Somali Civil War

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Somali Civil War
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{{short description|Civil war taking place in Somalia}}{{Multiple issues|{{Merge|Somali Civil War (2006–2009)|date=April 2019}}{{Update|date=April 2018}}{{Merge|Somali Civil War (2009–present)|date=April 2019}}}}{{Use mdy dates|date=April 2018}}

) – present{{#tag:refCentral Bank of Somalia,BOARD OF DIRECTORSPUBLISHER=CENTRAL BANK OF SOMALIAARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150518100113/HTTP://WWW.CENTRALBANK.GOV.SO/BOARD.HTMLURL-STATUS=LIVEUnited Nations,UN SENIOR OFFICIAL CALLS FOR WIDESPREAD SUPPORT FOR SOMALI GOVERNMENT REFORM EFFORTSPUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONSARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20151004045621/HTTP://WWW.UN.ORG/NEWS/DH/PDF/ENGLISH/2013/09052013.PDFURL-STATUS=LIVEPUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONSARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170115105718/HTTP://WWW.UN.ORG/EN/PEACEKEEPING/MISSIONS/PAST/UNOSOM2BACKGR2.HTMLURL-STATUS=LIVEOffice of the Secretary of Defense,RICHARD B. CHENEY - GEORGE H.W. BUSH ADMINISTRATIONPUBLISHER=US OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSEARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150518075418/HTTP://HISTORY.DEFENSE.GOV/MULTIMEDIA/BIOGRAPHIES/ARTICLEVIEW/TABID/8347/ARTICLE/571284/RICHARD-B-CHENEY.ASPXURL-STATUS=LIVESiad Barre administration. Political scientist James Fearon argues that the start of the conflict could be dated to 1981, when armed Isaaq clan militias began to launch small-scale attacks against the Barre regime and its Isaaq members, to the razing of the Isaaq majority town of Hargeisa in 1988 by state forces, or to 1991, following the collapse of the Barre administration and the commencement of interclan warfare. For analytical purposes, he settles on 1991 for the start date of a new civil war, on the grounds that the fighting had begun previously, but that a major party to the conflict was defeated.WHY DO SOME CIVIL WARS LAST SO MUCH LONGER THAN OTHERS?LAST=FEARONVOLUME=41YEAR=2004DOI=10.1177/0022343304043770YEAR=2016JOURNAL=DEFENSE & SECURITY ANALYSISISSUE=3DOI=10.1080/14751798.2016.1199122, name="Startdate"}}| place = Somalia| partof = the conflicts in the Horn of Africa and the War on TerrorOngoing armed conflicts>Ongoing conflict {{flagicon|Somalia}} Somali Democratic Republic (until 1991) Allied rebel groups:
  • SNF (after 1991)| combatant1a = 1992–95:
{{Flag|United Nations}} {{flagicon|Somalia}} Transitional Federal Government{{flag|Ethiopia}}{{flagicon image|Flag of the Organization of African Unity (1970-2002).jpg}} AMISOMAllied armed groups:
  • {{flagicon|Somalia}} ARPCT
  • {{flagicon image|Flag of Ahlu Sunnah Waljamaca.svg}} Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a| combatant1c = 2009–present:
{{flagicon|Somalia}} Federal Government of Somalia{{flagicon image|Flag of the Organization of African Unity (1970-2002).jpg}} AMISOMSupported by:{{flag|United States}}NEWS, Al-Shabaab leader's fate unclear after suspected U.S. drone strike,weblink CNN, September 2, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink June 30, 2015, live, mdy-all, WEB, U.S. drone strike in Somalia targets al-Shabab leader,weblink The Washington Post, September 12, 2017,weblink October 19, 2017, live, mdy-all, | combatant2 = 1986–91:Armed rebel groups:
  • {{flagicon|Puntland|old}} SSDF
  • {{flagicon|Somaliland|1991}} SNM
  • 20px SPM
  • USC| combatant2a = 1992–93:
United Somali Congress| combatant2b = 2006–09:{{flagicon image|Flag of the Islamic Courts Union.svg}} Islamic Courts Union{{flagicon image|Flag_of_the_Oromo_Liberation_Front.svg}} Oromo Liberation FrontKenya: Seven Oromo Liberation Front Fighters Held in Garissa (Daily Nation), January 6, 2007{{flagicon image|Flag_of_the_Islamic_Courts_Union.svg}} Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia{{flagicon image|}} Al-Shabaab{{flagicon image|Flag of Jihad.svg}} Ras Kamboni Brigades (from 2007){{flagicon image|Flag of Jihad.svg}} Jabhatul Islamiya (from 2007){{flagicon image|Flag of Jihad.svg}} Muaskar Anole (from 2007)| combatant2c = 2009–present:{{flagicon image|Flag of Jihad.svg}} Al-Qaeda {{flagicon image|AQMI_Flag_asymmetric.svg}} ISIL (from 2015)NEWS,weblink ISIL's First East African Affiliate Conducts Attacks in Somalia, Kenya, December 29, 2015, DefenseNews, NEWS, Somalia: Pro-ISIL militants, Al Shabaab clash in deadly Puntland infighting,weblink December 24, 2015, Garowe Online, January 28, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink January 26, 2016, live, mdy-all, Casualties:300,000 (SFG)–500,000+ (AFP)HTTP://NECROMETRICS.COM/20C300K.HTM#SOMALIAPUBLISHER=USERS.EROLS.COMARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20110426033843/HTTP://NECROMETRICS.COM/20C300K.HTM#SOMALIAURL-STATUS=LIVEUCDP datasets {{webarchive>url= non-state conflict {{Webarchive>url= Displaced:1.1 million+HTTP://WWW.CNN.COM/2016/06/20/WORLD/UNHCR-DISPLACED-PEOPLES-REPORT/INDEX.HTMLACCESS-DATE=JANUARY 24, 2018ARCHIVE-DATE=JANUARY 20, 2018DF=MDY-ALL, | campaignbox = {{Campaignbox Horn of Africa}}}}The Somali Civil War (, ) is an ongoing civil war taking place in Somalia. It grew out of resistance to the military junta led by Siad Barre during the 1980s. By 1988–90, the Somali Armed Forces began engaging various armed rebel groups,Ken Menkhaus, 'Local Security Systems in Somali East Africa,' in Andersen/Moller/Stepputat (eds.) , Fragile States and Insecure People,' Palgrave, 2007, 73. {{webarchive |url= |date=February 22, 2014 }} including the Somali Salvation Democratic Front in the northeast,BOOK, Legum, Colin, Africa Contemporary Record: Annual Survey and Documents, Volume 20, 1989, Africa Research Limited, B-394,weblink November 12, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink January 25, 2015, live, mdy-all, the Somali National Movement in the northwest, and the United Somali Congress in the south.BOOK, Bongartz, Maria, The civil war in Somalia: its genesis and dynamics, 1991, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 24,weblink November 12, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink January 25, 2015, live, mdy-all, The clan-based armed opposition groups eventually managed to overthrow the Barre government in 1991.WEB, Central Intelligence Agency, Somalia, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, Langley, Virginia, 2011,weblink October 5, 2011,weblink June 10, 2009, live, mdy-all, Various armed factions began competing for influence in the power vacuum and turmoil that followed, particularly in the south.WEB, Central Intelligence Agency, Somalia - Government - Judicial branch, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, Langley, Virginia, 2011,weblink 2 May 2015,weblink May 19, 2015, live, mdy-all, In 1990–92 customary law temporarily collapsed due to the fighting.Ken Menkhaus, "Local Security Systems in Somali East Africa," Fragile States and Insecure People, 2007, 73. This precipitated the arrival of UNOSOM I UN military observers in July 1992, followed by larger peacekeeping forces. Factional fighting continued in the south. In the absence of a central government, Somalia became a "failed state".WEB, Jamal, Ahmad Rashid, Identifying Causes of State failure: The Case of Somalia,weblink Universität Konstanz Politik- und Verwaltungswissenschaften, 22 May 2015,weblink" title="">weblink May 22, 2015, dead, mdy-all, ; NEWS,weblink Somalia: A failed state is back from the dead, The Independent, James, Fergusson, 13 January 2013, 18 May 2015,weblink" title="">weblink September 8, 2017, live, mdy-all, ; NEWS,weblink The Most Failed State, The New Yorker, Jon Lee, Anderson, 14 December 2009, 18 May 2015,weblink" title="">weblink March 28, 2015, live, mdy-all, The UN withdrew in 1995, having incurred significant casualties, but no central authority had yet been reestablished. After the collapse of the central government, there was some return to customary and religious law in most regions.WEB, Central Intelligence Agency, Somalia - Government - Judicial branch, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, Langley, Virginia, 2003,weblink 18 May 2015,weblink March 4, 2016, live, mdy-all, In 1991 and 1998, two autonomous regional governments were also established in the northern part of the country. This led to a relative decrease in the intensity of the fighting, with SIPRI removing Somalia from its list of major armed conflicts for the years 1997 and 1998.In 2007, Menkhaus wrote that '..armed conflict in Somalia has generally subsided since the early 1990s. Armed clashes continue to break out, but are nowhere near the scale and intensity of the fighting that destroyed Hargeisa in 1988–89 or Mogadishu in 1991–92. Menkhaus, FSIP, 2007, 75.In 2000, the Transitional National Government was established, followed by the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) in 2004. The trend towards reduced conflict halted in 2005, and sustained and destructive conflict took place in the south in 2005–07.Menkhaus 2007, op. cit., 76. However, the fighting was of a much lower scale and intensity than in the early 1990s. In 2006, Ethiopian troops seized most of the south from the newly formed Islamic Courts Union (ICU). The ICU then splintered into more radical groups, notably Al-Shabaab, which have since been fighting the Somali government and the AU-mandated AMISOM peacekeeping force for control of the country. Somalia topped the annual Fragile States Index for six years between 2008 and 2013.NEWS,weblink Failed States Index 2014: Somalia Displaced as Most-Fragile State, J.J., Messner, The Fund for Peace, 24 June 2014, 18 May 2015,weblink" title="">weblink May 4, 2015, dead, mdy-all, In October 2011, following preparatory meetings, Kenyan troops entered southern Somalia ("Operation Linda Nchi") to fight Al-Shabaab,NEWS, Kenya launches offensive in Somalia,weblink 2 May 2015, Reuters, 16 October 2011,weblink" title="">weblink December 18, 2014, live, mdy-all, and to establish a buffer zone inside Somalia.United Nations Security Council, Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea pursuant to Security Council Resolution 2002 (2011), S/2012/544, p.226 Kenyan troops were formally integrated into the multinational force in February 2012.WEB, Kenya – KDF,weblink AMIS, 5 May 2015,weblink" title="">weblink April 2, 2013, live, mdy-all, The Federal Government of Somalia was later established in August 2012, constituting the first permanent central government in the country since the start of the civil war.WEB, Communiqué on Secretary-General's Mini-Summit on Somalia,weblink United Nations, 18 May 2015,weblink" title="">weblink October 19, 2013, live, mdy-all, International stakeholders and analysts have subsequently begun to describe Somalia as a "fragile state", which is making some progress towards stability.NEWS,weblink New Approaches Are Needed for State-Building in Somalia, Dominik, Balthasar, Fair Observer, 19 November 2014, 26 June 2015,weblink" title="">weblink June 26, 2015, live, mdy-all, NEWS,weblink Failed States Index 2013: What Were You Expecting?, J. J., Messner, The Fund for Peace, 24 June 2013, 26 June 2015,weblink" title="">weblink June 26, 2015, dead, mdy-all, WEB, The European Union announces more than €124 million to increase security in Somalia,weblink European Commissioner, 22 May 2015,weblink" title="">weblink May 24, 2015, live, mdy-all, WEB, Kay, Nicholas, Somalia's Year of Delivery,weblink Goobjoog, 22 May 2015,weblink" title="">weblink April 2, 2015, live, mdy-all,

