New Amsterdam

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New Amsterdam
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{{About|the settlement that became New York City}}File:CastelloPlanOriginal.jpg|thumb|upright=1.2|The original city map of New Amsterdam, called the Castello PlanCastello Plan{{New Netherland}}{{History of NYC}}New Amsterdam (, {{IPA-nl|ˌniʋɑmstərˈdɑm|pron}} or {{IPA-nl|ˌniuʔɑms-|}}) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland. The factorij became a settlement outside Fort Amsterdam. The fort was situated on the strategic southern tip of the island of Manhattan and was meant to defend the fur trade operations of the Dutch West India Company in the North River (Hudson River). In 1624, it became a provincial extension of the Dutch Republic and was designated as the capital of the province in 1625.By 1655, the population of New Netherland had grown to 2,000 people, with 1,500 living in New Amsterdam. By 1664, the population had exploded to almost 9,000 people in New Netherland, 2,500 of whom lived in New Amsterdam, 1,000 lived near Fort Orange, and the remainder in other towns and villages."The Colony of New Netherland", 2009, by Jaap Jacobs, page 32.WEB,weblink Dutch Colonization, Kingston Ubarn Cultural, Park,, In 1664 the English took over New Amsterdam and renamed it New York after the Duke of York (later James II & VII). After the Second Anglo-Dutch War of 1665–1667, England and the United Provinces of the Netherlands agreed to the status quo in the Treaty of Breda. The English kept the island of Manhattan, the Dutch giving up their claim to the town and the rest of the colony, while the English formally abandoned Surinam in South America, and the island of Run in the East Indies to the Dutch, confirming their control of the valuable Spice Islands. Today much of what was once New Amsterdam is in New York City.


{{See also|Dutch colonization of the Americas|History of New York City}}

Early settlement (1609–1625)

{{refimprove section|date=January 2013}}(File:Rigging House motif.jpg|thumb|The Rigging House at 120 William Street, the last remaining Dutch building of New Amsterdam. Built in the 17th century, it became a Methodist church in the 1760s and became a secular building again before its destruction in the mid-19th century.)In 1524, nearly a century before the arrival of the Dutch, the site that later became New Amsterdam was named New Angoulême by the Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano, to commemorate his patron King Francis I of France, former Count of Angoulême.BOOK, New York: the World's Capital City, Its Development and Contributions to Progress, Rankin, Rebecca B., Cleveland Rodgers, Harper, 1948, The first recorded exploration by the Dutch of the area around what is now called New York Bay was in 1609 with the voyage of the ship Halve Maen (English: "Half Moon"), captained by Henry HudsonNieuwe Wereldt ofte Beschrijvinghe van West-Indien, uit veelerhande Schriften ende Aen-teekeningen van verscheyden Natien (Leiden, Bonaventure & Abraham Elseviers, 1625) p.83: "/in den jare 1609 sonden de bewindt-hebbers van de gheoctroyeerde Oost-Indischische compagnie het jacht de halve mane/ daer voor schipper ende koopman op roer Hendrick Hudson[...]"("in the year 1609 the administrators of the East Indies Company sent the half moon captained by the merchant Hudson[...]") in the service of the Dutch Republic, as the emissary of Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, Holland's stadholder. Hudson named the river the Mauritius River. He was covertly attempting to find the Northwest Passage for the Dutch East India Company. Instead, he brought back news about the possibility of exploitation of beaver by the Dutch who sent commercial, private missions to the area the following years.At the time, beaver pelts were highly prized in Europe, because the fur could be felted to make waterproof hats. A by-product of the trade in beaver pelts was castoreum—the secretion of the animals' anal glands—which was used for its medicinal properties and for perfumes. The expeditions by Adriaen Block and Hendrick Christiaensen in 1611, 1612, 1613 and 1614, resulted in the surveying and charting of the region from the 38th parallel to the 45th parallel.WEB,weblink History of the United States of America: From the Discovery of the Continent, George, Bancroft, 24 October 1886, D. Appleton, Google Books, On their 1614 map, which gave them a four-year trade monopoly under a patent of the States General, they named the newly discovered and mapped territory New Netherland for the first time. It also showed the first year-round trading presence in New Netherland, Fort Nassau, which would be replaced in 1624 by Fort Orange, which eventually grew into the town of Beverwijck, now Albany.Dominican trader Juan Rodriguez (rendered in Dutch as Jan Rodrigues), born in Santo Domingo of Portuguese and African descent, arrived on Manhattan Island during the winter of 1613–1614, trapping for pelts and trading with the local population as a representative of the Dutch. He was the first recorded non-Native American inhabitant of what would eventually become New York City.Juan Rodriguez monograph. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.Honoring Juan Rodriguez, a Settler of New York – Retrieved on 2013-07-23.The territory of New Netherland was originally a private, profit-making commercial enterprise focused on cementing alliances and conducting trade with the diverse Native American ethnic groups. Surveying and exploration of the region was conducted as a prelude to an anticipated official settlement by the Dutch Republic, which occurred in 1624.

