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Oracle Corporation
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{{Use American English|date=April 2015}} {{Use mdy dates|date=September 2017}}







factoids
>S&P 100>S&P 500 Component}}| ISIN = US68389X1054| industry = Enterprise softwareCloud computingLarry EllisonBob MinerEd OatesHTTPS://WWW.ORACLE.COM/CORPORATE/EXECUTIVES/BOARD-OF-DIRECTORS.HTMLWORK=ORACLE CORPORATION, August 10, 2017, Santa Clara, California, U.S.Oracle, FAQ; www.orafaq.com.| location_city = Redwood Shores, California| location_country = United States| area_served = Worldwide(Executive Chairman & CTO)}}Jeffrey O. Henley{{small>(Vice Chairman)}}Mark Hurd{{smallSafra Catz{{small>(CEO)}}Oracle Applications, Oracle Database, Oracle Enterprise Manager, Oracle Fusion Middleware, Server (computing)>servers, workstations, Computer data storage(Oracle Corporation#Products and services>See Oracle products)Business software, cloud computing, Application software>applications, business consulting, Software as a service, Infrastructure as a service>IaaS, and DaaS37.73 billionWEBSITE=EDGAR DATE=JUNE 27, 2017, October 27, 2017, 12.71 billion}} (2017)9.34 billion}} (2017)134.99 billion}} (2017)54.25 billion}} (2017)| num_employees = 138,000 (2017)List of acquisitions by Oracle>List of Oracle subsidiariesweblink}}}}File:Larry Elllison on stage.jpg|285px|thumbnail|right|Larry EllisonLarry EllisonOracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation, headquartered in Redwood Shores, California. The company specializes primarily in developing and marketing database software and technology, cloud engineered systems and enterprise software products — particularly its own brands of database management systems. In 2015, Oracle was the second-largest software maker by revenue, after Microsoft.WEB, Global 100 Software Leaders by revenue,weblink PriceWaterhouseCoopers, February 8, 2017, The company also develops and builds tools for database development and systems of middle-tier software, enterprise resource planning (ERP) software, customer relationship management (CRM) software and supply chain management (SCM) software.

History

Larry Ellison co-founded Oracle Corporation in 1977 with Bob Miner and Ed Oates under the name Software Development Laboratories (SDL).NEWS, Bort, Julie,weblink Where Are They Now? Look What Happened to the Co-founders of Oracle, Business Insider, September 18, 2014, March 29, 2018, Ellison took inspirationWEB,weblink Oracle's 30th Anniversary, Profit, Oracle Corporation, May 2007, 26, July 16, 2010, from the 1970 paper written by Edgar F. Codd on relational database management systems (RDBMS) named "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks."JOURNAL, Codd, E. F., 1970, A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks,weblink Communications of the ACM, 13, 6, 377–387, 10.1145/362384.362685, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070612235326weblink">weblink June 12, 2007, mdy-all, He heard about the IBM System R database from an article in the IBM Research Journal provided by Oates. Also derived from Codd's theories, Ellison wanted to make Oracle's product compatible with System R, but failed to do so as IBM kept the error codes for their DBMS a secret. SDL changed its name to Relational Software, Inc (RSI) in 1979,BOOK, Niemiec, Richard, Oracle9i Performance Tuning Tips & Techniques, McGraw-Hill/Osborne, New York, 2003, 0-07-222473-8, then again to Oracle Systems Corporation in 1982,WEB,weblink Oracle's 30th Anniversary, Profit, Oracle Corporation, May 2007, 29, July 16, 2010, to align itself more closely with its flagship product Oracle Database. At this stage Bob Miner served as the company's senior programmer. On March 12, 1986, the company had its initial public offering.NEWS,weblink Investor Relations, investor.oracle.com, August 10, 2017, In 1995, Oracle Systems Corporation changed its name to Oracle Corporation,PRESS RELEASE,weblink'ORACLE+CORPORATION'-a016988727, Oracle Systems Corporation Renamed 'Oracle Corporation', Oracle Corporation, June 1, 1995, April 17, 2015, officially named Oracle, but sometimes referred to as Oracle Corporation, the name of the holding company.Frequently Asked Questions | Investor Relations. Oracle. Retrieved July 14, 2013. Part of Oracle Corporation's early success arose from using the C programming language to implement its products. This eased porting to different operating systems (most of which support C).

Technology timeline

  • 1979: offers the first commercial SQL{{cn|reason=Was not oracle version 3 the first that supported execution of SQL statements?|date=April 2018}} RDBMS
  • 1983: offers a VAX-mode database
  • 1984: offers the first database with read-consistency
  • 1986: offers a client-server DBMS
  • 1987: introduces UNIX-based Oracle applications
  • 1988: introduces PL/SQL
  • 1992: offers full applications implementation methodology
  • 1995: offers the first 64-bit RDBMS
  • 1996: moves towards an open standards-based, web-enabled architecture
  • 1999: offers its first DBMS with XML support
  • 2001: becomes the first to complete 3 terabyte TPC-H world record
  • 2002: offers the first database to pass 15 industry standard security evaluations
  • 2003: introduces what it calls "Enterprise Grid Computing" with Oracle10g
  • 2005: releases its first free database, Oracle Database 10g Express Edition (XE)
  • 2008: Smart scans in software improve query-response in HP Oracle Database Machine / Exadata storage
  • 2010: Acquires Sun Microsystems
  • 2013: begins use of Oracle 12c which is capable of providing cloud services with Oracle Database
  • 2016: Acquires NetSuite Inc.

Products and services

Oracle designs, manufactures, and sells both software and hardware products, as well as offering services that complement them (such as financing, training, consulting, and hosting services). Many of the products have been added to Oracle's portfolio through acquisitions.

