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Comparison of relational database management systems

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Comparison of relational database management systems
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The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of relational database management systems. Please see the individual products' articles for further information. Unless otherwise specified in footnotes, comparisons are based on the stable versions without any add-ons, extensions or external programs.">

General information{| style"text-align: center;" class"wikitable sortable"

! style="width:16em" |! Maintainer! First public release date! Latest stable version! Latest release date! License! Public issues list
! style="text-align:left" | 4D (4th Dimension)| 4D S.A.S.| 1984| v16.0| 2017-01-1weblink| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | ADABAS| Software AG| 1970| 8.1|2013-06| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | Adaptive Server Enterprise| SAP AG| 1987| 16.0|2015| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | Advantage Database Server (ADS)| SAP AG| 1992| 12.0| 2015| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | Altibase| Altibase Corp.| 2000| 7.1.0.1.2| 2018-03-02| GNU-AGPLv3; GNU-LGPLv3(for client-libraries)| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | Apache Derby
Apache Software Foundation>Apache| 2004| 10.14.2.0WEB
, Apache Derby: Downloads
,weblink
, 2018-05-03
, | 2018-05-03
Apache License}}| {{Yes}}Derby - ASF JIRA
! style="text-align:left" | ClustrixDB| Clustrix| 2010| v7.0| 2015-08-19| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | CUBRID| NHN Corporation| 2008-11| 10.1.0| 2017-07-14
GPL v2 or later, BSD license for APIs and GUI tools}}| {{Yes}}CUBRID / Jira Issue tracker for CUBRID
! style="text-align:left" | Datacom| CA, Inc.| Early 70sJOURNAL
, Stevens
, O.
, The History of Datacom/DB
, Annals of the History of Computing
, 31
, 4
, 87–91
, IEEE
, Oct–Dec 2009
,weblink
, 10.1109/MAHC.2009.108
, 1058-6180
, 2014-07-06
, | 14WEB
, CA Datacom - CA Technologies
,weblink
, | 2012WEB
, Datacom Product Sheet
,weblink
, | {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | DB2| IBM| 1983| 11.1| 2016-04-12| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | Empress Embedded Database| Empress Software Inc| 1979| 10.20| 2010-03| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | EXASolution
EXASOL>EXASOL AG| 2004| 6.0.0| 2017-03-17| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | FileMaker| FileMaker, Inc., an Apple subsidiary| 1985-04| 16| 2017-05-09| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | Firebird| Firebird project| 2000-07-25| 3.0.3| 2018-02-02
IPL{{Citation
| url =weblink
| title = IPL
| publisher = Firebird SQL
}} and IDPL{{Citation
| url =weblink
| title = IDPL
| publisher = Firebird SQL
}}}}| {{Yes}}Firebird RDBMS Issue Tracker
! style="text-align:left" | GPUdb| GIS Federal| 2014| 3.2.5| 2015-01-14| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | HSQLDB| HSQL Development Group| 2001| 2.4.1| 2018-05-20
BSD}}| {{Yes}}HyperSQL Database Engine (HSQLDB) / Bugs
! style="text-align:left" | H2| H2 Software| 2005| 1.4.197| 2018-03-18
Eclipse Public License and modified Mozilla Public License>MPL}}| {{Yes}}h2database issues
! style="text-align:left" | Informix Dynamic Server| IBM| 1981????1980| 12.10.xC10| 2017-12-05| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | Ingres
Ingres (database)>Ingres Corp.| 1974| 10.2| 2014-09-30GNU General Public License and Proprietary software>Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | InterBase
InterBase>Embarcadero| 1984| XE7 v12.0.4.357| 2015-08-12| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | Linter SQL RDBMS| RELEX Group| 1990| 6.0.18, 6.1.15| 2016-03-15| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | LucidDB| The Eigenbase Project| 2007-01| 0.9.4| 2012-01-05
GPL v2}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | MariaDB
MariaDB>MariaDB Community| 2010-02-01| 10.3.9| 2018-08-15WEB
,weblink
, MariaDB 10.3.9 Release Notes
, mariadb.com
, 2018-08-15
, 2018-08-15
,
GNU General Public License v2, GNU Lesser General Public License>LGPL (for client-libraries)WEB
,weblink
, MariaDB licenses
, }}| {{Yes}}MariaDB - JIRA
! style="text-align:left" | MaxDB| SAP AG| 2003-05| 7.9.0.8| 2014| {{Proprietary}}| {{Yes}}MaxDB - Problem Tracking
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft Access (JET)| Microsoft| 1992| 16 (2016)| 2015-09-22| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft Visual Foxpro| Microsoft| 1984| 9 (2005)| 2007-10-11| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft SQL Server| Microsoft| 1989| 2017 (14)|2017-10-02| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft SQL Server Compact (Embedded Database)| Microsoft| 2000| 2011 (v4.0)|| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | Mimer SQL| Mimer Information Technology| 1978| v10.1.4F| 2018-09-07| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | MonetDB
Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica>CWI| 2004| Aug2018| 2018-08-29Mozilla Public License, version 2.0{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = CWI
| title = MonetDB Jul2015 released
}}}}| {{Yes}}MonetDB Bugzilla
! style="text-align:left" | mSQL| Hughes Technologies| 1994| 4.1{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = Hughes
| location = AU
| series = Products
| title = mSQL
}}| 2017-06-30| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | MySQL| Oracle Corporation| 1995-11| 8.0.11WEB
,weblink
, MySQL 8.0 Release Notes
, mysql.com
, 18 May 2018
, | 2018-04-19
[hide]GNU General Public License Proprietary software>Proprietary{edih}| {{Yes}}MySQL Bugs
! style="text-align:left" | MemSQL| MemSQL| 2012-06| 5.8.6 (2017)| 2017-06-30| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | NexusDB| NexusDB Pty Ltd| 2003| 4.00.14| 2015-06-25| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | HP NonStop SQL| Hewlett-Packard| 1987| SQL/MX 3.4|| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | NuoDB| NuoDB| 2013| 3.0.1|| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | Omnis Studio| TigerLogic Inc| 1982-07| 6.1.3 Release 1no| 2015-12| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | OpenBase SQL| OpenBase International| 1991| 11.0.0|| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | OpenEdge| Progress Software Corporation| 1984| 11.6.3| 2016-08-19| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | OpenLink Virtuoso| OpenLink Software| 1998| 7.2.5| 2017-04-28
GNU General Public License v2 or Proprietary software>Proprietary}}| {{Yes}}Issues · openlink/virtuoso-opensource · GitHub
! style="text-align:left" | Oracle DB| Oracle Corporation| 1979-11| 12.2.0.1| 2017-03-01WEB
,weblink
, Upgrades to Oracle Database 12.2.0.1
, Mike
, Dietrich
, 8 November 2016
, 8 November 2016
, | {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | Oracle Rdb| Oracle Corporation| 1984| 7.3.1.2|2014-10-08{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = Oracle Corporation
| title = Oracle Rdb Product Family Compatibility Matrix
}}| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | Paradox| Corel Corporation| 1985| 11| 2009-09-07| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | Percona Server for MySQL| Percona| 2006| 5.7.21-2weblink| 2018-04-24
GPL v2}}| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Pervasive PSQL| Pervasive Software| 1982| v12| 2015| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | Polyhedra DBMS| ENEA AB| 1993| 9.0| 2015-06-24| {{Proprietary}}, with Polyhedra Lite available as Freeware{{Citation
| url =weblink
| series = Press Release
| publisher = EECatalog
| title = Polyhedra® Lite In-Memory Relational Database System Freeware Available Now from Enea
}}.| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | PostgreSQL| PostgreSQL Global Development Group| 1989-06| 10.5| 2018-08-09WEB
,weblink
, PostgreSQL 10.5, 9.6.10, 9.5.14, 9.4.19, 9.3.24, and 11 Beta 3 Released!
, The PostgreSQL Global Development Group
, 2018-08-09
, PostgreSQL, en, 2018-08-10
,
PostgreSQL Licence (a liberal Open Source license){{Citation
| url =weblink
| title = License
| publisher = PostgreSQL Community
}}}}| {{No}}A bug tracker for PostgreSQL?
! style="text-align:left" | R:Base]]| R:BASE Technologies| 1982| 10.0| 2016-05-26| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | Raima Database Manager| Raima Inc.| 1984| 14.1| 2018-03-23| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | RDM Server| Raima Inc.| 1993| 8.4| 2012-10-31| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | SAP HANA| SAP AG| 2010| 2.0 SPS02| 2017-07-26| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | solidDB| UNICOM Global| 1992| 7.0.0.10| 2014-04-29| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQL Anywhere| Sybase| 1992| 17.0| 2015-07-15| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQLBase| Unify Corp.| 1982| 11.5| 2008-11| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQLite| D. Richard Hipp| 2000-09-12| 3.24.0| 2018-06-04{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = SQLite
| title = SQLite Release History
}}
Public domain}}| {{Yes}}SQLite: Ticket Main Menu
! style="text-align:left" | SQream DB| SQream Technologies| 2014| 2.1{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = SQream Technologies
| title = SQream DB Version 2.1 SQL Reference Guide
}}| 2018-01-15| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | Superbase
Superbase database>Superbase| 1984| Scientific (2004)|| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | Teradata| Teradata| 1984| 15| 2014-04| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | Tibero| TmaxSoft| 1992| 6| 2015-04| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | UniData| Rocket Software| 1988| 8.2.1| 2017-07| {{Proprietary}}| {{No}}
! style="width:16em" |! Maintainer! First public release date! Latest stable version! Latest release date! License! Public issues list