Pilgrims' attempt to settle in the Hudson River area

File:Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor, by William Halsall.jpg|alt=A painting depicting a ship partly encrusted in snow and ice at anchor in a calm harbor. A small boat full of men is moving away from the ship.|thumb|1882 depiction of the ship Mayflower sailing from England to America in 1620, in Plymouth Harbor]]In 1620 the Pilgrims attempted to sail to the Hudson River from England. However, the Mayflower reached Cape Cod (now part of Massachusetts) on November 9, 1620, after a voyage of 64 days.BOOK, Plymouth Colony: Its History & People, 1620–1691, Stratton, Eugene A., 1986, Salt Lake City, Ancestry Incorporated, 0-916489-13-2,weblink (page 20). For a variety of reasons, primarily a shortage of supplies, the Mayflower could not proceed to the Hudson River, and the colonists decided to settle near Cape Cod, establishing the Plymouth Colony.

Dutch return

The mouth of the Hudson River was selected as the ideal place for initial settlement as it had easy access to the ocean while also securing an ice-free lifeline to the beaver trading post near present-day Albany. Here, Native American hunters supplied them with pelts in exchange for European-made trade goods and wampum, which was soon being made by the Dutch on Long Island. In 1621, the Dutch West India Company was founded. Between 1621 and 1623, orders were given to the private, commercial traders to vacate the territory, thus opening up the territory to Dutch settlers and company traders. It also allowed the laws and ordinances of the states of Holland to apply. Previously, during the private, commercial period, only the law of the ship had applied.In May 1624, the first settlers in New Netherland arrived on Noten Eylandt (Nut or Nutten Island, now Governors Island) aboard the ship New Netherland under the command of Cornelius Jacobsen May, who disembarked on the island with thirty families in order to take legal possession of the New Netherland territory.WEB,weblink The New Amsterdam Trail - A Virtual Tour, Mixit Productions,, June 26, 2015, The families were then dispersed to Fort Wilhelmus on Verhulsten Island (Burlington Island) in the South River (now the Delaware River), to Kievitshoek (now Old Saybrook, Connecticut) at the mouth of the Verse River (now the Connecticut River) and further north at Fort Nassau on the Mauritius or North River (now the Hudson River), near what is now Albany.A fort and sawmill were soon erected at Nut Island. The latter was constructed by Franchoys Fezard and was taken apart for iron in 1648.

Fort Amsterdam (1624)

(File:Verkoopakte Manhattan.jpg|thumb|1626 letter in Dutch by Pieter Schaghen stating the purchase of Manhattan for 60 guilders.)File:Blaeu - Nova Belgica et Anglia Nova (Detail Hudson Area).png|thumb|A map of the Hudson River Valley c. 1635 (north is to the right)]]The threat of attack from other European colonial powers prompted the directors of the Dutch West India Company to formulate a plan to protect the entrance to the Hudson River. In 1624, 30 families were sponsored by Dutch West India Company moving from Nut Island to Manhattan Island, where a citadel to contain Fort Amsterdam was being laid out by Cryn Frederickz van Lobbrecht at the direction of Willem Verhulst. By the end of 1625, the site had been staked out directly south of Bowling Green on the site of the present U.S. Custom House. The Mohawk-Mahican War in the Hudson Valley led the company to relocate even more settlers to the vicinity of the new Fort Amsterdam. In the end, colonizing was a prohibitively expensive undertaking, only partly subsidized by the fur trade. This led to a scaling back of the original plans. By 1628, a smaller fort was constructed with walls containing a mixture of clay and sand.The fort also served as the center of trading activity. It contained a barracks, the church, a house for the West India Company director and a warehouse for the storage of company goods.WEB,weblink "The New Amsterdam Trail", National Parks of New York Harbor Conservancy, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 2011-12-04, Troops from the fort used the triangle between the Heerestraat and what came to be known as Whitehall Street for marching drills.


