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Cambridge, Massachusetts
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factoids
{{smaller>"Distinguished for Classical Learning and New Institutions"}}}}"HTTP://WWW.CAMBRIDGEMA.GOV/HISTORIC/ABOUTCHC/FAQPAGE > TITLE=FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS PUBLISHER=CITY OF CAMBRIDGE, September 11, 2016, | image_map = Cambridge ma highlight.png| mapsize = 250pxMiddlesex County, Massachusetts>Middlesex County (pink), Massachusetts| pushpin_map = Massachusetts#USA| pushpin_map_caption = Location in the United States| pushpin_label = Cambridge42257138region:US-MA|display=inline,title}}| subdivision_type = Country| subdivision_name = {{US}}U.S. state>StateMassachusetts}}List of counties in Massachusetts>CountyMiddlesex County, Massachusetts>Middlesex| established_title = Settled| established_date = 1630| established_title2 = Incorporated| established_date2 = 1636| established_title3 = City| established_date3 = 1846Council-manager government>Council-City Manager| leader_title = Mayor| leader_name = Marc C. McGovern| leader_title1 = Vice Mayor| leader_name1 = Jan DevereauxCity manager>City Manager| leader_name2 = Louis A. DePasquale| unit_pref = Imperial| area_total_km2 = 18.47| area_total_sq_mi = 7.13| area_land_km2 = 16.65| area_land_sq_mi = 6.43| area_water_km2 = 1.81| area_water_sq_mi = 0.70| elevation_m = 12| elevation_ft = 40| population_total = 1051622010 United States Census>2010| population_density_km2 = auto| population_density_sq_mi = 18503.42| population_blank2_title = Demonym| population_blank2 = CantabrigianEastern Time Zone>Eastern|utc_offset = −5Eastern Time Zone>Eastern|utc_offset_DST = −4| postal_code_type = ZIP code| postal_code = 02138, 02139, 02140, 02141, 02142Area code 617>617 / 857Federal Information Processing Standard>FIPS code| blank_info = 25-11000Geographic Names Information System>GNIS feature ID| blank1_info = 0617365cambridgema.gov}}|pop_est_as_of = 2018ACCESSDATE=JUNE 30, 2019, |population_est = 118977}}Cambridge ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|eɪ|m|b|r|ɪ|dʒ}}WEB,weblink Cambridgepublisher=Collins DictionaryKAYMMiddlesex County, Massachusetts>Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.Situated directly north of Boston, across the Charles River, it was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England, an important center of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders.BOOK, Degler, Carl Neumann, Carl Neumann Degler, Out of Our Pasts: The Forces That Shaped Modern America, HarperCollins, New York, 1984,weblink September 9, 2009, 978-0-06-131985-3, {{rp|18}}Harvard University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Lesley University, and Hult Business School are in Cambridge,weblink Accessed December 1, 2016. as was Radcliffe College, a college for women until it merged with Harvard on October 1, 1999.According to the 2010 Census, the city's population was 105,162.WEB,weblink Cambridge (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, Population, 2010, State & County QuickFacts, USDOC, July 8, 2014, April 30, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140327160241weblink">weblink March 27, 2014, yes, mdy-all, {{As of|2014|07}}, it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, Worcester, Springfield, and Lowell.WEB,weblink Massachusetts QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, State & County QuickFacts, USDOC, July 8, 2014, Cambridge was one of two seats of Middlesex County until the county government was abolished in Massachusetts in 1997.

