Accepts Record-Low 5.3 Percent of Applicants to Class of 2019,weblink/, 10 August 2015, The Harvard Crimson, 1 April 2015, NEWS, Jan, Tracy, Harvard admission rate dips to 7 percent, http:www.boston.com/news/local/breaking_news/2009/03/harvard_admissi.html, 13 April 2011, The Boston Globe, 30 March 2009, Yield Holds Steady For 2013 – Harvard News OfficeA record pool leads to a record-low admissions rate {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080503211018weblink |date=2008-05-03 }} – Harvard News Office Very few transfers are accepted.WEB, Menz, Petey, The Real 1%: Harvard Admits 15 Transfer Students,weblink The Harvard Crimson, 7 March 2015, Midway through the second year, most undergraduates join one of fifty standard fields of concentration (what most schools call academic majors); many also declare a secondary field (called minors elsewhere). Joint concentrations (combining the requirements of two standard concentrations) and special concentrations (of the student's own design) are also possible.{{Citation needed|date=October 2011}}Most Harvard College concentrations lead to the Artium Baccalaureus (A.B.), normally completed in four years, though students leaving high school with substantial college-level coursework may finish in three. A smaller number receive the Scientiarum Baccalaureus (S.B.). There are also special degree programs, such as a five-year program leading to both a Harvard undergraduate degree and a Master of Arts from the New England Conservatory of Music.Undergraduates must also fulfill the general education requirement of coursework in eight designated fields. Each student's exposure to a range of intellectual areas, while pursuing a chosen concentration in depth, fulfills the injunction of Harvard past-president Abbott Lawrence Lowell that liberal education should produce "men who know a little of everything and something well."{{refn|BOOK, Harry R., Lewis, Excellence Without a Soul: Does Liberal Education Have a Future?,weblink 2007, PublicAffairs, 9781586485375, 48, }}In 2012, dozens of students were disciplined for cheating on a take-home exam in one course.NEWS, Richard, Perez-Pena, February 1, 2013, The New York Times,weblink Students Disciplined in Harvard Scandal, September 15, 2013, The university instituted an honor code beginning in the fall of 2015.NEWS, Dev A., Patel, Steven R., Watros, May 7, 2014, The Harvard Crimson,weblink, Faculty Approves College's First Honor Code, Likely Effective Fall 2015, August 10, 2015, "Likely beginning in the fall of 2015, all College students will be required to make a regular affirmation of integrity, the nature and frequency of which will be determined next year"..., NEWS, Rebecca, Harrington, September 14, 2012, The New York Times, https:www.nytimes.com/2012/09/15/opinion/the-long-legacy-of-cheating-at-harvard.html, Song of the Cheaters, September 15, 2013, "...an honor code, a system ... Harvard has long resisted, The total annual cost of attendance, including tuition and room and board, for 2018–2019 was $67,580.WEB,weblink Cost of Attendance, Harvard University, March 10, 2019, Under financial aid guidelines adopted in 2012, families with incomes below $65,000 no longer pay anything for their children to attend, including room and board. Families with incomes between $65,000 to $150,000 pay no more than 10 percent of their annual income.NEWS,weblink Harvard increases financial aid to low-income students, The Harvard Gazette, September 1, 2011, In 2009, Harvard offered grants totaling $414 million across all eleven divisions;{{explain|date=October 2015}} $340 million came from institutional funds, $35 million from federal support, and $39 million from other outside support. Grants total 88 percent of Harvard's aid for undergraduate students, with aid also provided by loans (8 percent) and work-study (4 percent).{{anchor|house system}}