Operating system support

The operating systems that the RDBMSes can run on.{| style="text-align: center; width: 95%; font-size:80%" class="wikitable sortable"! style="width:16em" |! Windows! macOS! Linux! BSD! UNIX! AmigaOS! z/OS! iOS! Android! OpenVMS
! style="text-align:left" | 4th Dimension| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | ADABAS| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Adaptive Server Enterprise| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Advantage Database Server| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Altibase| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Apache Derby| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | ClustrixDB| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | CUBRID| {{yes}}| {{partial}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | DB2| {{yes}}
IBM DB2 Express-C>Express C)| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Empress Embedded Database| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | EXASolution| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | FileMaker| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{Yes}}| {{No}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Firebird| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}
Maybe}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | HSQLDB| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | H2| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Informix Dynamic Server| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Ingres| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{partial}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | InterBase| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}
Solaris (operating system)>Solaris)| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Linter SQL RDBMS| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| Under Linux on z Systems| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | LucidDB| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | MariaDB| {{yes}}| {{yes}}WEB
,weblink
, AskMonty KnowledgeBase
, Building MariaDB on Mac OS X using Homebrew
, September 30, 2011
, | {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}weblink MariaDB Android Version by Tautvydas Andrikys| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | MaxDB| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}
Maybe}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft Access (JET)| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft Visual Foxpro| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft SQL Server| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}weblink| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft SQL Server Compact (Embedded Database)| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Mimer SQL| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | MonetDB| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | MySQL| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}weblink Run Apache, Mysql, Php – Web server on Android mobile or Tablet| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Omnis Studio| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | OpenBase SQL| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | OpenEdge| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | OpenLink Virtuoso| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Oracle| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Oracle Rdb| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Pervasive PSQL| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (OEM only)| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Polyhedra| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | PostgreSQL| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (MorphOSweblink| Under Linux on z Systems]weblink| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | R:Base]]| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Raima Database Manager| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}
color=}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | RDM Server| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | SAP HANA| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | solidDB| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| Under Linux on z Systems| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQL Anywhere| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQLBase| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQLite| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
Maybe}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQream DB| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Superbase| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Teradata| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Tibero| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | UniData| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | UniVerse| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="width:16em" |! Windows! macOS! Linux! BSD! UNIX! AmigaOS! z/OS! iOS! Android! OpenVMS

Fundamental features

Information about what fundamental RDBMS features are implemented natively.{| style="text-align: center; width: 95%" class="wikitable sortable"! style="width:16em" |Database Name! ACID! Referential integrity! Transactions! Fine-grained locking! Multiversion concurrency control! Unicode! Interface! Type inference
! style="text-align:left" | 4th Dimension| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}
graphical user interface>GUI & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | ADABAS| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| proprietary direct call & SQL (via 3rd party)| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Adaptive Server Enterprise| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Advantage Database Server| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (Row-level locking)| {{dunno}}
#feat 4>4| API & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Altibase| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (Row-level locking)| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| API & GUI & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Apache Derby| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (Row-level locking) Derby Developer's Guide (10.14)>Lock granularity| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | ClustrixDB| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | CUBRID| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (Row-level locking)| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}
graphical user interface>GUI & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | DB2| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (Row-level locking)DB2 for Linux UNIX and Windows 9.7.0>Fundamentos de DB2>Performance tuning>Factors affecting performance>Application design>Concurrency issues>Isolation levels| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}
graphical user interface>GUI & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Empress Embedded Database| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}
graphical user interface>API & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | EXASolution| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}
graphical user interface>API & GUI & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Firebird| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | HSQLDB| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | H2| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}weblink| {{yes}}| SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Informix Dynamic Server| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (Row-level locking)| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| SQL, REST, and JSON| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Ingres| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}
SQL & QUEL query languages>QUEL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | InterBase| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Linter SQL RDBMS| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
Data Definition Language>DDL)| {{yes}} (Row-level locking)| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| API & GUI & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | LucidDB| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | MariaDB
#feat 2>2#feat 6>6#feat 2>2 except for DDLTransactional DDL in PostgreSQL: A Competitive AnalysisTransactional DDL in MariaDB| {{yes}} (Row-level locking)| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | MaxDB| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft Access (JET)| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}
graphical user interface>GUI & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft Visual FoxPro| {{No}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{No}}
graphical user interface>GUI & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft SQL Server| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (Row-level locking)SQL Server Transaction Locking and Row Versioning Guide| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
graphical user interface>GUI & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft SQL Server Compact (Embedded Database)| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}
graphical user interface>GUI & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Mimer SQL| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (Optimistic locking)| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| API & GUI & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | MonetDB| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | MySQL
#feat 2>2#feat 3>3#feat 2>2 except for DDL| {{yes}} (Row-level locking)MySQL :: MySQL 5.6 Reference Manual :: 8.10.1 Internal Locking Methods| {{yes}}| {{yes}}graphical user interface>GUI 5 & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | OpenBase SQL| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}
graphical user interface>GUI & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | OpenEdge| {{yes}}
#feat 7>7| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (Row-level locking)| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}graphical user interface>GUI & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | OpenLink Virtuoso| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}
API & graphical user interface>GUI & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Oracle| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
Data Definition Language>DDL| {{yes}} (Row-level locking)Oracle Row Lock and Row Level Locking| {{yes}}| {{yes}}API & graphical user interface>GUI & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Oracle Rdb| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Pervasive PSQL| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
#feat 6>6API & graphical user interface>GUI & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Polyhedra DBMS| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (optimistic and pessimistic cell-level locking)[developer.polyhedra.com/history/polyhedra-8-7 Polyhedra 8.7 new headline feature: locking]| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| API & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | PostgreSQL| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (Row-level locking)PostgreSQL: Documentation: devel: Explicit Locking| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
API & graphical user interface>GUI & SQL| {{No}}BUG #5974: UNION construct type cast gives poor error message
! style="text-align:left" | Raima Database Manager| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| SQL & API| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | RDM Server| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| SQL & API| {{Yes}}
!style="text-align:left" | SAP HANA| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (Row-level locking)| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
API & graphical user interface>GUI & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | solidDB| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (Row-level locking)| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| API & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQL Anywhere| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQLBase| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}
API & graphical user interface>GUI & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQLite| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}} (Database-level locking)File Locking And Concurrency In SQLite Version 3| {{no}}
SQLite Full Unicode support is optional and not installed by default in most systems (like Android (operating system)>Android, Debian…)| API & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Teradata| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (Hash and Partition)| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Tibero| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (Row-level locking)| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
API & graphical user interface>GUI & SQL| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | UniData| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| Multiple| {{Yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | UniVerse| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| Multiple| {{Yes}}
class="sortbottom"! Database Name!ACID!Referential integrity!Transactions!Fine-grained locking!Multiversion concurrency control!Unicode!Interface!Type inference
(Comparison of relational database management systems#feat 1|Note (1):) Currently only supports read uncommited transaction isolation. Version 1.9 adds serializable isolation and version 2.0 will be fully ACID compliant.(#feat 2 back|Note (2):) MySQL provides ACID compliance through the default InnoDB storage engine.WEB
,weblink
, MySQL - The InnoDB Storage Engine
, WEB
,weblink
, InnoDB - Oracle Wiki
,
(#feat 3 back|Note (3):) "For other than InnoDB storage engines, MySQL Server parses and ignores the FOREIGN KEY and REFERENCES syntax in CREATE TABLE statements. The CHECK clause is parsed but ignored by all storage engines."WEB
,weblink
, MySQL 5.6 Reference Manual
,
(Comparison of relational database management systems#feat 4|Note (4):) Support for Unicode is new in version 10.0.(Comparison of relational database management systems#feat 5|Note (5):) MySQL provides GUI interface through MySQL Workbench.(#feat 6 back|Note (6):) MariaDB's default XtraDB engine is ACID compliant.(#feat 7 back|Note (7):) OpenEdge SQL database engine uses Referential Integrity, OpenEdge ABL Database engine does not and is handled via database triggers.