History

{{See also|Timeline of Cambridge, Massachusetts}}(File:Formation of Massachusetts towns.svg|thumb|Map showing the original boundaries of Cambridge and other Massachusetts cities and towns)In December 1630, the site of what would become Cambridge was chosen because it was safely upriver from Boston Harbor, making it easily defensible from attacks by enemy ships. Thomas Dudley, his daughter Anne Bradstreet, and her husband Simon were among the town's first settlers. The first houses were built in the spring of 1631. The settlement was initially referred to as "the newe towne".{{sfnp|EB|1878}}BOOK, Abbott, Rev. Edward, Drake, Samuel Adams, Samuel Adams Drake, History of Middlesex County, Massachusetts, Cambridge, Estes and Lauriat, Boston, 1880, 1, 305–16,weblink December 26, 2008, Official Massachusetts records show the name rendered as Newe Towne by 1632, and as Newtowne by 1638.BOOK, Report on the Custody and Condition of the Public Records of Parishes, Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth,weblink Boston, 1889, 298, December 24, 2008, Located at the first convenient Charles River crossing west of Boston, Newe Towne was one of a number of towns (including Boston, Dorchester, Watertown, and Weymouth) founded by the 700 original Puritan colonists of the Massachusetts Bay Colony under Governor John Winthrop. Its first preacher was Thomas Hooker, who led many of its original inhabitants west in 1636 to found Hartford and the Connecticut Colony; before leaving, they sold their plots to more recent immigrants from England.{{sfnp|EB|1878}}The original village site is now within Harvard Square. The marketplace where farmers sold crops from surrounding towns at the edge of a salt marsh (since filled) remains within a small park at the corner of John F. Kennedy and Winthrop Streets.The town comprised a much larger area than the present city,{{sfnp|EB|1878}} with various outlying parts becoming independent towns over the years: Cambridge Village (later Newtown and now Newton) in 1688,BOOK, Ritter, Priscilla R., Thelma Fleishman, Newton, Massachusetts 1679–1779: A Biographical Directory, 1982, New England Historic Genealogical Society, Cambridge Farms (now Lexington) in 1712{{sfnp|EB|1878}} or 1713,{{citation |contribution-url =weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070310152201weblink">weblink |contribution=History |title=Lexington Chamber of Commerce |date=2007 }} and Little or South Cambridge (now Brighton){{refn|group=lower-alpha|Brighton was annexed by Boston in 1874.}} and Menotomy or West Cambridge (now Arlington) in 1807.{{sfnp|EB|1878}}WEB,weblink A Short History of Allston-Brighton, Marchione, William P., 2011, Brighton-Allston Historical Society, Brighton Board of Trade, December 21, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120220031829weblink">weblink February 20, 2012, {{refn|group=lower-alpha|Part of West Cambridge joined the new town of Belmont in 1859; the rest of West Cambridge was renamed Arlington in 1867.}} In the late 19th century, various schemes for annexing Cambridge to Boston were pursued and rejected.(1) NEWS, Annexation And Its Fruits, Staff writer,weblink The New York Times, January 15, 1874, 4,weblink January 15, 1874, (2) NEWS, Boston's Annexation Schemes.; Proposal To Absorb Cambridge And Other Near-By Towns, Staff writer,weblink The New York Times, March 26, 1892, 11, August 21, 2010,weblink March 27, 1892, In 1636, the Newe College (later renamed Harvard College after benefactor John Harvard) was founded by the colony to train ministers. According to Cotton Mather, Newe Towne was chosen for the site of the college by the Great and General Court (the Massachusetts legislature) primarily for its proximity to the popular and highly respected Puritan preacher Thomas Shepard. In May 1638,(1) BOOK, The Cambridge of Eighteen Hundred and Ninety-six, Arthur Gilman, Committee on the Memorial Volume, Cambridge, 1896, 8, (2) WEB, Harvard News Office,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120118015220weblink">weblink January 18, 2012, This month in Harvard history, Harvard Gazette, May 2, 2002, April 28, 2012, . (This source gives May 12, 1638, as the date of the name change; others say May 2, 1638, or late 1637.) The settlement's name was changed to Cambridge in honor of the university in Cambridge, England.{{sfnp|EB|1878}}BOOK, Hannah Winthrop Chapter, D.A.R., Historic Guide to Cambridge, Second, 1907, Hannah Winthrop Chapter, D.A.R., Cambridge, Massachusetts, 20–21, On October 15, 1637, the Great and General Court passed a vote that: "The college is ordered to bee at Newetowne." In this same year the name of Newetowne was changed to Cambridge, ("It is ordered that Newetowne shall henceforward be called Cambridge") in honor of the university in Cambridge, England, where many of the early settlers were educated., Newtowne's ministers, Hooker and Shepard, the college's first president, major benefactor, and the first schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton were Cambridge alumni, as was the colony's governor John Winthrop. In 1629, Winthrop had led the signing of the founding document of the city of Boston, which was known as the Cambridge Agreement, after the university.WEB,weblink The Winthrop Society, Descendants of the Great Migration, September 8, 2008, In 1650, Governor Thomas Dudley signed the charter creating the corporation that still governs Harvard College.(1) WEB,weblink Harvard Charter of 1650, Harvard University Archives, September 7, 2013, (2) BOOK, Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts,weblink December 13, 2009, September 1, 1779, The General Court of Massachusetts, Chapter V: The University at Cambridge, and encouragement of literature, etc., File:Washington taking command of the American Army at Cambridge, 1775 - NARA - 532874.tif|thumb|right|George WashingtonGeorge WashingtonCambridge grew slowly as an agricultural village {{convert|8|mi|km|spell=in}} by road from Boston, the colony's capital. By the American Revolution, most residents lived near the Common and Harvard College, with most of the town comprising farms and estates. Most inhabitants were descendants of the original Puritan colonists, but there was also a small elite of Anglican "worthies" who were not involved in village life, made their livings from estates, investments, and trade, and lived in mansions along "the Road to Watertown" (today's Brattle Street, still known as Tory Row).Coming north from Virginia, George Washington took command of the volunteer American soldiers camped on Cambridge Common on July 3, 1775,{{sfnp|EB|1878}} now reckoned the birthplace of the U.S. Army.{{efn|The name of today's nearby Sheraton Commander Hotel refers to that event.}} Most of the Tory estates were confiscated after the Revolution. On January 24, 1776, Henry Knox arrived with artillery captured from Fort Ticonderoga, which enabled Washington to drive the British army out of Boston.(File:Cambridge 1873 WardMap.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.35|Map of Cambridge from 1873)Between 1790 and 1840, Cambridge grew rapidly, with the construction of the West Boston Bridge in 1792 connecting Cambridge directly to Boston, so that it was no longer necessary to travel {{convert|8|mi|km|spell=in}} through the Boston Neck, Roxbury, and Brookline to cross the Charles River. A second bridge, the Canal Bridge, opened in 1809 alongside the new Middlesex Canal. The new bridges and roads made what were formerly estates and marshland into prime industrial and residential districts.In the mid-19th century, Cambridge was the center of a literary revolution. It was home to some of the famous Fireside Poets—so called because their poems would often be read aloud by families in front of their evening fires. The Fireside Poets—Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, and Oliver Wendell Holmes—were highly popular and influential in their day.Soon after, turnpikes were built: the Cambridge and Concord Turnpike (today's Broadway and Concord Ave.), the Middlesex Turnpike (Hampshire St. and Massachusetts Ave. northwest of Porter Square), and what are today's Cambridge, Main, and Harvard Streets connected various areas of Cambridge to the bridges. In addition, the town was connected to the Boston & Maine Railroad,{{sfnp|EB|1911|p=96}} leading to the development of Porter Square as well as the creation of neighboring Somerville from the formerly rural parts of Charlestown.File:1852 Middlesex Canal (Massachusetts) map.jpg|thumb|1852 Map of Boston area showing Cambridge and regional rail lines and highlighting the course of the Middlesex Canal. Cambridge is toward the bottom of the map and outlined in yellow, and should not be confused with the pink-outlined and partially cropped "West Cambridge", now Arlington.]]Cambridge was incorporated as a city in 1846{{sfnp|EB|1878}} despite persistent tensions between East Cambridge, Cambridgeport, and Old Cambridge stemming from differences in culture, sources of income, and the national origins of the residents.WEB,weblink Cambridge Considered: A Very Brief History of Cambridge: 1800–1900, Part 1, Tegan, Kehoe, January 1, 2011, The city's commercial center began to shift from Harvard Square to Central Square, which became the city's downtown around that time.Between 1850 and 1900, Cambridge took on much of its present character—streetcar suburban development along the turnpikes, with working-class and industrial neighborhoods focused on East Cambridge, comfortable middle-class housing on the old Cambridgeport and Mid-Cambridge estates, and upper-class enclaves near Harvard University and on the minor hills. The coming of the railroad to North Cambridge and Northwest Cambridge led to three major changes: the development of massive brickyards and brickworks between Massachusetts Ave., Concord Ave. and Alewife Brook; the ice-cutting industry launched by Frederic Tudor on Fresh Pond; and the carving up of the last estates into residential subdivisions to house the thousands of immigrants who arrived to work in the new industries.For many decades, the city's largest employer was the New England Glass Company, founded in 1818. By the middle of the 19th century it was the world's largest and most modern glassworks. In 1888, Edward Drummond Libbey moved all production to Toledo, Ohio, where it continues today under the name Owens-Illinois. The company's flint glassware with heavy lead content is prized by antique glass collectors. There is none on public display in Cambridge, but the Toledo Museum of Art has a large collection. The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston and the Sandwich Glass Museum on Cape Cod also have a few pieces.By 1920, Cambridge was one of New England's main industrial cities, with nearly 120,000 residents. Among the largest businesses in Cambridge during the period of industrialization was Carter's Ink Company, whose neon sign long adorned the Charles River and which was for many years the world's largest ink manufacturer. Next door was the Atheneum Press. Confectionery and snack manufacturers in the Cambridgeport-Area 4-Kendall corridor included the Kennedy Biscuit Factory (later part of Nabisco and originator of the Fig Newton),WEB,weblink Kennedy, F. A., Steam Bakery – Cambridge, Massachusetts – U.S. National Register of Historic Places, waymarking.com, Necco, Squirrel Brands,WEB,weblink Candy Land: The History of Candy Making in Cambridge, Massachusetts – Squirrel Brand Nuts, cambridgehistory.org, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140430114806weblink">weblink April 30, 2014, mdy-all, George Close Company (1861–1930s),WEB,weblink Candy Land: The History of Candy Making in Cambridge, Massachusetts – George Close Company, cambridgehistory.org, July 10, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150221161421weblink">weblink February 21, 2015, yes, mdy-all, Page & Shaw, Daggett Chocolate (1892–1960s, recipes bought by Necco),WEB,weblink Candy Land: The History of Candy Making in Cambridge, Massachusetts – Daggett Chocolate, cambridgehistory.org, July 10, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150221161259weblink">weblink February 21, 2015, yes, mdy-all, Fox Cross Company (1920–1980, originator of the Charleston Chew, and now part of Tootsie Roll Industries),WEB,weblink Candy Land: The History of Candy Making in Cambridge, Massachusetts – Fox Cross Co., cambridgehistory.org, July 10, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141027095434weblink">weblink October 27, 2014, yes, mdy-all, Kendall Confectionery Company, and James O. Welch (1927–1963, originator of Junior Mints, Sugar Daddies, Sugar Mamas and Sugar Babies, now part of Tootsie Roll Industries).WEB,weblink Candy Land: The History of Candy Making in Cambridge, Massachusetts – James O. Welch, cambridgehistory.org, July 10, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141007093651weblink">weblink October 7, 2014, yes, mdy-all, Only the Cambridge Brands subsidiary of Tootsie Roll Industries remains in town, still manufacturing Junior Mints in the old Welch factory on Main Street. The Blake and Knowles Steam Pump Company (1886), the Kendall Boiler and Tank Company (1880, now in Chelmsford, Massachusetts) and the New England Glass Company (1818–1878) were among the industrial manufacturers in what are now Kendall Square and East Cambridge.As industry in New England began to decline during the Great Depression and after World War II, Cambridge lost much of its industrial base. It also began to become an intellectual, rather than an industrial, center. Harvard University had always been important as both a landowner and an institution, but it began to play a more dominant role in the city's life and culture. When Radcliffe College was established in 1879 the town became a mecca for some of the nation's most academically talented female students. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology's move from Boston in 1916 reinforced Cambridge's status as an intellectual center of the United States.After the 1950s, the city's population began to decline slowly as families tended to be replaced by single people and young couples. In Cambridge Highlands, the technology company Bolt, Beranek and Newman produced the first network router in 1969, and hosted the invention of computer-to-computer email in 1971. The 1980s brought a wave of high-technology startups. Those selling advanced minicomputers were overtaken by the microcomputer.{{citation needed|date=March 2019}} Cambridge-based VisiCorp made the first spreadsheet software for personal computers, Visicalc, and helped propel the Apple II to major consumer success. It was overtaken and purchased by Cambridge-based Lotus Development, maker of Lotus 1-2-3. (This was in turn replaced in the market by Microsoft Excel).The city continues to be home to many startups. Kendall Square was a major software hub through the dot-com boom and today hosts offices of such technology companies as Google, Microsoft, and Amazon. The Square also now houses the headquarters of Akamai.WEB,weblink Locations – Akamai, Akamai.com, May 25, 2018, In 1976, Harvard's plans to start experiments with recombinant DNA led to a three-month moratorium and a citizen review panel. In the end, Cambridge decided to allow such experiments but passed safety regulations in 1977. This led to regulatory certainty and acceptance when Biogen opened a lab in 1982, in contrast to the hostility that caused the Genetic Institute (a Harvard spinoff) to abandon Somerville and Boston for Cambridge.WEB,weblink How Cambridge became the life sciences capital, The biotech and pharmaceutical industries have since thrived in Cambridge, which now includes headquarters for Biogen and Genzyme; laboratories for Novartis, Teva, Takeda, Alnylam, Ironwood, Catabasis, Moderna Therapeutics, Editas Medicine; support companies such as Cytel; and many smaller companies.By the end of the 20th century, Cambridge had one of the most costly housing markets in the Northeastern United States.JOURNAL, Glaeser, E. L., April 1, 2005, Reinventing Boston: 1630–2003,weblink Journal of Economic Geography, 5, 2, 119–153, 10.1093/jnlecg/lbh058, 1468-2702, While considerable class, race, and age diversity persisted, it became harder for those who grew up in the city to afford to stay. The end of rent control in 1994 prompted many Cambridge renters to move to more affordable housing in Somerville and other cities or towns.Until recently, Cambridge's mix of amenities and proximity to Boston kept housing prices relatively stable despite the bursting of the United States housing bubble.NEWS,weblink Housing prices soar after years of stability in Cambridge, dmclean@wickedlocal.com, Danielle McLean, Cambridge Chronicle & Tab, March 2, 2017, en, Cambridge has been a sanctuary city since 1985 and reaffirmed its status as such in 2006.(1) WEB,weblink City of Cambridge, City Council Policy Order Resolution O-16, May 8, 2006, (2) WEB,weblink Los Angeles Times, In immigrant-rich Cambridge, arrest baffles locals, Melanie, Mason, Michael J., Mishak, Ashley, Powers, April 21, 2013,