File:First Slave Auction 1655 Howard Pyle.jpg|thumb|The First Slave Auction at New Amsterdam in 1655, by Howard PyleHoward Pyle(File:GezichtOpNieuwAmsterdam.jpg|thumb|New Amsterdam in 1664 (looking approximately due north))Verhulst, with his council, was responsible for the selection of Manhattan as a permanent place of settlement and for situating Fort Amsterdam. He was replaced as the company director-general of New Amsterdam by Peter Minuit in 1626. According to the writer Nathaniel Benchley, to legally safeguard the settlers' investments, possessions and farms on Manhattan island, Minuit negotiated the "purchase" of Manhattan from a band of Canarse from Brooklyn who occupied the bottom quarter of Manhattan, known then as the Manhattoes for 60 guilders' worth of trade goods. Minuit conducted the transaction with the Canarse chief Seyseys, who was only too happy to accept valuable merchandise in exchange for an island that was actually mostly controlled by the Weckquaesgeeks.Benchley, Nathaniel. "The $24 Swindle: The Native Americans who sold Manhattan were bilked, all right, but they didn't mind – the land wasn't theirs anyway." American Heritage, Vol. 11, no. 1 (Dec. 1959). The deed itself has not survived, so the specific details are unknown. A textual reference to the deed became the foundation for the legend that Minuit had purchased Manhattan from the Native Americans for twenty-four dollars' worth of trinkets and beads, the guilder rate at the time being about two and a half to a Spanish dollar. The price of 60 Dutch guilders in 1626 amounts to around $1,100 in 2012 dollars.According to a calculation by the International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam at International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam, Netherlands Further complicating the calculation is that the value of goods in the area would have been different than the value of those same goods in the developed market of the Netherlands.The Dutch exploited the hydropower of existing creeks by constructing mills at Turtle Bay (between present-day East 45th-48th Streets) and Montagne's Kill, later called Harlem Mill Creek (East 108th Street). In 1639 a sawmill was located in the northern forest at what was later the corner of East 74th Street and Second Avenue, at which African laborers cut lumber.BOOK,weblink Michael T. Martin, Marilyn Yaquinto, Redress for Historical Injustices in the United States: On Reparations for Slavery, Jim Crow, and Their Legacies, Duke University Press, 2007, April 14, 2013, 978-0822389811, BOOK,weblink The Black New Yorkers: the Schomburg illustrated chronology, Howard Dodson, Christopher Moore, Roberta Yancy, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, John Wiley, 2000, April 14, 2013, 9780471297147, The New Amsterdam settlement had a population of approximately 270 people, including infants.WEB, A Brief Outline of the History of New Netherland,weblink Coin and Currency Collections in the Department of Special Collections University of Notre Dame Libraries, 12 July 2018, In 1642 the new director-general Willem Kieft decided to build a stone church within the fort. The work was carried out by recent English immigrants, the brothers John and Richard Ogden. The church was finished in 1645 and stood until destroyed in the Slave Insurrection of 1741.A pen-and-ink view of New Amsterdam,WEB,weblink New York around 1650, Jan 7, 2014, Austrian National Library, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-01-07, WEB,weblink From Van der Donck to Visscher, Feb 19, 2013, Mercator's World, July–August 2000, de Koning, Joep M.J., drawn on-the-spot and discovered in the map collection of the Austrian National Library in Vienna in 1991, provides a unique view of New Amsterdam as it appeared from Capske (small Cape) Rock in 1648. Capske Rock was situated in the water close to Manhattan between Manhattan and Noten Eylant, and signified the start of the East River roadstead.New Amsterdam received municipal rights on February 2, 1653, thus becoming a city. Albany, then named Beverwyck, received its city rights in 1652. Nieuw Haarlem, now known as Harlem, was formally recognized in 1658.The first Jews known to have lived in New Amsterdam arrived in 1654. First to arrive were Solomon Pietersen and Jacob Barsimson, who sailed during the summer of 1654 directly from Holland, with passports that gave them permission to trade in the colony.BOOK, Hertzberg, Arthur, The Jews in America, New York, Columbia University Press, 1997, 9, Then in early September, 23 Jewish refugees arrived from the formerly Dutch city of Recife, which had been conquered by the Portuguese in January 1654.BOOK, Hertzberg, Arthur, The Jews in America, New York, Columbia University Press, 1997, 7–8, The director of New Amsterdam, Peter Stuyvesant, sought to turn them away but was ultimately overruled by the directors of the Dutch West India Company in Amsterdam.BOOK, Hertzberg, Arthur, The Jews in America, New York, Columbia University Press, 1997, 10–11, Asser Levy, an Ashkenazi Jew who was one of the 23 refugees, eventually prospered and in 1661 became the first Jew to own a house in New Amsterdam, which also made him the first Jew known to have owned a house anywhere in North America.BOOK, Hertzberg, Arthur, The Jews in America, New York, Columbia University Press, 1997, 17, In 1661 the Communipaw ferry was founded and began a long history of trans-Hudson ferry and ultimately rail and road transportation.Railroad Ferries of the Hudson: And Stories of a Deckhand, by, Raymond J. Baxter, Arthur G. Adams, pg. 46 ,1999, Fordham University Press, 978-0823219544 On September 15, 1655, New Amsterdam was attacked by 2,000 Native Americans as part of the Peach Tree War. They destroyed 28 farms, killed 100 settlers, and took 150 prisoners.In 1664, Jan van Bonnel built a saw mill on East 74th Street and the East River, where a 13,710-meter long stream that began in the north of today's Central Park, which became known as the Saw Kill or Saw Kill Creek, emptied into the river.WEB,weblink The saw-kill and the making of Dutch colonial Manhattan: Sawkill Lumber Co,, April 14, 2013, BOOK,weblink The History of Harlem: An Historical Narrative Delivered at Harlem Music Hall, April 24th, 1882: a Lecture, Arthur Bunyan Caldwell, Small Talk Publishing Company, 1882, April 14, 2013, Later owners of the property George Elphinstone and Abraham Shotwell replaced the sawmill with a leather mill in 1677.BOOK,weblink Origins and History of the Village of Yorkville in the City of New York, Anthony Lofaso, 2010, April 14, 2013, 9781450019408, The Saw Kill was later redirected into a culvert, arched over, and its trickling little stream was called Arch Brook.