Software

Oracle's E-delivery service (Oracle Software Delivery Cloud) provides generic downloadable Oracle software and documentation.BOOK, Radhakrishna, Kishor, Shanmugam, Ravisankar, 1.4 Additional documentation, Oracle E-Business Suite 12.2.4 Installation and Upgrade on IBM Power S824,weblink 1, IBM Redbooks, 2015, 7, 9780738454542, July 31, 2016, Oracle software and documentation can be downloaded from the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud website at:weblink You need to have a valid license agreement with Oracle Corporation to download any software from the Oracle E-Delivery location.,

Databases

  • Oracle Database


* Release 10: In 2004, Oracle Corporation shipped release 10g (g standing for "grid") as the then latest version of Oracle Database. (Oracle Application Server 10g using Java EE integrated with the server part of that version of the database, making it possible to deploy web-technology applications. The application server comprised the first middle-tier software designed for grid computing.{{citation needed|date=November 2011}} The interrelationship between Oracle 10g and Java allowed developers to set up stored procedures written in the Java language, as well as those written in the traditional Oracle database programming language, PL/SQL.) * Release 11: Release 11g became the current Oracle Database version in 2007. Oracle Corporation released Oracle Database 11g Release 2 in September 2009. This version was available in four commercial editions—Enterprise Edition, Standard Edition, Standard Edition One, and Personal Edition—and in one free edition—the Express Edition. The licensing of these editions shows various restrictions and obligations that were called complex by licensing expert Freirich Florea.WEB, Top 60 Licensing Pitfalls For Oracle Databases And Oracle Technology Products,weblink OMT-CO Operations Management Technology Consulting GmbH, April 21, 2013, The Enterprise Edition (DB EE), the most expensive of the Database Editions, has the fewest restrictions — but nevertheless has complex licensing. Oracle Corporation constrains the Standard Edition (DB SE) and Standard Edition One (SE1) with more licensing restrictions, in accordance with their lower price. * Release 12: Release 12c (c standing for "cloud") became available on July 1, 2013.PRESS RELEASE, Oracle Announces General Availability of Oracle Database 12c, the First Database Designed for the Cloud,weblink Oracle Corporation, July 1, 2013, July 1, 2013,
Oracle Corporation has acquired and developed the following additional database technologies: WEB,weblink Oracle to Boost Data Management With Endeca Buy, Darryl K, Taft, October 18, 2011, eWeek, Ziff Davis, November 3, 2011, Oracle also announced the Oracle NoSQL Database, a distributed, highly scalable, key-value database.,

Middleware

Oracle Fusion Middleware is a family of middleware software products, including (for instance) application server, system integration, business process management (BPM), user interaction, content management, identity management and business intelligence (BI) products.

Oracle Secure Enterprise Search

Oracle Secure Enterprise Search (SES), Oracle's enterprise-search offering, gives users the ability to search for content across multiple locations, including websites, XML files, file servers, content management systems, enterprise resource planning systems, customer relationship management systems, business intelligence systems, and databases.

Oracle Beehive

Released in 2008, the Oracle Beehive collaboration software provides team workspaces (including wikis, team calendaring and file sharing), email, calendar, instant messaging, and conferencing on a single platform. Customers can use Beehive as licensed software or as software as a service ("SaaS").WEB
,weblink
, Oracle aims at Microsoft with upgraded Beehive collaboration
, May 15, 2009
, Eric
, Lai
, May 4, 2009
, Computerworld
, yes
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070302144543weblink">weblink
, March 2, 2007
, mdy-all
,

Applications

Oracle also sells a suite of business applications. The Oracle E-Business Suite includes software to perform various enterprise functions related to (for instance) financials, manufacturing, customer relationship management (CRM), enterprise resource planning (ERP) and human resource management. The Oracle Retail SuiteBOOK, Ray, Rajesh, Supply chain management for retailing,weblink New Delhi, Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2010, 405, 9781259081491, January 6, 2015, Oracle had a series of acquisitions for building its retail suite: Profit Logic for store operations, 360 Commerce for point of sale (POS), TempoSoft for workforce management functionality, Siebel for customer loyalty functions and Retek for overall retail solutions. Today, Oracle's Retail Suite has mainly following building blocks: * Merchandise Operations * Merchandise Planning and Optimisation [...] * Store Operations, covers the retail-industry vertical, providing merchandise management, price management, invoice matching, allocations, store operations management, warehouse management, demand forecasting, merchandise financial planning, assortment planning and category management.{{citation needed|date=January 2015}} Users can access these facilities through a browser interface over the Internet or via a corporate intranet.Following a number of acquisitions beginning in 2003, especially in the area of applications, Oracle Corporation {{as of|2008| lc = on}} maintains a number of product lines:
  • Oracle Fusion Applications
  • Oracle Social Engagement and Monitoring (SEM) System – Oracle has developed a Social Engagement and Monitoring Cloud service that allows businesses to capture relevant brand conversation from global web and social channels to understand commentary on their products. The Social Engagement and Monitoring cloud provides the most effective and efficient responses across social and customer experience channels. SEM is able to route correct responses to the right team, member, or customer-experience channel to ensure the best customer service. The analysis helps vendors to understand what is important to customers. It identifies trends, spikes, and anomalies to make real-time course corrections. It also can identify brand advocates. The SEM cloud identifies customer intention and interests by analyzing the common ways customers talk about a product or a service.oracle.com{{qn|date=August 2016}}
  • Oracle E-Business Suite
  • PeopleSoft Enterprise
  • Siebel
  • JD Edwards EnterpriseOne
  • JD Edwards World
  • Merchandise Operations Management (Formerly Retek)
  • Planning & Optimisation
  • Store Operations (Formerly 360Commerce)
Development of applications commonly takes place in Java (using Oracle JDeveloper) or through PL/SQL (using, for example, Oracle Forms and Oracle Reports/BIPublisher).{{citation needed|date=August 2016}} Oracle Corporation has started{{Citation needed|date=May 2008}} a drive toward "wizard"-driven environments with a view to enabling non-programmers to produce simple data-driven applications.