House system

File:Lowell House belltower.JPG|thumb|upright|Lowell HouseLowell HouseNearly all undergraduates live on campus, for the first year in dormitories in or near Harvard Yard and later in the upperclass houses—administrative subdivisions of the college as well as living quarters, providing a sense of community in what might otherwise be a socially incohesive and administratively daunting university environment. Each house is presided over by a senior-faculty dean, while its Allston Burr Resident Dean—usually a junior faculty member—supervises undergraduates' day-to-day academic and disciplinary well-being.The faculty dean and resident dean are assisted by other members of the Senior Common Room—select graduate students (tutors), faculty, and university officials brought into voluntary association with each house. Many tutors reside in the house, as do the faculty dean and resident dean. Terms like tutor, Senior Common Room, and Junior Common Room reflect a debt to the residential college systems at Oxford and Cambridge from which Harvard's system took inspiration.WEB, Harvard College Office of Residential Life, History of the House System, 2008,weblink 2008-04-20, {{dead link|date=March 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}The houses were created by President Lowell in the 1930s to combat what he saw as pernicious social stratification engendered by the private, off-campus living arrangements of many undergraduates at that time. Lowell's solution was to provide every man—Harvard was male-only at the time—with on-campus accommodations throughout his time at the college; Lowell also saw great benefits flowing from other features of the house system, such as the relaxed discussions—academic or otherwise—which he hoped would take place among undergraduates and members of the senior common room over meals in each house's dining hall.BOOK, Morison, Samuel Eliot, Three Centuries of Harvard: 1636–1936, 1936, 476–478, The way in which students come to live in particular houses has changed greatly over time. Under the original "draft" system, masters negotiated privately over the assignment of "rising sophomores" (next academic year's sophomores), considered most or least promising.{{Citation needed|date=October 2011}} From the 1960s to the mid-1990s, each student ranked the houses according to personal preference, with an impersonal lottery resolving the oversubscription of more popular houses. Today, groups of one to eight freshmen form a block which is then assigned, essentially at random, to an upperclass house. Housing Day is held annually in March, where upperclassmen visit the freshman dorms and welcome new house members into their residence. In recent years, houses have commemorated Housing Day by developing House T-shirts, sponsoring welcome parties and developing Housing Day videos, spotlighting the positive features of their residence.A total of nine "River Houses" are located south of Harvard Yard, near the Charles River: Adams, Dunster, Eliot, Kirkland, Leverett, Lowell, Mather, Quincy, and John Winthrop House. Their construction was financed largely by a 1928 gift from Yale alumnus Edward Harkness, who, frustrated in his attempts to initiate a similar project at his alma mater, eventually offered 11 million dollars to Harvard.{{efn|"Gifts – 1928–1929" (Press release). Harvard University News Office. June 20, 1929. HU 37.5, Harvard University Archives, Cambridge, Massachusetts "This figure [of gifts and legacies received during the year] includes $5,444,000 received from E. S. Harkness to defray the expenses of constructing the first Harvard houses."Harkness' gift was anonymous, at least at first. "I have forgotten the gentleman's name," Harvard's President Lowell told the faculty in making the initial announcement. "I told him I would."{{refn|BOOK, The Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Harvard University, 1686–1933, John B. Fox, Jr., 2007, 142, President and Fellows of Harvard College, }}}}MAGAZINE, Harkness and History, Harvard Magazine, November 2013,weblink 11 November 2015, Two of the new houses, Dunster and Lowell, were completed in 1930.(File:River houses Harvard aerial.JPG|thumb|upright=1.4|left|alt=a built up area seen from the air with a river in the foreground|River Houses)Construction of the first houses began in 1929,BOOK, Harvard Observed: An Illustrated History of the University in the Twentieth Century, Harvard University Press, Bethell, John, 1998, Cambridge, 102–103, 9780674377332, but the land on which they were built had been assembled decades before. After graduating Harvard in 1895, Edward Waldo Forbes found himself inspired by the Oxford and Cambridge systems during two years of study in England; on returning to the United States he set out to acquire such land between Harvard Yard and the Charles River as was not already owned by Harvard or some associated entity. By 1918 that ambition had been largely fulfilled and the assembled land transferred to Harvard.Lowe, Charles U. "The Forbes Story of the Harvard Riverside Associates: How Harvard Acquired the Land on which Lowell House was Built," February 20, 2002.lowell.harvard.edu {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100409220638weblink |date=2010-04-09 }}Sacks, Benjamin J. "Harvard's 'Constructed Utopia' and the Culture of Deception: the Expansion toward the Charles River, 1902–1932," The New England Quarterly 84.2 (June 2011): 286–317.weblinkThe three "Quad Houses" enjoy a residential setting half a mile (800 m) northwest of Harvard Yard. These were built by Radcliffe College and housed Radcliffe College students until the Harvard and Radcliffe residential systems merged in 1977.Sofen, Adam A. "Radcliffe Enters Historic Merger With Harvard, April 21, 1999.weblink They are Cabot, Currier, and Pforzheimer House. A thirteenth house, Dudley House, is nonresidential but fulfills, for some graduate students and the (very few) undergraduates living off campus, the administrative and social functions provided to on-campus residents by the other twelve houses. Harvard's residential houses are paired with Yale's residential colleges in sister relationships.

Athletics

By the late 19th century, critics of intercollegiate athletics, including Harvard president Charles William Eliot, believed that sports competition had become over-commercialized and took students away from their studies, and they called for reform and limitations on all sports.This opposition prompted Harvard's athletic committee to target 'minor' sports—basketball and hockey—for reform and regulation in order to deflect attention from the major sports—football, baseball, track, and crew. The committee made it difficult for the basketball team to operate by denying financial assistance and limiting the number of overnight away games in which the team could participate.Several losing seasons, negative attitudes toward the commercialization of intercollegiate sports, and the need for reform contributed to basketball's demise at Harvard in 1909.Horger, M. (2005). "A Victim of Reform: Why Basketball Failed at Harvard, 1900–1909". New England Quarterly. 78 (1): 49–76.Originating in 1852, the Harvard–Yale Regatta is the oldest intercollegiate athletic rivalry in the United States. Also well-known is the annual Harvard–Yale football game.

