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Ivy League
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{{About|the group of colleges and the athletic conference that gave the group its name}}{{pp-sock|small=yes}}{{short description|Athletic conference of 8 American universities}}







factoids
| since = 2009ivyleague.com}}| color = #115740| font_color = #FFFFFF| map = Ivy League Map.svg| map_size = 225}}File:Flags of the Ivy League.jpg|thumb|right|Flags of the Ivy League Universities fly over Columbia's Wien Stadium ]]The Ivy League is an American collegiate athletic conference comprising sports teams from eight private universities in the Northeastern United States. The term Ivy League is typically used to refer to those eight schools as a group of elite colleges beyond the sports context.WEB,weblink Princeton Campus Guide – Ivy League, 2007-04-26, The eight members are Brown University, Columbia University, Cornell University, Dartmouth College, Harvard University, the University of Pennsylvania, Princeton University, and Yale University. Ivy League has connotations of academic excellence, selectivity in admissions, and social elitism.While the term was in use as early as 1933, it became official only after the formation of the NCAA Division I athletic conference in 1954.WEB,weblink Ivy League History and Timeline, 2015-11-13, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160420101456weblink">weblink 2016-04-20, Seven of the eight schools were founded during the colonial period (Cornell was founded in 1865), and thus account for seven of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The other two colonial colleges Rutgers University and the College of William & Mary became public institutions instead.Ivy League schools are generally viewed as some of the most prestigious, and are ranked among the best universities worldwide by U.S. News & World Report.WEB,weblink World's Best Colleges, 2009-07-03, All eight universities place in the top fourteen of the 2019 U.S. News & World Report national university rankings, including four Ivies in the top three (Columbia and Yale are tied for third).WEB,weblink National University Rankings, U.S. News & World Report, 2013-09-11, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110521210513weblink">weblink 2011-05-21, In the 2019 U.S. News & World Report global university rankings, three Ivies rank in the top ten (Harvard 1st, Columbia 8th, and Princeton 9th) and six in the top twenty-three. Undergraduate-focused Ivies such as Brown University and Dartmouth College rank 99th and 197th, respectivelyweblink U.S. News has named a member of the Ivy League as the best national university in each of the past 18 years ending with the 2018 rankings: Princeton eleven times, Harvard twice, and the two schools tied for first five times.Undergraduate enrollments range from about 4,000 to 14,000,Dartmouth and Cornell respectively making them larger than those of a typical private liberal arts college and smaller than a typical public state university. Total enrollments, including graduate students, range from approximately 6,400 at Dartmouth to over 20,000 at Columbia, Cornell, Harvard, and Penn. Ivy League financial endowments range from Brown's $3.5 billion to Harvard's $34.5 billion,WEB,weblink National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO), "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2013 Endowment Market Value" (published Jan. 28, 2014), 2018-02-13, the largest financial endowment of any academic institution in the world.WEB,weblink 10 Private Universities With Largest Financial Endowments, 2012-01-09, The Ivy League has drawn many comparisons to other elite grouping of universities in other nations such as OxbridgeWEB,weblink Oxbridge vs the Ivy League: what's the difference? – Oxbridge Applications, 13 April 2012, 8 November 2018, WEB,weblink Ivy League v Oxbridge: Best Experience in the World?, Crimson Education, 8 November 2018, and the Golden Triangle in the United Kingdom, C9 LeagueWEB,weblink China's Ivy League:C9 League, en.people.cn, 8 November 2018, in China, Group of EightWEB,weblink Three misguided beliefs of the Group of Eight universities, John, Quiggin, 8 November 2018, in Australia, and Imperial UniversitiesWEB,weblink Prestigious 'Imperial Universities' the best in Japan – THE rankings – Study International, 31 March 2017, 8 November 2018, in Japan. These counterparts are often referred to in the American media as the "Ivy League" of their respective nations. Additionally, groupings of schools use the "Ivy" nomenclature to denote a perceived comparability, such as American liberal arts colleges (Little Ivies), lesser known schools (Hidden Ivies), public universities (Public Ivies), and schools in the Southern United States (Southern Ivies).right|thumb|350px|Locations of Ivy League universities

Members

Ivy League universities have some of the largest university financial endowments in the world, which allows the universities to provide many resources for their academic programs and research endeavors. {{as of|2018}}, Harvard University has an endowment of $38.3 billion, the highest of any U.S. educational institution. Additionally, each university receives millions of dollars in research grants and other subsidies from federal and state governments.{| class="wikitable" cellspacing=4 style="text-align:center; margin-right:0; white-space:nowrap;" class="wikitable sortable"!Institution!class="unsortable"|Location!class="unsortable"|Athletic nickname!Undergraduates !Graduates!2018 endowment!Academic staff!class="unsortable"|Colors|Brown UniversityProvidence, Rhode Island>Providence, Rhode IslandBrown Bears>Bears6670}}3061}}PUBLISHER=NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY BUSINESS OFFICERS AND COMMONFUND INSTITUTE ACCESS-DATE=SEPTEMBER 12, 2019, 736}}HTTPS://WWW.BROWN.EDU/ABOUT/FACTS/FACULTY-AND-EMPLOYEES>TITLE=FACULTY & EMPLOYEESACCESSDATE=8 OCTOBER 2014, Brown Bears}}|Columbia UniversityNew York City, New York (state)>New YorkColumbia Lions>Lions8868}}20116}}|$10.87 billion3763}}HTTP://WWW.COLUMBIA.EDU/CU/OPIR/ABSTRACT/OPIR_FACULTY_HISTORY_1.HTM>TITLE=FULL-TIME FACULTY DISTRIBUTION BY SCHOOL/DIVISION, FALL 2007–2017FIRST=WEBSITE=, 2018-02-13, Columbia Lions}}|Cornell UniversityIthaca, New York>Ithaca, New YorkCornell Big Red>Big Red15,182}}8,418}}|$7.23 billion2908}}Cornell Big Red}}|Dartmouth CollegeHanover, New Hampshire>Hanover, New HampshireDartmouth Big Green>Big Green4310}}2099}}|$5.49 billion|571Dartmouth Big Green}}|Harvard UniversityCambridge, Massachusetts>Cambridge, MassachusettsHarvard Crimson>Crimson6699}}13120}}|$38.30 billion4671}}HTTP://WWW.PROVOST.HARVARD.EDU/INSTITUTIONAL_RESEARCH/PROVOST_-_09_18-19FACUNI.PDF >TITLE=ARCHIVED COPY URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=2012-04-25, Harvard Crimson}}|University of Pennsylvania|Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaPenn Quakers>Quakers10496}}11013}}|$13.78 billion4464}}HTTP://WWW.UPENN.EDU/ABOUT/FACTS.PHP>TITLE=PENN: PENN FACTSACCESSDATE=8 OCTOBER 2014, Penn Quakers}}|Princeton UniversityPrinceton, New Jersey>Princeton, New JerseyPrinceton Tigers>Tigers5394}}2879}}|$25.92 billion1172}}Princeton Tigers}}|Yale UniversityNew Haven, Connecticut>New Haven, ConnecticutYale Bulldogs>Bulldogs5453}}6859}}|$29.35 billion4140}}Yale Bulldogs}}

History

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Year founded{| class"wikitable" cellspacing4 style"margin-right:0"