Third-party applications

Oracle Corporation works with "Oracle Certified Partners" to enhance its overall product marketing. The variety of applications from third-party vendors includes database applications for archiving, splitting and control, ERP and CRM systems, as well as more niche and focused products providing a range of commercial functions in areas like human resources, financial control and governance, risk management, and compliance (GRC). Vendors include Hewlett-Packard, UC4 SoftwareWEB,weblink uc4.html, www.oracle.com, 2018-05-11, , Motus,WEB,weblink Motus Integration - Motus - Oracle Cloud Marketplace, cloud.oracle.com/marketplace, en-US, February 2, 2017, and Knoa Software.WEB,weblink Knoa Experience and Performance Manager (EPM) for Oracle Siebel CRM, Oracle Corporation,weblink October 18, 2013,

Enterprise management

Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM) provides web-based monitoring and management tools for Oracle products (and for some third-party software), including database management, middleware management, application management, hardware and virtualization management and cloud management.WEB,weblink Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c gears up for the private cloud, Joab, Jackson, Infoworld, July 2, 2013, March 12, 2014, The Primavera products of Oracle's Primavera Global Business Unit (PGBU) consist of project-management software.BOOK, Harris, Paul Eastwood, Project Planning and Scheduling Using Primavera P6: For All Industries Including Version 4 to 7 ; Planning and Progressing Project Schedules with and Without Roles and Resources in an Established Enterprise Environment,weblink Eastwood Harris Pty Ltd, 2010, 2-1, 9781921059346, April 29, 2015, Primavera is an Enterprise Project Management software package that enables many projects to be managed in one database.,

Development software

Oracle Corporation's tools for developing applications include (among others): Many external and third-party tools make the Oracle database administrator's tasks easier.{{citation needed|date=August 2016}}

File systems

Operating systems

Oracle Corporation develops and supports two operating systems: Oracle Solaris and Oracle Linux.

Hardware

(File:OracleExadataExalogic.JPG|thumb|Oracle Exadata and Exalogic) WEB,weblink Oracle and storage IOs, explanations and experience at CERN, Eric, Grancher, May 15, 2009, CERN-IT-Note-2009-005, CERN, Geneva, 4, PDF, January 17, 2010, The Oracle Exadata storage server version 1 is a solution developed by Oracle and HP in which part of the processing, normally performed by the database instance, is performed at the storage system level.,
    • Exalogic Elastic Cloud – hardware/software integrated application server
    • Exalytics In-Memory Machine – hardware/software integrated in-memory analytics serverNEWS,weblink Oracle Exalytics in-memory machine updated to analyze larger data sets
last = King, ZDNet, July 15, 2013, March 12, 2014,
    • Oracle Database Appliance
NEWS, New Oracle database appliance aims at small, mid-size firms: Analysts don't expect Database Appliance to cannibalize Oracle's Exadata enterprise offering last = Vijayan,weblink Computerworld, September 22, 2011, January 8, 2012, The tightly integrated hardware, software and storage bundle features Oracle Database11g Release 2 and Real Application Clusters software running on a 2-node, 24-processor core, Sun Fire server cluster hardware.,
    • Big Data Appliance – integrated map-reduce/big data solutionPRESS RELEASE,weblink Oracle Unveils the Oracle Big Data Appliance, Oracle Corporation, October 3, 2011, April 17, 2015,
    • SPARC SuperCluster T4-4 – a general purpose engineered systemPRESSRELEASE, Oracle Unveils the World’s Fastest General Purpose Engineered System - the SPARC SuperCluster T4-4,weblink Oracle Corporation, September 26, 2011, February 18, 2012,

Services

Oracle Cloud

Oracle Cloud is a cloud computing service offered by Oracle Corporation providing servers, storage, network, applications and services through a global network of Oracle Corporation managed data centers. The company allows these services to be provisioned on demand over the Internet.BOOK,weblink Oracle IaaS: Quick Reference Guide to Cloud Solutions, Saygili, Okcan Yasin, 2017-06-23, Apress, 9781484228326, en, Oracle Cloud provides Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)Platform as a Service (PaaS)Software as a Service (SaaS) and Data as a Service (DaaS). These services are used to build, deploy, integrate and extend applications in the cloud. This platform supports open standards (SQLHTML5REST, etc.) open-source solutions (KubernetesHadoopKafka, etc.) and a variety of programming languagesdatabases, tools and frameworks including Oracle-specific, Open Source and third-party software and systems.BOOK,weblink Trustworthy Cloud Computing, Safonov, Vladimir O., 2016-01-29, John Wiley & Sons, 9781119113515, en, ,
  • Platform as a Service (PaaS)
    • Oracle has branded its Platform as a Service as Oracle Cloud Platform (OCP). Oracle Cloud Platform offerings include Data Management, Application Development, Integration, Content and Experience, Business Analytics, Management and Security.BOOK, Di Martino, Beniamino, Cretella, Giuseppina, Esposito, Antonio, 4.3 Oracle PaaS, Cloud Portability and Interoperability: Issues and Current Trends,weblink Springer, 2015, 68, 9783319137018, SpringerBriefs in Computer Science, September 20, 2016, The Oracle cloud platform [...] is a portfolio of products that can be used to build applications to publish as services on both private and public clouds. The platform is based on the Oracle Grid technologies, as well as on applications that include WebLogic Server, Coherence in-memory datagrid, and JRockit JVM. In terms of infrastructure, the platform is based on the Oracle IaaS offer that contains Oracle Solaris, Oracle Enterprise linux, and Oracle VM for virtualization, Sun SPARC and Storage.
, WEB,weblink Platform as a Service {{!, Oracle Cloud|website=cloud.oracle.com|language=en|access-date=2017-11-15}}
    • Platform services on which to build and deploy applications or extend SaaS applications: database, Java application server, mobile, business analytics, integration, process, big data, Internet of Things, Node.js etc.WEB,weblink Oracle (ORCL) Announces New Cloud Platform Additions, June 22, 2015, Street Insider, English, April 15, 2016, With more than 24 new cloud services, the Oracle Cloud Platform extends Oracle's leadership with the world's broadest and deepest portfolio of SaaS, PaaS and IaaS. Newly available Oracle Cloud services include, Oracle Database Cloud - Exadata, Oracle Archive Storage Cloud, Oracle Big Data Cloud, Oracle Integration Cloud, Oracle Mobile Cloud, and Oracle Process Cloud.,
  • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
    • Oracle has branded its Infrastructure as a Service as Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI). Oracle Cloud Infrastructure offerings include the following services.WEB,weblink Infrastructure as a Service {{!, Oracle Cloud|website=cloud.oracle.com|language=en|access-date=2017-11-16}}
      • Compute Service
      • Storage Service
      • Network Service
On July 28, 2016 Oracle bought NetSuite, the very first cloud company, for $9.3 billion.CAO>FIRST1= JINGFIRST2= BRIAN, Oracle Purchase of NetSuite Will Help It Vie With Cloud Rivals,weblinkpublisher= Bloomberg,
On May 16, 2018 Oracle announced that it had acquired DataScience.com, a privately held cloud workspace platform for data science projects and workloads.NEWS,weblink Oracle acquires machine learning platform Datascience.com, 2018-05-16, VentureBeat, 2018-05-24, en-US,

