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edit index Charles Sanders Peirce
Charles Sanders Peirce (10 Sep 1839 - 19 Apr 1914, and pronounced: "Purse") was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and developer of Semiotics, for which he is largely appreciated today. Peirce considered himself a logician first and foremost, and made major contributions to the development of Formal Logic still read in studies of Knowledge, Language, and Science.

Life and Works

Charles Sanders Peirce was the son of Sarah Hunt Mills and Benjamin Peirce, a professor of Astronomy and Mathematics at Harvard University, an early research mathematician in America. At 12, Charles read Richard Whately's Elements of Logic, a leading English language text on the subject at the time, thus starting a lifelong fascination with Logic and Reasoning. He earned a BA and MA from Harvard, and in 1863 the Lawrence Scientific School awarded him its first Master of Science in Chemistry, summa cum laude. Peirce developed lifelong friendships with Francis Ellingwood Abbot, Chauncey Wright, and William James, worked in various scientific capacities by the US Coast Survey, exempting him from the Civil War.

Meanwhile, he wrote hundreds of entries for the Century Dictionary, but was caught up in a Coast Survey scandal surrounding employee misuse of public funds, and never worked regularly again. Yet, in 1879, Peirce was appointed Lecturer in Logic at Johns Hopkins University, but was forced to leave, and later applications to other universities were unsuccessful. His insistence on living beyond his means led to grave financial and legal difficulties, unable to afford heat in winter or new stationery - he wrote on the back old manuscripts. An outstanding warrant for assault and unpaid debts led to his family and friends working to settle his debts. Peirce died destitute in Milford, Pennsylvania.

Peirce's lifelong work in Science connected with a wide array of disciplines, including Astronomy, Economics, Geodesy, Linguistics, Logic, Mathematics, Metrology, Philosophy, Psychology, where his writings repeatedly refer to a system of three Categories, named Firstness, Secondness, and Thirdness. His reading of Aristotle, Kant, and Hegel developed into what he called the maxim of pragmatism, on which William James based his Pragmatism. Peirce believed truth is provisional, that the truth of any proposition can only be probable, which he called 'Fallibilism''.

Peirce's own Pragmatism may be understood as a method for resolving conceptual confusions by linking the meanings of a Concept to the consequences of the Concept in practice. This led him to examine the role of Signs, the concepts and activities by which we inform ourselves about the world and make logical inferences base on that information. The complexities of the possible relationships among Signs and Objects in the World, and Ideas in the Mind, demanded that Peirce develop a more powerful Logic of Relations, a semeiotic, or a Theory of Signs. He described the corresponding "triadic" process of semiosis as an "action, or influence, which is, or involves, a cooperation of three subjects, such as a sign, its object, and its interpretant." This definition of a Sign is independent of psychological subject matter, he argued.

Bertrand Russell later said that "beyond doubt... he was one of the most original minds of the later nineteenth century, and certainly the greatest American thinker ever." Alfred North Whitehead was struck by how Peirce had anticipated his own ideas of "process". Karl Popper, William James, Josiah Royce, Cassius Jackson Keyser and C.K. Ogden all publicly admired Peirce's work, and even John Dewey was a student of his at Johns Hopkins. This is all despite the fact that the only book Peirce published in his lifetime was his Photometric Researches (1878).

Further Reading

  • CE n, m = Writings of Charles S. Peirce: A Chronological Edition, vol. n, page m.
  • CP n.m = Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce, vol. n, paragraph m.
  • CTN n, m = Contributions to 'The Nation' , vol. n, page m.
  • EP n, m = The Essential Peirce: Selected Philosophical Writings, vol. n, page m.
  • NEM n, m = The New Elements of Mathematics by Charles S. Peirce, vol. n, page m.
  • SIL m = Studies in Logic by Members of the Johns Hopkins University, page m.
  • SS m = Semiotic and Significs … Charles S. Peirce and Lady Welby, page m.
  • SW m = Charles S. Peirce, Selected Writings, page m.
  • PEP = Peirce Edition Project.
    • (List of editors in preparation)
  • Belnap = Belnap Press of Harvard University Press.
  • Harvard = Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.