!Institution!Founded!Founding affiliation|Harvard UniversityThe institution, though founded in 1636, did not receive its name until 1639. It was nameless for its first two years|1636 as New CollegeCalvinist (Congregationalism in the United States>Congregationalist Puritans)|Yale University|1701 as Collegiate School|Calvinist (Congregationalist)|University of PennsylvaniaUnnamed Charity SchoolSee University of Pennsylvania for details of the circumstances of Penn's origin. Penn considered its founding date to be 1749 for over a century.weblink {{Webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121125023024weblink academic processions would place visiting dignitaries and other officials in the order of their institution's founding dates. Penn's periodical "The Alumni Register," published by the General Alumni Society, then began a grassroots campaign to retroactively revise the university's founding date to 1740, in order to appear older than Princeton University, which had been chartered in 1746. In 1899, the Board of Trustees acceded to the alumni initiative and voted to change the founding date to 1740. The rationale offered in 1899 was that, in 1750, founder Benjamin Franklin and his original board of trustees purchased a completed but unused building and assumed an unnamed trust from a group which had hoped to begin a church and charity school in Philadelphia. This edifice was commonly called the "New Building" by local citizens and was referred to by such name in Franklin's memoirs as well as the legal bill of sale in Penn's archives. No name is stated or known for the associated educational trust, hence "Unnamed Charity School" serves as a placeholder to refer to the trust which is the premise for Penn's association with a founding date of 1740. The first named entity in Penn's early history was the 1751 secondary school for boys and charity school for indigent children called "Academy and Charitable School in the Province of Pennsylvania."weblink Undergraduate education began in 1755 and the organization then changed its name to "College, Academy and Charity School of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania."weblink {{Webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060428155156weblink |date=2006-04-28 }} Operation of the charity school was discontinued a few years later. Nonsectarian,Penn's website, like other sources, makes an important point of Penn's heritage being nonsectarian, associated with Benjamin Franklin and the Academy of Philadelphia's nonsectarian board of trustees: "The goal of Franklin's nonsectarian, practical plan would be the education of a business and governing class rather than of clergymen."weblink {{Webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060428155156weblink Proposals relating to the education of youth in Pensilvania {{Webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060504075701weblink (page images) {{webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071018223123weblink History will also afford frequent Opportunities of showing the Necessity of a Publick Religion, from its Usefulness to the Publicks; the Advantage of a Religious Character among private Persons; the Mischiefs of Superstition, &c. and the Excellency of the CHRISTIAN RELIGION above all others antient or modern." Starting in 1751, the same trustees also operated a Charity School for Boys, whose curriculum combined "general principles of Christianity" with practical instruction leading toward careers in business and the "mechanical arts." weblink {{Webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20060620024258weblink George Whitefield. The school was to have operated inside a church supported by the same group of adherents. But the organizers ran short of financing and, although the frame of the building was raised, the interior was left unfinished. The founders of the Academy of Philadelphia purchased the unused building in 1750 for their new venture and, in the process, assumed the original trust. Since 1899, Penn has claimed a founding date of 1740, based on the organizational date of the charity school and the premise that it had institutional identity with the Academy of Philadelphia. Whitefield was a firebrand Methodist associated with Great Awakening>The Great Awakening; since the Methodists did not formally break from the Church of England until 1784, Whitefield in 1740 would be labelled Church of England, and in fact Brown University, emphasizing its own pioneering nonsectarianism, refers to Penn's origin as "Episcopalian".weblink Penn is sometimes assumed to have Quaker ties (its athletic teams are called "Quakers," and the cross-registration alliance between Penn, Haverford, Swarthmore and Bryn Mawr is known as the "Quaker Consortium.") But Penn's website does not assert any formal affiliation with Quakerism, historic or otherwise, and Haverford College implicitly asserts a non-Quaker origin for Penn when it states that "Founded in 1833, Haverford is the oldest institution of higher learning with Quaker roots in North America."HTTP://WWW.HAVERFORD.EDU/PUBLICRELATIONS/NEWS/QANDA.HTML ACCESSDATE=2012-02-19 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120204054925/HTTPS://WWW.HAVERFORD.EDU/PUBLICRELATIONS/NEWS/QANDA.HTML DF=, founded by Church of England/Methodists membersPROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH >VOLUME=22 FIRST=DANIEL DULANY PUBLISHER=BROWN.EDU, 2011-01-30, |Princeton University|1746 as College of New JerseyCalvinist Presbyterianism>PresbyteriansHTTPS://WWW.PRINCETON.EDU/~OKTOUR/VIRTUALTOUR/ENGLISH/STOP05.HTM>TITLE=UNIVERSITY CHAPEL: ORANGE KEY VIRTUAL TOUR OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY, Princeton University, |Columbia University|1754 as King's College|Church of England|Brown University|1764 as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence PlantationsBaptist, founding charter promises "no religious tests" and "full liberty of conscience"Brown's website characterizes it as "the Baptist answer to Congregationalist Yale and Harvard; Presbyterian Princeton; and Episcopalian Penn and Columbia," but adds that at the time it was "the only one that welcomed students of all religious persuasions."weblink Brown's charter stated that "into this liberal and catholic institution shall never be admitted any religious tests, but on the contrary, all the members hereof shall forever enjoy full, free, absolute, and uninterrupted liberty of conscience." The charter called for twenty-two of the thirty-six trustees to be Baptists, but required that the remainder be "five Friends, four Congregationalists, and five Episcopalians."PROVIDENCE PAGE=511, |Dartmouth College|1769|Calvinist (Congregationalist)|Cornell University|1865|Nonsectarian
Note: Six of the eight Ivy League universities consider their founding dates to be simply the date that they received their charters and thus became legal corporations with the authority to grant academic degrees. Harvard University uses the date that the legislature of the Massachusetts Bay Colony formally allocated funds for the creation of a college. Harvard was chartered in 1650, although classes had been conducted for approximately a decade by then. The University of Pennsylvania initially considered its founding date to be 1750; this is the year which appears on the first iteration of the university seal.JOURNAL, Hughes, Samuel, 2002,weblink Whiskey, Loose Women, and Fig Leaves: The University's seal has a curious history, Pennsylvania Gazette, 100, 3, Later in Penn's early history, the university changed its officially recognized founding date to 1749, which was used for all of the nineteenth century, including a centennial celebration in 1849. In 1899, Penn's board of trustees formally adopted a third founding date of 1740, in response to a petition from Penn's General Alumni Society. Penn was chartered in 1755, the same year collegiate classes began. "Religious affiliation" refers to financial sponsorship, formal association with, and promotion by, a religious denomination. All of the schools in the Ivy League are private and not currently associated with any religion.

Origin of the name

File:Harvard Yard, Harvard University.JPG|thumb|right|(Harvard Yard]], 2007: Hollis Hall, Stoughton Hall, and Holworthy Hall)File:Brown Campus Manning Hall.JPG|thumb|right|Brown's Front Green, 2012: Hope College, Manning Hall, University Hall, and Slater Hall]]File:Yale University Old Campus 04.JPG|thumb|right|Yale's (Old Campus]], 2012: Durfee Hall, Battell Chapel, Farnham Hall, and Lawrence Hall)(File:Dartmouth Hall, Dartmouth College - general view.JPG|thumb|right|On the Dartmouth Green, 2007: Dartmouth Hall and Thornton Hall)Students have long revered the ivied walls of older colleges. "Planting the ivy" was a customary class day ceremony at many colleges in the 1800s. In 1893, an alumnus told The Harvard Crimson, "In 1850, class day was placed upon the University Calendar. ... the custom of planting the ivy, while the ivy oration was delivered, arose about this time."WEB, Class Day, New and Old,weblink At Penn, graduating seniors started the custom of planting ivy at a university building each spring in 1873 and that practice was formally designated as "Ivy Day" in 1874.WEB, Penn: Ivy day and Ivy Stones, a Penn Tradition,weblink 2012-12-09,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120715230153weblink">weblink 2012-07-15, dead, Ivy planting ceremonies are reported for Yale,Boston Daily Globe, Jun 27, 1882, p. 4: "CLASS DAY.: Yale Seniors Plant the Ivy, Sing "Blage," and Entertain the Beauty of New Haven;" Simmons,Boston Evening Transcript, Jun 11, 1912, p. 12, "Simmons Seniors Hosts Class Day Exercises Late in Afternoon, Planting of the Ivy will be One of the Features; Bryn MawrNEWS, Play a Romance and Plant Ivy, Pretty Class Day Exercises of the Women's College,weblink The Gazette Times, June 9, 1907, October 22, 2012, and many others. Princeton's "Ivy Club" was founded in 1879.WEB, The Ivy Club: History,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111014234433weblink">weblink 2011-10-14, The first usage of Ivy in reference to a group of colleges is from sportswriter Stanley Woodward (1895–1965).The first known instance of the term Ivy League being used appeared in The Christian Science Monitor on February 7, 1935."The Yale Book of Quotations" (2006) Yale University Press, edited by Fred R. ShapiroOxford English Dictionary entry for "Ivy League" Several sportswriters and other journalists used the term shortly later to refer to the older colleges, those along the northeastern seaboard of the United States, chiefly the nine institutions with origins dating from the colonial era, together with the United States Military Academy (West Point), the United States Naval Academy, and a few others. These schools were known for their long-standing traditions in intercollegiate athletics, often being the first schools to participate in such activities. However, at this time, none of these institutions made efforts to form an athletic league.A common folk etymology attributes the name to the Roman numeral for four (IV), asserting that there was such a sports league originally with four members. The Morris Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins helped to perpetuate this belief. The supposed "IV League" was formed over a century ago and consisted of Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and a fourth school that varies depending on who is telling the story.The Chicago Public Library reports the "IV League" explanation, weblink sourced only from the Morris Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins. {{dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}Various Ask Ezra student columns report the "IV League" explanation, apparently relying on the Morris Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins as the sole source: weblink weblink weblinkWEB,weblink The Penn Current / October 17, 2002 / Ask Benny, Upenn.edu, 2011-01-30, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100606232308weblink">weblink June 6, 2010, However, it is clear that Harvard, Princeton, Yale and Columbia met on November 23, 1876 at the so-called Massasoit Convention to decide on uniform rules for the emerging game of American football, which rapidly spread.WEB,weblink This according to the Penn history of varsity football, Archives.upenn.edu, 2011-01-30,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100718192438weblink">weblink 2010-07-18, dead,