Other Services

  • Oracle Consulting – technical and business expert services
  • Oracle Financing
  • Oracle Support
    • Product support: Oracle Corporation identifies its customers and their support entitlements using CSI (Customer Support Identifier) codes.WEB,weblink Global Customer Support Security Practices, August 25, 2008, April 1, 2008, PDF, Oracle Corporation, 1, Your registration on MetaLink uses a unique Customer Support Identifier (CSI) linked to your Support contract.
,
Registered customers can submit Service Requests (SRs)
WEB,weblink Global Customer Support Security Practices, August 25, 2008, April 1, 2008, PDF, Oracle Corporation, 1, GCS is a global operation, with Service Request (SR) management based on global competencies, —usually via the web-accessible My Oracle SupportPRESS RELEASE,weblink Oracle Introduces Next-generation Customer Support Platform: My Oracle Support, September 25, 2008, September 22, 2008, Oracle Corporation, California, My Oracle Support integrates Oracle's [...] support portal, Oracle MetaLink, with its [...] configuration management platform, Oracle Software Configuration Manager, to deliver [..] support capabilities, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081002200418weblink">weblink October 2, 2008,
(MOS),
BOOK, Prusinski, Ben, Phillips, Steve, Chung, Richard, Expert Oracle GoldenGate,weblink July 24, 2012, Apresspod Series, 2011, Apress, 9781430235668, 111–112, You can verify the [...] supported [...] platforms [...] by logging into the My Oracle Support (MOS) site online atweblink [...],
a re-incarnation of Oracle Metalink
Compare:BOOK, Jeffries, John P., 2011, Oracle GoldenGate 12c Implementer's Guide,weblink 2, Birmingham, Packt Publishing Ltd, 2015, 22, 9781783980772, August 24, 2017, The full comprehensive list of all the certified platforms and databases is available at the My Oracle Support website:weblink (formerly Metalink).,
with web access administered by a site Customer User Administrator (CUA).
WEB
,weblink
, My Oracle Support Help, Release 15.3
, 2017
, docs.oracle.com
, Oracle
, August 24, 2017
, My Oracle Support customer user accounts are managed by individuals within your organization in the role of Customer User Administrator (CUA).
,
    • Critical Patch Updates: since 2005 Oracle Corporation has grouped collections of patches and security fixes for its products each quarter into a "Critical Patch Update" (CPU), released each January, April, July and October.WEB,weblink Critical Patch Updates and Security Alerts, Oracle Corporation,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061028105653weblink">weblink October 28, 2006,
    • Oracle Configuration Manager (OCM, previously Customer Configuration repository or CCR) gathers and uploads details of the configuration of Oracle software.
WEB,weblink Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide, 11g Release 2 (11.2) for Linux and UNIX, Williams, Douglas, November 2010, Oracle Corporation, xxi, PDF, November 22, 2010, Oracle Configuration Manager: This feature [...] was previously named Customer Configuration repository (CCR). It is an optional component for database and client installations. Oracle Configuration Manager gathers and stores details relating to the configuration of the software stored in database Oracle home directories., etal, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101116235136weblink">weblink November 16, 2010, mdy-all,
    • Oracle Auto Service Request (ASR) automatically creates Service Requests for specific hardware faults on qualified Oracle server, storage, Oracle Exadata, and Oracle Exalogic products.
WEB,weblink Oracle Auto Service Request for Sun Systems, April 2011, Oracle Corporation, Oracle Auto Service Request for Sun Systems.,
    • My Oracle Support Community (MOSC)
WEB,weblink Themes - Oracle Community, Oracle Corporation, August 10, 2014, My Oracle Support Community (MOSC), yes,
  • Oracle University (training in Oracle products)
WEB,weblink Oracle University, Oracle Corporation,

Marketing

Sales practices

In 1990, Oracle laid off 10% (about 400 people) of its work force because of accounting errors. This crisis came about because of Oracle's "up-front" marketing strategy, in which sales people urged potential customers to buy the largest possible amount of software all at once. The sales people then booked the value of future license sales in the current quarter, thereby increasing their bonuses.NEWS,weblink Ree, Abelson, June 23, 1996, Truth or Consequences? Hardly, The New York Times, This became a problem when the future sales subsequently failed to materialize. Oracle eventually had to restate its earnings twice, and also settled (out of court) class-action lawsuits arising from its having overstated its earnings. Ellison stated in 1992 that Oracle had made "an incredible business mistake."Oracle cuts rewards for last-minute deals Gilbert, Alorie (June 20, 2002). CNET News.com via zdnetasia.com