  • Peirce, C.S., Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce, vols. 1–6, Charles Hartshorne and Paul Weiss (eds.), vols. 7–8, Arthur W. Burks (ed.), Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1931–1935, 1958. Cited as CP (volume).(paragraph).
  • Peirce, C.S., Writings of Charles S. Peirce : A Chronological Edition, Peirce Edition Project (eds.), Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, IN, 1981–. Cited as CE (volume), (page).
  • Peirce, C.S, The New Elements of Mathematics by Charles S. Peirce, 4 volumes in 5, Carolyn Eisele (ed.), Mouton Publishers, The Hague, Netherlands, 1976. Humanities Press, Atlantic Highlands, NJ, 1976. Cited as NEM (volume), (page).
  • Peirce, C.S., The Essential Peirce : Selected Philosophical Writings, Volume 1 (1867–1893), Nathan Houser and Christian Kloesel (eds.), Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, IN, 1992. Cited as EP 1, (page).
  • Peirce, C.S., The Essential Peirce : Selected Philosophical Writings, Volume 2 (1893–1913), Peirce Edition Project (eds.), Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, IN, 1998. Cited as EP 2, (page).
  • Peirce, C.S. (1865a), "On the Logic of Science", Harvard University Lectures, CE 1, 161–302.
  • Peirce, C.S. (1865b), "An Unpsychological View of Logic to which are appended some applications of the theory to Psychology and other subjects", MS 109 (Variant 1), May–Fall 1865, CE 1, 305–309.
  • Peirce, C.S. (1865c), "An Unpsychological View of Logic to which are appended some applications of the theory herein contained to Psychology and other subjects", MS 109 (Variant 2), May–Fall 1865, CE 1, 310–321.


  • Peirce, C.S. (1866), "The Logic of Science, or, Induction and Hypothesis", Lowell Institute Lectures, CE 1, 357–504.
  • Peirce, C.S. (1867), "On a New List of Categories", Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 7 (1868), 287–298. Presented, 14 May 1867. Reprinted (CP 1.545–559), (CE 2, 49–59), (EP 1, 1–10).
  • Peirce, C.S. (1877), "The Fixation of Belief", Popular Science Monthly 12, 1–15, 1877. Reprinted, CP 5.358–387. Eprint.
  • Peirce, C.S. (1878), "How to Make Our Ideas Clear", Popular Science Monthly 12, 286–302, 1878. Reprinted, CP 5.388–410. Eprint.
  • Peirce, C.S. (1899), "F.R.L." [First Rule of Logic], unpaginated manuscript, c. 1899. Reprinted, CP 1.135–140. Eprint.
  • Peirce, C.S. (1902), "Application of C.S. Peirce to the Executive Committee of the Carnegie Institution" (1902 July 15). Published, "Parts of Carnegie Application" (L75), pp. 13–73 in The New Elements of Mathematics by Charles S. Peirce, Volume 4, Mathematical Philosophy, Carolyn Eisele (ed.), Mouton Publishers, The Hague, Netherlands, 1976. Eprint, Joseph Ransdell (ed.).


Secondary Literature

  • Anellis, I.H. (1995), "Peirce Rustled, Russell Pierced: How Charles Peirce and Bertrand Russell Viewed Each Other's Work in Logic, and an Assessment of Russell's Accuracy and Role in the Historiography of Logic", Modern Logic 5, 270–328. Eprint.
  • Awbrey, J.L., and Awbrey, S.M. (1995), "Interpretation as Action : The Risk of Inquiry", Inquiry : Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 15, 40–52. Eprint.
  • Boole, George (1854), An Investigation of the Laws of Thought on Which are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities, Macmillan, 1854. Reprinted with corrections, Dover Publications, New York, NY, 1958.
  • Burch, Robert (2001/2006), "Charles Sanders Peirce", in Edward N. Zalta (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2006 Edition). Eprint.
  • Dewey, John (1910), How We Think, D.C. Heath, Lexington, MA, 1910. Reprinted, Prometheus Books, Buffalo, NY, 1991.
  • Haack, Susan (1998), Manifesto of a Passionate Moderate, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
  • van Heijenoort, Jean (1967), "Logic as Language and Logic as Calculus", Synthese 17, 324–330.
  • Houser, Nathan (1989), "The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Peirce Papers", Fourth Congress of the International Association for Semiotic Studies, Perpignan, France, 1989. Published, pp. 1259–1268 in Signs of Humanity, vol. 3, Michel Balat and Janice Deledalle–Rhodes (eds.), Gerard Deledalle (gen. ed.), Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, Germany, 1992. Eprint.
  • Liddell, Henry George, and Scott, Robert (1889), An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1889. Impression of 1991. Eprint.
  • Mac Lane, Saunders (1971), Categories for the Working Mathematician, Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, 1971. Second edition, 1998.
  • Robin, Richard S. (1967), Annotated Catalogue of the Papers of Charles S. Peirce, University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, MA, 1967. Eprint.
  • Taylor, Barry N. (ed.), The International System of Units (NIST Special Publication 330), Superintendent of Documents, Washington, DC, 2001. PDF text.