Geography

File:Charles River Cambridge USA.jpg|thumb|upright|A view from Boston of Harvard's Weld Boathouse and Cambridge in winter. The Charles RiverCharles RiverAccording to the United States Census Bureau, Cambridge has a total area of {{convert|7.1|sqmi|km2}}, of which {{convert|6.4|sqmi|km2}} is land and {{convert|0.7|sqmi|km2}} (9.82%) is water.

Adjacent municipalities

Cambridge is located in eastern Massachusetts, bordered by: The border between Cambridge and the neighboring city of Somerville passes through densely populated neighborhoods which are connected by the MBTA Red Line. Some of the main squares, Inman, Porter, and to a lesser extent, Harvard and Lechmere, are very close to the city line, as are Somerville's Union and Davis Squares.Through the City of Cambridge's exclusive municipal water system, the city further controls two exclave areas, one being Payson Park Reservoir and Gatehouse, a 2009 listed American Water Landmark located roughly one mile west of Fresh Pond and surrounded by the town of Belmont. The second area is the larger Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook watersheds, which share borders with neighboring towns and cities including Lexington, Lincoln, Waltham, and Weston, Massachusetts.

Neighborhoods

{{More citations needed section|date=March 2016}}

Squares

Cambridge has been called the "City of Squares",(1) WEB, No Writer Attributed,weblink "Cambridge: A City of Squares" Harvard Crimson, September 18, 1969, Thecrimson.com, September 18, 1969, April 28, 2012, (2) WEB,weblink Cambridge Journal: Massachusetts City No Longer in Boston's Shadow, Travelwritersmagazine.com, April 28, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120417231041weblink">weblink April 17, 2012, as most of its commercial districts are major street intersections known as squares. Each square acts as a neighborhood center. These include:
  • Kendall Square, formed by the junction of Broadway, Main Street, and Third Street. Technology Square is an office and laboratory building cluster in this neighborhood. Just over the Longfellow Bridge from Boston, at the eastern end of the MIT campus, it is served by the Kendall/MIT station on the MBTA Red Line subway. Most of Cambridge's large office towers are located in the Square. A biotech industry has developed in this area. The Cambridge Innovation Center, a large co-working space, is in Kendall Square at 1 Broadway. The Cambridge Center office complex is in Kendall Square, and not at the actual center of Cambridge. The "One Kendall Square" complex is nearby, but not actually in Kendall Square.
  • Central Square, formed by the junction of Massachusetts Avenue, Prospect Street, and Western Avenue. Containing a variety of ethnic restaurants, it was economically depressed as recently as the late 1990s; it underwent gentrification in recent years (in conjunction with the development of the nearby University Park at MIT), and continues to grow more costly. It is served by the Central Station stop on the MBTA Red Line subway. Lafayette Square, formed by the junction of Massachusetts Avenue, Columbia Street, Sidney Street, and Main Street, is considered part of the Central Square area. Cambridgeport is south of Central Square along Magazine Street and Brookline Street.
  • Harvard Square, formed by the junction of Massachusetts Avenue, Brattle Street, and JFK Street. This is the primary site of Harvard University and a major Cambridge shopping area. It is served by a Red Line station. Harvard Square was originally the Red Line's northwestern terminus and a major transfer point to streetcars that also operated in a short tunnel—which is still a major bus terminal, although the area under the Square was reconfigured dramatically in the 1980s when the Red Line was extended. The Harvard Square area includes Brattle Square and Eliot Square. A short distance away from the square lies the Cambridge Common, while the neighborhood north of Harvard and east of Massachusetts Avenue is known as Agassiz, after the famed scientist Louis Agassiz.
  • Porter Square, about a mile north on Massachusetts Avenue from Harvard Square, at the junction of Massachusetts and Somerville Avenues. It includes part of the city of Somerville and is served by the Porter Square Station, a complex housing a Red Line stop and a Fitchburg Line commuter rail stop. Lesley University's University Hall and Porter campus are in Porter Square.
  • Inman Square, at the junction of Cambridge and Hampshire streets in Mid-Cambridge. It is home to restaurants, bars, music venues and boutiques. Victorian streetlights, benches and bus stops were recently added to the streets, and a new city park was installed.
  • Lechmere Square, at the junction of Cambridge and First streets, adjacent to the CambridgeSide Galleria shopping mall. It is the MBTA Green Line's northern terminus, at Lechmere Station.

Gallery

{{wide image|Cambridge skyline November 2016 panorama.jpg|900px|Cambridge skyline in November 2016|90%|center|alt=Panorama of Cambridge skyline in November 2016}}File:Centralsquarecambridgemass.jpg|Central SquareFile:Harvard square 2009j.JPG|Harvard SquareFile:Cambridge MA Inman Square.jpg|Inman Square

Other neighborhoods

(File:Neighborhood Map of Cambridge, MA.png|thumb|right|Neighborhood map of Cambridge)Cambridge's residential neighborhoods border but are not defined by the squares.
  • East Cambridge (Area 1) is bordered on the north by Somerville, on the east by the Charles River, on the south by Broadway and Main Street, and on the west by the Grand Junction Railroad tracks. It includes the NorthPoint development.
  • MIT Campus (Area 2) is bordered on the north by Broadway, on the south and east by the Charles River, and on the west by the Grand Junction Railroad tracks.
  • Wellington-Harrington (Area 3) is bordered on the north by Somerville, on the south and west by Hampshire Street, and on the east by the Grand Junction Railroad tracks. Referred to as "Mid-Block".{{clarify|What is? By whom? A full sentence would help. :Residents of Roosevelt Towers would refer to it as Mid-Block, so would residents of East Cambridge or Port. Not sure how to put that into a sentence that isn't too intrusive|date=September 2015}}
  • The Port, formerly known as Area 4, is bordered on the north by Hampshire Street, on the south by Massachusetts Avenue, on the west by Prospect Street, and on the east by the Grand Junction Railroad tracks. Residents of Area 4 often simply call their neighborhood "The Port" and the area of Cambridgeport and Riverside "The Coast". In October 2015, the Cambridge City Council officially renamed Area 4 "The Port", formalizing the longtime nickname, largely on the initiative of neighborhood native and then-Vice Mayor Dennis Benzan. The port is usually the busier part of the city. WEB,weblink Area Four in Cambridge renamed 'The Port', Cambridge@wickedlocal.com, Natalie Handy, Cambridge Chronicle & Tab, March 20, 2016,
  • Cambridgeport (Area 5) is bordered on the north by Massachusetts Avenue, on the south by the Charles River, on the west by River Street, and on the east by the Grand Junction Railroad tracks.
  • Mid-Cambridge (Area 6) is bordered on the north by Kirkland and Hampshire Streets and Somerville, on the south by Massachusetts Avenue, on the west by Peabody Street, and on the east by Prospect Street.
  • Riverside (Area 7), an area sometimes called "The Coast", is bordered on the north by Massachusetts Avenue, on the south by the Charles River, on the west by JFK Street, and on the east by River Street.
  • Agassiz (Harvard North) (Area 8) is bordered on the north by Somerville, on the south and east by Kirkland Street, and on the west by Massachusetts Avenue.
  • Neighborhood Nine or Radcliffe (formerly called Peabody, until the recent relocation of a neighborhood school by that name) is bordered on the north by railroad tracks, on the south by Concord Avenue, on the west by railroad tracks, and on the east by Massachusetts Avenue.