Pre-Ivy League

(File:Chancellor Green exterior Princeton.JPG|thumb|Chancellor Green Library at Princeton, 2007)(File:Brown university robinson hall 2009a.JPG|thumb|Robinson Hall at Brown, 2009)(File:Cornell Baseball2.jpg|thumb|upright|Cornell baseball player, 1908)Seven out of the eight Ivy League schools were founded before the American Revolution; Cornell was founded just after the American Civil War. These seven were the primary colleges in the Northern and Middle Colonies, and their early faculties and founding boards were largely drawn from other Ivy League institutions. There were also some British graduates from the University of Cambridge, the University of Oxford, the University of St. Andrews, the University of Edinburgh, and elsewhere on their boards. Similarly, the founder of The College of William & Mary, in 1693, was a British graduate of the University of Edinburgh. Cornell provided Stanford University with its first president.The influence of these institutions on the founding of other colleges and universities is notable. This included the Southern public college movement which blossomed in the decades surrounding the turn of the 19th century when Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia established what became the flagship universities for each of these states. In 1801, a majority of the first board of trustees for what became the University of South Carolina were Princeton alumni. They appointed Jonathan Maxcy, a Brown graduate, as the university's first president. Thomas Cooper, an Oxford alumnus and University of Pennsylvania faculty member, became the second president of the South Carolina college. The founders of the University of California, Berkeley came from Yale, hence the school colors of University of California at Berkeley are Yale Blue and California Gold.WEB,weblink Resource: Student history, Resource.berkeley.edu, 2011-01-30, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100909165637weblink">weblink 2010-09-09, Some of the Ivy League schools have identifiable Protestant roots, while others were founded as non-sectarian schools. Church of England King's College broke up during the Revolution and was reformed as public nonsectarian Columbia College. In the early nineteenth century, the specific purpose of training Calvinist ministers was handed off to theological seminaries, but a denominational tone and such relics as compulsory chapel often lasted well into the twentieth century. Penn and Brown were officially founded as nonsectarian schools. Brown's charter promised no religious tests and "full liberty of conscience", but placed control in the hands of a board of twenty-two Baptists, five Quakers, four Congregationalists, and five Episcopalians. Cornell has been strongly nonsectarian from its founding."Ivy League" is sometimes used as a way of referring to an elite class, even though institutions such as Cornell University were among the first in the United States to reject racial and gender discrimination in their admissions policies. This dates back to at least 1935.BOOK, Snobbery: The American Version, Joseph, Epstein, 2003, Houghton Mifflin, 0-618-34073-4, p. 55, "by WASP Baltzell meant something much more specific; he intended to cover a select group of people who passed through a congeries of elite American institutions: certain eastern prep schools, the Ivy League colleges, and the Episcopal Church among them." NovelsBOOK, Louis, Auchincloss, East Side Story, 2004, 0-618-45244-3, Houghton Mifflin,weblink p. 179, "he dreaded the aridity of snobbery which he knew infected the Ivy League colleges" and memoirsBOOK, Project Girl, Janet, McDonald, University of California Press, 2000, 0-520-22345-4, p. 163 "Newsweek is a morass of incest, nepotism, elitism, racism and utter classic white male patriarchal corruption. ... It is completely Ivy League — a Vassar/Columbia J-School dumping ground ... I will always be excluded, regardless of how many Ivy League degrees I acquire, because of the next level of hurdles: family connections and money." attest this sense, as a social elite; to some degree independent of the actual schools.After the Second World War, the present Ivy League institutions slowly widened their selection of their students. They had always had distinguished faculties; some of the first Americans with doctorates had taught for them; but they now decided that they could not both be world-class research institutions and be competitive in the highest ranks of American college sport; in addition, the schools experienced the scandals of any other big-time football programs, although more quietly.scandals: James Axtell, The Making of Princeton University (2006), p.274; quoting a former executive director of the Ivy League

History of the athletic league

File:Yale's four-oared crew team with 1876 Centennial Regatta trophy.jpg|thumb|Yale University's four-oared crew team, posing with the 1876 Centennial RegattaRegattaFile:The 1879 Brown University Baseball Team.jpg|thumb|The 1879 Brown baseball varsity, with W.E. White seated second from right; White's appearance in an 1879 major league game, the first for an African American, came 68 years before Jackie Robinson permanently broke the (baseball color line]]Robert Siegel, "Black Baseball Pioneer William White's 1879 Game," National Public Radio, broadcast Jan. 30, 2004 (audio at npr.org); Stefan Fatsis, "Mystery of Baseball: Was William White Game's First Black?", Wall Street Journal, Jan. 30, 2004; Peter Morris and Stefan Fatsis, "Baseball's Secret Pioneer: William Edward White, the first black player in major-league history," Slate, Feb. 4, 2014; "Bill White (whitebi01)", Baseball-Reference.com; Rick Harris, Brown University Baseball: A Legacy of the game (Charleston: The History Press, 2012), pp. 41–43)File:Yale Varsity.jpg|thumb|Yale rowing team in the annual Harvard–Yale RegattaHarvard–Yale Regatta(File:Track (men's), 1907 ICAA point winners UPenn.jpg|thumb|Penn's ICAA track champions in 1907)

19th and early 20th centuries

The first formal athletic league involving eventual Ivy League schools (or any US colleges, for that matter) was created in 1870 with the formation of the Rowing Association of American Colleges. The RAAC hosted a de facto national championship in rowing during the period 1870–1894. In 1895, Cornell, Columbia, and Penn founded the Intercollegiate Rowing Association, which remains the oldest collegiate athletic organizing body in the US. To this day, the IRA Championship Regatta determines the national champion in rowing and all of the Ivies are regularly invited to compete.A basketball league was later created in 1902, when Columbia, Cornell, Harvard, Yale and Princeton formed the Eastern Intercollegiate Basketball League; they were later joined by Penn and Dartmouth.In 1906, the organization that eventually became the National Collegiate Athletic Association was formed, primarily to formalize rules for the emerging sport of football. But of the 39 original member colleges in the NCAA, only two of them (Dartmouth and Penn) later became Ivies.In February 1903, intercollegiate wrestling began when Yale accepted a challenge from Columbia, published in the Yale News. The dual meet took place prior to a basketball game hosted by Columbia and resulted in a tie. Two years later, Penn and Princeton also added wrestling teams, leading to the formation of the student-run Intercollegiate Wrestling Association, now the Eastern Intercollegiate Wrestling Association (EIWA), the first and oldest collegiate wrestling league in the US.NEWS, Columbia Celebrates College Wrestling Centennial, Columbia College Today,weblink 2014-09-04,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141010054526weblink">weblink 2014-10-10, dead, In 1930, Columbia, Cornell, Dartmouth, Penn, Princeton and Yale formed the Eastern Intercollegiate Baseball League; they were later joined by Harvard, Brown, Army and Navy.Before the formal establishment of the Ivy League, there was an "unwritten and unspoken agreement among certain Eastern colleges on athletic relations". The earliest reference to the "Ivy colleges" came in 1933, when Stanley Woodward of the New York Herald Tribune used it to refer to the eight current members plus Army. In 1935, the Associated Press reported on an example of collaboration between the schools:}}Despite such collaboration, the universities did not seem to consider the formation of the league as imminent. Romeyn Berry, Cornell's manager of athletics, reported the situation in January 1936 as follows:}}Within a year of this statement and having held month-long discussions about the proposal, on December 3, 1936, the idea of "the formation of an Ivy League" gained enough traction among the undergraduate bodies of the universities that the Columbia Daily Spectator, The Cornell Daily Sun, The Dartmouth, The Harvard Crimson, The Daily Pennsylvanian, The Daily Princetonian and the Yale Daily News would simultaneously run an editorial entitled "Now Is the Time", encouraging the seven universities to form the league in an effort to preserve the ideals of athletics.NEWS, Immediate Formation of Ivy League Advocated at Seven Eastern Colleges, The New York Times, 33, 1936-12-03, Part of the editorial read as follows:}}The Ivies have been competing in sports as long as intercollegiate sports have existed in the United States. Rowing teams from Harvard and Yale met in the first sporting event held between students of two U.S. colleges on Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire, on August 3, 1852. Harvard's team, "The Oneida", won the race and was presented with trophy black walnut oars from then presidential nominee General Franklin Pierce.The proposal did not succeed—on January 11, 1937, the athletic authorities at the schools rejected the "possibility of a heptagonal league in football such as these institutions maintain in basketball, baseball and track." However, they noted that the league "has such promising possibilities that it may not be dismissed and must be the subject of further consideration."NEWS, Plea for an Ivy Football League Rejected by College Authorities, The New York Times, 26, 1937-01-12,