Further Bibliographic Resources

  • Ketner, K.L., et al. (1986), A Comprehensive Bibliography of the Works of C.S. Peirce, Philosophy Documentation Center, Bowling Green, OH, 1986.
  • Moore, E., and Robin, R.S. (1964), Studies in the Philosophy of C.S. Peirce, Second Series, University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, MA, 1964. Bibliography of secondary literature prior to 1964, pp. 486–514.
  • Robin, Richard S. (1967), Annotated Catalogue of the Papers of Charles S. Peirce, University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, MA, 1967. Eprint


Primary Literature

Collected Papers (CP)

  • Peirce, C.S., Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce, vols. 1–6, Charles Hartshorne and Paul Weiss (eds.), vols. 7–8, Arthur W. Burks (ed.), Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1931–1935, 1958.


* Volume 1, Principles of Philosophy, 1932.
* Volume 2, Elements of Logic, 1932.
* Volume 3, Exact Logic (Published Papers), 1933.
* Volume 4, The Simplest Mathematics, 1933.
* Volume 5, Pragmatism and Pragmaticism, 1934.
* Volume 6, Scientific Metaphysics, 1935.
* Volume 7, Science and Philosophy, 1958.
* Volume 8, Reviews, Correspondence, and Bibliography, 1958.
  • Belnap edition with pairs of volumes bound as one, vols. 1–2 (ISBN 0-674-13800-7), vols. 3–4 (ISBN 0-674-13801-5), vols. 5–6 (ISBN 0-674-13802-3), vols. 7–8 (ISBN 0-674-13803-1).


  • Volume 1. Eprint.
  • Volumes 1–8. CD-ROM.
  • Volumes 1–8. Reprinted, Thoemmes Continuum, 1998.


Chronological Edition (CE)

  • Peirce, C.S., Writings of Charles S. Peirce, A Chronological Edition, Peirce Edition Project (eds.), Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, IN, 1981–.


* Volume 1 (1857–1866), 1981.
* Volume 2 (1867–1871), 1984.
* Volume 3 (1872–1878), 1986.
* Volume 4 (1879–1884), 1989.
* Volume 5 (1884–1886), 1993.
* Volume 6 (1886–1890), 2000.


New Elements of Mathematics (NEM)

  • Peirce, C.S, The New Elements of Mathematics by Charles S. Peirce, 4 volumes in 5, Carolyn Eisele (ed.), Mouton Publishers, The Hague, Netherlands, 1976. Humanities Press, Atlantic Highlands, NJ, 1976.


* Volume 1, Arithmetic.
* Volume 2, Algebra and Geometry.
* Volume 3.1, Mathematical Miscellanea.
* Volume 3.2, Mathematical Miscellanea.
* Volume 4, Mathematical Philosophy.
Contributions to 'The Nation' (CTN)

  • Peirce, C.S., Contributions to 'The Nation' , 4 volumes, Kenneth Laine and James Edward Cook (eds.), Texas Technological University Press, Lubbock, TX, 1975–1987.


* Part 1 (1869–1893), 1975.
* Part 2 (1894–1900), 1975.
* Part 3 (1901–1908), 1979.
* Part 4 (Index), 1987.
Essential Peirce (EP)

  • Peirce, C.S., The Essential Peirce, Selected Philosophical Writings, Volume 1 (1867–1893), Nathan Houser and Christian Kloesel (eds.), Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, IN, 1992.
  • Peirce, C.S., The Essential Peirce, Selected Philosophical Writings, Volume 2 (1893–1913), Peirce Edition Project (eds.), Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, IN, 1998.