Fall of Barre government (1986–91)

{{further|Isaaq genocide}}File:Siabar 003.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Major General Mohamed Siad Barre, Chairman of the Supreme Revolutionary Council and President of SomaliaPresident of SomaliaIn May 1986, Mohamed Siad Barre suffered serious injuries in a car crash near Mogadishu, when the car that was transporting him smashed into the back of a bus during a heavy rainstorm.World of Information (Firm), Africa review, (World of Information: 1987), p.213. He was treated in a hospital in Saudi Arabia for head injuries, broken ribs and shock over a period of a month.Arthur S. Banks, Thomas C. Muller, William Overstreet, Political Handbook of the World 2008, (CQ Press: 2008), p.1198.National Academy of Sciences (U.S.). Committee on Human Rights, Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Health and Human Rights, Scientists and human rights in Somalia: report of a delegation, (National Academies: 1988), p.9. Lieutenant General Mohamed Ali Samatar, then Vice President, subsequently served as de facto head of state for the next several months. Although Barre managed to recover enough to present himself as the sole presidential candidate for re-election over a term of seven years on December 23, 1986, his poor health and advanced age led to speculation about who would succeed him in power. Possible contenders included his son-in-law General Ahmed Suleiman Abdille, who was at the time the Minister of the Interior, in addition to Samatar.In an effort to hold on to power, Barre's ruling Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) became increasingly totalitarian and arbitrary. This caused opposition to his government to grow. Barre in turn tried to quell the unrest by abandoning appeals to nationalism, relying more and more on his own inner circle, and exploiting historical clan animosities. By the mid-1980s, more resistance movements supported by Ethiopia's communist Derg administration had sprung up across the country. Barre responded by ordering punitive measures against those he perceived as locally supporting the guerrillas, especially in the northern regions. The clampdown included bombing of cities, with the northwestern administrative center of Hargeisa, a Somali National Movement (SNM) stronghold, among the targeted areas in 1988.WEB, Somalia â€” Government,weblink Library of Congress, February 15, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink July 4, 2014, live, mdy-all, In 1990, as fighting intensified, Somalia's first President Aden Abdullah Osman Daar and about 100 other Somali politicians signed a manifesto advocating reconciliation.NEWS, Bloomfield, Steve, Aden Abdulle Osman â€” First President of Somalia,weblink December 21, 2013, The Independent, June 11, 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 21, 2013, mdy-all, A number of the signatories were subsequently arrested.BOOK, Horn of Africa Bulletin, Volumes 3–4, 1991, Life & Peace Institute, 14,weblink November 12, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink May 19, 2014, live, mdy-all, Barre's heavy-handed tactics further strengthened the appeal of the various rebel movements, although these groups' only common goal was the overthrow of his government. It also played a major role in developing piracy in Somalia.

United Somali Congress topples Barre

File:Abandoned Somali tanks.JPEG|thumb|Three knocked-out Somali National Army (SNA) M47 PattonM47 PattonBy mid 1990, United Somali Congress (USC) rebels had captured most towns and villages surrounding Mogadishu, which prompted some to give Barre the ironic title 'Mayor of Mogadishu.'BOOK, Somalia: Personal Rule, Military Rule and Militarism (in) Hutchful and Bathily, The Military and Militarism in Africa, Adam, Hussein, Council for the Development of Economic and Social Research in Africa (CODESRIA), 1998, 978-2-86978-069-9, Dakar, 389, In December the USC entered Mogadishu. Four weeks of battle between Barre's remaining troops and the USC ensued, over the course of which the USC brought more forces into the city. By January 1991, USC rebels had managed to defeat the Red Berets, in the process toppling Barre's government. The remainder of the government's forces then finally collapsed. Some became irregular regional forces and clan militias.Nina J. Fitzgerald, Somalia: issues, history, and bibliography, (Nova Publishers: 2002), p.19. After the USC's victory over Barre's troops, the other rebel groups declined to cooperate with it, as each instead drew primary support from their own constituencies. Among these other opposition movements were the Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM) and Somali Democratic Alliance (SDA), a Gadabuursi group which had been formed in the northwest to counter the Somali National Movement Isaaq militia.BOOK, Ciisa-Salwe, Cabdisalaam M., The collapse of the Somali state: the impact of the colonial legacy, 1996, HAAN Publishing, 978-1874209911, 104,weblink November 12, 2016,weblink" title="">weblink April 15, 2015, live, mdy-all, For its part, the SNM initially refused to accept the legitimacy of the provisional government that the USC had established. However, the SNM's former leader Ahmed Mohamed Silanyo later proposed a power-sharing framework in March 1991 between the SNM and USC under a new transitional government.WEB, Silanyo, Ahmed M., A Proposal to the Somali National Movement: On a Framework for a Transitional Government in Somalia,weblink Wardheernews, February 15, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 11, 2012, Many of the opposition groups subsequently began competing for influence in the power vacuum that followed the ouster of Barre's government. In the south, armed factions led by USC commanders General Mohamed Farah Aidid and Ali Mahdi Mohamed, in particular, clashed as each sought to exert authority over the capital.Library Information and Research Service, The Middle East: Abstracts and index, Volume 2, (Library Information and Research Service: 1999), p.327. In the northwest, at the Burao conference of April–May 1991, SNM secessionists proclaimed independence for the region under the name Somaliland.Interpeace, 'The search for peace: A history of mediation in Somalia since 1988,' Interpeace, May 2009, 13–14. {{webarchive |url= |date=February 22, 2014 }} They concurrently selected the SNM's leader Abdirahman Ahmed Ali Tuur as president.BOOK, Battle Ready:Study in Command Commander Series, Tom, Clancy, Tom Clancy, Tony Zinni, Tony Koltz, 234–236, Penguin, 2005, 978-0-425-19892-6, registration,weblink In 1992, after four months of heavy fighting for control of Mogadishu, a ceasefire was agreed between Ali Mahdi Mohamed and Mohamed Farah Aideed. Neither leader had seized control of the capital, and as a result, a 'greenline' was established between north and south that divided their areas of control.Mohamed Ahmed Jama, “Securing Mogadishu: Neighbourhood Watches,” in Whose Peace is it anyway? Connecting Somali and International Peacemaking Approaches, Accord 21, Conciliation Resources, 2010, 66.