Student organizations

Harvard has hundreds of undergraduate organizations.WEB, Student Organization List,weblink osl.fas.harvard.edu, 2016-01-13, The Phillips Brooks House Association acts as an umbrella service organization.In an effort to marginalize organizations that "contribute to a social life and a student culture that for many on our campus is disempowering and exclusionary",WEB, Khurana, Rakesh, Letter concerning membership in unrecognized single-gender social organizations,weblink students entering in the fall of 2017 or later who join unrecognized single-sex organizations (such as single-sex "final clubs", fraternities, and sororities) will be barred from campus leadership positions such as team captaincies, and from receiving recommendation letters from Harvard requisite for certain scholarships and fellowships.WEB, Saul, Stephanie, Stephanie Saul,weblink Harvard Restrictions Could Reshape Exclusive Student Clubs, The New York Times, May 6, 2016,

Notable alumni

{{See also|List of Harvard University people}}{{div col|colwidth=20em}}
Architecture
Buckminster Fuller (expelled)
Philip Johnson
Arts
Ellen Harvey Alex Kahn Waldo Peirce
Marina Rosenfeld
Astronautics
Stephanie Wilson
Astronomy
Andrew Fraknoi
Athletics
Craig Adams Matt Birk Emily Cross Ryan Fitzpatrick Bobby Jones Jeremy Lin Esther Lofgren Dominic Moore Christopher Nowinski Ryan Max Riley
Paul Wylie
Biology
Harold M. Weintraub
Business
Steve Ballmer Lloyd Blankfein Jim Cramer Bill Gates (did not graduate) James Halperin (did not graduate) Trip Hawkins William Randolph Hearst (rusticated) Sumner Redstone
Mark Zuckerberg (did not graduate)
Economics
Ben Bernanke Martin Feldstein Jason Furman Steven Levitt Merton Miller Eduardo Saverin Robert M. Solow
James Tobin
Education
Prince Lucien Campbell John Phillips
Edwin H. Baker Pratt
Journalism
Harry Cross Nelson Denis Hendrik Hertzberg Nicholas D. Kristof Anthony Lewis Walter Lippmann Leon Neyfakh Sylvia Poggioli David E. Sanger
Sanford J. Ungar
Law
Harry Blackmun Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. John Roberts
David Souter
Literature
James Agee William S. Burroughs Michael Crichton E. E. Cummings John Dos Passos W. E. B. Du Bois T. S. Eliot Jean Kwok Norman Mailer Edmund Pearson Max Perkins Erich Segal Wallace Stevens
John Updike
Mathematics
Manjul Bhargava Buddy Fletcher Theodore Kaczynski
Tom Lehrer
Performing arts
Charlie Albright Darren Aronofsky Paris Barclay Leonard Bernstein Andy Borowitz Amy Brenneman Carter Burwell Nestor Carbonell Rivers Cuomo Matt Damon (did not graduate) Nelson Denis Fred Gwynne Hao Huang Rashida Jones Tommy Lee Jones Colin Jost Jack Lemmon Ryan Leslie John Lithgow Donal Logue Yo-Yo Ma Terrence Malick Lorenzo Mariani Tom Morello Dean Norris Conan O'Brien Natalie Portman Joshua Redman Meredith Salenger Elisabeth Shue Michael Stern Whit Stillman Mira Sorvino
James Toback
Philosophy
Donald Davidson Daniel Dennett Ralph Waldo Emerson Charles Sanders Peirce W.V.O. Quine George Santayana
Henry David Thoreau
Physics
Philip Warren Anderson Theodore Hall Thomas S. Kuhn J. Robert Oppenheimer
Neil deGrasse Tyson
Politics
John Adams John Quincy Adams Samuel Adams Charlie Baker Benazir Bhutto Pedro Albizu Campos Sir George Downing Al Franken Rahul Gandhi Elbridge Gerry Al Gore John Hancock Edward M. Kennedy John F. Kennedy Robert F. Kennedy Henry Kissinger Matthew Mayhew Masako Owada Deval Patrick Tom Ridge Jay Rockefeller Franklin Delano Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Chuck Schumer Meshech Weare
John Weston
Religion
Joseph Stevens Buckminster Aga Khan IV Cotton Mather Increase Mather Jonathan Mayhew Theodore Parker Samuel Parris
{{div end}}

Footnotes

{{notelist}}

References

{{reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, King, M., Moses King, 1884, Harvard and Its Surroundings, {{google books, xAhwXaU5nwoC, y, |location=Cambridge|publisher=Moses King|isbn=}}
  • BOOK, Monaghan, E. J., 2005, Learning to Read and Write in Colonial America, Boston, University of Massachusetts Press, UMass Press,

External links

{{commons|Harvard University}}{{EB9 Poster|Harvard College}} {{harvard}}{{Coord|42.374|-71.117|display=title|scale:10000}}

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