English capture

On August 27, 1664, while England and the Dutch Republic were at peace, four English frigates sailed into New Amsterdam's harbor and demanded New Netherland's surrender, whereupon New Netherland was provisionally ceded by Stuyvesant. On September 6, Stuyvesant sent lawyer Johannes de Decker and five other delegates to sign the official Articles of Capitulation.{{contradict-inline|article=Peter Stuyvesant|section=Capitulation|reason=The other article says "On 9 September 1664, Stuyvesant signed a treaty at his Bouwerij house" so both date and signers don't match}} This was swiftly followed by the Second Anglo-Dutch War, between England and the Dutch Republic. In June 1665, New Amsterdam was reincorporated under English law as New York City, named after the Duke of York (later King James II). He was the brother of the English King Charles II, who had been granted the lands.Henry L. Schoolcraft, "The Capture of New Amsterdam," English Historical Review (1907) 22#88 674–693 in JSTORIn 1667 the Treaty of Breda ended the conflict in favor of the Dutch. The Dutch did not press their claims on New Netherland but did demand control over the valuable sugar plantations and factories captured by them that year on the coast of Surinam, giving them full control over the coast of what is now Guyana and Surinam.{{anchor|New Orange}}In July 1673, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch briefly and quickly occupied New York City and renamed it New Orange.WEB,weblink When New York was officially named New Orange, 7 March 2011, Anthony Colve was installed as the first governor. Previously there had only been West India Company directors. After the signing of the Treaty of Westminster in November 1674, the city was relinquished to the English and the name reverted to "New York". Suriname became an official Dutch possession in return.