United Nations intervention (1992–95)

UN Security Council Resolution 733 and UN Security Council Resolution 746 led to the creation of the United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I), to provide humanitarian relief and help restore order in Somalia after the dissolution of its central government.File:Port of Mogadishu Checkpoint.jpg|thumb|right|An American soldier at the main entrance to the Port of MogadishuMogadishuUnited Nations Security Council Resolution 794 was unanimously passed on December 3, 1992, which approved a coalition of United Nations peacekeepers led by the United States. Forming the Unified Task Force (UNITAF), the alliance was tasked with assuring security until humanitarian efforts aimed at stabilizing the situation were transferred to the UN. Landing in 1993, the UN peacekeeping coalition started the two-year United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) primarily in the south.Ken Rutherford, Humanitarianism Under Fire: The US and UN Intervention in Somalia, Kumarian Press, July 2008 {{ISBN|1-56549-260-9}} UNITAF's original mandate was to use "all necessary means" to guarantee the delivery of humanitarian aid in accordance to Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter.WEB,weblink United Nations Operation In Somalia I â€“ (Unosom I), United Nations, January 29, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink April 8, 2011, live, mdy-all, During negotiations from 1993 to 1995, Somali principals had some success in reconciliation and establishment of public authorities. Among these initiatives was the Mudug peace agreement of June 1993 between Aidid's forces and the SSDF, which established a ceasefire between the Haber Gedir and the Majeerteen clans, opened the trade routes, and formalized the withdrawal of militants from Galkayo; the UNOSOM-mediated Hirab reconciliation of January 1994 in Mogadishu between elders of the rival Abgal and Haber Gedir clans, which was backed by politicians from these constituencies and concluded with a pact to end hostilities, dismantle the green line partitioning the city, and remove road blocks; the UNOSOM-mediated Kismayo initiative of 1994 between the SNA, SPM, SSDF, and representatives of nineteen clans from the southern Lower Juba and Middle Juba regions;For further details on UNOSOM-sponsored local-level community-based reconciliation conferences, see Menkhaus, 'International Peacebuilding and the Dynamics of Local and National Reconciliation in Somalia,' International Peacekeeping, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 1996, 52. the 1994 Bardhere conference between the Marehan and Rahanweyn (Digil and Mirifle), which resolved conflicts over local resources; and the short-lived Digil-Mirifle Governing Council for the southern Bay and Bakool regions, which was established in March 1995.Some of the militias that were then competing for power saw UNOSOM's presence as a threat to their hegemony. Consequently, gun battles took place in Mogadishu between local gunmen and peacekeepers. Among these was the Battle of Mogadishu in October 1993, an unsuccessful attempt by U.S. troops to apprehend faction leader Aidid. UN soldiers eventually withdrew altogether from the country on March 3, 1995, having incurred more significant casualties.See also Report of the Secretary-General on Somalia, S/1995/231 (March 28, 1995).

USC/SSA (1995–2000)

File:Cqaasim.jpg|thumb|right|President of the Transitional National Government, Abdiqasim Salad HassanAbdiqasim Salad HassanAccording to Interpeace, after UNOSOM's departure in March 1995, military clashes between local factions became shorter, generally less intense, and more localized. This was in part due to the large-scale UN military intervention that had helped to curb the intense fighting between the major factions, who then began to focus on consolidating gains that they had made. The local peace and reconciliation initiatives that had been undertaken in the south-central part of the country between 1993 and 1995 also generally had a positive impact.Aidid subsequently declared himself President of Somalia on June 15, 1995.WEB, Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Somalia (S/1996/42),weblink January 19, 1996, February 14, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink February 22, 2014, live, mdy-all, , page 2, paragraph 7. However, his declaration received no recognition, as his rival Ali Mahdi Muhammad had already been elected interim President at a conference in Djibouti and recognized as such by the international community.Djibouti Conference {{Webarchive|url= |date=March 16, 2012 }}.Consequently, Aidid's faction continued its quest for hegemony in the south. In September 1995, militia forces loyal to him attacked and occupied the city of Baidoa.NEWS, Associated Press, Aidid troops kill Somalis, capture city,weblink May 16, 2013, The Register-Guard, September 19, 1995,weblink September 11, 2015, live, mdy-all, Aidid's forces remained in control of Baidoa from September 1995 to at least January 1996, while the local Rahanweyn Resistance Army militia continued to engage his forces in the town's environs.S/1996/42, 26, 27, 28, 29Fighting continued in the later half of 1995 in southern Kismayo and the Juba Valley, as well as southwestern and central Somalia. However, despite these pockets of conflict, the Gedo and Middle Shabelle regions, in addition to both the northeastern and northwestern parts of the country remained relatively peaceful. A number of the regional and district administrations that had been locally established in the preceding few years continued to operate in these areas.File:Shatigd.jpg|thumb|left|Hasan Muhammad Nur Shatigadud, leader of the Rahanweyn Resistance ArmyRahanweyn Resistance ArmyIn March 1996, Ali Mahdi was elected chairman of the United Somali Congress/Somali Salvation Alliance (USC/SSA), based in northern Mogadishu. In the southern part of city, Aidid's forces battled those of Osman Atto for control of the port of Merca as well as strategic areas in Mogadishu. Fighting in Merca eventually ended after elders intervened, but continued in Mogadishu. In August 1996, Aidid died from wounds incurred during combat in the Medina area.Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Somalia, S/1997/135, February 17, 1997, paragraphs 6,7, and 9. For later occurrences 1997 to 2000, see S/1997/715, S/1999/882, and S/2000/1211 (December 19, 2000).In 1998, a homegrown constitutional conference was held in the northeastern town of Garowe over a period of three months. Attended by the area's political elite, traditional elders (Issims), members of the business community, intellectuals and other civil society representatives, the autonomous Puntland State of Somalia was subsequently officially established so as to deliver services to the population, offer security, facilitate trade, and interact with both domestic and international partners.Somalia: Puntland's Experience in Peace-building and State-building {{dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}In 1999, Eritrea was alleged to be supporting Somali National Alliance forces led by the late Aidid's son Hussein Farrah Aidid. Aidid Jr. denied the claims, saying that the Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi had requested that he mediate between Ethiopia and Eritrea in their separate conflict.WEB, Somalia: IRIN interview with Hussein Aideed, 5/4/99,weblink IRIN, 19 April 2014,weblink" title="">weblink March 4, 2016, live, mdy-all, However the International Institute for Strategic Studies separately reported that Hussein Aideed himself had acknowledged support from both Eritrea and Uganda.Strategic Survey 1999-2000, 264. Aideed's forces occupied Baidoa in May 1999. However they were driven out by the Rahanweyn Resistance Army in June 1999, backed by an Ethiopian force of up to 3,000 using tanks and artillery. The IISS said that the attack was part of a strategy to prevent Eritrea opening up a new front. By the end of the year, the Rahanweyn Resistance Army had taken control of the southern Bay and Bakool provinces. The RRA's leader Hasan Muhammad Nur Shatigadud subsequently established the Southwestern State of Somalia regional administration.In 2000, Ali Mahdi participated in another conference in Djibouti. He lost a re-election bid there to Barre's former Interior Minister Abdiqasim Salad Hassan.WEB, August 2000 – Somalia,weblink Rulers, October 6, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink October 29, 2013, live, mdy-all,