Selected Writings (SW)

  • Peirce, C.S., Charles S. Peirce: Selected Writings (Values in a Universe of Chance), Philip P. Wiener (ed.), First published, Values in a Universe of Chance, Doubleday and Company, 1958. Reprinted, Dover Publications, New York, NY, 1966.


Essays in the Philosophy of Science (EPS)

  • Peirce, C.S., Essays in the Philosophy of Science, Vincent Tomas (ed.), Bobbs–Merrill, New York, NY, 1957.


Lectures on Pragmatism (LOP)

  • Peirce, C.S., "Lectures on Pragmatism", Cambridge, MA, March 26 – May 17, 1903. Reprinted in part, Collected Papers, CP 5.14–212. Reprinted with Introduction and Commentary, Patricia Ann Turisi (ed.), Pragmatism as a Principle and a Method of Right Thinking: The 1903 Harvard "Lectures on Pragmatism", State University of New York Press, Albany, NY, 1997. Reprinted, pp. 133–241, Peirce Edition Project (eds.), The Essential Peirce, Selected Philosophical Writings, Volume 2 (1893–1913), Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN, 1998.
  • Peirce, C.S., Pragmatism as a Principle and a Method of Right Thinking — The 1903 Harvard "Lectures on Pragmatism", Patricia Ann Turisi (ed.), State University of New York Press, Albany, NY, 1997.


Articles and Book Chapters by Peirce

  • Peirce, C.S. (1867), "On a New List of Categories", Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 7 (1868), 287–298. Presented, 14 May 1867. Reprinted (CP 1.545–559), (CE 2, 49–59), (EP 1, 1–10). Eprint.
  • Peirce, C.S. (1868), "Some Consequences of Four Incapacities", Journal of Speculative Philosophy 2 (1868), 140–157. Reprinted (CP 5.264–317), (CE 2, 211–242), (EP 1, 28–55). Eprint. NB. Misprints in CP and Eprint copy.
  • Peirce, C.S. (1870), "Description of a Notation for the Logic of Relatives, Resulting from an Amplification of the Conceptions of Boole's Calculus of Logic", Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 9 (1870), 317–378. Reprinted (CP 3.45–149), (CE 2, 359–429).
  • Peirce, C.S. (1877), "The Fixation of Belief", Popular Science Monthly 12 (1877), 1–15. Reprinted (CP 5.358–387), (CE 3, 242–257), (EP 1, 109–123). Eprint.
  • Peirce, C.S. (1878), "How to Make Our Ideas Clear", Popular Science Monthly 12 (1878), 286–302. Reprinted (CP 5.388–410), (CE 3, 257–276)), (EP 1, 124–141). Eprint.
  • Peirce, C.S. (1883), "Note B. The Logic of Relatives", pp, 187–203 in C.S. Peirce (ed.), Studies in Logic by Members of the Johns Hopkins University, Little, Brown, and Company, Boston, MA, 1883. Reprinted (CP 3.328–358), (CE 4, 453–466), (SIL, 187–203).
  • Peirce, C.S. (1885), "On the Algebra of Logic: A Contribution to the Philosophy of Notation", American Journal of Mathematics 7 (1885), 180–202. Presented, National Academy of Sciences, Newport, RI, 14–17 Oct 1884. Reprinted (CP 3.359–403), (CE 5, 162–190), (EP 1, 225–228, in part).