(File:Castelloplan.jpg|thumb|Redraft of the Castello Plan, drawn in 1916)The beginnings of New Amsterdam, unlike most other colonies in the New World, were thoroughly documented in city maps. During the time of New Netherland's colonization, the Dutch were the pre-eminent cartographers in Europe. The delegated authority of the Dutch West India Company over New Netherland required maintaining sovereignty on behalf of the States General, generating cash flow through commercial enterprise for its shareholders, and funding the province's growth. Thus its directors regularly required that censuses be taken. These tools to measure and monitor the province's progress were accompanied by accurate maps and plans. These surveys, as well as grassroots activities to seek redress of grievances, account for the existence of some of the most important of the early documents.weblink" title="">Robert Augustyn, "Maps in the making of Manhattan" Magazine Antiques, September 1995. URL accessed on December 15, 2005.There is a particularly detailed city map called the Castello Plan produced in 1660. Virtually every structure in New Amsterdam at the time is believed to be represented, and by cross-referencing the Nicasius de Sille List of 1660, which enumerates all the citizens of New Amsterdam and their addresses, it can be determined who resided in every house.Several reproductions of the Castello plan can be found on-line: New Netherland Project {{Webarchive|url= |date=2009-07-08 }}, New York Public Library, (commons:File:CastelloPlanOriginal.jpg|Wikimedia Commons). Colored versions from 1916 can be found here: weblink" title="">New York University and here:New York Historical Society. A "Digital redraft of the Castello Plan of New Amsterdam in New Netherland in 1660" is an interactive map that can be found on This map allows you to click in various places to learn more about the ownership and use of the land and buildings. All URLs accessed on February 17, 2010. A Google Earth File of the Castello Plan is posted on city map known as the Duke's Plan probably derived from the same 1660 census as the Castello Plan. The Duke's Plan includes two outlying areas of development on Manhattan along the top of the plan. The work was created for James (1633–1701), the Duke of York and Albany, after whom New York City and New York State's capital Albany were named, just after the seizure of New Amsterdam by the British.An image of the Duke's map can be found on-line at the British Library site: THE BRITISH LIBRARY URL accessed on December 15, 2005. After that provisional relinquishment of New Netherland, Stuyvesant reported to his superiors that he "had endeavored to promote the increase of population, agriculture and commerce...the flourishing condition which might have been more flourishing if the now afflicted inhabitants had been protected by a suitable garrison...and had been helped with the long sought for settlement of the boundary, or in default thereof had they been seconded with the oft besought reinforcement of men and ships against the continual troubles, threats, encroachments and invasions of the British neighbors and government of Hartford Colony, our too powerful enemies."The existence of these city maps has proven to be very useful in the archaeology of New York City. For instance, the Castello map aided the excavation of the Stadthuys (City Hall) of New Amsterdam in determining the exact location of the building.A slideshow of the famous Stadt Huys dig, a landmark archaeological excavation of one of the central blocks of New Amsterdam, can be found on {{webarchive|url= |date=2012-11-04 }}. accessed on February 2, 2011A 17th-century picture of the Stadthuys can be found on accessed on February 2, 2011.


File:Wall Street IRT 008c.JPG|thumb|Depiction of the wall of New Amsterdam on a tile in the Wall Street subway station]]The maps enable a precise reconstruction of the town. Fort Amsterdam was located at the most southern tip of the island of Manhattan, which today is surrounded by Bowling Green. The Battery is a reference to its batteries or cannons.Broadway was the main street that led out of town north towards Harlem. The town was surrounded to the north by a wall leading from the eastern to the western shore. The course of this city wall is today Wall Street. A canal led from the harbor inland and was filled in 1676, which today is Broad Street.The layout of the streets was winding, as in a European city. Only starting from Wall Street going toward uptown did the typical grid become enforced long after the town ceased to be Dutch. Most of the Financial District overlaps New Amsterdam and has retained the original street layout.