TFG, Islamic Courts Union, and Ethiopia (2006–09)

{{further|Advance of the Islamic Courts Union|War in Somalia (2006–09)|Transitional Federal Government|ARPCT|Islamic Courts Union}}File:Somalian10ef5-1.jpg|thumb|right|Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, one of the founders of the Transitional Federal GovernmentTransitional Federal GovernmentIn 2000, the Transitional National Government (TNG) was established. The Transitional Federal Government (TFG) was formed in Nairobi in 2004. Selection of members of parliament was underway by June, over two hundred members of parliament (MPs) took the oath of office in August, and Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed was elected president by the parliament in October 2004.Interpeace, 'The search for peace: A history of mediation in Somalia since 1988,' Interpeace, May 2009, 59-60However, in March 2005 the TFG split after a brawl in parliament over deployment of peacekeepers and relocation to an interim capital. The parliamentary speaker led some members to Mogadishu while the president and others remained in Nairobi. In June 2005, under pressure from Kenya, the remainder of the TFG left Nairobi for Jowhar.Interpeace, May 2009, 60-61. In February 2006, the TFG parliament met in Baidoa for the first time since March 2005. (Interpeace, 104) A battle for Mogadishu followed in the first half of 2006 in which the ARPCT, a coalition of U.S.-backed militia leaders, confronted the ascendant Islamic Courts Union (ICU). However, the ICU won a decisive victory in June of that year.WEB,weblink Ethiopian Invasion of Somalia,, 2007-08-14, 2010-06-27,weblink" title="">weblink September 10, 2009, live, mdy-all, It then rapidly expanded and consolidated its power throughout southern Somalia. By August 2006, the TFG was confined to Baidoa under Ethiopian protection. (Interpeace, 104) Hardline Islamists subsequently gained power within the ICU, prompting fears of a Talibanization of the movement.Ken Menkhaus, "Local Security Systems in Somali East Africa {{webarchive|url= |date=February 22, 2014 }}", in Andersen/Moller/Stepputat (eds.), Fragile States and Insecure People, Palgrave, 2007, 67.In December 2006, Ethiopian troops entered Somalia to assist the TFG against the advancing Islamic Courts Union, initially winning the Battle of Baidoa. With their support, Somali government forces recaptured the capital from the ICU.WEB,weblink Profile: Somali's newly resigned President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed,, 29 December 2008, 5 September 2013,weblink" title="">weblink November 15, 2013, live, mdy-all, The offensive helped the TFG solidify its rule. On January 8, 2007, as the Battle of Ras Kamboni raged, TFG President and founder Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed entered Mogadishu for the first time since being elected to office. But as Meckhaus writes, the TFG was seen "by most of the Mogadishu population as a puppet of Ethiopia, and uncontrolled TFG security forces became the principal sources of insecurity for the local population, engaging in kidnapping, assaults, and worse."Ken Menkhaus, 'Somalia: What went wrong?' The RUSI Journal, Vol. 154, No. 4, August 2009, 8. Menkhaus says in addition: '[f]or details, see Human Rights Watch, 'Shell-shocked: Civilians under siege in Mogadishu,' {{Webarchive|url= |date=September 17, 2014 }} August 13, 2007, and HRW, 'So Much to Fear: War Crimes and the Devastation of Somalia,' December 2008.' Within weeks, an armed insurgency subsequently arose in the capital against the TFG and its Ethiopian allies.Menkhaus, ibid. The government then relocated to the capital from its interim location in Baidoa. The arms embargo on Somalia was amended in February 2007 to allow states to supply weapons to the TFG's security forces, provided that they received prior approval from the UN's Somalia Sanctions Committee. After long discussions, the African Union approved the initial deployment of the African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM) in March 2007. It established a "small triangle of protection" around Mogadishu's airport, seaport, and the Villa Somalia, and began to adopt a low-key negotiating profile with key actors.Interpeace, May 2009, 61. In November 2008, following repeated violations of the weapons blockade, the Security Council decided that an arms embargo could be imposed on entities involved in such breaches.After a two-year consultation process, the TFG was formed in 2004 by Somali politicians in Nairobi under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD). The process also led to the establishment of the Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs), and concluded in October 2004 with the election of Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed as president.WEB, Background and Political Developments,weblink AMISOM, February 11, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 21, 2011, The TFG thereafter became Somalia's internationally recognized government.WEB, Wezeman, Pieter D., Arms flows and conflict in Somalia,weblink SIPRI, February 10, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 2, 2013, mdy-all, File:Political situation in Somalia following the Ethiopian withdrawal.png|thumb|right|Political situation in Somalia following the Ethiopian military withdrawal, February 3, 2009]]Following their defeat, the Islamic Courts Union splintered into several different factions. Some of the more radical{{According to whom|date=October 2016}} elements, including Al-Shabaab, regrouped to continue their insurgency against the TFG and oppose the Ethiopian military's presence in Somalia. Throughout 2007 and 2008, Al-Shabaab scored military victories, seizing control of key towns and ports in both central and southern Somalia. At the end of 2008, the group had captured Baidoa but not Mogadishu. On May 1, 2008, the U.S. made an airstrike on Dhusamareb, and followed on 3 May with another airstrike on the border town of Dobley. According to the International Crisis Group, Ethiopia's leaders were surprised by the insurgency's persistence and strength and frustrated at the TFG's chronic internal problems.International Crisis Group, Somalia: To Move Beyond the Failed State, Africa Report N°147 â€“ December 23, 2008, 25. By January 2009, Al-Shabaab and other militias had forced the Ethiopian troops to retreat, leaving behind an understaffed African Union peacekeeping force.WEB, USCIRF Annual Report 2009 – The Commission's Watch List: Somalia,weblink USCIRF, February 15, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink February 22, 2014, live, mdy-all, Due to a lack of funding and human resources, an arms embargo that made it difficult to re-establish a national security force, and general indifference on the part of the international community,{{Citation needed|date=October 2016}} President Yusuf found himself obliged to deploy thousands of troops from Puntland to Mogadishu to sustain the battle against insurgent elements in the southern part of the country. Financial support for this effort was provided by the autonomous region's government. This left little revenue for Puntland's own security forces and civil service employees, leaving the territory vulnerable to piracy and terrorist attacks.WEB,weblink Somalia: Guide to Puntland Election 2009,, December 25, 2008, June 12, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 14, 2011, WEB,weblink Opening Annual General Assembly Debate, Secretary-General Urges Member States to Press in Tackling Poverty, Terrorism, Human Rights Abuses, Conflicts,, June 12, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink May 11, 2011, live, mdy-all, On December 29, 2008, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed announced before a united parliament in Baidoa his resignation as President of Somalia. In his speech, which was broadcast on national radio, Yusuf expressed regret at failing to end the country's seventeen-year conflict as his government had mandated to do."Somalia's president quits office" {{Webarchive|url= |date=January 24, 2012 }}, BBC News, December 29, 2008. He also blamed the international community for its failure to support the government, and said that the speaker of parliament would succeed him in office per the charter of the Transitional Federal Government."Somali President Yusuf resigns" {{Webarchive|url= |date=December 31, 2008 }}, Reuters (, December 29, 2008.