Limits

Information about data size limits.{| style="text-align: center; width: 95%; font-size:80%" class="wikitable sortable"! style="width:12em" |! Max DB size! Max table size! Max row size! Max columns per row! Max Blob/Clob size! Max CHAR size! Max NUMBER size! Min DATE value! Max DATE value! Max column name size
! style="text-align:left" | 4th Dimension| Limited| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| 65,135
gibibyte>GiB Unicode)gibibyte>GiB Unicode)| 64 bits| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Advantage Database Server| Unlimited
exbibyte>EiB| 65,530 B| 65,135 / (10+ AvgFieldNameLength)gibibyte>GiB| {{dunno}}| 64 bits| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| 128
! style="text-align:left" | Apache Derby| Unlimited| Unlimited| Unlimited| 1,012 (5,000 in views)| 2,147,483,647 chars| 254 (VARCHAR: 32,672)| 64 bits| 0001-01-01| 9999-12-31| 128
! style="text-align:left" | ClustrixDB| Unlimited| Unlimited| 64 MB on Appliance, 4 MB on AWS| {{dunno}}| 64 MB| 64 MB| 64 MB| 0001-01-01| 9999-12-31| 254
! style="text-align:left" | CUBRID| 2 EB| 2 EB| Unlimited| Unlimited| Unlimited| 1 GB| 64 bits| 0001-01-01| 9999-12-31| 254
! style="text-align:left" | DB2| Unlimited
zettabyte>ZB| 1,048,319 B| 1,012| 2 GBkibibyte>KiB)| 64 bits| 0001-01-01| 9999-12-31| 128
! style="text-align:left" | Empress Embedded Database| Unlimited| 263-1 bytes| 2 GB| 32,767| 2 GB| 2 GB| 64 bits| 0000-01-01| 9999-12-31| 32
! style="text-align:left" | EXASolution| Unlimited| Unlimited| Unlimited| 10,000| N/A| 2 MB| 128 bits| 0001-01-01| 9999-12-31| 256
! style="text-align:left" | FileMaker| 8 TB| 8 TB| 8 TB| 256,000,000| 4 GB| 10,000,000| 1 billion characters, 10^-400 to 10^400, +-| 0001-01-01| 4000-12-31| 100
! style="text-align:left" | Firebird
#limit 1>1| ~32 TB| 65,536 B| Depends on data types used| 2 GB| 32,767 B| 64 bits| 100| 32768| 31
! style="text-align:left" | HSQLDB| 64 TB
#limit 8>8#limit 8>8#limit 8>8#limit 7>7#limit 8>8#limit 8>8| 0001-01-01| 9999-12-31| 128
! style="text-align:left" | H2| 64 TB
#limit 8>8#limit 8>8#limit 8>8#limit 7>7#limit 8>8| 64 bits| -99999999| 99999999#limit 8>8
! style="width:16em" |! Max DB size! Max table size! Max row size! Max columns per row! Max Blob/Clob size! Max CHAR size! Max NUMBER size! Min DATE value! Max DATE value! Max column name size
! style="text-align:left" | Informix Dynamic Server
#limit 12>12#limit 12>12| 32,765 bytes (exclusive of large objects)| 32,765| 4 TB| 32,765| 1032#limit 10>10| 12/31/9999| 128 bytes
! style="text-align:left" | Ingres| Unlimited| Unlimited| 256 KB| 1,024| 2 GB| 32 000 B| 64 bits| 0001| 9999| 256
! style="text-align:left" | InterBase
#limit 1>1| ~32 TB| 65,536 B| Depends on data types used| 2 GB| 32,767 B| 64 bits| 100| 32768| 31
! style="text-align:left" | Linter SQL RDBMS| Unlimited| 230 rows| 64 KB (w/o BLOBs), 4 GB (BLOB)| 250| 4 GB| 4 KB| 64 bits| 0001-01-01| 9999-12-31| 66
! style="text-align:left" | MariaDB| Unlimited| MyISAM storage limits: 256 TB; Innodb storage limits: 64 TB; Aria storage limits: ???
#limit 3>3#limit 4>4| 4 GB (longtext, longblob)| 64 KB (text)| 64 bits| 1000| 9999| 64WEB
,weblink
, Identifier Names
, MariaDB KnowledgeBase
, 26 September 2014
,
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft Access (JET)| 2 GB| 2 GB| 16 MB| 255| 64 KB (memo field), 1 GB ("OLE Object" field)| 255 B (text field)| 32 bits| 0100| 9999| 64
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft Visual Foxpro| Unlimited| 2 GB| 65,500 B| 255| 2 GB| 16 MB| 32 bits| 0001| 9999| 10
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft SQL Server| 524,272 TB (32 767 files * 16 TB max file size)16ZB per instance| 524,272 TB
#limit 6>6| 1,024/30,000(with sparse columns)| 2 GB/Unlimited (using RBS/FILESTREAM object)#limit 6>6#limit 2>2| 0001| 9999| 128
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft SQL Server Compact (Embedded Database)| 4 GB| 4 GB| 8,060 bytes| 1024| 2 GB| 4000| 154 bits| 0001| 9999| 128
! style="text-align:left" | Mimer SQL| Unlimited| Unlimited| 16000| 252| Unlimited| 15000| 45 digits| 0001-01-01| 9999-12-31| 128
! style="text-align:left" | MonetDB| Unlimited| Unlimited| Unlimited| Unlimited| Unlimited| Unlimited| 64 bits| 0| 9999-12-31| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | MySQL| Unlimited| MyISAM storage limits: 256 TB; Innodb storage limits: 64 TB
#limit 3>3#limit 4>4| 4 GB (longtext, longblob)| 64 KB (text)| 64 bits| 1000| 9999| 64
! style="text-align:left" | OpenLink Virtuoso| 32 TB per instance (Unlimited via elastic cluster)| DB size (or 32 TB)| 4 KB| 200| 2 GB| 2 GB| 231| 0| 9999| 100
! style="text-align:left" | Oracle| 2PB (with standard 8k block)8PB (with max 32k block)8EB (with max 32k block and BIGFILE option)| 4 GB * block size (with BIGFILE tablespace)| 8 KB| 1,000| 128 TB
#limit 11>11| 126 bits| −4712| 9999| 128
! style="width:16em" |! Max DB size! Max table size! Max row size! Max columns per row! Max Blob/Clob size! Max CHAR size! Max NUMBER size! Min DATE value! Max DATE value! Max column name size
! style="text-align:left" | Pervasive PSQL| 4 billion objects| 256 GB| 2 GB| 1,536| 2 GB| 8,000 bytes| 64 bits| 01-01-0001| 12-31-9999| 128 bytes
! style="text-align:left" | Polyhedra| Limited by available RAM, address space| 232 rows| Unlimited| 65,536| 4 GB (subject to RAM)| 4 GB (subject to RAM)| 64 bits| 0001-01-01| 8000-12-31| 255
! style="text-align:left" | PostgreSQL| Unlimited| 32 TB| 1.6 TB| 250–1600 depending on type| 1 GB (text, byteaweblink{{snd}} stored inline or 4 TB (stored in pg_largeobjectweblink | 1 GB| Unlimited| −4,713| 5,874,897| 63
! style="text-align:left" | Raima Database Manager| Unlimited| 248-1 rows| 32 KB| 1,000| 4 GB| char: 256, varchar: 4 KB| 64 bits| 0001-01-01| 11758978-12-31| 31
! style="text-align:left" | RDM Server| Unlimited| 264-1 rows| 32 KB| 32,768| Unlimited| 32 KB| 64 bits| 0001-01-01| 11758978-12-31| 32
! style="text-align:left" | SAP HANA| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | solidDB| 256 TB| 256 TB| 32 KB + BLOB data| Limited by row size| 4 GB| 4 GB| 64 bits| -32768-01-01| 32767-12-31| 254
! style="text-align:left" | SQL Anywhere| 104 TB (13 files, each file up to 8 TB (32 KB pages))| Limited by file size| Limited by file size| 45,000| 2 GB| 2 GB| 64 bits| 0001-01-01| 9999-12-31| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQLite| 128 TB (231 pages * 64 KB max page size)| Limited by file size| Limited by file size| 32,767| 2 GB| 2 GB| 64 bits
#limit 9>9#limit 9>9| Unlimited
! style="text-align:left" | Teradata| Unlimited| Unlimited| 64000 wo/lobs (64 GB w/lobs)| 2,048| 2 GB| 64,000| 38 digits| 0001-01-01| 9999-12-31| 128
! style="text-align:left" | UniVerse| Unlimited| Unlimited| Unlimited| Unlimited| Unlimited| Unlimited| Unlimited| Unlimited| Unlimited| Unlimited
!! Max DB size! Max table size! Max row size! Max columns per row! Max Blob/Clob size! Max CHAR size! Max NUMBER size! Min DATE value! Max DATE value! Max column name size
(#limit 1 back|Note (1):) Firebird 2.x maximum database size is effectively unlimited with the largest known database size >980 GB.{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = Firebird SQL
| series = Guide
| title = Technical Specifications
}} Firebird 1.5.x maximum database size: 32 TB.
(#limit 2 back|Note (2):) Limit is 1038 using DECIMAL datatype.{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = Microsoft
| series = MSDN
| title = Library
}}
(#limit 3 back|Note (3):) InnoDB is limited to 8,000 bytes (excluding VARBINARY, VARCHAR, BLOB, or TEXT columns).{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = Oracle
| series = MySQL Documentation
| title = Reference Manual
| number = 5.1
| chapter = Column count limit
}}
(#limit 4 back|Note (4):) InnoDB is limited to 1,000 columns.(#limit 6 back|Note (6):) Using VARCHAR (MAX) in SQL 2005 and later.{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = Microsoft
| series = SQL Server Documentation
| title = TechNet Library
| number = 2012
| chapter = Row-Overflow Considerations
}}
(#limit 7 back|Note (7):) When using a page size of 32 KB, and when BLOB/CLOB data is stored in the database file.(#limit 8 back|Note (8):) Java array size limit of 2,147,483,648 (231) objects per array applies. This limit applies to number of characters in names, rows per table, columns per table, and characters per CHAR/VARCHAR.(#limit 9 back|Note (9):) Despite the lack of a date datatype, SQLite does include date and time functions,{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = SQLite
| title = Language
| chapter = Date functions
}} which work for timestamps between 24 November 4714 B.C. and 1 November 5352.
(#limit 10 back|Note (10):) Informix DATETIME type has adjustable range from YEAR only through 1/10000th second. DATETIME date range is 0001-01-01 00:00:00.00000 through 9999-12-31 23:59:59.99999.(#limit 11 back|Note (11):) Since version 12c. Earlier versions support up to 4000 B.(#limit 12 back|Note (12):) The 128PB limit refers to the storage limit of a single Informix server instance. Informix v12.10 and later versions support using sharding techniques to distribute a table across multiple server instances. A distributed Informix database has no upper limit on table or database size.