Post-World War II

File:Dartmouth College campus 2007-11-06 Tuck School of Business.JPG|thumb|Students in Stell Hall at Dartmouth's Tuck School of BusinessTuck School of Business(File:Scroll and Key 1866 delegation Yale College.jpg|thumb|Students of Yale College, 1866)In 1945 the presidents of the eight schools signed the first Ivy Group Agreement, which set academic, financial, and athletic standards for the football teams. The principles established reiterated those put forward in the Harvard-Yale-Princeton Presidents' Agreement of 1916. The Ivy Group Agreement established the core tenet that an applicant's ability to play on a team would not influence admissions decisions:}}In 1954, the presidents extended the Ivy Group Agreement to all intercollegiate sports, effective with the 1955–56 basketball season. This is generally reckoned as the formal formation of the Ivy League. As part of the transition, Brown, the only Ivy that hadn't joined the EIBL, did so for the 1954–55 season. A year later, the Ivy League absorbed the EIBL. The Ivy League claims the EIBL's history as its own. Through the EIBL, it is the oldest basketball conference in Division I.“Ivy Group” {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150118075519weblink |date=2015-01-18 }}, Sports-reference.comWEB,weblink Official 2009 NCAA Men's Basketball Records Book – p. 221 "Division I Conference Alignment History", 2018-02-13, As late as the 1960s many of the Ivy League universities' undergraduate programs remained open only to men, with Cornell the only one to have been coeducational from its founding (1865) and Columbia being the last (1983) to become coeducational. Before they became coeducational, many of the Ivy schools maintained extensive social ties with nearby Seven Sisters women's colleges, including weekend visits, dances and parties inviting Ivy and Seven Sisters students to mingle. This was the case not only at Barnard College and Radcliffe College, which are adjacent to Columbia and Harvard, but at more distant institutions as well. The movie Animal House includes a satiric version of the formerly common visits by Dartmouth men to Massachusetts to meet Smith and Mount Holyoke women, a drive of more than two hours. As noted by Irene Harwarth, Mindi Maline, and Elizabeth DeBra, "The 'Seven Sisters' was the name given to Barnard, Smith, Mount Holyoke, Vassar, Bryn Mawr, Wellesley, and Radcliffe, because of their parallel to the Ivy League men's colleges."WEB,weblink Archived: Women's Colleges in the United States: History, Issues, and Challenges, Ed.gov, 2011-01-30, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050204110037weblink">weblink 2005-02-04, In 1982 the Ivy League considered adding two members, with Army, Navy, and Northwestern as the most likely candidates; if it had done so, the league could probably have avoided being moved into the recently created Division I-AA (now Division I FCS) for football.NEWS,weblink Ivy League Considers Adding 2 Schools, The New York Times, 1982-01-10, 18 September 2013, White, Gordon S. Jr., In 1983, following the admission of women to Columbia College, Columbia University and Barnard College entered into an athletic consortium agreement by which students from both schools compete together on Columbia University women's athletic teams, which replaced the women's teams previously sponsored by Barnard.When Army and Navy departed the Eastern Intercollegiate Baseball League in 1992, nearly all intercollegiate competition involving the eight schools became united under the Ivy League banner. The only major exception is wrestling; the Ivies that sponsor wrestling—all except Dartmouth and Yale—are part of the EIWA.

Academics

Admissions{|style"text-align:center; float:left; font-size:85%; margin-right:2em;" class"wikitable"|+ Admission statistics (Class of 2022)

! !! Applicants !! Admission rates| Brown| 35,438| 7.2%Alicia Mies, "University admits record low 7.2 percent of applicants to Class of 2022", The Brown Daily Herald, March 28, 2018.| Columbia| 40,203| 5.5%Bonnie K. Goodman, "Columbia accepts record-low for the Class of 2023 just 5.5 percent acceptance rate", Medium, March 28, 2018.| Cornell| 51,328| 10.3%Meredith Liu, "Class of 2022 Has Lowest Admissions Rate, Most Diverse in School History", Cornell Daily Sun, March 28, 2018.| Dartmouth| 22,033| 8.7%The Dartmouth Senior Staff, "College admits record-low percent to the class of 2022", The Dartmouth, March 29, 2018.| Harvard| 42,749| 4.59%Delano R. Franklin & Samuel W. Zwickel, "Record-Low 4.59 Percent of Applicants Accepted to Harvard Class of 2022", The Harvard Crimson, March 29, 2018.| Penn| 44,482| 8.39%Yoni Gutenmacher, "Penn admits a record-low 8.39 percent of applicants to the Class of 2022", The Daily Pennsylvanian, March 28, 2018.| Princeton| 35,370| 5.5%Mallory Williamson, "U. offers admission to 5.5 percent of students in most selective year yet", The Daily Princetonian, March 28, 2018.| Yale| 35,306| 6.31%Anastasiia Posnova, "Yale admits 6.31 percent of applicants", Yale Daily News, March 28, 2018.The Ivy League schools are highly selective, with acceptance rates since 2018 being 10% or less at each of the universities. Admitted students come from around the world, although students from New England and the Northeastern United States make up a significant proportion of students.WEB,weblink How to Get Into an Ivy League College—Guaranteed, Peter, Waldman, 4 September 2014, Bloomberg.com, WEB,weblink National University Rankings, U.S.News & World Report LP, 2011-05-11, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110521210513weblink">weblink 2011-05-21, WEB,weblink Freshman Survey Part I: Meet Harvard's Class of 2017, Francesca, Annicchiarico, Samuel Y., Weinstock, The Harvard Crimson, 3 September 2013, In 2018, seven of the eight Ivy League schools reported record-high application numbers; seven also reported record-low acceptance rates.WEB, Harvard Admits 4.6% of Applicants; Other Ivy League Schools Get Tougher, Too,weblink Wall Street Journal,

Prestige

{{see also|List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation}}Members of the League have been highly ranked by various university rankings. In addition to the broad rankings listed in the accompanying chart, several Ivy League schools are highly ranked in the current 2018 US News & World Report assessment of Best Undergraduate Teaching: 1. Princeton; 2. Dartmouth; 3. Brown; 10. Yale. The Wall Street Journal rankings place all eight of the universities within the top 20 in the country.WEB, The Ivy League, Ranked,weblink Wall Street Journal, {|style="text-align:center; float:left; font-size:85%; margin-right:2em;" class="wikitable"|+ National academic rankings! University(in alphabetical order) !! ARWU(2019)WEB,weblink Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019: USA, Shanghai Ranking Consultancy, August 16, 2019, !! Forbes(2019)WEB,weblink America's Top Colleges 2019, Forbes, August 15, 2019, !! USNWR(2020)WEB,weblink Best Colleges 2020: National University Rankings, U.S. News & World Report, September 8, 2019, !! Washington Monthly(2019)WEB,weblink 2019 National University Rankings, Washington Monthly, August 20, 2019, | Brown|38|7|14|28| Columbia|6|14|3|13| Cornell|11|11|17|25| Dartmouth|95-116|10|12|34| Harvard|1|1|2|2| Penn|14|6|6|6| Princeton|5|5|1|8| Yale|9-10|3|3|4Further, Ivy League members have produced many Nobel laureates, winners of the Nobel Prize and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. According to the Nobel Foundation's website, {{as of|2016|lc=y}} the number of prize-winners affiliated with each Ivy League university at the time of their awards is: Brown, 2; Columbia, 17; Cornell, 8; Dartmouth, 0; Harvard, 36; Penn, 4; Princeton, 14; and Yale, 8.WEB,weblink Nobel Laureates and Research Affiliations, Nobelprize.org, In addition, each university self-reports their number of affiliated Nobel laureates, but they use varying definitions for which Nobel winners they claim (for example, alumni, active faculty, former faculty, visiting faculty, adjunct faculty, etc.)

Collaboration

Collaboration between the member schools is illustrated by the student-led Ivy Council that meets in the fall and spring of each year, with representatives from every Ivy League school. The governing body of the Ivy League is the Council of Ivy Group Presidents, composed of each university president. During meetings, the presidents often discuss common procedures and initiatives for the universities.The universities also collaborate academically through the IvyPlus Exchange program, which allows students to cross-register at one of the Ivies or one of the eligible schools, which include the University of California at Berkeley, University of Chicago, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Stanford University.WEB, Exchange Scholar Program (IvyPlus Exchange),weblink Yale University,