Coalition government (2009–)

{{See also|Al-Shabaab (militant group)|Hizbul Islam|Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a|Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia}}File:ShababFlag.svg|thumb|right|The battle flag of Al-Shabaab, an Islamist group waging war against the federal government]]Between May 31 and June 9, 2008, representatives of Somalia's federal government and the moderate Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS) group of Islamist rebels participated in peace talks in Djibouti brokered by the former United Nations Special Envoy to Somalia, Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah. The conference ended with a signed agreement calling for the withdrawal of Ethiopian troops in exchange for the cessation of armed confrontation. Parliament was subsequently expanded to 550 seats to accommodate ARS members, which then elected Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, the former ARS chairman, to office. President Sharif shortly afterwards appointed Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, the son of slain former President Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, as the nation's new Prime Minister.With the help of AMISOM, the coalition government also began a counteroffensive in February 2009 to assume full control of the southern half of the country. To solidify its rule, the TFG formed an alliance with the Islamic Courts Union, other members of the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, and Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a, a moderate Sufi militia.WEB, Kamaal says:,weblink UN boss urges support for Somalia ahead of Istanbul summit,, May 22, 2010, June 27, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 19, 2010, Furthermore, Al-Shabaab and Hizbul Islam, the two main Islamist groups in opposition, began to fight amongst themselves in mid-2009.NEWS,weblink Islamists break Somali port truce, BBC News, October 21, 2009, June 27, 2010,weblink" title="">weblink October 26, 2009, live, mdy-all, As a truce, in March 2009, Somalia's coalition government announced that it would re-implement shari'a as the nation's official judicial system.Shariah in Somalia {{Webarchive|url= |date=September 22, 2012 }} â€“ Arab News However, conflict continued in the southern and central parts of the country. Within months, the coalition government had gone from holding about 70% of south-central Somalia's conflict zones, territory which it had inherited from the previous Yusuf administration, to losing control of over 80% of the disputed territory to the Islamist insurgents.WEB, Online, Garowe,weblink Somalia President, Parliament Speaker dispute over TFG term,, January 12, 2011, June 12, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 14, 2011, mdy-all,