Tables and views

Information about what tables and views (other than basic ones) are supported natively.{| style="text-align: center; width: 95%" class="wikitable sortable"! style="width:16em" |! Temporary table! Materialized view
! style="text-align:left" | 4th Dimension| {{Yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | ADABAS| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Adaptive Server Enterprise
#tb 1>1| {{yes}} - see precomputed result sets
! style="text-align:left" | Advantage Database Server| {{yes}}| {{no}} (only common views)
! style="text-align:left" | Altibase| {{yes}}| {{no}} (only common views)
! style="text-align:left" | Apache Derby| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | ClustrixDB| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | CUBRID| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | DB2| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Empress Embedded Database| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | EXASolution| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Firebird| {{yes}}| {{no}} (only common views)
! style="text-align:left" | HSQLDB| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | H2| {{yes}}| {{no}} (only common views)
! style="text-align:left" | Informix Dynamic Server| {{yes}}
#tb 2>2
! style="text-align:left" | Ingres| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | InterBase| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Linter SQL RDBMS| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | LucidDB| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | MariaDB| {{yes}}
#tb 4>4
! style="text-align:left" | MaxDB| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft Access (JET)| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft Visual Foxpro| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft SQL Server| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft SQL Server Compact (Embedded Database)| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Mimer SQL| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | MonetDB| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | MySQL| {{yes}}
#tb 4>4
! style="text-align:left" | OpenBase SQL| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Oracle| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Oracle Rdb| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | OpenLink Virtuoso| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Pervasive PSQL| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Polyhedra DBMS| {{no}}| {{no}} (only common views)
! style="text-align:left" | PostgreSQL| {{yes}}
#tb 5>5
! style="text-align:left" | Raima Database Manager| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | RDM Server| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | SAP HANA| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | solidDB| {{yes}}| {{no}} (only common views)
! style="text-align:left" | SQL Anywhere| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQLite| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Teradata| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | UniData| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | UniVerse| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="width:16em" |! Temporary table! Materialized view
(#tb 1 back|Note (1):) Server provides tempdb, which can be used for public and private (for the session) temp tables.{{Citation
| url =weblink
| archive-url =weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051023153932weblink">weblink
| dead-url = yes
| archive-date = 2005-10-23
| publisher = Sybase
| title = Online books
}}
(#tb 2 back|Note (2):) Materialized views are not supported in Informix; the term is used in IBM's documentation to refer to a temporary table created to run the view's query when it is too complex, but one cannot for example define the way it is refreshed or build an index on it. The term is defined in the Informix Performance Guide.{{Citation
| publisher = IBM
| url =weblink
| series = Info Centre
| title = Informix Performance Guide
}}
(#tb 4 back|Note (4):) Materialized views can be emulated using stored procedures and triggers.{{Citation
| publisher = Red Noize
| series = Pure
| title = Archives
| number = 13
| url =weblink
| deadurl = yes
| archiveurl =weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060423094210weblink">weblink
| archivedate = 2006-04-23
| df =
}}
(#tb 5 back|Note (5):) Materialized views are now standard.

Indexes

Information about what indexes (other than basic B-/B+ tree indexes) are supported natively.{| style="text-align: center; width: 95%; font-size:80%" class="wikitable sortable"! style="width:16em" |! R-/R+ tree! Hash! Expression! Partial! Reverse! Bitmap! GiST! GIN! Full-text! Spatial! FOT! Duplicate index prevention
! style="text-align:left" | 4th Dimension| {{dunno}}
Cluster| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | ADABAS| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Adaptive Server Enterprise| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Advantage Database Server| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Apache Derby| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}{{Citation
| url =weblink
| chapter = Derby
| title = Full Text Indexing, Search
| publisher = Apache
| series = Issues
}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | ClustrixDB| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | CUBRID| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}WEB
,weblink
, CUBRID 9.0 release
, | {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | DB2| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = IBM
| series = Developer Works
| title = Full-text search with DB2 Text Search
}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Empress Embedded Database| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | EXASolution| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Firebird| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = Firebird FAQ
| title = Does Firebird support full-text search?
}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | HSQLDB| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | H2| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = H2 Database
| title = Fulltext Search
| series = Tutorial
}}| {{yes}}{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = H2 Database
| title = Create Spatial Index
| series = Grammar
}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Informix Dynamic Server| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = IBM
| title = Forest of Trees Index
| series = Informix Infocenter
}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Ingres| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
Ingres v10}}| {{no}}| {{no}}Ingres v10}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | InterBase| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Linter SQL RDBMS10| {{no}}| {{yes}} temporary indexes for equality joins| {{yes}} for some scalar functions like LOWER and UPPER| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = Linter
| place = RU
| series = Documentation
| title = Full Text Search Functions
| format = PDF
}}| {{yes}}{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = Linter
| place = RU
| series = Documentation
| title = Characteristics
}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | LucidDB| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | MariaDB
Aria and MyISAM tables and, since v10.2.2, InnoDB tables only{{Citation
| publisher = mariadb.com
| series = MariaDB
| url =weblink
| title = SPATIAL INDEX
| accessdate = 24 September 2017
}}
MEMORY,WEB,weblink Storage Engine Index Types, mariadb.com, 25 April 2016, InnoDB,5 tables only PERSISTENT virtual columns only{{Citation
| url =weblink
| title = Virtual Columns - MariaDB Knowledge Base
}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}WEB
,weblink
, Fulltext Index Overview
, mariadb.com
, 25 April 2016
,
Aria and MyISAM tables and, since v10.2.2, InnoDB tables only| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | MaxDB| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft Access (JET)| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = Stack Overflow
| series = Questions
| title = Does Microsoft Access have Full Text Search?
}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft Visual Foxpro| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
#idx 2>2| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft SQL Server
Spatial Indexes#idx 4>4#idx 3>3| {{yes}}on Computed columns3Bitmap filter index for Star Join Query| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}{{Citation
| publisher = Microsoft
| series = MSDN
| url =weblink
| title = Library
| chapter = Microsoft SQL Server Full-Text Search
}}| {{yes}}{{Citation
| publisher = Microsoft
| series = Tech Net
| url =weblink
| title = Library
| chapter = Spatial Indexing Overview
}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft SQL Server Compact (Embedded Database)| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}{{Citation
| publisher = Microsoft
| series = MSDN
| url =weblink
| title = Forums
| chapter = Microsoft SQL Server Compact Full-text search is not available
}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Mimer SQL| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | MonetDB| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | MySQL
Spatial Indexes{{Citation
| publisher = Oracle
| series = MySQL
| url =weblink
| title = Index Types Per Storage Engine
| access-date = 24 September 2017


}}
MEMORY, Cluster (NDB), InnoDB,5 tables only| {{no}}{{Citation
| publisher = Oracle
| series = MySQL
| url =weblink
| title = Bugs
| chapter = Feature request #4990: Functional Indexes
}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
MyISAM tables{{Citation
| publisher = Oracle
| series = MySQL
| url =weblink
| title = Bugs
| chapter = Feature request #13979: InnoDB engine doesn't support FULLTEXT
}} and, since v5.6.4, InnoDB tables{{Citation
| publisher = Oracle
| series = MySQL
| url =weblink
| title = Release Notes
| chapter = MySQL v5.6.4 Release Notes
}}
MyISAM tables{{Citation
| publisher = Oracle
| series = MySQL
| url =weblink
| title = Creating Spatial Indexes
}} and, since v5.7.5, InnoDB tables{{Citation
| publisher = Oracle
| series = MySQL
| url =weblink
| title = Changes in MySQL 5.7.5
}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | OpenLink Virtuoso| {{yes}}
Cluster| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (Commercial only)| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Oracle
#idx 11>11 Cluster Tables| {{yes}}#idx 6>6| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = Stack Overflow
| series = Questions
| title = Does Oracle support full text search?
}}| {{yes}}{{Citation
| publisher = Oracle
| series = Tech Network
| url =weblink
| title = Spatial & Locator
| chapter = Location Features for Database 11g
}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}Oracle / PLSQL: ORA-01408 Error Message
! style="text-align:left" | Oracle Rdb| {{No}}| {{Yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{No}}| {{No}}| {{dunno}}| {{No}}| {{No}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Pervasive PSQL| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Polyhedra DBMS| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | PostgreSQL| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
#idx 7>7| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}{{Citation
| publisher = PostgreSQL community
| series = Documentation
| number = 8.4
| url =weblink
| title = Full Text Search
}}
PostGIS{{Citation
| publisher = PostGIS PSC
| series = PostGIS
| url =weblink
| title = Manual
| chapter = 4
}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Raima Database Manager| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | RDM Server| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | SAP HANA| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | solidDB| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQL Anywhere| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQLite| {{yes}}The SQLite R*Tree Module| {{no}}| {{yes}}SQLite Expression Indexes| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}SQLite FTS3 Extension
SpatiaLite{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = Gaia GIS
| place = IT
| title = SpatiaLite
| number = 2.3.1
}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQream DB| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Teradata| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = Teradata
| series = Online Publications
| title = Full-Text Search
}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | UniVerse| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
#idx 3>3#idx 3>3#idx 3>3| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}Teradata Geospatial>geospatial| {{dunno}}| {{no}}
|!! R-/R+ tree! Hash! Expression! Partial! Reverse! Bitmap! GiST! GIN! Full-text! Spatial! FOT! Duplicate index prevention
(#idx 1 back|Note (1):) The users need to use a function from freeAdhocUDF library or similar.{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = Ad Hoc Data
| title = UDF
}}
(#idx 2 back|Note (2):) Can be implemented for most data types using expression-based indexes.(#idx 3 back|Note (3):) Can be emulated by indexing a computed column{{Citation
| series = MSDN
| url =weblink
| publisher = Microsoft
| title = Library
| chapter = Create DB
}} (doesn't easily update) or by using an "Indexed View"{{Citation
| series = MSDN
| publisher = Microsoft
| url =weblink
| title = Library
| chapter = SQL
}} (proper name not just any view worksBOOK
, Petkovic
, Dusan
, Microsoft SQL Server 2005: A Beginner's Guide
, McGraw-Hill Professional
, 2005
, 978-0-07-226093-9
, 300
, ).
(#idx 4 back|Note (4):) Used for InMemory ColumnStore index, temporary hash index for hash join, Non/Cluster & fill factor.(#idx 5 back|Note (5):) InnoDB automatically generates adaptive hash index{{Citation
| publisher = Oracle
| url =weblink
| title = Reference manual
| chapter = InnoDB adaptive Hash
| number = 5.0
| series = Development documentation
}} entries as needed.
(#idx 6 back|Note (6):) Can be implemented using Function-based Indexes in Oracle 8i and higher, but the function needs to be used in the sql for the index to be used.(#idx 7 back|Note (7):) A PostgreSQL functional index can be used to reverse the order of a field.(#idx 10 back|Note (10):) B+ tree and full-text only for now.(#idx 11 back|Note (11):) R-Tree indexing available in base edition with Locator but some functionality requires Personal Edition or Enterprise Edition with Spatial option.">