Culture

Fashion and lifestyle

{{See also|Ivy League (clothes)|Preppy|Take Ivy|Ivy League (haircut)}}File:Architecture on University of Pennsylvania Campus - Young Ben Franklin Statue - Philadelphia - Pennsylvania - 04.jpg|thumb|right|280px|Statue of Benjamin FranklinBenjamin FranklinDifferent fashion trends and styles have emerged from Ivy League campuses over time, and fashion trends such as Ivy League and Preppy are styles often associated with the Ivy League and its culture.Ivy League style is a style of men's dress, popular during the late 1950s, believed to have originated on Ivy League campuses. The clothing stores J. Press and Brooks Brothers represent perhaps the quintessential Ivy League dress manner. The Ivy League style is said to be the predecessor to the preppy style of dress.Preppy fashion started around 1912 to the late 1940s and 1950s as the Ivy League style of dress.BOOK, Elements of Fashion and Apparel Design, New Age Publishers, 81-224-1371-4, 25, Ivy League: A popular look for men in the fifties that originated on such campuses as Harvard, Priceton {{sic, and Yale; a forerunner to the preppie look; a style characterized by button down collar shirts and pants with a small buckle in the back.| year = 2007 }} J. Press represents the quintessential preppy clothing brand, stemming from the collegiate traditions that shaped the preppy subculture. In the mid-twentieth century J. Press and Brooks Brothers, both being pioneers in preppy fashion, had stores on Ivy League school campuses, including Harvard, Princeton, and Yale.Some typical preppy styles also reflect traditional upper class New England leisure activities, such as equestrian, sailing or yachting, hunting, fencing, rowing, lacrosse, tennis, golf, and rugby. Longtime New England outdoor outfitters, such as L.L. Bean,WEB, Zlotnick, Sarah, Your cheat sheet to preppy style,weblink The Washingtonian (magazine), The Washingtonian, February 24, 2012, became part of conventional preppy style. This can be seen in sport stripes and colours, equestrian clothing, plaid shirts, field jackets and nautical-themed accessories. Vacationing in Palm Beach, Florida, long popular with the East Coast upper class, led to the emergence of bright colour combinations in leisure wear seen in some brands such as Lilly Pulitzer. By the 1980s, other brands such as Lacoste, IzodBOOK, Peterson, Amy T., Ann T., Kellogg, The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Clothing Through American History 1900 to the Present: 1900–1949, 2008, ABC-CLIO, 9780313043345, 285, and Dooney & Bourke became associated with preppy style.Today, these styles continue to be popular on Ivy League campuses, throughout the U.S., and abroad, and are oftentimes labeled as "Classic American style" or "Traditional American style".WEB,weblink The Ultimate Guide to American Style, Details, WEB,weblink The American Way, Adam, Rapoport, GQ, 31 March 2008,

Social elitism

File:ADWhiteReadingRoom, CornellUniversity.jpg|thumb|right|The A.D. White Reading Room at Cornell's Uris Library, 2008]](File:Columbiaman.jpg|thumb|upright|A cartoon portrait of the stereotypical Columbia man, 1902)The Ivy League is often associated with the upper class White Anglo-Saxon Protestant community of the Northeast, Old Money, or more generally, the American upper middle and upper classes.BOOK, Snobbery: The American Version, Joseph, Epstein, 2003, Houghton Mifflin, 0-618-34073-4, p. 55, "by WASP Baltzell meant something much more specific; he intended to cover a select group of people who passed through a congeries of elite American institutions: certain eastern prep schools, the Ivy League colleges, and the Episcopal Church among them." and BOOK, The Ideal of the University, Robert Paul, Wolff, Transaction Publishers, 1992, 1-56000-603-X, p. viii: "My genial, aristocratic contempt for Clark Kerr's celebration of the University of California was as much an expression of Ivy League snobbery as it was of radical social critique."WEB,weblink The End Of WASP-Dominated Politics, Alan, Greenblatt, 19 September 2012, NPR.org, WEB,weblink Missing the WASPs, Christopher, Orlet, 23 August 2012, The American Spectator, 12 October 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160107201033weblink">weblink 7 January 2016, dead, NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Noah, Feldman, The Triumphant Decline of the WASP, 2010-06-27, Although most Ivy League students come from upper middle- and upper-class families, the student body has become increasingly more economically and ethnically diverse. The universities provide significant financial aid to help increase the enrollment of lower income and middle class students.WEB,weblink Why Ivy League Schools Are So Bad at Economic Diversity, Robin J., Hayes, February 2014, The Atlantic, Several reports suggest, however, that the proportion of students from less-affluent families remains low.Time magazine, Noliwe M. Rooks, Feb. 27, 2013, The Biggest Barrier to Elite Education Isn’t Affordability. It’s Accessibility, Retrieved Aug. 27, 2014, "... accessibility of these schools to students who are poor, minority ... the weight that Ivy League and other highly selective schools ... unfortunate set of circumstances ... gifted minority, poor and working class students can benefit most from the educational opportunities ..."August 26, 2014, Boston Globe (via NY Times), A Generation Later, Poor are Still Rare at Elite Colleges, Retrieved Aug. 30, 2014, "more elite group of 28 private colleges and universities, including all eight Ivy League members, ... from 2001 to 2009, ... enrollment of students from the bottom 40 percent of family incomes increased from just 10 percent to 11 percent. ... "Phrases such as "Ivy League snobbery"BOOK, The Ideal of the University, Robert Paul, Wolff, Transaction Publishers, 1992, 1-56000-603-X, p. viii: "My genial, aristocratic contempt for Clark Kerr's celebration of the University of California was as much an expression of Ivy League snobbery as it was of radical social critique." are ubiquitous in nonfiction and fiction writing of the early and mid-twentieth century. A Louis Auchincloss character dreads "the aridity of snobbery which he knew infected the Ivy League colleges". A business writer, warning in 2001 against discriminatory hiring, presented a cautionary example of an attitude to avoid (the bracketed phrase is his):, p. 85}}The phrase Ivy League historically has been perceived as connected not only with academic excellence, but also with social elitism. In 1936, sportswriter John Kieran noted that student editors at Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Cornell, Columbia, Dartmouth, and Penn were advocating the formation of an athletic association. In urging them to consider "Army and Navy and Georgetown and Fordham and Syracuse and Brown and Pitt" as candidates for membership, he exhorted:}}Aspects of Ivy stereotyping were illustrated during the 1988 presidential election, when George H. W. Bush (Yale '48) derided Michael Dukakis (graduate of Harvard Law School) for having "foreign-policy views born in Harvard Yard's boutique."WEB,weblink George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography: Chapter XXII Bush Takes The Presidency, Webster G., Tarpley, Anton, Chaitkin, Webster G. Tarpley, 2006-12-17, New York Times columnist Maureen Dowd asked "Wasn't this a case of the pot calling the kettle elite?" Bush explained, however, that, unlike Harvard, Yale's reputation was "so diffuse, there isn't a symbol, I don't think, in the Yale situation, any symbolism in it. ... Harvard boutique to me has the connotation of liberalism and elitism" and said Harvard in his remark was intended to represent "a philosophical enclave" and not a statement about class.Dowd, Maureen (1998), "Bush Traces How Yale Differs From Harvard." The New York Times, June 11, 1998, p. 10 Columnist Russell Baker opined that "Voters inclined to loathe and fear elite Ivy League schools rarely make fine distinctions between Yale and Harvard. All they know is that both are full of rich, fancy, stuck-up and possibly dangerous intellectuals who never sit down to supper in their undershirt no matter how hot the weather gets."Baker, Russell (1998), "The Ivy Hayseed." The New York Times, June 15, 1988, p. A31 Still, the last five presidents have all attended Ivy League schools for at least part of their education— George H. W. Bush (Yale undergrad), Bill Clinton (Yale Law School), George W. Bush (Yale undergrad, Harvard Business School), Barack Obama (Columbia undergrad, Harvard Law School), and Donald Trump (Penn undergrad).

U.S. presidents in the Ivy League

{{See also|List of Presidents of the United States by education}}File:Franklin D. Roosevelt with Harvard class of 1904, group shot in Nantasket Beach, Massachusetts - NARA - 195358.jpg|right|190px|thumb|Franklin Delano RooseveltFranklin Delano RooseveltOf the 44 men who have served as President of the United States, 16 have graduated from an Ivy League university. Of them, eight have degrees from Harvard, five from Yale, three from Columbia, two from Princeton and one from Penn. Twelve presidents have earned Ivy undergraduate degrees. Three of these were transfer students: Donald Trump transferred from Fordham University; Barack Obama transferred from Occidental College; and John F. Kennedy transferred from another Ivy, Princeton, where he had been class of 1939. John Adams was the first president to graduate from college, graduating from Harvard in 1755.{|class="wikitable"! President! School(s)! Graduation year John Adams|Harvard University|1755 James Madison|Princeton University|1771 John Quincy Adams|Harvard University|1787 William Henry Harrison|University of Pennsylvania|(withdrew) Rutherford B. Hayes|Harvard Law School|1845 Theodore Roosevelt|Harvard UniversityColumbia Law School|1880(withdrew) (Awarded J.D. in 2008, class of 1882)New York Sun, Presidents Roosevelt Honored With Posthumous Columbia Degrees, September 26, 2008 William Howard Taft|Yale University|1878 Woodrow Wilson|Princeton University| 1879 Franklin D. Roosevelt|Harvard UniversityColumbia Law School|1903(withdrew) (Awarded J.D. in 2008, class of 1907)Columbia Law School, Theodore and Franklin Roosevelt to Receive Posthumous Law Degrees from Columbia Law School, September 25, 2008 John F. Kennedy|Princeton UniversityHarvard University|(withdrew)1940 Gerald Ford|Yale Law School |1941 George H. W. Bush|Yale University|1948 Bill Clinton|Yale Law School|1973 George W. Bush|Yale UniversityHarvard Business School|19681975 Barack Obama|Columbia UniversityHarvard Law School|19831991 Donald Trump|University of Pennsylvania|1968URLHTTP://WWW.NATIONALJOURNAL.COM/THENEXTAMERICA/EDUCATION/IVY-LEAGUE-SCHOOLS-DON-T-REFLECT-U-S-MINORITY-RATIOS-20121019, titleIvy League Schools Don't Reflect U.S. Minority Ratios, workwww.nationaljournal.com, accessdate8 October 2014, url-statusdead, archiveurweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150318010853weblink">weblink archivedate18 March 2015, df, ">