Drafts and Manuscripts

  • Peirce, C.S. (1886), "Qualitative Logic", MS 582, pp. 323–371 in Writings of Charles S. Peirce: A Chronological Edition, Volume 5, 1884–1886, Peirce Edition Project (eds.), Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN, 1993.
  • Peirce, C.S. (1886), "The Logic of Relatives: Qualitative and Quantitative", MS 584, pp. 372–378 in Writings of Charles S. Peirce: A Chronological Edition, Volume 5, 1884–1886, Peirce Edition Project (eds.), Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN, 1993.
  • Peirce, C.S., "Qualitative Logic" (c. 1886), MS 736, pp. 101–115 in The New Elements of Mathematics by Charles S. Peirce, Volume 4, Mathematical Philosophy, Carolyn Eisele (ed.), Mouton, The Hague, 1976.
  • Peirce, C.S. (c. 1896), "The Logic of Mathematics; An Attempt to Develop My Categories from Within", 1st published as CP 1.417–519 in Collected Papers.
  • Peirce, C.S. (1899), "F.R.L." First Rule of Logic, unpaginated manuscript, c. 1899. Reprinted, CP 1.135-140. Eprint
  • Peirce, C.S. (1902), "Application of C.S. Peirce to the Executive Committee of the Carnegie Institution" (1902 July 15). Published, "Parts of Carnegie Application" (L75), pp. 13–73 in The New Elements of Mathematics by Charles S. Peirce, Volume 4, Mathematical Philosophy, Carolyn Eisele (ed.), Mouton Publishers, The Hague, Netherlands, 1976. Eprint, Joseph Ransdell (ed.)
  • Peirce, C.S. (1902), "The Simplest Mathematics", MS dated January–February 1902, intended as Chapter 3 of the "Minute Logic", CP 4.227–323 in Collected Papers.
  • Peirce, C.S. (c. 1904), ("New Elements"), MS 517, pp. 235–263 in Carolyn Eisele (ed.), The New Elements of Mathematics by Charles S. Peirce, Volume 4, Mathematical Philosophy, Mouton, The Hague, 1976. Cf. "New Elements", pp. 300–324 in The Essential Peirce, Volume 2 (1893–1913), Peirce Edition Project (eds.), Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN, 1998.
  • Peirce, C.S. (1883, ed.), Studies in Logic by Members of the Johns Hopkins University, Little, Brown, and Company, Boston, MA, 1883. Reprinted: Foundations of Semiotics, Volume 1, Achim Eschbach (series ed. & pref.), Max H. Fisch (intro.), Johns Benjamins, Amsterdam, 1983 (ISBN 90-272-3271-7).


Lecture Series

  • Peirce, C.S. (1898), Reasoning and the Logic of Things, The Cambridge Conference Lectures of 1898, Kenneth Laine Ketner (ed., intro.) and Hilary Putnam (intro., comm.), Harvard, 1992. Text of the lectures that William James invited Peirce to give in Cambridge, MA.


Secondary Literature

  • Eisele, Carolyn (ed.), Historical Perspectives on Peirce's Logic of Science: A History of Science, 2 vols., DeGruyter, Berlin, Germany, 1985.
  • Hardwick, C.S. (ed.), Semiotic and Significs: The Correspondence between C.S. Peirce and Victoria Lady Welby, Texas Technological University Press, Lubbock, TX, 1977, 2001.
  • Anellis, I.H. (1995), "Peirce Rustled, Russell Pierced: How Charles Peirce and Bertrand Russell Viewed Each Other's Work in Logic, and an Assessment of Russell's Accuracy and Role in the Historiography of Logic", Modern Logic, 5, 270–328. Eprint
  • Awbrey, Jon, and Awbrey, Susan (1995), "Interpretation as Action: The Risk of Inquiry", Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 15, 40–52. Eprint.
  • Brady, Geraldine (2000), From Peirce to Skolem, North Holland.
  • Brent, Joseph (1998), Charles Sanders Peirce: A Life. Revised and enlarged edition, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN.
  • Brunning, J., and Forster, P. (1997, eds.), The Rule of Reason, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, ON.
  • Chiasson, Phyllis (2001), Peirce's Pragmatism, The Design for Thinking, Rodopi, Amsterdam, 2001.
  • Debrock, Guy (1992), "Peirce, a Philosopher for the 21st Century. Introduction", Transactions of the C.S. Peirce Society 28, 1–18.
  • Delaney, C.F. (1993), Science, Knowledge, and Mind: A Study in the Philosophy of C.S. Peirce, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, IN.