Database capabilities{| style"text-align: center; width: 95%; font-size:80%" class"wikitable sortable"

! style="width:16em" |! Union! Intersect! Except! Inner joins! Outer joins! Inner selects! Merge joins! Blobs and Clobs! Common Table Expressions! Windowing Functions! Parallel Query
! style="text-align:left" | 4th Dimension| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | ADABAS| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Adaptive Server Enterprise| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Advantage Database Server| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Altibase| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
Yes, via MINUS}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{No}}| {{No}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | Apache Derby| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | ClustrixDB| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | CUBRID| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | DB2| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = IBM
| series = Developer Works
| title = Library
| chapter = Article
}}
! style="text-align:left" | Empress Embedded Database| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | EXASolution| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Firebird| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | HSQLDB| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}New Features in HyperSQL 2.2| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | H2| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| experimentalH2 > Advanced > Recursive Queries| {{no}}H2 Roadmap| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Informix Dynamic Server| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
Yes, via MINUS}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}Informix parallel data query (PDQ)
! style="text-align:left" | Ingres| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | InterBase| {{Yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{Yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Linter SQL RDBMS| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{No}}
! style="text-align:left" | LucidDB| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | MariaDB| {{yes}}
10.3+}}HTTPS://MARIADB.COM/KB/EN/LIBRARY/INTERSECT/ >TITLE=INTERSECT, mariadb.com, 10.3+}}HTTPS://MARIADB.COM/KB/EN/LIBRARY/EXCEPT/ >TITLE=EXCEPT, mariadb.com, | {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}WEB
,weblink
, CTE implemented in 10.2.2
, mariadb.org
, 26 July 2017
, | {{yes}}WEB
,weblink
, Window Functions Overview
, mariadb.com
, 25 April 2016
, | {{no}}{{Citation
| publisher = Oracle
| series = MySQL
| url =weblink
| title = Bugs
| chapter = Feature request #1542: Parallel query
}}
! style="text-align:left" | MaxDB| {{Yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{no}}| {{Yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft Access (JET)| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft Visual Foxpro| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft SQL Server| {{yes}}| {{yes}} | {{yes}} | {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = Microsoft
| title = Only very limited functions available before SQL Server 2012
}}| {{yes}}{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = Microsoft
| series = MSDN
| title = Library
| chapter = SQL Server Parallel Query Processing
}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft SQL Server Compact (Embedded Database)| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Mimer SQL| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | MonetDB| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | MySQL| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}
8+}}{{Citation
| publisher = Oracle
| series = MySQL
| url =weblink
| title = Bugs
| chapter = Feature request #16244: SQL-99 Derived table WITH clause (CTE)
}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | OpenBase SQL| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | OpenLink Virtuoso| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Oracle| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
Yes, via MINUS}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}#capa 1>1| {{yes}}| {{yes}}{{Citation
| publisher = Ora FAQ
| series = Wiki
| url =weblink
| title = Parallel Query
}}
! style="text-align:left" | Oracle Rdb| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Pervasive PSQL| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Polyhedra DBMS| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | PostgreSQL| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
8.4+}}HUBER >FIRST=MATHIAS TITLE=POSTGRESQL 8.4 PROVES FEATURE-RICH MAGAZINE=LINUX MAGAZINE, 2016-10-17, | {{yes}}| {{yes}}{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = PostgreSQL
| title = Parallel Query
}}
! style="text-align:left" | Raima Database Manager| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | RDM Server| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | SAP HANA| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | solidDB| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQL Anywhere| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQLite| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
LEFT only}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}3.8.3+}}SQLite Query Language: WITH clause| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQream DB
ALL only}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Teradata| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | UniVerse| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! |! Union! Intersect! Except! Inner joins! Outer joins! Inner selects! Merge joins! Blobs and Clobs! Common Table Expressions! Windowing Functions! Parallel Query
(#capa 1 back|Note (1):)Recursive CTEs introduced in 11gR2 supersedes similar construct called CONNECT BY.">

Data types{| style"text-align: center; width: 95%; font-size: 80%;" class"wikitable sortable"