From 2009 onwards

In November 2010, a new technocratic government was elected to office, which enacted numerous reforms. Among these, in its first 50 days in office, the new administration completed its first monthly payment of stipends to government soldiers.WEB,weblink Security Council Meeting on Somalia,, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 5, 2014, On August 6, 2011, Al-Shabaab was forced to withdraw from most areas of Mogadishu. Somali government forces and their AMISOM allies subsequently launched offensives in January 2012 on the insurgent group's last foothold on the northern outskirts of the city.WEB, Al-Shabaab Evicted from Mogadishu,weblink Somalia Report, February 14, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 22, 2014, mdy-all, An ideological rift within Al-Shabaab's leadership also emerged after the 2011 drought and the assassination of top officials in the organization.WEB, Chothia, Farouk,weblink Could Somali famine deal a fatal blow to al-Shabab?, BBC, August 9, 2011, June 22, 2018,weblink" title="">weblink April 10, 2018, live, mdy-all, In October 2011, following a weekend preparatory meeting between Somali and Kenyan military officials in the town of Dhobley,WEB,weblink Kenya launches offensive in Somalia, Reuters, October 16, 2011, National Post, February 15, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink December 18, 2014, live, mdy-all, Operation Linda Nchi, involving the Kenya Defence Forces and Somali Armed Forces, began against the Al-Shabaab group of insurgents in southern Somalia.WEB, Joint Communique â€“ Operation Linda Nchi,weblink Kenya High Commission, Tanzania, September 25, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink August 16, 2012, live, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Somalia government supports Kenyan forces' mission,, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 14, 2012, The cross-border incursion had reportedly taken nearly two years of planning, during which Kenyan officials had sought U.S. support.NEWS, Azikiwe, Abayomi, Leaked cables confirm U.S. role in Somalia war,weblink February 16, 2014, Pan-African News Wire, January 4, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink February 22, 2014, live, mdy-all, JOURNAL, Kenya at war: Al-Shabaab and its enemies in Eastern Africa, David, Anderson, Jacob, McKnight, African Affairs, 114, 454, 1–27, 2015, 10.1093/afraf/adu082, In early June 2012, Kenyan troops were formally integrated into AMISOM.NEWS, Kenya: Defense Minister appointed as acting Internal Security Minister,weblink June 20, 2012, Garowe Online, June 19, 2012, {{dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}In late September and early October 2012, Kenya Army AMISOM troops, and the allied Raskamboni militia captured the strategic town of Kismayo from Al-Shabaab. The southern city was a key source of revenue for the insurgent group and constituted its last major stronghold.NEWS, Chonghaile, Clar Ni, Kenyan troops launch beach assault on Somali city of Kismayo,weblink September 28, 2012, The Guardian, September 28, 2012,weblink" title="">weblink September 29, 2013, live, mdy-all, The Federal Government of Somalia was established in September 2012 (Bryden, Somalia Redux).In January 2013, AMISOM's mandate was extended for another year following the adoption of UNSC Resolution 2093. The Security Council therein also unanimously voted to suspend Somalia's arms embargo on light weapons for a one-year period. Additionally, the Security Council welcomed the Federal Government's development of a new national security strategy, urging the central authorities to accelerate the plan's implementation, further define the Somali national security forces' composition, and identify capability gaps to assist their international partners in better addressing them.WEB, United Nations Security Council Resolution 2093,weblink April 25, 2019,weblink April 10, 2019, live, mdy-all, S/RES/2093 (2013), March 6, 2013 While many urban areas had been seized, Al-Shabaab still controlled many rural areas, where a number of their operatives disappeared into local communities in order to more effectively exploit any mistakes by the central authorities.JOURNAL, Hammond, Laura, Somalia rising: things are starting to change for the world's longest failed state, Journal of Eastern African Studies, 2013, 7, 1, 183–193, 10.1080/17531055.2012.755316, In October 2013, the U.S. Africa Command began establishing the Mogadishu Coordinating Cell in the Somali capital, which became fully operational in late December.NEWS, U.S. military advisers deployed to Somalia to help African forces,weblink 17 February 2014, Reuters, 10 January 2014,weblink" title="">weblink September 24, 2015, live, mdy-all, The unit was formed at the request of the Somali government and AMISOM, who had approached U.S. Department of Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel in September about the possibility. It consists of a small team of fewer than five advisers, including planners and communicators between the Somali authorities and AMISOM. The cell is intended to provide consultative and planning support to the allied forces in order to enhance their capacity and to promote peace and security throughout the country and wider region.NEWS, Martinez, Luis, U.S. Military Advisers Deployed to Somalia: First Time Since Blackhawk Down,weblink January 12, 2014, ABC News, January 10, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink January 12, 2014, live, mdy-all, In November 2013, a senior Ethiopian government official announced that Ethiopia's troops deployed in Somalia would soon join AMISOM, having already forwarded a request to do so. At the time, an estimated 8,000 Ethiopian soldiers were stationed in the country.NEWS, Tekle, Tesfa-Alem, Somalia: Ethiopia Decides to Join Amisom Force in Somalia,weblink January 12, 2014, Sudan Tribune, November 12, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink January 13, 2014, live, mdy-all, The Somali Foreign Ministry welcomed the decision, asserting that the move would galvanize AMISOM's campaign against Al-Shabaab.NEWS, Ali, Hassan, Somali government welcomes Ethiopia AMISOM integration,weblink February 16, 2014, Dalsan Radio, November 12, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink December 2, 2013, Following the adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 2124, which authorized the deployment of 4,000 additional troops to augment AMISOM's 22,126 strong force, Ethiopian troops formally joined the mission in January 2014.NEWS, Comment on Ethiopian troops formally join AMISOM peacekeepers in Somalia,weblink February 16, 2014, Foreign Affairs, February 14, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 21, 2014, They are mandated to work alongside the Somali National Army, with responsibility for the allied forces' operations in the southern Gedo, Bakool and Bay regions. The Ethiopian troops represent AMISOM's sixth contingent after the Djibouti, Burundi, Sierra Leone, Kenya and Uganda units.WEB, Ethiopian Forces formally integrated into AMISOM,weblink AMISOM, February 14, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink March 30, 2014, live, mdy-all, In January 2014, at an African Union Summit in Addis Ababa, President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud requested an extension of the UN Security Council's weapons purchasing mandate for Somalia after its March expiration. He indicated that the Somali defence forces required better military equipment and arms to more effectively combat militants.NEWS, Mohamud wants UN to extend weapons purchasing mandate,weblink 17 February 2014, Sabahi, 31 January 2014,weblink" title="">weblink February 21, 2014, live, mdy-all, The following month, the UN Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group