Student demographics{| style"margin:auto; text-align:center; width:75%;" class"wikitable sortable"URLHTTP://WWW.NATIONALJOURNAL.COM/THENEXTAMERICA/EDUCATION/IVY-LEAGUE-SCHOOLS-DON-T-REFLECT-U-S-MINORITY-RATIOS-20121019, titleIvy League Schools Don't Reflect U.S. Minority Ratios, workwww.nationaljournal.com, accessdate8 October 2014, url-statusdead, archiveurweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150318010853weblink">weblink archivedate18 March 2015, df,

! !! Asian !! Black !! Hispanic(of any race) !! Non-Hispanic White !! Other/international!! Unknown| Brown| 11% | Columbia| 6%| Cornell| 10%| Dartmouth| 8%| Harvard| 6%| Penn| 7%| Princeton| 3%| Yale| 8%United StatesPUBLISHER=U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, 5% >13% >17% >63% >4% >| NA

Geographic distribution

Students of the Ivy League largely hail from the Northeast, largely from the New York City, Boston, and Philadelphia areas. As all eight Ivy League universities are within the Northeast, it is no surprise that most graduates end up working and residing in the Northeast after graduation. An unscientific survey of Harvard seniors from the Class of 2013 found that 42% hailed from the Northeast and 55% overall were planning on working and residing in the Northeast.WEB,weblink The Harvard Crimson, The Harvard Crimson, Inc., 8 October 2014, Boston and New York City are traditionally where many Ivy League graduates end up living.WEB,weblink Here's Where Ivy League Students Go When They Graduate [Presentation], 29 June 2012, Business Insider, 8 October 2014, WEB,weblink Why Do So Many Ivy League Grads Go to Wall Steet?, 17 February 2012, The Atlantic, 8 October 2014,

Socioeconomics and social class

File:Learned Hand at Harvarda.jpg|thumb|right|275px|Harvard Law SchoolHarvard Law SchoolStudents of the Ivy League, both graduate and undergraduate, come primarily from upper middle and upper class families. In recent years, however, the universities have looked towards increasing socioeconomic and class diversity, by providing greater financial aid packages to applicants from lower, working, and middle class American families.NEWS,weblink Forbes, Maggie, McGrath, The Challenge Of Being Poor At America's Richest Colleges, November 27, 2013, In 2013, 46% of Harvard undergraduate students came from families in the top 3.8% of all American households (i.e., over $200,000 annual income). In 2012, the bottom 25% of the American income distribution accounted for only 3–4% of students at Brown, a figure that had remained unchanged since 1992.WEB,weblink How diverse are we?, Margaret, Nickens, Kate, Nussenbaum, 23 April 2012, The Brown Daily Herald, In 2014, 69% of incoming freshmen students at Yale College came from families with annual incomes of over $120,000, putting most Yale College students in the upper middle and/or upper class. (The median household income in the U.S. in 2013 was $52,700.)WEB,weblink MIELE: Wanted, fewer dumb students, Adriana, Miele, 22 January 2014, Yale Daily News, In the 2011–2012 academic year, students qualifying for Pell Grants (federally funded scholarships on the basis of need) comprised 20% at Harvard, 18% at Cornell, 17% at Penn, 16% at Columbia, 15% at Dartmouth and Brown, 14% at Yale, and 12% at Princeton. Nationally, 35% of American university students qualify for a Pell Grant.WEB,weblink Wanted: smart students from poor families, David, Zax, Yale Alumni Magazine,

Competition and athletics

(File:Cornell vs Brown University football game 2017.jpg|thumb|right|Brown (right) plays at Cornell's Homecoming game, October 2017.)
missing image!
- Yale-Harvard-Game.jpg -
The Yale Bowl in 2001 during the annual football game played between Harvard and Yale
Ivy champions are recognized in sixteen men's and sixteen women's sports. In some sports, Ivy teams actually compete as members of another league, the Ivy championship being decided by isolating the members' records in play against each other; for example, the six league members who participate in ice hockey do so as members of ECAC Hockey, but an Ivy champion is extrapolated each year. In one sport, rowing, the Ivies recognize team champions for each sex in both heavyweight and lightweight divisions. While the Intercollegiate Rowing Association governs all four sex- and bodyweight-based divisions of rowing, the only one that is sanctioned by the NCAA is women's heavyweight. The Ivy League was the last Division I basketball conference to institute a conference postseason tournament; the first tournaments for men and women were held at the end of the 2016–17 season. The tournaments only award the Ivy League automatic bids for the NCAA Division I Men's and Women's Basketball Tournaments; the official conference championships continue to be awarded based solely on regular-season results.PRESS RELEASE,weblink The Ivy League Adds Men's, Women's Basketball Tournaments Beginning in 2017, Ivy League, March 10, 2016, March 10, 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160311041901weblink">weblink March 11, 2016, Before the 2016–17 season, the automatic bids were based solely on regular-season record, with a one-game playoff (or series of one-game playoffs if more than two teams were tied) held to determine the automatic bid.WEB,weblink Yale basketball shares Ivy League title, Yale Daily News, 2002-03-06, 2010-08-01, dead,weblink" title="archive.is/20130209211908weblink">weblink 2013-02-09, The Ivy League is one of only two Division I conferences which award their official basketball championships solely on regular-season results; the other is the Southeastern Conference.WEB,weblink Through the Years: SEC Champions, 2015–2016 SEC Men's Basketball Media Guide, 61, Southeastern Conference, March 10, 2016, From 1933–50 the SEC Champion was determined by a tournament, except for 1935. Since 1951, when the round-robin schedule was introduced, the title has been decided by a winning percentage on the conference schedule., WEB,weblink Through the Years: SEC Champions, 2015–2016 SEC Women's Basketball Media Guide, 54, Southeastern Conference, March 10, 2016, Since 1986, the SEC champion has been determined by the regular season schedule., Since its inception, an Ivy League school has yet to win either the men's or women's Division I NCAA Basketball Tournament.On average, each Ivy school has more than 35 varsity teams. All eight are in the top 20 for number of sports offered for both men and women among Division I schools. Unlike most Division I athletic conferences, the Ivy League prohibits the granting of athletic scholarships; all scholarships awarded are need-based (financial aid).WEB,weblink Timeline, The Ivy League, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160420101456weblink">weblink 2016-04-20, In addition, the Ivies have a rigid policy against redshirting, even for medical reasons; an athlete loses a year of eligibility for every year enrolled at an Ivy institution.WEB,weblink Which players injured last season will make the strongest comebacks?, C.L., Brown, ESPN.com, October 5, 2016, October 8, 2016, It's easy to forget what Siyani Chambers has meant to Harvard as a three-time all-Ivy League player because he wasn't enrolled in school last season. The Ivy League doesn't allow redshirts, so Chambers was forced to withdraw after a preseason ACL injury if he wanted to return for his senior season., Ivy League teams' non-league games are often against the members of the Patriot League, which have similar academic standards and athletic scholarship policies (although unlike the Ivies, the Patriot League allows redshirting).In the time before recruiting for college sports became dominated by those offering athletic scholarships and lowered academic standards for athletes, the Ivy League was successful in many sports relative to other universities in the country. In particular, Princeton won 26 recognized national championships in college football (last in 1935), and Yale won 18 (last in 1927).WEB,weblink Recognized National Championships by Year, College Football Data Warehouse, 8 October 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161015173918weblink">weblink 15 October 2016, Both of these totals are considerably higher than those of other historically strong programs such as Alabama, which has won 15, Notre Dame, which claims 11 but is credited by many sources with 13, and USC, which has won 11. Yale, whose coach Walter Camp was the "Father of American Football," held on to its place as the all-time wins leader in college football throughout the entire 20th century, but was finally passed by Michigan on November 10, 2001. Harvard, Yale, Princeton and Penn each have over a dozen former scholar-athletes enshrined in the College Football Hall of Fame. Currently Dartmouth holds the record for most Ivy League football titles, with 18, followed closely by Harvard and Penn, each with 17 titles. In addition, the Ivy League has produced Super Bowl winners Kevin Boothe (Cornell), two-time Pro Bowler Zak DeOssie (Brown), Sean Morey (Brown), All-Pro selection Matt Birk (Harvard), Calvin Hill (Yale), Derrick Harmon (Cornell) and 1999 "Mr. Irrelevant" Jim Finn (Penn).Beginning with the 1982 football season, the Ivy League has competed in Division I-AA (renamed FCS {{nowrap|in 2006).NEWS,weblink Lewiston Morning Tribune, (Idaho), Associated Press, NCAA Convention: Ivy League has 'serious doubts' about I-AA status, January 12, 1982, 4C, New York Times – 2006-11-17}} The Ivy League teams are eligible for the FCS tournament held to determine the national champion, and the league champion is eligible for an automatic bid (and any other team may qualify for an at-large selection) from the NCAA. However, since its inception in 1956, the Ivy League has not played any postseason games due to concerns about the extended December schedule's effects on academics. (The last postseason game for a member was {{Years or months ago|1934}}, the 1934 Rose Bowl, won by {{nowrap|Columbia.)NEWS,weblink Milwaukee Journal, Gallant Columbia 'Sea' Lions vanquish Stanford in mud, 7 to 0, January 2, 1934, 6, part 2, NEWS,weblink Eugene Register-Guard, (Oregon), Associated Press, Bell, Brian, Columbia amazes sport world with Stanford win, 7–0, January 2, 1934, 6, }} For this reason, any Ivy League team invited to the FCS playoffs turns down the bid. The Ivy League plays a strict 10-game schedule, compared to other FCS members' schedules of 11 (or, in some seasons, 12) regular season games, plus post-season, which expanded in 2013 to five rounds with 24 teams, with a bye week for the top eight teams. Football is the only sport in which the Ivy League declines to compete for a national title.In addition to varsity football, Penn, Princeton and Cornell also field teams in the 10-team Collegiate Sprint Football League, in which all players must weigh 178 pounds or less. Penn and Princeton are the last remaining founding members of the league from its 1934 debut, and Cornell is the next-oldest, joining in 1937. Yale and Columbia previously fielded teams in the league but no longer do so.