The Avon Hill sub-neighborhood consists of the higher elevations within the area bounded by Upland Road, Raymond Street, Linnaean Street and Massachusetts Avenue.
  • Brattle area/West Cambridge (Area 10) is bordered on the north by Concord Avenue and Garden Street, on the south by the Charles River and Watertown, on the west by Fresh Pond and the Collins Branch Library, and on the east by JFK Street. It includes the sub-neighborhoods of Brattle Street (formerly known as Tory Row) and Huron Village.
  • North Cambridge (Area 11) is bordered on the north by Arlington and Somerville, on the south by railroad tracks, on the west by Belmont, and on the east by Somerville.
  • Cambridge Highlands (Area 12) is bordered on the north and east by railroad tracks, on the south by Fresh Pond, and on the west by Belmont .
  • Strawberry Hill (Area 13) is bordered on the north by Fresh Pond, on the south by Watertown, on the west by Belmont, and on the east by railroad tracks.

Climate

In the Koppen-Geiger classification Cambridge has a warm continental summer climate (Dfa) that can appear in the southern end of New England's interior. The city experiences abundant rainfall year round and has no dry season, The average January temperature is 26.6 Â°F (- 3 Â°C), making Cambridge part of Group D, independent of the isotherm. There are four well-defined seasons.WEB,weblink Climate Cambridge: Temperature, Climograph, Climate table for Cambridge – Climate-Data.org, en.climate-data.org, July 21, 2018,

Demographics

{{Historical populations|type= USA|align= right2115245323233295607284091521526060396345266970028918861048391096941136431108791207401077161003619532295802101355105162118977PUBLISHER=CENSUS.GOVDEADURL=YESARCHIVEDATE=APRIL 26, 2015, mdy, AT=SECTION 6, PAGES 21–7 THROUGH 21–09, MASSACHUSETTS TABLE 4. POPULATION OF URBAN PLACES OF 10,000 OR MORE FROM EARLIEST CENSUS TO 1920ACCESSDATE=JULY 12, 2011URL=HTTP://WWW2.CENSUS.GOV/PROD2/DECENNIAL/DOCUMENTS/23761117V1CH06.PDF, }}{| class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="font-size: 90%;"! Racial composition !! 2010 !! 1990 !! 1970 !! 1950White American>White 66.6% 75.3% 91.1% 95.3%| n/aAfrican American>Black or African American 11.7% 13.5% 6.8% 4.3%Hispanic and Latino Americans>Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 7.6% 6.8% 1.9% n/aAsian American>Asian 15.1% 8.4% 1.5% 0.3%Multiracial American>Two or more races 4.3% n/a n/a n/aAs of the censusWEB,weblink United States Census Bureau, January 31, 2008, American FactFinder, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130911234518weblink">weblink September 11, 2013, mdy, of 2010, there were 105,162 people, 44,032 households, and 17,420 families residing in the city. The population density was 16,354.9 people per square mile (6,314.6/km²). There were 47,291 housing units at an average density of 7,354.7 per square mile (2,840.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 66.60% White, 11.70% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 15.10% Asian (3.7% Chinese, 1.4% Asian Indian, 1.2% Korean, 1.0% JapaneseWEB, QT-P8: Race Reporting for the Asian Population by Selected Categories: 2010,weblink factfinder2.census.gov, 2010 Census, June 1, 2014, ), 0.01% Pacific Islander, 2.10% from other races, and 4.30% from two or more races. 7.60% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race (1.6% Puerto Rican, 1.4% Mexican, 0.6% Dominican, 0.5% Colombian, 0.5% Salvadoran, 0.4% Spaniard). Non-Hispanic Whites were 62.1% of the population in 2010,WEB,weblink Cambridge (city), Massachusetts, State & County QuickFacts, U.S. Census Bureau, April 30, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140327160241weblink">weblink March 27, 2014, yes, mdy-all, down from 89.7% in 1970.WEB, Massachusetts – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau,weblink May 4, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120812191959weblink">weblink August 12, 2012, yes, mdy-all, An individual resident of Cambridge is known as a Cantabrigian.In 2010, there were 44,032 households out of which 16.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.9% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 60.4% were non-families. 40.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.00 and the average family size was 2.76.In the city, the population was spread out with 13.3% of the population under the age of 18, 21.2% from 18 to 24, 38.6% from 25 to 44, 17.8% from 45 to 64, and 9.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males.The median income for a household in the city was $47,979, and the median income for a family was $59,423 (these figures had risen to $58,457 and $79,533 respectively {{as of|2007|alt=as of a 2007 estimate}}WEB,weblink U.S. Census, 2000, Factfinder.census.gov, April 28, 2012, ). Males had a median income of $43,825 versus $38,489 for females. The per capita income for the city was $31,156. About 8.7% of families and 12.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.1% of those under age 18 and 12.9% of those age 65 or over.Cambridge has been ranked as one of the most liberal cities in America.WEB,weblink Study Ranks America's Most Liberal and Conservative Cities, Govpro.com, August 16, 2005, April 28, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080905215646weblink">weblink September 5, 2008, Locals living in and near the city jokingly refer to it as "The People's Republic of Cambridge."WEB,weblink The Hub, People's Republic, the, For 2016, the residential property tax rate in Cambridge was $6.99 per $1,000.WEB,weblink FY16 Property Tax Information – City of Cambridge, Massachusetts, City of Cambridge, January 23, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160129080825weblink">weblink January 29, 2016, yes, mdy-all, Cambridge enjoys the highest possible bond credit rating, AAA, with all three Wall Street rating agencies.WEB, Cambridge Earns Three Triple A Ratings for Fiscal Management for 15th Consecutive Year – City of Cambridge, Massachusettsarchive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150217051050weblinkarchive-date=February 17, 2015accessdate=February 17, 2015, In 2000, 11.0% of city residents were of Irish ancestry; 7.2% were of English, 6.9% Italian, 5.5% West Indian and 5.3% German ancestry. 69.4% spoke only English at home, while 6.9% spoke Spanish, 3.2% Chinese or Mandarin, 3.0% Portuguese, 2.9% French Creole, 2.3% French, 1.5% Korean, and 1.0% Italian.

Income

{{See also|List of Massachusetts locations by per capita income}}Data is from the 2009–2013 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.(1) WEB,weblink Selected Economic Characteristics 2009–2013 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau, January 12, 2015, (2) WEB,weblink ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates 2009–2013 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau, January 12, 2015, (3) WEB,weblink Households and Families 2009–2013 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau, January 12, 2015, {| class="wikitable sortable" valign=bottom! Rank! ZIP Code (ZCTA)! Per capitaincome! Medianhouseholdincome! Medianfamilyincome! Population! Number ofhouseholds| 1| 02142| $67,525| $100,114| $150,774| 2,838| 1,385| 2| 02138| $52,592| $75,446| $120,564| 35,554| 13,868| 3| 02140| $50,856| $75,446| $120,564| 18,164| 8,460|| Cambridge| $47,448| $72,529| $93,460| 105,737| 44,345|Middlesex County, Massachusetts>Middlesex County| $42,861| $82,090| $104,032| 1,522,533| 581,120| 4| 02139| $42,235| $71,745| $93,220| 36,015| 14,474| 5| 02141| $39,241| $64,326| $76,276| 13,126| 6,182|| Massachusetts| $35,763| $66,866| $84,900| 6,605,058| 2,530,147|| United States| $28,155| $53,046| $64,719| 311,536,594| 115,610,216