Competition

In 1994, Informix overtook Sybase and became Oracle's most important rival. The intense war between Informix CEO Phil White and Ellison made front-page news in Silicon Valley for three years. Informix claimed that Oracle had hired away Informix engineers to disclose important trade secrets about an upcoming product. Informix finally dropped its lawsuit against Oracle in 1997.WEB, CNET,weblink Informix drops Oracle lawsuit, Galante, Suzanne, June 9, 1997, In November 2005, a book detailing the war between Oracle and Informix was published, titled The Real Story of Informix Software and Phil White. It gave a detailed chronology of the battle of Informix against Oracle, and how Informix Software's CEO Phil White landed in jail because of his obsession with overtaking Ellison.Once it had overcome Informix and Sybase, Oracle Corporation enjoyed years of dominance in the database market until use of Microsoft SQL Server became widespread in the late 1990s and IBM acquired Informix Software in 2001 (to complement its DB2 database). {{As of|2008|alt= Today}} Oracle competes for new database licenses on UNIX, Linux, and Windows operating systems primarily against IBM's DB2 and Microsoft SQL Server. IBM's DB2 {{As of|2008|alt= still}} dominates the mainframe database market.In 2004, Oracle's sales grew at a rate of 14.5% to $6.2 billion, giving it 41.3% and the top share of the relational-database market (InformationWeek – March 2005), with market share estimated at up to 44.6% in 2005 by some sources.WEB,weblink Infrastructure | Oracle Analyst Reports, Oracle.com, September 7, 2010, July 7, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081031164300weblink">weblink October 31, 2008, Oracle Corporation's main competitors in the database arena remain IBM DB2 and Microsoft SQL Server, and to a lesser extent Sybase and Teradata, with open-source databases such as PostgreSQL and MySQL also having a significantDB-Engines Ranking - popularity ranking of database management systems. Db-engines. Retrieved July 14, 2013. share of the market. EnterpriseDB, based on PostgreSQL, has {{As of|2008|alt= recently}} made inroadsWEB,weblink Vonage places call for EnterpriseDB database, Eric, Lai, November 20, 2006, Computerworld, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070527080045weblink">weblink May 27, 2007, mdy-all, by proclaiming that its product delivers Oracle compatibility features{{Clarify|date=February 2009}} at a much lower price-point.In the software-applications market, Oracle Corporation primarily{{Citation needed|date=May 2008}} competes against SAP. On March 22, 2007 Oracle sued SAP, accusing them of fraud and unfair competition.NEWS,weblink Oracle Claims Rival SAP Stole Software and Data (Update4)last1=Gullo last2=Guglielmo work=Bloomberg L.P., March 22, 2007 > accessdate =March 22, 2007, {{Citation needed|date=April 2018}}In the market for business intelligence software, many other software companies—small and large—have successfully competed in quality with Oracle and SAP products. Business intelligence vendors can be categorized into the "big four" consolidated BI firms such as Oracle, who has entered BI market through a recent trend of acquisitions (including Hyperion Solutions), and the independent "pure play" vendors such as MicroStrategy, Actuate, and SAS.WEB,weblink Consolidations in the BI industry, March 7, 2008, Pendse, Nigel, The OLAP Report, Oracle Financials was ranked in the Top 20 Most Popular Accounting Software Infographic by Capterra in 2014, beating out SAP and a number of their other competitors.WEB,weblink Best Donation Management Software - 2015 Reviews of the Most Popular Systems, April 17, 2015,

Oracle and SAP

From 1988, Oracle Corporation and the German company SAP AG had a decade-long history of cooperation, beginning with the integration of SAP's R/3 enterprise application suite with Oracle's relational database products. Despite the SAP partnership with Microsoft, and the increasing integration of SAP applications with Microsoft products (such as Microsoft SQL Server, a competitor to Oracle Database), Oracle and SAP continue their cooperation. According to Oracle Corporation, the majority of SAP's customers use Oracle databases.WEB,weblink Oracle – the No.1 Database for Deploying SAP Applications, November 11, 2008, Oracle Corporation, Two thirds of SAP customers around the world, in every industry, choose to run their applications on Oracle databases., In 2004, Oracle began to increase its interest in the enterprise-applications market (in 1989, Oracle had already released Oracle Financials). A series of acquisitions by Oracle Corporation began, most notably with those of PeopleSoft, Siebel Systems and Hyperion.SAP recognized that Oracle had started to become a competitor in a market where SAP had the leadership, and saw an opportunity to lure in customers from those companies that Oracle Corporation had acquired. SAP would offer those customers special discounts on the licenses for its enterprise applications.Oracle Corporation would resort to a similar strategy, by advising SAP customers to get "OFF SAP" (a play on the words of the acronym for its middleware platform "Oracle Fusion for SAP"),PRESS RELEASE,weblink Oracle Helping SAP Customers to get 'OFF SAP', Oracle Corporation, June 14, 2005, and also by providing special discounts on licenses and services to SAP customers who chose Oracle Corporation products.{{As of|2008|alt=Currently}} Oracle and SAP (the latter through its recently acquired subsidiary TomorrowNow) compete in the third-party enterprise software maintenance and support market. On March 22, 2007, Oracle filed a lawsuit against SAP. In Oracle Corporation v. SAP AG Oracle alleged that TomorrowNow, which provides discount support for legacy Oracle product lines, used the accounts of former Oracle customers to systematically download patches and support documents from Oracle's website and to appropriate them for SAP's use.WEB,weblink Oracle sues SAP, July 3, 2007, Oracle Corporation, Some analysts have suggested the suit could form part of a strategy by Oracle Corporation to decrease competition with SAP in the market for third-party enterprise software maintenance and support.JOURNAL
, Gohring
, Nancy
, Elizabeth
, Montalbano
, Maintenance Contracts at Heart of Oracle, SAP Dispute
, CIO India
,weblink
, June 9, 2008
, The lawsuit As barometer: SAP finally scores big with TomorrowNow {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070327081752weblink |date=March 27, 2007 }} Joshua Greenbaum, March 22, 2007, ZDNet{{Citation needed|date=April 2018}}On July 3, 2007, SAP admitted that TomorrowNow employees had made "inappropriate downloads" from the Oracle support website. However, it claims that SAP personnel and SAP customers had no access to Oracle intellectual property via TomorrowNow. SAP's CEO Henning Kagermann stated that "Even a single inappropriate download is unacceptable from my perspective. We regret very much that this occurred." Additionally, SAP announced that it had "instituted changes" in TomorrowNow's operational oversight.PRESS RELEASE,weblink SAP Responds to Oracle Complaint, PDF, July 3, 2007, SAP, September 2, 2016, On November 23, 2010, a U.S. district court jury in Oakland, California found that SAP AG must pay Oracle Corp $1.3 billion for copyright infringement, awarding damages that could be the largest-ever for copyright infringement. While admitting liability, SAP estimated the damages at no more than $40 million, while Oracle claimed that they are at least $1.65 billion. The awarded amount is one of the 10 or 20 largest jury verdicts in U.S. legal history. SAP said they were disappointed by the verdict and might appeal.NEWS
, Levine
, Dan
, November 23, 2010
, SAP to pay Oracle $1.3 billion in landmark decision
, Reuters
,weblink
, November 23, 2010
, On September 1, 2011, a federal judge overturned the judgment and offered a reduced amount or a new trial, calling Oracle's original award "grossly" excessive.WEB,weblink Judge overturns Oracle's $1.3B award against SAP, ITworld, September 1, 2011, September 5, 2011, Oracle chose a new trial.
On August 3, 2012, SAP and Oracle agreed on a judgment for $306 million in damages, pending approval from the U.S. district court judge, “to save time and expense of [a] new trial". After the accord has been approved, Oracle can ask a federal appeals court to reinstate the earlier jury verdict. In addition to the damages payment, SAP has already paid Oracle $120 million for its legal fees.NEWS, Oracle Says SAP to Pay $306 Million in Copyright Deal,weblink Bloomberg BusinessWeek, August 3, 2012, August 6, 2012,