! style="width:16em" |! Type system! Integer! Floating point! Decimal! String! Binary! Date/Time! Boolean! Other
! style="text-align:left" | 4th Dimension| Static| UUID (16-bit), SMALLINT (16-bit), INT (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit), NUMERIC (64-bit)| REAL, FLOAT| REAL, FLOAT| CLOB, TEXT, VARCHAR| BIT, BIT VARYING, BLOB| DURATION, INTERVAL, TIMESTAMP| BOOLEAN| PICTURE
! style="text-align:left" | Altibase{{Citation
| publisher = Altibase
| series = HDB
| url =weblink
| title = General Reference
| chapter = Data Types
}}| Static| SMALLINT (16-bit), INTEGER (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit)| REAL (32-bit), DOUBLE (64-bit)| DECIMAL, NUMERIC, NUMBER, FLOAT| CHAR, VARCHAR, NCHAR, NVARCHAR, CLOB| BLOB, BYTE, NIBBLE, BIT, VARBIT| DATE| | GEOMETRY
! style="text-align:left" | ClustrixDB| Static| TINYINT (8-bit), SMALLINT (16-bit), MEDIUMINT (24-bit), INT (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit)| FLOAT (32-bit), DOUBLE| DECIMAL| CHAR, BINARY, VARCHAR, VARBINARY, TEXT, TINYTEXT, MEDIUMTEXT, LONGTEXT| TINYBLOB, BLOB, MEDIUMBLOB, LONGBLOB| DATETIME, DATE, TIMESTAMP, YEAR| BIT(1), BOOLEAN| ENUM, SET,
! style="text-align:left" | CUBRID{{Citation
| publisher = CUBRID
| series = Reference Manual
| url =weblink
| title = CUBRID SQL Guide
| chapter = Data Types
}}| Static| SMALLINT (16-bit), INTEGER (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit)| FLOAT, REAL(32-bit), DOUBLE(64-bit)| DECIMAL, NUMERIC| CHAR, VARCHAR, NCHAR, NVARCHAR, CLOB| BLOB| DATE, DATETIME, TIME, TIMESTAMP| BIT| MONETARY, BIT VARYING, SET, MULTISET, SEQUENCE, ENUM
! style="text-align:left" | DB2| {{dunno}}| SMALLINT (16-bit), INTEGER (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit)| DECFLOAT, REAL, DOUBLE| DECIMAL| CLOB, CHAR, VARCHAR| BINARY, VARBINARY, BLOB| DATE, TIME, TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE, TIMESTAMP WITHOUT TIME ZONE| BOOLEAN| XML, GRAPHIC, VARGRAPHIC, DBCLOB, ROWID
! style="text-align:left" | Empress Embedded Database| Static| TINYINT, SQL_TINYINT, or INTEGER8; SMALLINT, SQL_SMALLINT, or INTEGER16; INTEGER, INT, SQL_INTEGER, or INTEGER32; BIGINT, SQL_BIGINT, or INTEGER64| REAL, SQL_REAL, or FLOAT32; DOUBLE PRECISION, SQL_DOUBLE, or FLOAT64; FLOAT, or SQL_FLOAT; EFLOAT| DECIMAL, DEC, NUMERIC, SQL_DECIMAL, or SQL_NUMERIC; DOLLAR| CHARACTER, ECHARACTER, CHARACTER VARYING, NATIONAL CHARACTER, NATIONAL CHARACTER VARYING, NLSCHARACTER, CHARACTER LARGE OBJECT, TEXT, NATIONAL CHARACTER LARGE OBJECT, NLSTEXT| BINARY LARGE OBJECT or BLOB; BULK| DATE, EDATE, TIME, ETIME, EPOCH_TIME, TIMESTAMP, MICROTIMESTAMP| BOOLEAN| SEQUENCE 32, SEQUENCE
! style="text-align:left" | EXASolution| Static| TINYINT, SMALLINT, INTEGER, BIGINT,| REAL, FLOAT, DOUBLE| DECIMAL, DEC, NUMERIC, NUMBER| CHAR, NCHAR, VARCHAR, VARCHAR2, NVARCHAR, NVARCHAR2, CLOB, NCLOB| N/A| DATE, TIMESTAMP, INTERVAL| BOOLEAN, BOOL| GEOMETRY
! style="text-align:left" | FileMakerWEB
, FileMaker 14 Tech Specs
,weblink
, FileMaker=May 12, 2015
, | Static| Not Supported| Not Supported| NUMBER| TEXT| CONTAINER| TIMESTAMP| Not Supported|
! style="text-align:left" | FirebirdWEB
, Migration from MS-SQL to Firebird
,weblink
, Firebird Project
, April 12, 2015
, | {{dunno}}| INT64, INTEGER, SMALLINT| DOUBLE, FLOAT| DECIMAL, NUMERIC, DECIMAL(18, 4), DECIMAL(10, 4)| BLOB, CHAR, CHAR(x) CHARACTER SET UNICODE_FSS, VARCHAR(x) CHARACTER SET UNICODE_FSS, VARCHAR| BLOB SUB_TYPE TEXT, BLOB| DATE, TIME, TIMESTAMP (without time zone)| BOOLEAN| TIMESTAMP, CHAR(38)
! style="width:16em" |! Type system! Integer! Floating point! Decimal! String! Binary! Date/Time! Boolean! Other
! style="text-align:left" | HSQLDB{{Citation
| publisher = HSQLDB
| series = Documents
| number = 2.0
| title = Guide
| url =weblink
| chapter = General: HSQLDB data types
}}| Static| TINYINT (8-bit), SMALLINT (16-bit), INTEGER (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit)| DOUBLE (64-bit)| DECIMAL, NUMERIC| CHAR, VARCHAR, LONGVARCHAR, CLOB| BINARY, VARBINARY, LONGVARBINARY, BLOB| DATE, TIME, TIMESTAMP, INTERVAL| BOOLEAN| OTHER (object), BIT, BIT VARYING, ARRAY
! style="text-align:left" | Informix Dynamic ServerWEB
, IBM
, Publications
,weblink
, IBM Informix Guide to SQL: Reference, v11.50 (SC23-7750-04)
, August 7, 2013
, | Static + UDT| SMALLINT (16-bit), INT (32-bit), INT8 (64-bit proprietary), BIGINT (64-bit)| SMALLFLOAT (32-bit), FLOAT (64-bit)| DECIMAL (32 digits float/fixed), MONEY| CHAR, VARCHAR, NCHAR, NVARCHAR, LVARCHAR, CLOB, TEXT| TEXT, BYTE, BLOB, CLOB| DATE, DATETIME, INTERVAL| BOOLEAN| SET, LIST, MULTISET, ROW, TIMESERIES, SPATIAL, JSON, BSON, USER DEFINED TYPES
! style="text-align:left" | Ingres{{Citation
| publisher = Ingres
| series = Doucments
| number = 9.3
| url =weblink
| title = SQL Reference Guide
| chapter = 3: Understanding SQL Data Types
}}| Static| TINYINT (8-bit), SMALLINT (16-bit), INTEGER (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit)| FLOAT4 (32-bit), FLOAT (64-bit)| DECIMAL| C, CHAR, VARCHAR, LONG VARCHAR, NCHAR, NVARCHAR, LONG NVARCHAR, TEXT| BYTE, VARBYTE, LONG VARBYTE (BLOB)| DATE, ANSIDATE, INGRESDATE, TIME, TIMESTAMP, INTERVAL| N/A| MONEY, OBJECT_KEY, TABLE_KEY, USER-DEFINED DATA TYPES (via OME)
! style="text-align:left" | Linter SQL RDBMS| Static + Dynamic (in stored procedures)| SMALLINT (16-bit), INTEGER (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit)| REAL(32-bit), DOUBLE(64-bit)| DECIMAL, NUMERIC| CHAR, VARCHAR, NCHAR, NVARCHAR, BLOB| BYTE, VARBYTE, BLOB| DATE| BOOLEAN| GEOMETRY, EXTFILE
! style="text-align:left" | MariaDBWEB
,weblink
, Data Types
, mariadb.com
, 25 April 2016
, | Static| TINYINT (8-bit), SMALLINT (16-bit), MEDIUMINT (24-bit), INT (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit)| FLOAT (32-bit), DOUBLE (aka REAL) (64-bit)| DECIMAL| CHAR, BINARY, VARCHAR, VARBINARY, TEXT, TINYTEXT, MEDIUMTEXT, LONGTEXT| TINYBLOB, BLOB, MEDIUMBLOB, LONGBLOB| DATETIME, DATE, TIMESTAMP, YEAR| BIT(1), BOOLEAN (aka BOOL) = synonym for TINYINT| ENUM, SET, GIS data types (Geometry, Point, Curve, LineString, Surface, Polygon, GeometryCollection, MultiPoint, MultiCurve, MultiLineString, MultiSurface, MultiPolygon)
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft SQL Server{{Citation
| publisher = Microsoft
| series = MSDN
| title = Library
| url =weblink
| chapter = SQL Server Data Types
}}| Static| TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, BIGINT| FLOAT, REAL| NUMERIC, DECIMAL, SMALLMONEY, MONEY| CHAR, VARCHAR, TEXT, NCHAR, NVARCHAR, NTEXT| BINARY, VARBINARY, IMAGE, FILESTREAM, FILETABLE| DATE, DATETIMEOFFSET, DATETIME2, SMALLDATETIME, DATETIME, TIME| BIT| CURSOR, TIMESTAMP, HIERARCHYID, UNIQUEIDENTIFIER, SQL_VARIANT, XML, TABLE, Geometry, Geography, Custom .NET datatypes
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft SQL Server Compact (Embedded Database){{Citation
| publisher = Microsoft
| series = MSDN
| title = Library
| url =weblink
| chapter = SQL Server Compact Data Types
}}| Static| TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, BIGINT| FLOAT, REAL| NUMERIC, DECIMAL, MONEY| NCHAR, NVARCHAR, NTEXT| BINARY, VARBINARY, IMAGE| DATETIME| BIT| TIMESTAMP, ROWVERSION, UNIQUEIDENTIFIER, IDENTITY, ROWGUIDCOL
! style="text-align:left" | Mimer SQL| Static| SMALLINT, INT, BIGINT, INTEGER(n)| FLOAT, REAL, DOUBLE, FLOAT(n)| NUMERIC, DECIMAL| CHAR, VARCHAR, NCHAR, NVARCHAR, CLOB, NCLOB| BINARY, VARBINARY, BLOB| DATE, TIME, TIMESTAMP, INTERVAL| BOOLEAN| DOMAINS, USER-DEFINED TYPES (including the pre-defined spatial data types location, latitude, longitude and coordinate)
! style="text-align:left" | MonetDB| Static| TINYINT, SMALLINT, INT, BIGINT| FLOAT, REAL, DOUBLE| NUMERIC, DECIMAL| VARCHAR(n),CHAR(n),CLOB| BLOB| DATE, TIME, DATETIME, TIMESTAMP| BIT| TIME WITH TIME ZONE TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE, DAY, MONTH, YEAR, INTERVAL
! style="text-align:left" | MySQL{{Citation
| publisher = Oracle
| series = MySQL
| title = Reference manual
| number = 5.0
| url =weblink
| chapter = 10. Data Types
}}| Static| TINYINT (8-bit), SMALLINT (16-bit), MEDIUMINT (24-bit), INT (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit)| FLOAT (32-bit), DOUBLE (aka REAL) (64-bit)| DECIMAL| CHAR, BINARY, VARCHAR, VARBINARY, TEXT, TINYTEXT, MEDIUMTEXT, LONGTEXT| TINYBLOB, BLOB, MEDIUMBLOB, LONGBLOB| DATETIME, DATE, TIMESTAMP, YEAR| BIT(1), BOOLEAN (aka BOOL) = synonym for TINYINT| ENUM, SET, GIS data types (Geometry, Point, Curve, LineString, Surface, Polygon, GeometryCollection, MultiPoint, MultiCurve, MultiLineString, MultiSurface, MultiPolygon)
! style="text-align:left" | OpenLink Virtuoso{{Citation
| publisher = OpenLink Software
| url =weblink
| title = SQL Reference
| chapter = Datatypes
}}| Static + Dynamic| INT, INTEGER, SMALLINT| REAL, DOUBLE PRECISION, FLOAT, FLOAT'('INTNUM')'| DECIMAL, DECIMAL'('INTNUM')', DECIMAL'('INTNUM', 'INTNUM')', NUMERIC, NUMERIC'('INTNUM')', NUMERIC'('INTNUM', 'INTNUM')'| CHARACTER, CHAR'('INTNUM')', VARCHAR, VARCHAR'('INTNUM')', NVARCHAR, NVARCHAR'('INTNUM')'| BLOB| TIMESTAMP, DATETIME, TIME, DATE| n/a| ANY, REFERENCE (IRI, URI), UDT (User Defined Type), GEOMETRY (BOX, BOX2D, BOX3D, BOXM, BOXZ, BOXZM, CIRCULARSTRING, COMPOUNDCURVE, CURVEPOLYGON, EMPTY, GEOMETRYCOLLECTION, GEOMETRYCOLLECTIONM, GEOMETRYCOLLECTIONZ, GEOMETRYCOLLECTIONZM, LINESTRING, LINESTRINGM, LINESTRINGZ, LINESTRINGZM, MULTICURVE, MULTILINESTRING, MULTILINESTRINGM, MULTILINESTRINGZ, MULTILINESTRINGZM, MULTIPOINT, MULTIPOINTM, MULTIPOINTZ, MULTIPOINTZM, MULTIPOLYGON, MULTIPOLYGONM, MULTIPOLYGONZ, MULTIPOLYGONZM, POINT, POINTM, POINTZ, POINTZM, POLYGON, POLYGONM, POLYGONZ, POLYGONZM, POLYLINE, POLYLINEZ, RING, RINGM, RINGZ, RINGZM)
! style="width:16em" |! Type system! Integer! Floating point! Decimal! String! Binary! Date/Time! Boolean! Other
! style="text-align:left" | Oracle{{Citation
| publisher = Oracle
| series = Server documents
| title = SQL Reference
| number = 11.2
| url =weblink
| chapter = Data Types
}}| Static + Dynamic (through ANYDATA)| NUMBER| BINARY_FLOAT, BINARY_DOUBLE| NUMBER| CHAR, VARCHAR2, CLOB, NCLOB, NVARCHAR2, NCHAR, LONG (deprecated)| BLOB, RAW, LONG RAW (deprecated), BFILE| DATE, TIMESTAMP (with/without TIMEZONE), INTERVAL| N/A| SPATIAL, IMAGE, AUDIO, VIDEO, DICOM, XMLType
! style="text-align:left" | Pervasive PSQL{{Citation
| publisher = Pervasive
| series = Product documentation
| url =weblink
| title = Pervasive PSQL Supported Data Types
| chapter = Data Types
}}| Static| BIGINT, INTEGER, SMALLINT, TINYINT, UBIGINT, UINTEGER, USMALLINT, UTINYINT| BFLOAT4, BFLOAT8, DOUBLE, FLOAT| DECIMAL, NUMERIC, NUMERICSA, NUMERICSLB, NUMERICSLS, NUMERICSTB, NUMERICSTS| CHAR, LONGVARCHAR, VARCHAR| BINARY, LONGVARBINARY, VARBINARY| DATE, DATETIME, TIME| BIT| CURRENCY, IDENTITY, SMALLIDENTITY, TIMESTAMP, UNIQUEIDENTIFIER
! style="text-align:left" | Polyhedra{{Citation
| publisher = Enea AB
| series = Product documentation
| url =weblink
| title = Polyhedra SQL Reference Manual
}}| Static| INTEGER8 (8-bit), INTEGER(16-bit), INTEGER (32-bit), INTEGER64 (64-bit)| FLOAT32 (32-bit), FLOAT (aka REAL; 64-bit)| N/A| VARCHAR, LARGE VARCHAR (aka CHARACTER LARGE OBJECT)| LARGE BINARY (aka BINARY LARGE OBJECT)| DATETIME| BOOLEAN| N/A
! style="text-align:left" | PostgreSQL{{Citation
| publisher = PostgreSQL community
| series = Documents
| number = 10
| url =weblink
| title = Manual
| chapter = Data Types
}}| Static| SMALLINT (16-bit), INTEGER (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit)| REAL (32-bit), DOUBLE PRECISION (64-bit)| DECIMAL, NUMERIC| CHAR, VARCHAR, TEXT| BYTEA| DATE, TIME (with/without TIMEZONE), TIMESTAMP (with/without TIMEZONE), INTERVAL| BOOLEAN| ENUM, POINT, LINE, LSEG, BOX, PATH, POLYGON, CIRCLE, CIDR, INET, MACADDR, BIT, UUID, XML, JSON, JSONB, arrays, composites, ranges, custom
! style="text-align:left" | Raima Database Manager{{Citation
| publisher = Raima
| title = SQL Reference
| number = 14.0
| url =weblink
| chapter = Defining a Database
}}| Static| tinyint, smallint, integer, bigint| real, float, double| N/A| char, varchar, wchar, varwchar, long varchar, long varwchar| binary, varbinary, long varbinary| date, time, timestamp| bit| N/A
! style="text-align:left" | RDM Server{{Citation
| publisher = Raima
| title = SQL Reference
| number = 8.3
| url =weblink
| chapter = Defining Table Columns
}}| Static| tinyint, smallint, integer, bigint| real, float, double| decimal, numeric| char, varchar, wchar, varwchar, long varchar, long varwchar| binary, varbinary, long varbinary| date, time, timestamp| bit| rowid
! style="text-align:left" | SAP HANA| Static| TINYINT, SMALLINT, INTEGER, BIGINT| SMALLDECIMAL, REAL, DOUBLE, FLOAT, FLOAT(n)| DECIMAL| VARCHAR, NVARCHAR, ALPHANUM, SHORTTEXT| VARBINARY, BINTEXT, BLOB| DATE, TIME, SECONDDATE, TIMESTAMP| BOOLEAN| CLOB, NCLOB, TEXT, ARRAY, ST_GEOMETRY, ST_POINT, ST_MULTIPOINT, ST_LINESTRING, ST_MULTILINESTRING, ST_POLYGON, ST_MULTIPOLYGON, ST_GEOMETRYCOLLECTION, ST_CIRCULARSTRING
! style="text-align:left" | solidDB| Static| TINYINT (8-bit), SMALLINT (16-bit), INTEGER (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit)| REAL (32-bit), DOUBLE (64-bit), FLOAT (64-bit)| DECIMAL, NUMERIC (51 digits)| CHAR, VARCHAR, LONG VARCHAR, WCHAR, WVARCHAR, LONG WVARCHAR| BINARY, VARBINARY, LONG VARBINARY| DATE, TIME, TIMESTAMP| |
! style="text-align:left" | SQLite{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = SQLite
| title = Datatypes
| number = 3
}}| Dynamic| INTEGER (64-bit)| REAL (aka FLOAT, DOUBLE) (64-bit)| N/A| TEXT (aka CHAR, CLOB)| BLOB| N/A| N/A| N/A
! style="text-align:left" | SQream DB{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = SQream Technologies
| title = SQream SQL Reference Guide
}}| Static| TINYINT (8-bit), SMALLINT (16-bit), INTEGER (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit)| REAL (32-bit), DOUBLE (aka FLOAT) (64-bit)| N/A| CHAR, VARCHAR, NVARCHAR| N/A| DATE, DATETIME (aka TIMESTAMP)| BOOL| N/A
! style="width:16em" |! Type system! Integer! Floating point! Decimal! String! Binary! Date/Time! Boolean! Other
! style="text-align:left" | Teradata| Static| BYTEINT (8-bit), SMALLINT (16-bit), INTEGER (32-bit), BIGINT (64-bit)| FLOAT (64-bit)| DECIMAL, NUMERIC (38 digits)| CHAR, VARCHAR, CLOB| BYTE, VARBYTE, BLOB| DATE, TIME, TIMESTAMP (w/wo TIMEZONE)| | PERIOD, INTERVAL, GEOMETRY, XML, JSON, UDT (User Defined Type)
! style="text-align:left" | UniData| Dynamic| N/A| N/A| N/A| N/A| N/A| N/A| N/A| N/A
! style="text-align:left" | UniVerse| Dynamic| N/A| N/A| N/A| N/A| N/A| N/A| N/A| N/A
! |! Type system! Integer! Floating point! Decimal! String! Binary! Date/Time! Boolean! Other