Economy

File:Cambridge Skyline.jpg|thumb|Buildings of Kendall Square, center of Cambridge's biotech economy, seen from the Charles RiverCharles RiverManufacturing was an important part of Cambridge's economy in the late 19th and early 20th century, but educational institutions are its biggest employers today. Harvard and MIT together employ about 20,000.WEB,weblink Top 25 Cambridge Employers: 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120320003737weblink">weblink March 20, 2012, City of Cambridge, As a cradle of technological innovation, Cambridge was home to technology firms Analog Devices, Akamai, Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN Technologies) (now part of Raytheon), General Radio (later GenRad), Lotus Development Corporation (now part of IBM), Polaroid, Symbolics, and Thinking Machines.In 1996, Polaroid, Arthur D. Little, and Lotus were Cambridge's top employers, with over 1,000 employees, but they faded out a few years later. Health care and biotechnology firms such as Genzyme, Biogen Idec, Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Sanofi, Pfizer and NovartisNEWS, Novartis doubles plan for Cambridge, Casey Ross, Robert Weisman,weblink The Boston Globe, October 27, 2010, April 12, 2011, Already Cambridge's largest corporate employer, the Swiss firm expects to hire an additional 200 to 300 employees over the next five years, bringing its total workforce in the city to around 2,300. Novartis's global research operations are headquartered in Cambridge, across Massachusetts Avenue from the site of the new four-acre campus.,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110810205245weblink">weblink August 10, 2011, have significant presences in the city. Though headquartered in Switzerland, Novartis continues to expand its operations in Cambridge.Other major biotech and pharmaceutical firms expanding their presence in Cambridge include GlaxoSmithKline, AstraZeneca, Shire, and Pfizer.NEWS, Novartis Doubles Plan for Cambridge,weblink February 23, 2012, The Boston Globe, Casey, Ross, Robert, Weisman, October 27, 2010, Most of Cambridge's biotech firms are in Kendall Square and East Cambridge, which decades ago were the city's center of manufacturing. Some others are in University Park at MIT, a new development in another former manufacturing area.NEWS, Arnold, Chris, What Happens When The Pace of Startups Slows Down,weblink November 6, 2013, NPR, October 31, 2013, NEWS, Kirsner, Scott, LabCentral, a new hatchery for science-oriented startups, is seeking space in Kendall Square,weblink August 16, 2013, The Boston Globe, September 20, 2012, None of the high-technology firms that once dominated the economy was among the 25 largest employers in 2005, but by 2008 Akamai and ITA Software were. Google,WEB,weblink Google Offices, Google.com, July 18, 2012, IBM Research, Microsoft Research, and Philips ResearchWEB,weblink Philips Research North American Headquarter Moves to Cambridge, fortune.com, September 29, 2015, maintain offices in Cambridge. In late January 2012—less than a year after acquiring Billerica-based analytic database management company, Vertica—Hewlett-Packard announced it would also be opening its first offices in Cambridge.WEB, Huang, Gregory, Hewlett-Packard Expands to Cambridge via Vertica's "Big Data" Center,weblink Also around that time, e-commerce giants StaplesWEB, Staples to bring e-commerce office to Cambridge's Kendall Square,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120624170218weblink">weblink yes, June 24, 2012, and Amazon.comWEB,weblink Amazon Seeks Brick-And-Mortar Presence in Boston Area, www.wbur.org, said they would be opening research and innovation centers in Kendall Square. And LabCentral provides a shared laboratory facility for approximately 25 emerging biotech companies.{{citation needed|date=January 2017}}The proximity of Cambridge's universities has also made the city a center for nonprofit groups and think tanks, including the National Bureau of Economic Research, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, Cultural Survival, and One Laptop per Child.{{citation needed|date=January 2017}} A group of start-up companies have emerged in Kendall Square since 2010.(1) WEB,weblink Kendall Square Initiative, MIT, December 1, 2016, (2) NEWS,weblink When a neighborhood is crowned the most innovative square mile in the world, how do you keep it that way?, Lelund Cheung, The Boston Globe, December 1, 2016, In September 2011, the City of Cambridge launched the "Entrepreneur Walk of Fame" initiative. The Walk recognizes people who have made contributions to innovation in global business.NEWS, Stars of invention, Kathleen, Pierce,weblink The Boston Globe, September 16, 2011, October 1, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120524035019weblink">weblink May 24, 2012, mdy-all,

Top employers

{{as of|2015}}, the city's ten largest employers are:(1) WEB,weblink 2015 Top 25 Employers, City of Cambridge, January 6, 2015, January 13, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170116170136weblink">weblink January 16, 2017, yes, mdy-all, (2) WEB,weblink Top 25 Employer List for 2015, January 6, 2015, City of Cambridge, {| class="wikitable"! #! Employer! # of employees| 1|Harvard University|11,997|2|Massachusetts Institute of Technology|8,763|3|City of Cambridge|2,950|4|Biogen Idec|2,700|5|Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research|2,457|6|Mount Auburn Hospital|2,115|7|Cambridge Health Alliance|1,713|8|Cambridge Innovation Center|1,678|9|Genzyme|1,600|10|Akamai Technologies|1,544

Arts and culture

File:Fogg.jpg|thumb|Fogg MuseumFogg Museum

Museums

Public art

Cambridge has a large and varied collection of permanent public art, on both city property (managed by the Cambridge Arts Council)WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090516191034weblink">weblink yes, May 16, 2009, CAC Public Art Program, City of Cambridge, March 13, 2007, April 28, 2012, mdy-all, and the HarvardWEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090828231050weblink">weblink yes, August 28, 2009, Office for the Arts at Harvard: Public Art, Ofa.fas.harvard.edu, April 28, 2012, mdy-all, and MITWEB,weblink MIT Public Art Collection Map, Listart.mit.edu,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080312181322weblink">weblink March 12, 2008, yes, April 28, 2012, mdy-all, campuses. Temporary public artworks are displayed as part of the annual Cambridge River Festival on the banks of the Charles River, during winter celebrations in Harvard and Central Squares, and at university campus sites. Experimental forms of public artistic and cultural expression include the Central Square World's Fair, the annual Somerville-based Honk! Festival,WEB,weblink Honk Fest, Honkfest.org, and If This House Could Talk,WEB,weblink The Cambridge Historical Society, Canbridgehistory.org, July 26, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150530014816weblink">weblink May 30, 2015, yes, mdy-all, a neighborhood art and history event.Street musicians and other performers entertain tourists and locals in Harvard Square during the warmer months. The performances are coordinated through a public process that has been developed collaboratively by the performers,WEB,weblink Street Arts & Buskers Advocates, Buskersadvocates.org, city administrators, private organizations and business groups.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071005063731weblink">weblink yes, October 5, 2007, Street Arts and Buskers Advocates, Harvardsquare.com, April 28, 2012, The Cambridge public library contains four Works Progress Administration murals completed in 1935 by Elizabeth Tracy Montminy: Religion, Fine Arts, History of Books and Paper, and The Development of the Printing Press.WEB, harv, Heggemeyer, Amy, Elizabeth Tracy,weblink WPA Murals, General Services Administration, April 28, 2016, 2006, File:Longfellow National Historic Site, Cambridge, Massachusetts.JPG|thumb|right|Longfellow House–Washington's Headquarters National Historic SiteLongfellow House–Washington's Headquarters National Historic SiteFile:Wfm stata center.jpg|thumb|Stata CenterStata CenterFile:Simmons Hall, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts.JPG|thumb|Simmons Hall, MIT]]

Architecture

{{See also|List of tallest buildings and structures in Cambridge, Massachusetts}}Despite intensive urbanization during the late 19th century and the 20th century, Cambridge has several historic buildings, including some from the 17th century. The city also has abundant contemporary architecture, largely built by Harvard and MIT.Notable historic buildings in the city include: {{See also|List of Registered Historic Places in Cambridge, Massachusetts}}Contemporary architecture:

Music

The city has an active music scene, from classical performances to the latest popular bands. Beyond its colleges and universities, Cambridge has many music venues, including The Middle East, Club Passim, The Plough and Stars, and the Nameless Coffeehouse.

Parks and recreation

(File:Alewife Brook Reservation.jpg|thumb|Alewife Brook Reservation)Consisting largely of densely built residential space, Cambridge lacks significant tracts of public parkland. Easily accessible open space on the university campuses, including Harvard Yard, the Radcliffe Yard, and MIT's Great Lawn, as well as the considerable open space of Mount Auburn Cemetery, partly compensates for this. At Cambridge's western edge, the cemetery is known as a garden cemetery because its landscaping (the oldest planned landscape in the country) and arboretum. Although known as a Cambridge landmark, much of the cemetery lies within Watertown.WEB, City of Cambridge map, City of Cambridge, 2007,weblink PDF, It is also an Important Bird Area (IBA) in the Greater Boston area.Public parkland includes the esplanade along the Charles River, which mirrors its Boston counterpart; Cambridge Common, a busy and historic public park adjacent to Harvard's campus; and the Alewife Brook Reservation and Fresh Pond in western Cambridge.