reported that systematic abuses by officials within the Somali government had allowed weapons to be diverted away from Somalia's security forces and into the hands of faction leaders and Al-Shabaab militants. The panel had observed various issues and concerns surrounding the management of weapons and ammunition stockpiles, including difficulties by monitors in accessing local weapons stockpiles and in obtaining information about the arms. The monitors also suggested that one key adviser to the president was involved in planning arms deliveries to Al-Shabaab and that shipments of weapons from Djibouti and Uganda could not be accounted for.NEWS, Somalia diverting arms to al-Shabab, UN report claims,weblink February 17, 2014, BBC News, February 14, 2014,weblink" title="">weblink February 16, 2014, live, mdy-all, Somali Chief of Army Dahir Adan Elmi made a pro forma denial of the allegations.NEWS, Somali Government official denies U.N arms diversion allegations,weblink 17 February 2014, Horseed Media, 15 February 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 16, 2014, He also indicated that a UN monitoring team had twice visited the government's weapons and ammunition storage facilities in Mogadishu,NEWS, Federal government of Somalia denies the report issued by UN monitoring group,weblink 17 February 2014, Goobjoog, 15 February 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 22, 2014, mdy-all, where it was shown the arms stockpiles for inspection and had reportedly expressed satisfaction. Elmi stated that the government had twice purchased weapons since the arms embargo on Somalia was partially lifted. Elmi also asserted that Al-Shabaab already possessed an adequate supply of weapons and mainly utilized explosive devices and sophisticated bombs.NEWS, SOMALIA: Military chief says UN Monitoring Group wants Al Shabab to become an endless project,weblink 18 February 2014, Raxanreeb, 17 February 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 22, 2014, mdy-all, (File:Somalia map states regions districts.svg|thumb|Political situation in Somalia in July 2017)In February 2014, a delegation led by Prime Minister of Somalia Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed met in Addis Ababa with Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn to discuss strengthening relations between the two countries. Ahmed commended Ethiopia's role in the ongoing peace and stabilization process in Somalia as well as its support against Al-Shabaab, and welcomed the Ethiopian military's decision to join AMISOM. Hailemariam Desalegn in turn pledged his administration's continued support for the peace and stabilization efforts in Somalia, as well as its preparedness to assist in initiatives aiming to build up the Somali security forces through experience-sharing and training. The meeting concluded with a tripartite Memorandum of Understanding agreeing to promote partnership and cooperation, including a cooperative agreement to develop the police force.WEB, Ethiopia: The Prime Minister of Somalia On a Visit to Ethiopia,weblink Government of Ethiopia, 17 February 2014,weblink" title="">weblink February 22, 2014, live, mdy-all, On 5 March 2014, the UN Security Council unanimously voted to extend the partial easing of the arms embargo on Somalia until 25 October of the year.NEWS, UN Security Council Extends Arms Embargo lift on Somalia to eight months,weblink 6 March 2014, Horseed Media, 6 March 2014,weblink January 13, 2016, live, mdy-all, The resolution permits the Somali government to purchase light weapons, with the stipulation that all member states must take steps to prevent the direct or indirect supply, transfer or sale of arms and military equipment to individuals or entities outside of the Somali security forces.NEWS, Charbonneau, Louis, U.N. extends partial easing of Somalia arms embargo to October,weblink 6 March 2014, Reuters, 6 March 2014,weblink" title="">weblink September 24, 2015, live, mdy-all, The Somali government is also required to routinely report on the structural status of the military, as well as provide information on the extant infrastructure and protocols designed to ensure the military equipment's safe delivery, storage and maintenance.In early March 2014, AMISOM, supported by Somali militias, launched another operation to remove Al-Shabaab from its remaining areas of control in southern Somalia.NEWS, Somalia: Federal Govt, AMISOM troops clash with Al Shabaab,weblink 11 March 2014, Garowe Online, 11 March 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 11, 2014, According to Prime Minister Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed, the government subsequently launched stabilization efforts in the newly liberated areas, which included Rab Dhuure, Hudur, Wajid and Burdhubo. The Ministry of Defense was providing ongoing reassurance and security to the local residents, and supplying logistical and security support. Additionally, the Ministry of Interior was prepared to support and put into place programs to assist local administration and security. A Deputy Minister and several religious scholars were also dispatched to all four towns to coordinate and supervise the federal government's stabilization initiatives.NEWS, SOMALIA: PM hosts meeting with International Community diplomats on stabilisation efforts,weblink 12 March 2014, Raxanreeb, 12 March 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 12, 2014, mdy-all, By March 26, the allied forces had liberated ten towns within the month, including Qoryoley and El Buur.NEWS, SOMALIA: The capture of Qoryooley is critical for the operations to liberate Barawe, Amisom head says,weblink 23 March 2014, Raxanreeb, 22 March 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 22, 2014, mdy-all, NEWS, SOMALIA: Elbur town falls for Somali Army and Amisom,weblink 26 March 2014, Raxanreeb, 26 March 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 26, 2014, mdy-all, UN Special Representative for Somalia Nicholas Kay described the military advance as the most significant and geographically extensive offensive since AU troops began operations in 2007.NEWS, Somalia, AU troops close in on key Shebab base,weblink 23 March 2014, AFP, 22 March 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 23, 2014, mdy-all, In August 2014, the Somali government-led Operation Indian Ocean was launched, which aimed to clean up the remaining insurgent-held pockets in the countryside.NEWS, SOMALIA: President says Godane is dead, now is the chance for the members of al-Shabaab to embrace peace,weblink 6 September 2014, Raxanreeb, 5 September 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 6, 2014, mdy-all, On 1 September 2014, a U.S. drone strike carried out as part of the broader mission killed Al-Shabaab leader Moktar Ali Zubeyr.NEWS, Pentagon Confirms Death of Somalia Terror Leader,weblink 6 September 2014, Associated Press, 5 September 2014,weblink" title="">weblink September 6, 2014, live, mdy-all, U.S. authorities hailed the raid as a major symbolic and operational loss for Al-Shabaab, and the Somali government offered a 45-day amnesty to all moderate members of the militant group.On 15 December 2018 there were demonstrations in the city of Baidoa in Somalia by supporters of Mukhtar Rowbow, a presidency candidate, who was arrested two days before by government forces and transferred to Mogadishu. Rowbow is a senior member of al-Shabab.WEB,weblink US Says Airstrike in Somalia Killed 8 Militants, December 17, 2018,weblink December 18, 2018, live, mdy-all, African Union mission Somalia (AMISOM) announced in a statement that its forces did not assist in Rowbow's arrest and his transfer to Mogadishu.WEB,weblink AU force in Somalia says not involved in ex-al-Shabaab arrest, December 17, 2018,weblink December 18, 2018, live, mdy-all,