Other objects

Information about what other objects are supported natively.{| style="text-align: center; width: 95%" class="wikitable sortable"! style="width:16em" |! Data Domain! Cursor! Trigger! Function 1! Procedure 1! External routine 1
! style="text-align:left" | 4th Dimension| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | ADABAS| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}?| {{yes}}?| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Adaptive Server Enterprise| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Advantage Database Server| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Altibase| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Apache Derby| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
#other 2>2#other 2>2#other 2>2
! style="text-align:left" | ClustrixDB| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | CUBRID| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
#other 2>2| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Empress Embedded Database| {{yes}} via RANGE CHECK| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | EXASolution| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | DB2| {{yes}} via CHECK CONSTRAINT| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Firebird| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | HSQLDB| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | H2| {{yes}}| {{no}}
#other 2>2#other 2>2#other 2>2| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Informix Dynamic Server| {{yes}} via CHECK| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
#other 5>5
! style="text-align:left" | Ingres| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | InterBase| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Linter SQL RDBMS| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | LucidDB| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}
#other 2>2#other 2>2#other 2>2
! style="text-align:left" | MariaDB
WEBSITE=MARIADB.COM, | {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | MaxDB| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft Access (JET)| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
Yes, But single DML/DDL Operation}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft Visual Foxpro| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft SQL Server| {{yes}} | {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft SQL Server Compact (Embedded Database)| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Mimer SQL| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | MonetDB| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | MySQL
#other 3>3| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | OpenBase SQL| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Oracle| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Oracle Rdb| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | OpenLink Virtuoso| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Pervasive PSQL| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Polyhedra DBMS| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | PostgreSQL| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Raima Database Manager| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | RDM Server| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | SAP HANA| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | solidDB| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQL Anywhere| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQLite| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Teradata| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | UniData| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | UniVerse| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! |! Data Domain! Cursor! Trigger! Function 1! Procedure 1! External routine 1
(#other 1 back|Note (1):) Both function and procedure refer to internal routines written in SQL and/or procedural language like PL/SQL. External routine refers to the one written in the host languages, such as C, Java, Cobol, etc. "Stored procedure" is a commonly used term for these routine types. However, its definition varies between different database vendors.(#other 2 back|Note (2):) In Derby, H2, LucidDB, and CUBRID, users code functions and procedures in Java.(#other 3 back|Note (3):) ENUM datatype exists. CHECK clause is parsed, but not enforced in runtime.(#other 5 back|Note (5):) Informix supports external functions written in Java, C, & C++.

Partitioning

Information about what partitioning methods are supported natively.{| style="text-align: center; width: 95%" class="wikitable sortable"! style="width:16em" |! Range! Hash! Composite (Range+Hash)! List! Expression
! style="text-align:left" | 4th Dimension| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | ADABAS| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Adaptive Server Enterprise| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Advantage Database Server| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Altibase| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Apache Derby| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | ClustrixDB| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | CUBRID| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | IBM DB2| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Empress Embedded Database| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | EXASolution| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Firebird| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | HSQLDB| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | H2| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Informix Dynamic Server| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Ingres| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | InterBase| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Linter SQL RDBMS| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | MariaDB| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | MaxDB| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft Access (JET)| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft Visual Foxpro| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft SQL Server| {{yes}}
via computed column}}via computed column}}| {{yes}}via computed column}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft SQL Server Compact (Embedded Database)| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Mimer SQL| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | MonetDB| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | MySQL| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | OpenBase SQL| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Oracle| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
via Virtual Columns}}
! style="text-align:left" | Oracle Rdb| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | OpenLink Virtuoso| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Pervasive PSQL| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | Polyhedra DBMS| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | PostgreSQL
#part 1>1#part 1>1#part 1>1#part 1>1#part 1>1
! style="text-align:left" | Raima Database Manager
#raima 2>2#raima 2>2#raima 2>2| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | RDM Server| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | SAP HANA| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | solidDB| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQL Anywhere| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQLite| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Teradata| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | UniVerse| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}
! |! Range! Hash! Composite (Range+Hash)! List! Expression
(#part 1 back|Note (1):) Since version 8.1 PostgreSQL provides partitioning support through check constraints.{{Citation
| publisher = PostgreSQL community
| url =weblink
| series = Developer
| title = Documents
| chapter = Release
| number = 8.1
}}
(#raima 2 back|Note (2):) Raima Database Manager 14.0 requires the application programs to select the correct partition (using range, hash or composite techniques) when adding data, but the database union functionality allows all partitions to be read as a single database.{{Citation
| publisher = Raima
| url =weblink
| title = User's Guide
| chapter = Database Unions
| number = 14.0
}}