Government

Federal and state representation

{| class=wikitable! colspan = 6 | Voter registration and party enrollment {{as of|lc=y|df=US|2018|10|17}}WEB, Registered Voters and Party Enrollment as of October 17, 2018, Massachusetts Elections Division, PDF, January 23, 2019,weblink ! colspan = 2 | Party! Number of voters! Percentage{{party color|Democratic Party (United States)}}Democratic Party (United States)>Democratic 39,558 55.93%{{party color|Republican Party (United States)}}Republican Party (United States)>Republican 2,380 3.36%{{party color|Independent Party (United States)}}| Unaffiliated 28,024 39.62%{{party color|Libertarian Party (United States)}}| Minor Parties 198 0.28%! colspan = 2 | Total! style="text-align:center;"| 70,733! style="text-align:center;"| 100%Cambridge is split between Massachusetts's 5th and 7th U.S. congressional districts. The 5th district seat is held by Democrat Katherine Clark, who replaced now Senator Ed Markey in a 2013 special election; the 7th is represented by Democrat Ayanna Pressley, elected in 2018. The state's senior United States Senator is Democrat Elizabeth Warren, elected in 2012, who lives in Cambridge. The governor of Massachusetts is Republican Charlie Baker, elected in 2014.Cambridge is represented in six districts in the Massachusetts House of Representatives: the 24th Middlesex (which includes parts of Belmont and Arlington), the 25th and 26th Middlesex (the latter of which includes a portion of Somerville), the 29th Middlesex (which includes a small part of Watertown), and the Eighth and Ninth Suffolk (both including parts of the City of Boston).WEB,weblink City of Cambridge, State Rep Districts, Geographic Information System, July 1, 2014, The city is represented in the Massachusetts Senate as a part of the First Suffolk and Middlesex district, which contains parts of Boston, Revere and Winthrop in Suffolk County; the Middlesex, Suffolk and Essex district, which includes Everett and Somerville, with Boston, Chelsea, and Revere of Suffolk, and Saugus in Essex; and the Second Suffolk and Middlesex district, containing parts of the City of Boston in Suffolk County, and Cambridge, Belmont and Watertown in Middlesex County.WEB,weblink Index of Legislative Representation by City and Town, from, Mass.gov, April 28, 2012, {| class="wikitable" margin:0 0 1em 1em; font-size:95%;"weblink style="background:lightgrey;"! Year! Democratic! Republican style="text-align:center;"201687.9% 46,5636.3% 3,323 style="text-align:center;"201286.0% 43,51510.8% 5,476 style="text-align:center;"200887.8% 40,87610.1% 4,697 style="text-align:center;"200484.8% 35,88612.6% 5,338 style="text-align:center;"200072.1% 28,84612.9% 5,166 style="text-align:center;"199678.9% 30,04313.1% 4,990 style="text-align:center;"199274.7% 30,73714.2% 5,847 style="text-align:center;"198877.0% 32,02721.1% 8,770 style="text-align:center;"198476.2% 32,58223.4% 10,007 style="text-align:center;"198060.8% 24,33719.9% 7,952 style="text-align:center;"

{{anchor|City government|City Council|City council}}City government

{{See also|Cambridge, Massachusetts municipal election, 2013}}File:CambridgeMACityHall1.jpg|thumb|right|Cambridge City Hall in the 1980s]]{{anchor|govt}}Cambridge has a city government led by a mayor and a nine-member city council. There is also a six-member school committee that functions alongside the superintendent of public schools. The councilors and school committee members are elected every two years using the single transferable vote (STV) system, known locally as ”proportional representation”.WEB,weblink Cambridge Municipal Elections, City of Cambridge, September 19, 2017, Cambridge is the only unit of government in the country that elects its council by this method, which uses ranked-choice voting in an at-large, multi-member district to obtain proportional representation (Minneapolis uses it for at-large boards).(1) NEWS,weblink The two-party system is facing its biggest challenge in 70 years – NationofChange, Anderson, Theo, March 19, 2018, Nation of Change, March 21, 2018, en-US, (2) WEB,weblink What is Ranked-Choice Voting? - Minneapolis Elections & Voter Services, vote.minneapolismn.gov, en-US, March 21, 2018, The mayor is elected by the city councilors from among themselves, and serves as the chair of city council meetings. The mayor also sits on the school committee. The mayor is not the city's chief executive. Rather, the city manager, who is appointed by the city council, serves in that capacity.Under the city's Plan E form of government, the city council does not have the power to appoint or remove city officials who are under direction of the city manager. The city council and its individual members are also forbidden from giving orders to any subordinate of the city manager.WEB,weblink City of Cambridge, PDF, Plan E, Louis DePasquale is the City Manager, having succeeded Lisa C. Peterson, the Acting City Manager and Cambridge's first woman City Manager, on November 14, 2016.WEB,weblink DePasquale era begins with councillor vote affirming multi-year city manager contract {{!, Cambridge Day|access-date=November 22, 2016}} Peterson became Acting City Manager on September 30, 2016, after Richard C. Rossi announced that he would opt out of his contract renewal.WEB,weblink BREAKING: Rossi to retire as Cambridge city manager in June, Saltzman, Amy, Cambridge Chronicle & Tab, March 11, 2016, Rossi succeeded Robert W. Healy, who retired in June 2013 after 32 years in the position. In recent history, the media has highlighted the salary of the city manager as one of the highest for a Massachusetts civic employee.NEWS, Cambridge city manager's salary almost as much as Obama's pay,weblink Wicked Local: Cambridge, August 11, 2011, December 30, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111230203839weblink">weblink December 30, 2011, {| class="wikitable sortable"! District! Councillor! In office since| At-large| Dennis J. Carlone| Jan. 2014–present| At-large| Jan Devereux| Jan. 2016–present| At-large| Craig A. Kelley| Jan. 2006–present| At-large| Alanna M. Mallon| Jan. 2018–present| At-large| Marc C. McGovern*| Jan. 2014–present| At-large| Sumbul Siddiqui| Jan. 2018–present| At-large| E. Denise Simmons**| Jan. 2002–present| At-large| Timothy J. Toomey, Jr.| Jan. 1990–present| At-large| Quinton Y. Zondervan| Jan. 2018–present* = current mayor** = former mayor

County government

Cambridge was a county seat of Middlesex County, along with Lowell, until the abolition of county government. Though the county government was abolished in 1997, the county still exists as a geographical and political region. The employees of Middlesex County courts, jails, registries, and other county agencies now work directly for the state. The county's registrars of Deeds and Probate remain in Cambridge, but the Superior Court and District Attorney have had their operations transferred to Woburn. Third District court has shifted operations to Medford, and the county Sheriff's office awaits near-term relocation.(1) NEWS,weblink Court move a hassle for commuters, July 25, 2009, Eric, Moskowitz, February 14, 2008, The Boston Globe, In a little more than a month, Middlesex Superior Court will open in Woburn after nearly four decades at the Edward J. Sullivan Courthouse in Cambridge. With it, the court will bring the roughly 500 people who pass through its doors each day – the clerical staff, lawyers, judges, jurors, plaintiffs, defendants, and others who use or work in the system., (2) NEWS,weblink Cambridge's Middlesex Jail, courts may be shuttered for good, July 25, 2009, Charlie, Breitrose, July 7, 2009, Wicked Local News: Cambridge, The courts moved out of the building to allow workers to remove asbestos. Superior Court moved to Woburn in March 2008, and in February, the Third District Court moved to Medford.,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110513192408weblink">weblink May 13, 2011,

Education

File:MIT Main Campus Aerial.jpg|thumb|Aerial view of part of MITMITFile:Dunster House.jpg|thumb|upright|Dunster HouseDunster House

Higher education

Cambridge is perhaps best known as an academic and intellectual center. Its colleges and universities include: At least 129 of the world's total 780 Nobel Prize winners have at some point in their careers been affiliated with universities in Cambridge.The American Academy of Arts and Sciences is also based in Cambridge.