  • Deledalle, G?rard (2000), C.S. Peirce's Philosophy of Signs, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN, 2000.
  • De Tienne, Andre, (2006), "Peirce's Logic of Information", Seminario del Grupo de Estudios Peirceanos, Universidad de Navarra, 28 Sep 2006. Eprint.
  • Dewey, John (1910), How We Think, D.C. Heath, Lexington, MA, 1910. Reprinted, Prometheus Books, Buffalo, NY, 1991.
  • Dewey, John (1938), Logic: The Theory of Inquiry, Henry Holt and Company, New York, NY, 1938. Reprinted, pp. 1–527 in John Dewey, The Later Works, 1925–1953, Volume 12: 1938, Jo Ann Boydston (ed.), Kathleen Poulos (text. ed.), Ernest Nagel (intro.), Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale and Edwardsville, IL, 1986.
  • Eisele, Carolyn (1979), Studies in the Scientific and Mathematical Philosophy of C.S. Peirce, Richard Milton Martin (ed.), Mouton, The Hague, 1979.
  • Esposito, Joseph (1980), Evolutionary Metaphysics, The Development of Peirce's Theory of Categories, Ohio University Press?, ?, 1980.
  • Fisch, Max (1986), Peirce, Semeiotic, and Pragmatism, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN, 1986.
  • Hintikka, Jakko (1980), "Peirce's First Real Discovery" The Monist, 63, 257-304.
  • Hookway, Christopher (1985), Peirce, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, UK, 1985.
  • van Heijenoort, Jean (1967), "Logic as Language and Logic as Calculus", Synthese, 17, 324-30.
  • Houser, Nathan (1989), "The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Peirce Papers", Fourth Congress of the International Association for Semiotic Studies, Perpignan, France, 1989. Published, pp. 1259–1268 in Signs of Humanity, vol. 3, Michel Balat and Janice Deledalle-Rhodes (eds.), G?rard Deledalle (gen. ed.), Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, Germany, 1992. Eprint
  • Houser, N., Roberts, D.D., and Van Evra, J. (eds., 1997), Studies in the Logic of Charles Sanders Peirce, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN, 1997.
  • Kauffman, Louis H. (2001), "The Mathematics of Charles Sanders Peirce", Cybernetics and Human Knowing 8, 79–110. PDF file.
  • Kirkham, Richard (1995), Theories of Truth, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
  • Lane, Robert (2004), "On Peirce's Early Realism", Transactions of the C.S. Peirce Society, 40, 575–605.
  • Liszka, J.J. (1996), A General Introduction to the Semeiotic of C.S. Peirce, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN.
  • Menand, Louis (2001), The Metaphysical Club, A Story of Ideas in America, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
  • Misak, Cheryl J. (1991), Truth and the End of Inquiry, A Peircean Account of Truth, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Misak, Cheryl J. (2004, ed.), Cambridge Companion to C.S. Peirce, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Moore, Edward, and Robin, Richard (1964), Studies in the Philosophy of C.S. Peirce, Second Series, University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, MA.
  • Murphey, Murray, (1961). The Development of Peirce's Thought. Reprinted, Hackett Publishing, Indianapolis, IN, 1993.


  • Parker, Kelly, A. (1998), The Continuity of Peirce's Thought, Vanderbilt University Press.
  • Percy, W. (2000), Signposts in a Strange Land, P. Samway (ed.), Saint Martin's Press, 271–91.
  • Putnam, H. (1982), "Peirce the Logician', Historia Mathematica 9, 290–301. Reprinted, pp. 252–260 in Hilary Putnam, Realism with a Human Face, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1982.
  • Roberts, Don D. (1973), The Existential Graphs of Charles S. Peirce, Mouton and Company, The Hague, Netherlands.
  • Robin, Richard S. (1967), Annotated Catalogue of the Papers of Charles S. Peirce, University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, MA. Eprint
  • Royce, J. and Kernan, W.F. (1916), "Charles Sanders Peirce", Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, and Scientific Method, 13, p. 701-09 (1916).Eprint
  • Skagestad, Peter (1981), The Road of Inquiry, Charles Peirce's Pragmatic Realism, Columbia University Press, New York, NY.
  • Walther, Elizabeth (1989),C.S. Peirce: Leben und Werk. Agis-Verlag, Baden-Baden, Germany.
  • Wiener, Philip, and Young, Frederick (eds., 1952), Studies in the Philosophy of C.S. Peirce, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
  • Wennerberg, Hjalmar (1962), The Pragmatism of C.S. Peirce, An Analytical Study, Gleerup, Lund, Sweden.


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