Teams

{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align: center"Teams in Ivy League competitionHTTP://WWW.IVYLEAGUESPORTS.COM, Ivy League, Council of Ivy League Presidents and The Ivy League, 8 October 2014, !Sport || width=60 | Men's || Women'sCollege baseball>|-College basketball>|8Cross country running>|8Fencing67Field hockey-8College football>|-Golf87College ice hockey>|6College lacrosse>|8College rowing (United States) >|7College soccer>|8College softball>|8Squash (sport)>|8Swimming (sport) and Diving (sport)>diving78Tennis88Track and field#Indoor>|8Track and field#Outdoor>|8Volleyball-8Collegiate wrestling>|-The Ivy League is home to some of the oldest college rugby teams in the United States. Although these teams are not "varsity" sports, they compete annually in the Ivy Rugby Conference.">

Historical results{| class"wikitable" cellspacing4 style"margin-right:0"|+ Total championships won (1956–2017)

!Institution!Ivy League Championships!NCAA Team Championships|Princeton University Tigers|476|12|Harvard University Crimson|415|4|Cornell University Big Red|231 |5|University of Pennsylvania Quakers|210|3|Yale University Bulldogs|202|3|Dartmouth College Big Green|140|3|Brown University Bears|123|7|Columbia University Lions|105|11The table above includes the number of team championships won from the beginning of official Ivy League competition (1956–57 academic year) through 2016–17. Princeton and Harvard have on occasion won ten or more Ivy League titles in a year, an achievement accomplished 10 times by Harvard and 24 times by Princeton, including a conference-record 15 championships in 2010–11. Only once has one of the other six schools earned more than eight titles in a single academic year (Cornell with nine in 2005–06). In the 38 academic years beginning 1979–80, Princeton has averaged 10 championships per year, one-third of the conference total of 33 sponsored sports.WEB,weblink Ivy League Championships – By School, Council of Ivy League Presidents and The Ivy League, 11 November 2017,
 
In the 12 academic years beginning 2005–06 Princeton has won championships in 31 different sports, all except wrestling and men's tennis.WEB,weblink Ivy League Championships – Women's Sports, Council of Ivy League Presidents and The Ivy League, 8 October 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141012121929weblink">weblink 12 October 2014,

Rivalries

File:Cornell University vs Princeton Lacrosse 1987.jpg|thumb|right|Cornell and Princeton are longtime lacrosse rivals ]]File:Palestra.jpg|thumb|right|Built in 1927, Penn's PalestraPalestraFile:Harvard Stadium - 1903 Greek Play.jpg|thumb|right|Performance of a Greek play at Harvard StadiumHarvard StadiumRivalries run deep in the Ivy League. For instance, Princeton and Penn are longstanding men's basketball rivals;NEWS,weblink The game: the tables are turned – Penn hoops travel to Jadwin tonight for premier rivalry of Ivy League basketball, The Daily Princetonian, 2002-02-12, 2011-01-30, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071011141406weblink">weblink 2007-10-11, "Puck Frinceton" T-shirts are worn by Quaker fans at games.NEWS,weblink The rivalry? Not with Penn's paltry performance this season, The Daily Princetonian, 2002-02-12, 2011-01-30, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071011141412weblink">weblink 2007-10-11, In only 11 instances in the history of Ivy League basketball, and in only seven seasons since Yale's 1962 title, has neither Penn nor Princeton won at least a share of the Ivy League title in basketball,Ivy League Basketball {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090627003949weblink |date=June 27, 2009 }} with Princeton champion or co-champion 26 times and Penn 25 times. Penn has won 21 outright, Princeton 19 outright. Princeton has been a co-champion 7 times, sharing 4 of those titles with Penn (these 4 seasons represent the only times Penn has been co-champion). Harvard won its first title of either variety in 2011, losing a dramatic play-off game to Princeton for the NCAA tournament bid, then rebounded to win outright championships in 2012, 2013, and 2014. Harvard also won the 2013 Great Alaska Shootout, defeating TCU to become the only Ivy League school to win the now-defunct tournament.Rivalries exist between other Ivy league teams in other sports, including Cornell and Harvard in hockey, Harvard and Princeton in swimming, and Harvard and Penn in football (Penn and Harvard have won 28 Ivy League Football Championships since 1982, Penn-16; Harvard-12). During that time Penn has had 8 undefeated Ivy League Football Championships and Harvard has had 6 undefeated Ivy League Football Championships.Ivy League Football {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100102231135weblink |date=January 2, 2010 }} In men's lacrosse, Cornell and Princeton are perennial rivals, and they are two of three Ivy League teams to have won the NCAA tournamentweblink In 2009, the Big Red and Tigers met for their 70th game in the NCAA tournament.New wrinkle in the Cornell Princeton lacrosse rivalry{{Dead link|date=August 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}, The Ithaca Journal, May 16, 2009. No team other than Harvard or Princeton has won the men's swimming conference title outright since 1972, although Yale, Columbia, and Cornell have shared the title with Harvard and Princeton during this time. Similarly, no program other than Princeton and Harvard has won the women's swimming championship since Brown's 1999 title. Princeton or Cornell has won every indoor and outdoor track and field championship, both men's and women's, every year since 2002–03, with one exception (Columbia women won indoor championship in 2012). Harvard and Yale are football and crew rivals although the competition has become unbalanced; Harvard has won all but one of the last 15 football games and all but one of the last 13 crew races.">

Intra-conference football rivalries{| class"wikitable" cellspacing5 style"margin-right:0"

!Teams!Name!Trophy!First met!Games played!Series record|Columbia-Cornell|Empire State Bowl|Empire Cup|1889|103 games|36–64–3|Cornell-Penn|None|Trustee's Cup|1893|122 games|46–71–5|Dartmouth-Princeton|None|Sawhorse Dollar|1897|95 games|48–43–4|Harvard-Yale|The Game|None|1875|132 games|59–65–8|Princeton-Yale|None|None|1873|138 games|52–76–10The Yale-Princeton series is the nation's second longest, exceeded only by "The Rivalry" between Lehigh and Lafayette, which began later in 1884 but included two or three games in each of 17 early seasons.WEB,weblink The Rivalry: Lehigh vs. Lafayette, LehigSports.com, 25 April 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130421004247weblink">weblink 21 April 2013, For the first three decades of the Yale-Princeton rivalry, the two played their season-ending game at a neutral site, usually New York City, and with one exception (1890: Harvard), the winner of the game also won at least a share of the national championship that year, covering the period 1869 through 1903.NEWS,weblink A Woeful Yale Loses To Princeton, Wallace, William N., 16 November 1997, The New York Times, 25 April 2013, WEB,weblink College Football National Champions: The Complete List, Hyland, Tim, About.com, 25 April 2013, This phenomenon of a finale contest at a neutral site for the national title created a social occasion for the society elite of the metropolitan area akin to a Super Bowl in the era prior to the establishment of the NFL in 1920.WEB,weblink Princeton v. Yale, 1903: The Oldest College Football Game on Film, Colman, Dan, 23 February 2012, OpenCulture.com, 25 April 2013, WEB,weblink 1903 College Football National Championship, TipTop25.com, 25 April 2013, These football games were also financially profitable for the two universities, so much that they began to play baseball games in New York City as well, drawing record crowds for that sport also, largely from the same social demographic.NEWS,weblink Princeton Beats Yale, 19 June 1904, The New York Times, 25 April 2013, In a period when the only professional sports were fledgling baseball leagues, these high-profile early contests between Princeton and Yale played a role in popularizing spectator sports, demonstrating their financial potential and raising public awareness of Ivy universities at a time when few people attended college.">

Extra-conference football rivalries{| class"wikitable" cellspacing5 style"margin-right:0"