Slogans

  • "Information driven"{{Citation needed|date=December 2008}}
  • For the Oracle Database: "Can't break it, can't break in"
WEB,weblink Guru says Oracle's 9i is indeed breakable, Robert, Lemos, CNET News, February 6, 2002, October 5, 2011,
and "Unbreakable"
WEB,weblink Unbreakable: Oracle's Commitment to Security, Mary Ann, Davidson, Mary Ann Davidson, February 2002, Oracle Corporation, Redwood Shores, California, An Oracle White Paper, 2, PDF, March 21, 2010, Beginning in November 2001, Oracle began a marketing campaign: Unbreakable. The security portions of the campaign reference Oracle’s 14 independent security evaluations [...],
  • Enabling the Information Age{{Citation needed|date=February 2014}}
  • Enabling the Information Age Through Network Computing"{{Citation needed|date=February 2014}}
  • {{As of| 2008 | alt = As of 2008}}: "The Information Company"WEB,weblink Oracle joins or refashions the information age, Farber, Dan, ZDNet, December 9, 2004, October 9, 2014,
  • As of 2010: "Software. Hardware. Complete."
  • As of late 2010: "Hardware and Software, Engineered to Work Together"
  • As of mid 2015: "Integrated Cloud Applications and Platform Services"

Media

Oracle Corporation produces and distributes the "Oracle ClearView" series of videos as part of its marketing mix.WEB, Executive Strategy Weekly Edition,weblink Oracle Information inDepth Newsletters, Oracle Corporation, January 7, 2009, September 21, 2009, In the first installment of the Oracle ClearView video series, host Richard Levitt explains how Oracle Exadata—the combination of superfast HP hardware and supersmart Oracle software—is bringing powerful benefits to the enterprise.,

Controversies

Trashgate

In 2000, Oracle attracted attention from the computer industry and the press after hiring private investigators to dig through the trash of organizations involved in an antitrust trial involving Microsoft.On July 3, 2007, SAP admitted that TomorrowNow employees had made "inappropriate downloads" from the Oracle support web site. However, it claims that SAP personnel and SAP customers had no access to Oracle intellectual property via TomorrowNow. SAP's CEO Henning Kagermann stated that "Even a single inappropriate download is unacceptable from my perspective. We regret very much that this occurred." Additionally, SAP announced that it had "instituted changes" in TomorrowNow's operational oversightOracle Rethinks Its Dumpster-Diving Ways April 29, 2004, Lisa Vaas, eweek.com The Chairman of Oracle Corporation, Larry Ellison, staunchly defended his company's hiring of an East Coast detective agency to investigate groups that supported rival Microsoft Corporation during its antitrust trial, calling the snooping a "public service". The investigation reportedly included a $1,200 offer to janitors at the Association for Competitive Technology to look through Microsoft's trash. When asked how he would feel if others were looking into Oracle's business activities, Ellison said: "We will ship our garbage to Redmond, and they can go through it. We believe in full disclosure."Swing Shift Column, San Jose Mercury News (San Jose, California) (via Knight-Ridder/Tribune Business News) (December, 2000)

"Can't break it, can't break in"

In 2002, Oracle Corporation marketed many of its products using the slogan "Can't break it, can't break in", or "Unbreakable".WEB, Bugs bust open 'unbreakable' Oracle 9i,weblink February 7, 2002, ZDNet, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120308164139weblink">weblink March 8, 2012, mdy-all, This signified a demand on information security. Oracle Corporation also stressed the reliability of networked databases and network access to databases as major selling points.However, two weeks after its introduction, David Litchfield, Alexander Kornbrust, Cesar Cerrudo and others demonstrated a whole suite of successful attacks against Oracle products.NEWS, The Register,weblink Oracle security claim, January 16, 2002, NEWS, The Register,weblink How to hack unbreakable Oracle, February 7, 2002, Oracle Corporation's chief security officer Mary Ann Davidson said that, rather than representing a literal claim of Oracle's products' impregnability, she saw the campaign in the context of fourteen independent security evaluationsWEB,weblink Oracle list of major Security certifications, Oracle Corporation, that Oracle Corporation's database server had passed.

Relationship with John Ashcroft

In 2004, then-United States Attorney General John Ashcroft sued Oracle Corporation to prevent it from acquiring a multibillion-dollar intelligence contract. After Ashcroft's resignation from government, he founded a lobbying firm, The Ashcroft Group, which Oracle hired in 2005. With the group's help, Oracle went on to acquire the contract.NEWS, Chicago Tribune,weblink Ashcroft breaks with tradition by lobbying, has earned $269,000, January 10, 2006,

Expeditionary Combat Support System

Computer Sciences Corporation reportedly spent a billion dollars developing a computer system for the United States Air Force that yielded no significant capability, because, according to an Air Force source, the Oracle software on which the system was based could not be adapted to meet the specialized performance criteria.WEB,weblinkweblink yes, February 15, 2013, How the Air Force blew $1B on a dud system, Air Force Times, November 2012, April 17, 2015,

Cover Oregon Healthcare Exchange

Oracle Corporation was awarded a contract by the State of Oregon's Oregon Health Authority (OHA) to develop Cover Oregon, the state's healthcare exchange website, as part of the U.S. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. When the site tried to go live on October 1, 2013, it failed, and registrations had to be taken using paper applications until the site could be fixed.On April 25, 2014, the State of Oregon voted to discontinue Cover Oregon and instead use the federal exchange to enroll Oregon residents.WEB,weblink Cover Oregon: State moves to federal exchange, but Oracle technology lives on, The Oregonian, April 17, 2015, The cost of switching to the federal portal was estimated at $5 million, whereas fixing Cover Oregon would have required another $78 million.Oracle president Safra Catz responded to Cover Oregon and the OHA in a letter claiming that the site's problems were due to OHA mismanagement, specifically that a third-party systems integrator was not hired to manage the complex project.WEB,weblink Oracle blasts Oregon for spreading Cover Oregon 'false narrative', The Oregonian, April 17, 2015, WEB,weblink Oregon health exchange technology troubles run deep due to mismanagement, early decisions, The Oregonian, April 17, 2015, In August 2014, Oracle Corporation sued Cover Oregon for breach of contract,NEWS,weblink Cover Oregon: Oracle comes out swinging, files lawsuit, accuses Kitzhaber of 'campaign', Manning, Jeff, August 8, 2014, Oregon Live, August 27, 2014, and then later that month the state of Oregon sued Oracle Corporation, in a civil complaint for breach of contract, fraud, filing false claims and "racketeering".NEWS,weblink Oregon Attorney General sues Oracle for 'racketeering activity', Gallagher, Sean, August 25, 2014, Ars Technica, August 27, 2014, In September 2016, the two sides reached a settlement valued at over $100 million to the state, and a six-year agreement for Oracle to continue modernizing state software and IT.NEWS, Foden-Vencil, Kristian, Oregon, Oracle Reach $100 Million Settlement Over Cover Oregon Healthcare Exchange. News {{!, OPB|url=http://www.opb.org/news/article/oregon-oracle-cover-oregon-healthcare-exchange/|accessdate=September 16, 2016|work=Oregon Public Broadcast|date=September 15, 2016}}