Primary and secondary public education

  • Amigos School
  • Baldwin School (formerly the Agassiz School)
  • Cambridgeport School
  • Fletcher-Maynard Academy
  • Graham and Parks Alternative School
  • Haggerty School
  • Kennedy-Longfellow School
  • King Open School
  • Martin Luther King, Jr. School
  • Morse School (a Core Knowledge school)
  • Peabody School
  • Tobin School (a Montessori school)
Five upper schools offer grades 6–8 in some of the same buildings as the elementary schools:WEB, Schools,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110713224232weblink">weblink yes, July 13, 2011, January 6, 2013, mdy-all, Cambridge has three district public high school programs, the principal one being Cambridge Rindge and Latin School (CRLS).WEB, Cambridge Public Schools at a Glance 2012–2013, PDF,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130502115441weblink">weblink yes, May 2, 2013, January 6, 2013, mdy-all, Other public charter schools include Benjamin Banneker Charter School, which serves grades K–6;WEB,weblink The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School, Banneker.org, March 1, 2012, April 28, 2012, Community Charter School of CambridgeWEB,weblink Community Charter School of Cambridge, Ccscambridge.org, April 28, 2012, in Kendall Square, which serves grades 7–12; and Prospect Hill Academy, a charter school whose upper school is in Central Square though it is not a part of the Cambridge Public School District.

Primary and secondary private education

File:Cambridge Public Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts.JPG|thumb|right|The 1888 part of the Cambridge Public LibraryCambridge Public LibraryCambridge also has several private schools, including:

Media

Newspapers

Cambridge is served by the Cambridge Chronicle, the oldest surviving weekly paper in the United States. Another popular online newspaper is {{anchor|Cambridge Day}}Cambridge Day.

Radio

Cambridge is home to the following commercially licensed and student-run radio stations:{| class=wikitable! Callsign !! Frequency !! City/town !! Licensee !! FormatWHRB > 95.3 FM Cambridge (Harvard) Harvard Radio Broadcasting Co., Inc. Musical varietyWJIB > 740 AM/101.3 FM Cambridge Bob Bittner Broadcasting Adult Standards/PopWMBR > 88.1 FM Cambridge (MIT) Technology Broadcasting Corporation College radio

Television and broadband

Cambridge Community Television (CCTV) has served the city since its inception in 1988. CCTV operates Cambridge's public access television facility and three television channels, 8, 9, and 96, on the Cambridge cable system (Comcast). The city has invited tenders from other cable providers, but Comcast remains its only fixed television and broadband utility,(1) WEB,weblink Cable Television in the City of Cambridge, Staff writer, 2013, Cambridge Consumers' Council,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120508210917weblink">weblink May 8, 2012, yes, April 3, 2013, Comcast is currently the only cable operator that has sought a license with Cambridge. The City of Cambridge has approached other operators, more than once, about seeking a license to operate a cable TV system in Cambridge, but they have informed us that Cambridge is not part of their business plan; however, City officials stand ready to negotiate with any willing operator., (2) WEB,weblink Cable TV franchise agreements in Massachusetts, Commonwealth of Massachusetts Office of Consumer Affairs & Business Regulation (OCABR), though services from American satellite TV providers are available. In October 2014, Cambridge City Manager Richard Rossi appointed a citizen Broadband Task Force to "examine options to increase competition, reduce pricing, and improve speed, reliability and customer service for both residents and businesses."WEB, Broadband Task Force – City Manager's Office – City of Cambridge, Massachusetts,weblink www.cambridgema.gov, October 30, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151030041545weblink">weblink October 30, 2015, yes, mdy-all,

Infrastructure

Transportation

{{See also|Boston transportation}}

Road

File:Harvard Square at Peabody Street and Mass Avenue.jpg|thumb|Massachusetts Avenue in Harvard SquareHarvard SquareSeveral major roads lead to Cambridge, including Route 2, Route 16 and the McGrath Highway (Route 28). The Massachusetts Turnpike does not pass through Cambridge, but provides access by an exit in nearby Allston. Both U.S. Route 1 and Interstate 93 also provide additional access on the eastern end of Cambridge at Leverett Circle in Boston. Route 2A runs the length of the city, chiefly along Massachusetts Avenue. The Charles River forms the southern border of Cambridge and is crossed by 11 bridges connecting Cambridge to Boston, including the Longfellow Bridge and the Harvard Bridge, eight of which are open to motorized road traffic.Cambridge has an irregular street network because many of the roads date from the colonial era. Contrary to popular belief, the road system did not evolve from longstanding cow-paths. Roads connected various village settlements with each other and nearby towns, and were shaped by geographic features, most notably streams, hills, and swampy areas. Today, the major "squares" are typically connected by long, mostly straight roads, such as Massachusetts Avenue between Harvard Square and Central Square, or Hampshire Street between Kendall Square and Inman Square.

Mass transit

File:Central MBTA station.jpg|thumb|right|Central Station on the MBTA Red LineMBTA Red LineCambridge is served by the MBTA, including the Porter Square Station on the regional Commuter Rail; the Lechmere Station on the Green Line; and the Red Line at Alewife, Porter Square, Harvard Square, Central Square, and Kendall Square/MIT Stations. Alewife Station, the terminus of the Red Line, has a large multi-story parking garage (at a rate of $7 per day {{as of|lc=y|2015}}).WEB,weblink > Schedules & Maps > Subway > Alewife Station, MBTA, June 4, 2015, The Harvard Bus Tunnel, under Harvard Square, connects to the Red Line underground. This tunnel was originally opened for streetcars in 1912, and served trackless trolleys (trolleybuses) and buses as the routes were converted; four lines of the MBTA trolleybus system continue to use it. The tunnel was partially reconfigured when the Red Line was extended to Alewife in the early 1980s.Besides the state-owned transit agency, the city is also served by the Charles River Transportation Management Agency (CRTMA) shuttles which are supported by some of the largest companies operating in city, in addition to the municipal government itself.WEB,weblink Charles River TMA Members, Staff writer, January 1, 2013, CRTMA, January 1, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121127055722weblink">weblink November 27, 2012,

Cycling

Cambridge has several bike paths, including one along the Charles River,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20041117145514weblink">weblink yes, November 17, 2004, Dr. Paul Dudley White Bikepath, April 28, 2012, and the Linear Park connecting the Minuteman Bikeway at Alewife with the Somerville Community Path. Bike parking is common and there are bike lanes on many streets, although concerns have been expressed regarding the suitability of many of the lanes. On several central MIT streets, bike lanes transfer onto the sidewalk. Cambridge bans cycling on certain sections of sidewalk where pedestrian traffic is heavy.(1) WEB,weblink Sidewalk Bicycling Banned Areas – Cambridge Massachusetts, City of Cambridge, April 28, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120419060953weblink">weblink April 19, 2012, (2) WEB,weblink Traffic Regulations for Cyclists – Cambridge Massachusetts, City of Cambridge, May 1, 1997, April 28, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120521205927weblink">weblink May 21, 2012, While Bicycling Magazine in 2006 rated Boston as one of the worst cities in the nation for bicycling,JOURNAL, MacLaughlin, Nina, 2006, Boston Can Be Bike City...If You Fix These Five Big Problems, The Phoenix – Bicycle Bible 2006,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110811055614weblink">weblink August 11, 2011, mdy, it has given Cambridge honorable mention as one of the bestWEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927023835weblink">weblink yes, September 27, 2007, Urban Treasures, Fiske, Brian, Bicycling Magazine, mdy-all, and was called by the magazine "Boston's Great Hope". Boston has since then followed the example of Cambridge, and made considerable efforts to improve bicycling safety and convenience.(1) NEWS,weblink Boston Tries to Shed Longtime Reputation as Cyclists' Minefield, August 16, 2009, Katie Zezima, The New York Times, August 9, 2009, (2) WEB,weblink A Future Best City: Boston, August 16, 2009, Rodale Inc,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100211195827weblink">weblink February 11, 2010, yes, mdy-all, (3) NEWS,weblink Boston gear up for influx of new bicycle riders, The Boston Globe, July 13, 2011, July 15, 2011, (4) NEWS,weblink Make Boston bicycle-free, The Boston Globe, McGrory Brian, July 15, 2011, July 15, 2011, (5) NEWS,weblink Drivers, bicyclists clash on road sharing, July 15, 2011, Turner Broadcasting System, October 18, 2010, (6) NEWS,weblink Hub's bike routes beckon, white knuckles and all, July 15, 2011, The Boston Globe, David, Filipov, July 29, 2009, Cambridge has an official bicycle committee.WEB,weblink Bicycle Committee – City of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Cambridge, City of, City of Cambridge, April 17, 2016, The LivableStreets Alliance, headquartered in Cambridge, is an advocacy group for bicyclists, pedestrians, and walkable neighborhoods.WEB, LivableStreets: Rethinking Urban Transportation,weblink LivableStreets Alliance, March 7, 2013,