According to Necrometrics, around 500,000 people are estimated to have been killed in Somalia since the start of the civil war in 1991. The Armed Conflict Location & Event Dataset estimates that 3,300 people were killed during the conflict in 2012,WEB, Conflict Trends (No. 23) Real-time Analysis of African Political Violence, February 2014,weblink ACLED, 16 March 2014,weblink" title="">weblink March 16, 2014, live, mdy-all, with the number of fatalities dropping slightly in 2013 to 3,150.

See also




Further reading

  • Afyare Abdi Elmi. Understanding the Somalia conflagration: Identity, political Islam and peacebuilding. Pluto Press, 2010.
  • Barnes, Cedric, and Harun Hassan. "The rise and fall of Mogadishu's Islamic Courts". Journal of Eastern African Studies 1, no. 2 (2007): 151–160.
  • Bøås, Morten. "Returning to realities: a building-block approach to state and statecraft in Eastern Congo and Somalia". Conflict, Security & Development 10, no. 4 (2010): 443–464.
  • I. M. Lewis. A Modern History of the Somali: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa, Athens: Ohio University Press, 2002, {{ISBN|978-0-8214-1495-8}}.
  • Jutta Bakonyi. "Authority and administration beyond the state: local governance in southern Somalia, 1995–2006", Journal of Eastern African Studies, Vol. 7, Issue 2, 2013.
  • Ken Menkhaus. Somalia: State collapse and the threat of terrorism. Adelphi Papers No. 364, Routledge, 2008.
  • McGregor, Andrew. "The Leading Factions Behind the Somali Insurgency". Terrorism Monitor, Volume V, Issue 8, April 26, 2007.

External links

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