Events

Acquisition of Sun Microsystems

On January 27, 2010, Oracle announced it had completed its acquisition of Sun Microsystems—valued at more than $7 billion—a move that transformed Oracle from solely a software company to a manufacturer of both software and hardware. The acquisition was delayed for several months by the EU Commission because of concerns about MySQL, but was unconditionally approved in the end.PRESS RELEASE,weblink European Commission, Mergers: Commission clears Oracle's proposed acquisition of Sun Microsystems, January 21, 2010, April 17, 2015, This acquisition was important to some in the open source community and also to some other companies, as they feared Oracle might end Sun's traditional support of open source projects.NEWS,weblink Oracle Growth Plans Worry Rivals and Customers, The New York Times, Vance, Ashlee, September 21, 2010, WEB,weblink Save MySQL!, January 31, 2010, Monty, Widenius, Monty Widenius, [Signer hereby asks] competition authorities around the world to block Oracle's acquisition of Sun unless one of the structural solutions selected by [signer] below is put in place as a legally binding requirement: (select at least one; all combinations are possible) MySQL must be divested to a suitable third party that can continue to develop it under the GPL. Oracle must commit to a linking exception for applications that use MySQL with the client libraries (for all programming languages), for plugins and libmysqld. MySQL itself remains licensed under the GPL. Oracle must release all past and future versions of MySQL (until December 2012) under the Apache Software License 2.0 or similar permissive license so that developers of applications and derived versions (forks) have flexibility concerning the code., WEB, Paul, Ryan, Oracle buys Sun: understanding the impact on open source, April 20, 2009,weblink Ars Technica, March 6, 2011, WEB, Fiveash, Kelly, Open source boss quits Oracle, The Register, March 9, 2010,weblink Since the acquisition, Oracle has discontinued OpenSolaris and StarOffice, and sued Google over their newly acquired Java patents from Sun.WEB, Paul, Ryan, Oracle's Java lawsuit undermines its open source credibility, August 14, 2010,weblink Ars Technica, March 6, 2011, NEWS, Oracle files suit over Android's use of Java, Seth, Weintraub,weblink August 12, 2010, January 31, 2011, CNN, In September 2011, U.S. State Department Embassy cables were leakedWEB,weblink Secret US Embassy Cables, WikiLeaks, to WikiLeaks. One cable revealed that the U.S. pressured the E.U. to allow Oracle to acquire Sun.WEB, Mick, Jason, U.S. Pressured EU to Approve the Oracle's Acquisition of Sun, Daily Tech, September 1, 2011,weblink

Justice Department lawsuit

On July 29, 2010, the United States Department of Justice filed suit against Oracle Corporation alleging fraud. The lawsuit argues that the government received deals inferior to those Oracle gave to its commercial clients. The DoJ added its heft to an already existing whistleblower lawsuit filed by Paul Frascella, who was once senior director of contract services at Oracle.WEB,weblink Justice Department sues Oracle, alleging fraud, CNET, April 17, 2015, It was settled in May 2012Whistleblower Lawsuit Results in Nearly $200 Million Settlement. Kellergroverwhistleblowerlawyers.com (October 6, 2011). Retrieved July 14, 2013.

Lawsuit against Google

Background

Oracle, the plaintiff, bought the Java computer programing language when it acquired Sun Microsystems in January 2010. The Java software includes sets of pre-developed software code in order to accomplish common tasks consistently among programs and apps. The pre-developed code is organized into separate "packages" which each contained a set of methods. The packages are further organized into larger "classes." Each method instructs a program or app to do a certain task. Software developers "became accustomed to using Java’s designations at the package, class, and method level."WEB,weblink Oracle America, Inc. v. Google, Inc., Quimbee, en, 2018-01-29, Oracle and Google (the defendant) tried to negotiate an agreement for Oracle to license Java to Google, which would have allowed Google to use Java in developing programs for mobile devices using the Android operating system. However, the two companies never reached an agreement. After negotiations failed, Google created its own programming platform, which was based on Java, and contained a mix of 37 copied Java packages and new packages developed by Google.

First trial

In 2010, Oracle sued Google for copyright infringement for the use of the 37 Java packages.NEWS,weblink Oracle seeks up to $6.1 billion in Google lawsuit, 2011-06-18, Reuters, 2018-01-29, The case was handled in U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California and assigned to Judge William H. Alsup (who taught himself how to code computers). In the lawsuit, Oracle sought between $1.4 billion and $6.1 billion. In June 2011 the judge had to force Google through a judicial order to make public the details about Oracle's claim for damages.By the end of the first jury trial (the legal dispute would eventually go on to another trial) the arguments made by Oracle's attorneys focused on a Java function called "rangeCheck.""The argument centered on a function called rangeCheck. Of all the lines of code that Oracle had tested—15 million in total—these were the only ones that were 'literally' copied. Every keystroke, a perfect duplicate." – The Verge, 10/19/17NEWS,weblink How the judge on Oracle v. Google taught himself to code, Jeong, Sarah, 2017-10-19, The Verge, 2018-01-29, Although Google admitted to copying the packages, Judge Alsup found that none of the Java packages were covered under copyright protection, and therefore Google did not infringe.