(File:Wyckoff-house.jpg|thumb|upright|The Wyckoff Farm in Flatbush, Brooklyn. Some of its construction still dates from the Dutch period of what is currently New York City.)(File:DSCN3495 pearlstreet e.JPG|thumb|upright|13-15 South William Street, constructed in the Dutch Colonial Revival architecture evoking New Amsterdam)The 1625 date of the founding of New Amsterdam is now commemorated in the official Seal of New York City. (Formerly, the year on the seal was 1664, the year of the provisional Articles of Transfer, assuring New Netherlanders that they "shall keep and enjoy the liberty of their consciences in religion", negotiated with the English by Peter Stuyvesant and his council.)Sometimes considered a dysfunctional trading post by the English who later acquired it from the Dutch, Russell Shorto, author of The Island at the Center of the World, suggests that the city left its cultural marks on later New York and, by extension, the United States as a whole.BOOK, Russell Shorto, The Island at the Center of the World: The Epic Story of Dutch Manhattan and the Forgotten Colony that Shaped America, First, New York City, Vintage Books (a Division of Random House), 2004, 1-4000-7867-9, Major recent historical research has been based on a set of documents that have survived from that period, untranslated. They are the administrative records of the colony, unreadable by most scholars. Since the 1970s, a professor named Charles Gehring has made it his life's work to translate this first-hand history of the Colony of New Netherland.The scholarly conclusion has largely been that the settlement of New Amsterdam is much more like current New York than previously thought. Cultural diversity and a mindset that resembles the American Dream were already present in the first few years of this colony. Writers like Russell Shorto argue that the large influence of New Amsterdam on the American psyche has largely been overlooked in the classic telling of American beginnings, because of animosity between the English victors and the conquered Dutch.The original 17th-century architecture of New Amsterdam has completely vanished (affected by the fires of 1776 and 1835),WEB,weblink Map of Great Fire 1776, February 2, 2011, NY Public Library Picture Collection, WEB,weblink Map of Damages – 1835, February 2, 2011, CUNY, yes,weblink" title="">weblink June 13, 2010, leaving only archaeological remnants. The original street plan of New Amsterdam has stayed largely intact, as have some houses outside Manhattan.The presentation of the legacy of the unique culture of 17th-century New Amsterdam remains a concern of preservationists and educators. The National Park Service celebrated in 2009 the 400th anniversary of Henry Hudson's 1609 voyage on behalf of the Dutch with the New Amsterdam Trail.WEB,weblink The New Amsterdam Trail, National Park Service, New York Harbor Parks, 2009, 2009-08-27,weblink" title="">weblink 2009-06-09, yes, WEB,weblink The Henry Hudson 400 Foundation, The Dutch-American historian and journalist Hendrik Willem van Loon wrote in 1933 a work of alternative history entitled "If the Dutch Had Kept Nieuw Amsterdam" (in If, Or History Rewritten, edited by J. C. Squire, 1931, Simon & Schuster).A similar theme, at greater length, was taken up by writer Elizabeth Bear, who published the "New Amsterdam" series of detective stories that take place in a world where the city remained Dutch until the Napoleonic Wars and retained its name also afterward.One of New York Broadway theatres is the New Amsterdam Theatre. The name New Amsterdam is also written on the architrave situated on top of the row of columns in front of the Manhattan Municipal Building, commemorating the name of the Dutch colony.Although no architectural monuments or buildings have survived, the legacy lived on in the form Dutch Colonial Revival architecture. A number of structures in New York City were constructed in the 19th and 20th centuries in this style, such as Wallabout Market in Brooklyn, South William Street in Manhattan, West End Collegiate Church at West 77th Street, and others.

See also



Further reading

  • Burrows, Edwin G., and Mike Wallace. Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898 (2000) excerpt and text search
  • BOOK, Goodfriend, Joyce D., Going Dutch: The Dutch Presence in America, 1609–2009, 2008, etal,
  • Jacobs, Jaap. The Colony of New Netherland: A Dutch Settlement in Seventeenth-Century America (2009) excerpt and text search
  • Kammen, Michael. Colonial New York: A History New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.
  • McFarlane, Jim. Penelope: A Novel of New Amsterdam, Greer, SC: Twisted Cedar Press, 2012. 371 pages. {{ISBN|9780985112202}}
  • Schmidt, Benjamin, Innocence Abroad: The Dutch Imagination and the New World, 1570–1670, Cambridge: University Press, 2001. {{ISBN|978-0521804080}}
  • Scheltema, Gajus and Westerhuijs, Heleen, eds. Exploring Historic Dutch New York (Museum of the City of New York/Dover Publications, 2011). {{ISBN|978-0-486-48637-6}}
  • JOURNAL, Schoolcraft, Henry L., The Capture of New Amsterdam, English Historical Review, 1907, 22, 88, 674–693, 550138, 10.1093/ehr/xxii.lxxxviii.674,weblink
  • Shorto, Russell, The Island at the Center of the World: The Epic Story of Dutch Manhattan and the Forgotten Colony that Shaped America, Doubleday, 2004. {{ISBN|978-0385503495}}
  • Swerling, Beverley, City of Dreams: A Novel of Nieuw Amsterdam and Early Manhattan, Simon & Schuster, 2002. {{ISBN|978-0684871738}}

Primary sources

  • Jackson, Kenneth T. and David S. Dunbar, eds. Empire City: New York Through the Centuries (2005), 1015 pages of excerpts excerpt

External links

{{Commons category}} {{Dutch colonies}}

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