Access control

Information about access control functionalities (work in progress).{| style="text-align: center; width: 95%; font-size: 80%" class="wikitable sortable"! style="width:16em" |! Native network encryption1! Brute-force protection! Enterprise directory compatibility! Password complexity rules2! Patch access3! Run unprivileged4! Audit! Resource limit! Separation of duties (RBAC)5! Security Certification! Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC)
! style="text-align:left" | 4D| {{yes}} (with SSL)| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Adaptive Server Enterprise| {{yes}} (optional; to pay)| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (optional ?)| {{yes}}| {{partial}} (need to register; depend on which product){{Citation
| publisher = Sybase
| series = Downloads
| title = Support
| url =weblink
}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
#ac 1>1)| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Advantage Database Server| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | DB2| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}} (LDAP, Kerberos…)| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
#ac 6>6)| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Empress Embedded Database| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | EXASolution| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}} (LDAP)| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Firebird| {{yes}}| {{yes}}{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = Firebird SQL
| series = Development
| title = Engine
| number = 2.0
| chapter = Release
}}| {{yes}} (Windows trusted authenification)| {{no}}| {{yes}} (no security page){{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = Firebird SQL
| title = Files
}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}WEB
, Trace and Audit Services
,weblink
, Firebird Project
, April 12, 2015
, | {{yes}}
#ac 7>7| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | HSQLDB| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | H2| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Informix Dynamic Server| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}
#ac 10>10#ac 10>10| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | Linter SQL RDBMS| {{yes}} (with SSL)| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (length only)| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | MariaDB| {{yes}} (SSL)| {{no}}| {{yes}} (with 5.2, but not on Windows servers)| {{yes}}WEB
,weblink
, cracklib_password_check
, mariadb.com
, 9 December 2014
, WEB
,weblink
, simple_password_check
, mariadb.com
, 9 December 2014
, | {{yes}}WEB
,weblink
, Security Vulnerabilities Fixed in MariaDB
, mariadb.com
, 25 April 2016
, | {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
#ac 8>8| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft SQL Server| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}} (Microsoft Active Directory)| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{Yes}} (From 2008)| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}
#ac 11>11)| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Microsoft SQL Server Compact (Embedded Database)| {{no}} (not relevant, only file permissions)| {{no}} (not relevant)| {{no}} (not relevant)| {{no}} (not relevant)| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (file access)| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Mimer SQL| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}
! style="text-align:left" | MySQL| {{yes}} (SSL with 4.0)| {{no}}| {{yes}} (with 5.5, but only in commercial edition)| {{no}}| {{partial}} (no security page){{Citation
| publisher = Oracle
| series = MySQL
| title = Development
| chapter = Downloads
| url =weblink
}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
#ac 8>8| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | OpenBase SQL| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}} (Open Directory, LDAP)| {{no}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | OpenLink Virtuoso| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (optional)| {{yes}} (optional)| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (optional)| {{yes}} (optional)| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}} (optional)
! style="text-align:left" | Oracle| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
#ac 1>1)| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Pervasive PSQL| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
#ac 12>12| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Polyhedra DBMS| {{yes}} (with SSL. Optional)| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}
#ac 13>13| {{yes}}#ac 13>13| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | PostgreSQL| {{yes}}| {{yes}} (for 9.1)
#ac 9>9)| {{yes}} (as of 9.0 with passwordcheck module)| {{yes}}{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = PostgreSQL community
| series = Support
| title = Security
}}| {{yes}}
Limited}}, with triggers{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = PostgreSQL community
| series = Support
| title = Audit trigger
}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
#ac 1>1)| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Raima Database Manager| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | RDM Server| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | SAP HANA| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | solidDB| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}} | {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{no}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQL Anywhere| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}} (Kerberos)| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}}
#ac 1>1 as Adaptive Server Anywhere)| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | SQLite| {{no}} (not relevant, only file permissions)| {{no}} (not relevant)| {{no}} (not relevant)| {{no}} (not relevant)| {{partial}} (no security page){{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = SQLite
| title = Download
}}| {{yes}} (file access)| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{no}}| {{dunno}}
! style="text-align:left" | Teradata| {{yes}}| {{no}}| {{yes}} (LDAP, Kerberos…)| {{yes}}| {{dunno}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}| {{yes}}
!! Native network encryption1! Brute-force protection! Enterprise directory compatibility! Password complexity rules2! Patch access3! Run unprivileged4! Audit! Resource limit! Separation of duties (RBAC)5! Security Certification! Attribute-Based Access Control (ABAC)
(Comparison of relational database management systems#ac 1|Note (1):) Network traffic could be transmitted in a secure way (not clear-text, in general SSL encryption). Precise if option is default, included option or an extra modules to buy.(Comparison of relational database management systems#ac 2|Note (2):) Options are present to set a minimum size for password, respect complexity like presence of numbers or special characters.(Comparison of relational database management systems#ac 3|Note (3):) How do you get security updates? Is it free access, do you need a login or to pay? Is there easy access through a Web/FTP portal or RSS feed or only through offline access (mail CD-ROM, phone).(Comparison of relational database management systems#ac 4|Note (4):) Does database process run as root/administrator or unprivileged user? What is default configuration?(Comparison of relational database management systems#ac 5|Note (5):) Is there a separate user to manage special operation like backup (only dump/restore permissions), security officer (audit), administrator (add user/create database), etc.? Is it default or optional?(#ac 6 back|Note (6):) Common Criteria certified product list.{{Citation
| publisher = Common Criteria Portal
| url =weblink
| series = Products
| title = DB
}}
(#ac 7 back|Note (7):) FirebirdSQL seems to only have SYSDBA user and DB owner. There are no separate roles for backup operator and security administrator.(#ac 8 back|Note (8):) User can define a dedicated backup user but nothing particular in default install.{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = Gentoo wiki
| series = How to
| title = Backup MySQL
}}
(#ac 9 back|Note (9):) Authentication methods.{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = PostgreSQL community
| series = Documents
| number = 8.1
| title = Authentication methods
}}
(#ac 10 back|Note (10):) Informix Dynamic Server supports PAM and other configurable authentication. By default uses OS authentication.(#ac 11 back|Note (11):) Authentication methods.{{Citation
| url =weblink
| archiveurl =weblink
| archivedate = 2014-02-13
| publisher = Microsoft
| title = Common Criteria (CC, ISO15408)
}}
(#ac 12 back|Note (12):) With the use of Pervasive AuditMaster.(#ac 13 back|Note (13):) User-based security is optional in Polyhedra, but when enabled can be enhanced to a role-based model with auditing.{{Citation
| url =weblink
| publisher = Enea AB
| series = White paper
| title = Adding audit trails to a Polyhedra IMDB database
}}

Databases vs schemas (terminology)

{{Original research|section|date=June 2010}}The SQL specification defines what an "SQL schema" is; however, databases implement it differently. To compound this confusion the functionality can overlap with that of a parent database. An SQL schema is simply a namespace within a database; things within this namespace are addressed using the member operator dot ".". This seems to be a universal among all of the implementations.A true fully (database, schema, and table) qualified query is exemplified as such: SELECT * FROM database.schema.tableBoth a schema and a database can be used to isolate one table, "foo", from another like-named table "foo". The following is pseudo code:
  • SELECT FROM database1.foo vs. SELECT FROM database2.foo (no explicit schema between database and table)
  • SELECT FROM [database1.]default.foo vs. SELECT FROM [database1.]alternate.foo (no explicit database prefix)
The problem that arises is that former MySQL users will create multiple databases for one project. In this context, MySQL databases are analogous in function to PostgreSQL-schemas, insomuch as PostgreSQL lacks off-the-shelf cross-database functionality that MySQL has. Conversely, PostgreSQL has applied more of the specification implementing cross-table, cross-schema, and then left room for future cross-database functionality.MySQL aliases schema with database behind the scenes, such that CREATE SCHEMA and CREATE DATABASE are analogs. It can therefore be said that MySQL has implemented cross-database functionality, skipped schema functionality entirely, and provided similar functionality into their implementation of a database. In summary, PostgreSQL fully supports schemas but lacks some functionality MySQL has with databases, while MySQL does not even attempt to support standard schemas.Oracle has its own spin where creating a user is synonymous with creating a schema. Thus a database administrator can create a user called PROJECT and then create a table PROJECT.TABLE. Users can exist without schema objects, but an object is always associated with an owner (though that owner may not have privileges to connect to the database). With the 'shared-everything' Oracle RAC architecture, the same database can be opened by multiple servers concurrently. This is independent of replication, which can also be used, whereby the data is copied for use by different servers. In the Oracle implementation, a 'database' is a set of files which contains the data while the 'instance' is a set of processes (and memory) through which a database is accessed.Informix supports multiple databases in a server instance like MySQL. It supports the CREATE SCHEMA syntax as a way to group DDL statements into a single unit creating all objects created as a part of the schema as a single owner. Informix supports a database mode called ANSI mode which supports creating objects with the same name but owned by different users.PostgreSQL and some other databases have recently added support for foreign schemas, which is the ability to import schemas from other servers as defined in ISO/IEC 9075-9 (published as part of ). This appears like any other schema in the database according to the SQL specification while accessing data stored either in a different database or a different server instance. The import can be made either as an entire foreign schema or merely certain tables belonging to that foreign schema.WEB
,weblink
, PostgreSQL: Documentation: 9.5: IMPORT FOREIGN SCHEMA
, www.postgresql.org
, 2016-06-11
, While support for ISO/IEC 9075-9 bridges the gap between the two competing philosophies surrounding schemas, MySQL and Informix maintain an implicit association between databases while ISO/IEC 9075-9 requires that any such linkages be explicit in nature.

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

{{Databases}}

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