!Teams!Name!Trophy!First met!Games played!Series recordRhode Island Rams football>Rhode Island|NoneGovernor's Cup (Rhode Island)>Governor's Cup|1909|98 games|70–26–2Fordham Rams football>Fordham|NoneThe Liberty Cup>Liberty Cup|1890|24 games|12–12–0Colgate Raiders football>Colgate|None|None|1896|95 games|48–44–3New Hampshire Wildcats football>New HampshireNew Hampshire–Dartmouth rivalry>Granite Bowl|Granite Bowl Trophy|1901|37 games|17–18–2Holy Cross Crusaders football>Holy Cross|None|None|1904|67 games|41–24–2Lafayette Leopards football>Lafayette|None|None|1882|90 games|63–23–4Lehigh Mountain Hawks football>Lehigh|None|None|1885|56 games|43–13Rutgers Scarlet Knights football>Rutgers|None|None|1869|71 games|53–17–1Army Black Knights football>Army|None|None|1893|45 games|22–16–8

Championships

NCAA team championships

This list, which is current through July 1, 2015,WEB,weblink CHAMPIONSHIPS SUMMARY THROUGH JAN. 8, 2018, 2018-02-13, includes NCAA championships and women's AIAW championships (one each for Yale and Dartmouth). Excluded from this list are all other national championships earned outside the scope of NCAA competition, including football titles and retroactive Helms Foundation titles.{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center"!width=180| School!width=45| Total!width=45| Men!width=45| Women!width=45| Co-ed!width=90| Nickname|Yale UniversityYale Bulldogs#NCAA team championships>29{{efnThe NCAA started sponsoring the intercollegiate golf championship in 1939, but it retained the titles from the 41 championships previously conferred by the National Intercollegiate Golf Association in its records. Of these pre-NCAA titles, Yale, Princeton, Harvard and Dartmouth won 20, 11, 6 and 1, respectively.}}|26|3|0Yale Bulldogs>Bulldogs|Princeton UniversityPrinceton Tigers#NCAA team championships>24{{efn|name=fn1}}|19|4|1Princeton Tigers>Tigers|Columbia UniversityColumbia Lions#NCAA team championships>14|11|0|3Columbia Lions>Lions|Harvard UniversityHarvard Crimson#NCAA team championships>10{{efn|name=fn1}}|7|2|1Harvard Crimson>Crimson|Brown UniversityBrown Bears#NCAA team championships>7|0|7|0Brown Bears>Bears|Cornell UniversityCornell Big Red#NCAA team championships>5|5|0|0Cornell Big Red>Big Red|Dartmouth CollegeDartmouth Big Green#NCAA team championships>5{{efn|name=fn1}}|1|1|3Dartmouth Big Green>Big Green|University of PennsylvaniaPenn Quakers#NCAA team championships>4|3|1|0Penn Quakers>Quakers{{notelist}}{{See also|List of NCAA schools with the most NCAA Division I championships|List of NCAA schools with the most Division I national championships}}">

Athletic facilities{| class"wikitable sortable"

!! colspan="3"| Football stadium! colspan="3"| Basketball arena! colspan="3"| Baseball field! colspan="3"| Hockey rink! colspan="3"| Soccer stadium! SchoolWEB,weblink Ivy Facilities, 2006-06-10,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060318001423weblink">weblink March 18, 2006, ! Name!! Capacity!! Year! Name!! Capacity!! Year! Name!! Capacity!! Year! Name!! Capacity!! Year! Name!! Capacity!! YearBrown Bears>BrownBrown Stadium >20000}}1925Pizzitola Sports Center>2800}}1989Murray Stadium >1000}}1959Meehan Auditorium >3100}}1961Stevenson Field >3500}}1979Columbia Lions>ColumbiaRobert K. Kraft Field at Lawrence A. Wien Stadium>Wien Stadium{{nts|1984Levien Gymnasium >3408}}1974Hal Robertson Field at Phillip Satow Stadium >1500}}1923 Non-hockey schoolCommisso Soccer Stadium >3500}}1985Cornell Big Red>CornellSchoellkopf Field >25597}}1915Newman Arena >4472}}1990Hoy Field >500}}1922Lynah Rink >4267}}1957Charles F. Berman Field>1000}}2000Dartmouth Big Green>DartmouthMemorial Field (Dartmouth)>Memorial Field{{nts|1923Leede Arena >2100}}1986Red Rolfe Field at Biondi Park >2000}}2008Thompson Arena >4500}}1975Burnham Field >1600}}2007Harvard Crimson>HarvardHarvard Stadium >30898}}1903Lavietes Pavilion >2195}}1926Joseph J. O'Donnell Field >1600}}1898Bright Hockey Center >2850}}1956Soldiers Field Soccer Stadium>2500}}2010Penn Quakers>PennFranklin Field >52593}}1895Palestra >8722}}1927Meiklejohn Stadium >850}}2000Class of 1923 Arena >2500}}1972Rhodes Field >1700}}2002HTTP://WWW.PENNATHLETICS.COM/VIEWARTICLE.DBML?DB_OEM_ID=1700&ATCLID=66189 >TITLE=RHODES FIELD – PENNATHLETICS.COM—THE OFFICIAL WEBSITE OF UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA ATHLETICS ACCESSDATE=2012-03-10 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120208202817/HTTP://WWW.PENNATHLETICS.COM/VIEWARTICLE.DBML?DB_OEM_ID=1700&ATCLID=66189 DF=, Princeton Tigers>PrincetonPrinceton University Stadium >27800}}1998Jadwin Gymnasium >6854}}1969Bill Clarke Field >850}}1961Hobey Baker Memorial Rink >2094}}1923Roberts Stadium (Soccer stadium)>Roberts Stadium{{nts|2008Yale Bulldogs>YaleYale Bowl >61446}}1914Payne Whitney Gymnasium>3100}}1932Yale Field >6200}}1927Ingalls Rink >3486}}1958Reese Stadium >3000}}1981

Other Ivies

The term Ivy is often used to connote a positive comparison to or association with the Ivy League, often along academic lines. The term has been used to describe the Little Ivies, a grouping of small liberal arts colleges in the Northeastern United States.WEB,weblink NESCAC, www.nescac.com, 2016-02-09, Other uses include the Southern Ivies, Hidden Ivies, and the Public Ivies. The 2007 edition of Newsweek's How to Get Into College Now, the editors designated 25 schools as "New Ivies".WEB,weblink America's 25 New Elite 'Ivies', Newsweek.com, 2006-08-21, 2011-01-30,

Ivy Plus

The term Ivy Plus is sometimes used to refer to the Ancient Eight plus several other schools for purposes of alumni associations,WEB,weblink Yale Hosts Ivy Plus Conference, Babbit, Nory, Fall 2005, The Blue Print, 2009-03-25, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100610124852weblink">weblink 2010-06-10, university consortia,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080101140116weblink">weblink 2008-01-01, Ivy Plus Sustainability Working Group, Yale, 2008-11-24, WEB,weblink Ivy + Alumni Relations Conference, Princeton, 2008-11-24, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090126203009weblink">weblink 2009-01-26, WEB,weblink Ivy Plus Libraries Confederation, Columbia University Libraries, 27 July 2019, or endowment comparisons.NEWS,weblink Risk pays off for endowments, Weisman, Robert, November 2, 2007, The Boston Globe, 2008-11-24, NEWS,weblink Columbia, MIT Fall Into Line on Aid, Perloff-Giles, Alexandra, March 11, 2008, The Harvard Crimson, 2008-11-24, MAGAZINE,weblink The Dangerous Wealth of the Ivy League, Bianco, Anthony, November 29, 2007, Businessweek, 2009-03-24, JOURNAL, Lerner, Josh, Antoinette, Schoar, Jialan, Wang, Summer 2008, Secrets of the Academy: The Drivers of University Endowment Success, Journal of Economic Perspectives, The American Economic Association, Nashville, TN, 22, 3, 207–22, 0895-3309, 16474127, 10.1257/jep.22.3.207,weblink In his book Untangling the Ivy League, Zawel writes, "The inclusion of non–Ivy League schools under this term is commonplace for some schools and extremely rare for others. Among these other schools, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Stanford University are almost always included. The University of Chicago and Duke University are often included as well."BOOK, Zawel, Marc, Untangling the Ivy League, College Prowler, September 1, 2005, 9, Defining the Ivy League, 1-59658-500-5,weblink In their 2015 book Acing Admissions, Mehta and Dixit write, "The [Ivy Plus schools] include, but are not limited to: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Stanford University and Northwestern University. Besides selectivity, these Ivy Plus colleges are thought to share similar values around academic and professional excellence, intellectual curiosity, leadership and civil engagement."BOOK, Mehta, Kavita, Dixit, Kimberly Wright, July 1, 2015, Acing Admissions,weblink HarperCollins Publishers, 978-93-5106-794-8, 85, How to Choose a College,weblink December 31, 2016,

See also

Notes

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

  • {{Official website}}
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