Walking

File:Weeks Footbridge Cambridge, MA.jpg|thumb|The Weeks Bridge provides a pedestrian-only connection between Boston's Allston-Brighton neighborhood and Cambridge over the Charles River]]Walking is a popular activity in Cambridge. In 2000, of US cities with more than 100,000 residents, Cambridge had the highest percentage of commuters who walked to work.WEB,weblink The Carfree Census Database: Result of search for communities in any state with population over 100,000, sorted in descending order by % Pedestrian Commuters, Bikesatwork.com, April 28, 2012, Cambridge's major historic squares have changed into modern walking neighborhoods, including traffic calming features based on the needs of pedestrians rather than of motorists.WEB,weblink City of Cambridge Pedestrian Plan, CambridgeMA.gov, January 22, 2017,

Intercity

The Boston intercity bus and train stations at South Station, Boston, and Logan International Airport in East Boston, are accessible by subway. The Fitchburg Line rail service from Porter Square connects to some western suburbs. Since October 2010, there has also been intercity bus service between Alewife Station (Cambridge) and New York City.WEB, Thomas, Sarah,weblink NYC-bound buses will roll from Newton, Cambridge, Boston.com, October 19, 2010, April 28, 2012,

Police department

In addition to the Cambridge Police Department, the city is patrolled by the Fifth (Brighton) Barracks of Troop H of the Massachusetts State Police.WEB,weblink Station H-5, SP Brighton,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111204093603weblink">weblink December 4, 2011, yes, mdy-all, Due, however, to close proximity, the city also practices functional cooperation with the Fourth (Boston) Barracks of Troop H, as well.WEB,weblink Station H-4, SP Boston,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111204093602weblink">weblink December 4, 2011, yes, mdy-all, The campuses of Harvard and MIT are patrolled by the Harvard University Police Department and MIT Police Department, respectively.

Fire department

The city of Cambridge is protected by the Cambridge Fire Department. Established in 1832, the CFD operates eight engine companies, four ladder companies, one rescue company, and two paramedic squad companies from eight fire stations located throughout the city. The Acting Chief is Gerard Mahoney.WEB,weblink City of Cambridge Fire Department: About Us, cambridgema.gov, January 18, 2015,

Water department

Cambridge is unusual among cities inside Route 128 in having a non-MWRA water supply. City water is obtained from Hobbs Brook (in Lincoln and Waltham) and Stony Brook (Waltham and Weston). The city owns over {{convert|1200|acres|0|abbr=on}} of land in other towns that includes these reservoirs and portions of their watershed.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20040531100327weblink">weblink yes, May 31, 2004, Cambridge Watershed Lands & Facilities, .cambridgema.gov, April 28, 2012, mdy-all, Water from these reservoirs flows by gravity through an aqueduct to Fresh Pond in Cambridge. It is then treated in an adjacent plant and pumped uphill to an elevation of {{convert|176|ft|m}} above sea level at the Payson Park Reservoir (Belmont). The water is then redistributed downhill via gravity to individual users in the city.(1) WEB,weblink Water supply system, PDF, April 28, 2012, (2) WEB,weblink Is Fresh Pond really used for drinking water?, Cambridge Water Department,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130302040328weblink">weblink March 2, 2013, A new water treatment plant opened in 2001.WEB,weblink Water Treatment, City of Cambridge, Massachusetts, en, March 12, 2017, The city used MWRA water during the old plant's demolition and the new plant's construction.{{citation needed|date=January 2017}} In October 2016, the City of Cambridge announced that, due to drought conditions, they would begin buying water from the MWRA.NEWS,weblink Cambridge to begin buying water from MWRA – The Boston Globe, BostonGlobe.com, March 12, 2017, On January 3, 2017, Cambridge announced that "As a result of continued rainfall each month since October 2016, we have been able to significantly reduce the need to use MWRA water. We have not purchased any MWRA water since December 12, 2016 and if 'average' rainfall continues this could continue for several months."WEB,weblink Cambridge Continues Temporary MWRA Water Usage – Water – City of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Cambridgema.gov, en, March 12, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170313125530weblink">weblink March 13, 2017, yes, mdy-all,

Public library services

Further educational services are provided at the Cambridge Public Library. The large modern main building was built in 2009, and connects to the restored 1888 Richardson Romanesque building. It was founded as the private Cambridge Athenaeum in 1849 and was acquired by the city in 1858, and became the Dana Library. The 1888 building was a donation of Frederick H. Rindge.

Sister Cities – Twin Towns

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in the United States}}Cambridge has six official sister cities with active relationships:WEB,weblink Cambridge Peace Commission :: Sister Cities, City of Cambridge, yes,weblink June 5, 2015, mdy-all,
  • {{flagdeco|PRT}} Coimbra, Portugal (est. June 1982)
  • {{flagdeco|ITA}} Gaeta, Lazio, Italy (est. December 1982)
  • {{flagdeco|JPN}} Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki, Japan (est. October 1983)
  • {{flagdeco|SLV}} San José Las Flores, Chalatenango, El Salvador (est. March 1987)WEB,weblink Cambridge Peace Commission :: Sister City San José Las Flores, El Salvador, City of Cambridge, yes,weblink June 5, 2015, mdy-all,
  • {{flagdeco|ARM}} Yerevan, Armenia (est. April 1987)WEB,weblink Cambridge Peace Commission :: Sister City Yerevan, Armenia, City of Cambridge, yes,weblink June 5, 2015, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Yerevan – Twin Towns & Sister Cities, November 4, 2013, Yerevan Municipality Official Website, 2013, WEB,weblink hy:ԵՐԵՎԱՆԻ ՔԱՂԱՔԱՊԵՏԱՐԱՆՊԱՇՏՈՆԱԿԱՆ Ô¿Ô±Õ…Õ”, yerevan.am, August 5, 2013, Yerevan expanding its international relations, Armenian,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130512174924weblink">weblink May 12, 2013,
  • {{flagdeco|IRL}} Galway, County Galway, Ireland (est. March 1997)
Since the 2010 Haiti earthquake Cambridge has been in the process of developing a relationship with Les Cayes, Haiti, but the damage wrought then and by Hurricane Matthew in 2015 have delayed the process.WEB,weblink Cambridge Peace Commission :: the Cambridge-Haiti Sister City Committee, City of Cambridge, yes,weblink June 5, 2015, mdy-all, Cambridge has ten additional official sister cities that are not active:WEB, A message from the Peace Commission,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150202232905weblink">weblink February 2, 2015, mdy-all,

See also

Notes

{{Notelist}}

References

Citations

{{Reflist}}

Sources

{{See also|Timeline of Cambridge, Massachusetts#Bibliography |l1 = Bibliography of the history of Cambridge, Massachusetts }}
  • EB9, cs2, Cambridge (3.), 4, {{harvid, EB, 1878, |page = 732 }}
  • EB1911, cs2, Cambridge (Massachusetts), 5, {{harvid, EB, 1911, |pages = 95–96 }}
  • BOOK, Drake, Samuel Adams, History of Middlesex County, Massachusetts: Containing Carefully Prepared Histories of Every City and Town in the County, Volume 2 (L-W),weblink 1879, Estes and Lauriat,
  • Eliot, Samuel Atkins. A History of Cambridge, Massachusetts: 1630–1913. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Cambridge Tribune, 1913.
  • JOURNAL, Hiestand, Emily, Watershed: An Excursion in Four Parts, The Georgia Review, Spring 1998, 7–28, Athens, Georgia, University of Georgia,
  • Paige, Lucius. History of Cambridge, Massachusettse: 1630–1877. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Riverside Press, 1877.
  • Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: Mid Cambridge. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Cambridge Historical Commission, 1967. {{ISBN|0-262-53012-0}}.
  • Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: Cambridgeport. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Cambridge Historical Commission, 1971. {{ISBN|0-262-53013-9}}.
  • Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: Old Cambridge. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Cambridge Historical Commission, 1973. {{ISBN|0-262-53014-7}}.
  • Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: Northwest Cambridge. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Cambridge Historical Commission, 1977. {{ISBN|0-262-53032-5}}.
  • Survey of Architectural History in Cambridge: East Cambridge (revised edition). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Cambridge Historical Commission, 1988. {{ISBN|0-262-53078-3}}
  • BOOK, Sinclair, Jill, Fresh Pond: The History of a Cambridge Landscape, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, April 2009, 978-0-262-19591-1,
  • BOOK, Seaburg, Alan, Cambridge on the Charles,weblink Anne Miniver Press, Billerica, Massachusetts, 2001, 978-0-9625794-9-3,

External links

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