First appeal

After the case was over, Oracle appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (750 F.3d 1339 (2014)).NEWS,weblink Oracle v. Google, 2013-05-22, Electronic Frontier Foundation, 2018-01-29, en, On May 9, 2014, the appeals court partially reversed Judge Alsup's decision, finding that Java APIs are copyrightable. API stands for "application programming interface" and are how different computer programs or apps communicate with each other. However, the appeals court also left open the possibility that Google might have a "fair use" defense.

Supreme Court petition

On October 6, 2014, Google filed a petition to appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court, but the Supreme Court denied the petition.

Second trial

The case was then returned to the U.S. District Court for another trial about Google's fair use defense. Oracle sought $9 billion in damages.NEWS,weblink Just as you thought Java-Android row was over, it all kicks off again, Tung, Liam, 2017-02-13, ZDNet, 2018-01-29, en, In May 2016, the trial jury found that Google's use of Java's APIs was considered fair use.

Second appeal

In February 2017, Oracle filed another appeal to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. This time it was asking for a new trial because the District Court "repeatedly undermined Oracle's case", which Oracle argued led the jury to make the wrong decision. According to ZDNet, "For example, it [Oracle] says the court wrongly bought Google's claim that Android was limited to smartphones while Java was for PCs, whereas Oracle contends that Java and Android both compete as platforms for smart TVs, cars, and wearables."

Discontinuation of OpenSolaris

On August 13, 2010, an internal Oracle memo leaked to the Internet cited plans for ending the OpenSolaris operating system project and community.WEB,weblink OpenSolaris is Dead., Steven, Stallion, Iconoclastic Tendencies, August 13, 2010, September 7, 2011, With Oracle planning to develop Solaris only in a closed source fashion, OpenSolaris developers moved to the Illumos and OpenIndiana project, among others.WEB,weblink OpenIndiana – Another OpenSolaris Fork – Coming Next Week, Michael, Larabel, September 10, 2010, Phoronix, September 13, 2010, Michael Larabel,

Discontinuation of OpenSSO

As Oracle completed their acquisition of Sun Microsystems in February 2010, they announced that OpenSSO would no longer be their strategic product.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131208131331weblink">weblink December 8, 2013, Oracle kills OpenSSO Express – ForgeRock steps in – The H Open Source: News and Features, H-online.com, February 24, 2010, July 7, 2011, Shortly after, OpenSSO was forked to OpenAM. and will continue to be developed and supported by ForgeRock.

Mark Hurd as President

On September 6, 2010, Oracle announced that former Hewlett-Packard CEO Mark Hurd was to replace Charles Phillips, who resigned as Oracle Co-President. In an official statement made by Larry Ellison, Phillips had previously expressed his desire to transition out of the company. Ellison had asked Phillips to stay on through the integration of Sun Microsystems Inc.WEB,weblink Charles Phillips Resigns as President of Oracle, www.oracle.com, 2017-09-14, In a separate statement regarding the transition, Ellison said "Mark did a brilliant job at HP and I expect he'll do even better at Oracle. There is no executive in the IT world with more relevant experience than Mark."NEWS,weblink Oracle names ex-HP CEO Mark Hurd co-president, Writer, JORDAN ROBERTSON, AP Technology, sandiegouniontribune.com, 2017-09-14, en-US, On September 7, 2010, HP announced a civil lawsuit against Mark Hurd "to protect HP's trade secrets",WEB,weblink Court Filing: HP Civil Complaint Against Mark Hurd, Scribd,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100909011607weblink">weblink September 9, 2010, in response to Oracle hiring Hurd. On September 20, Oracle and HP published a joint press release announcing the resolution of the lawsuit on confidential terms and reaffirming commitment to long-term strategic partnership between the companies.PRESS RELEASE,weblink HP and Oracle Reaffirm Commitment to Long-term Strategic Partnership, September 20, 2010, September 5, 2011,

OpenOffice.org issue

A number of OpenOffice.org developers had formed The Document Foundation and had received backing by Google, Novell, Red Hat, and Canonical, as well as some others, but were unable to get Oracle to donate the brand OpenOffice.org, causing a fork in the development of OpenOffice.org with the foundation now developing and promoting LibreOffice. Oracle has expressed no interest in sponsoring the new project and has asked the OpenOffice.org developers that have started the project to resign from the company due to "conflicts of interest." On November 1, 2010, 33 of the OpenOffice.org developers gave their letters of resignation.WEB,weblink And So The Exodus Begins – 33 Developers Leave OpenOffice.org, Digitizor.com, November 1, 2010, July 7, 2011, On June 1, 2011, Oracle donated OpenOffice.org to the Apache Software Foundation.WEB,weblink Oracle Donates OpenOffice to the Apache Software Foundation, ReadWriteWeb, June 1, 2011, September 5, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110902023720weblink">weblink September 2, 2011, mdy-all,

HP and Oracle lawsuit

On June 15, 2011, HP filed a lawsuit in California Superior Court in Santa Clara, claiming that Oracle had breached an agreement to support the Itanium microprocessor used in HP's high-end enterprise servers.WEB, Jack, Clark, ZDNet UK,weblink HP unleashes lawyers on Oracle over Itanium support, June 16, 2011, June 17, 2011, Oracle called the lawsuit "an abuse of the judicial process"WEB,weblink HP, Oracle exchange court jabs in escalating Itanium support showdown, ZDNet, July 7, 2011, September 5, 2011, and said that had it known SAP's Leo Apotheker was about to be hired as HP's new CEO, any support for HP's Itanium servers would not have been implied.WEB,weblink Oracle fires back at HP in Itanium suit, doesn't mince words, ZDNet, August 30, 2011, September 5, 2011, On August 1, 2012, a California judge said in a tentative ruling that Oracle must continue porting its software at no cost until HP discontinues its sales of Itanium-based servers.NEWS, Gallagher, Sean, HP wins judgment in Itanium suit against Oracle,weblink July 1, 2016, Ars Technica, August 1, 2012, NEWS, McMillan, Robert, HP Wins Big Victory Over Oracle in Battle of the Itanium,weblink Wired, August 1, 2012TITLE=HP AWARDED $3B IN DAMAGES FROM ORACLE OVER ITANIUM DATABASE CANCELATIONACCESSDATE=JULY 1, 2016DATE=JUNE 30, 2016, HP argued Oracle's canceling support damaged HP's Itanium server brand. Oracle has announced it will appeal both the decision and damages.

Foreign corrupt practices

On August 31, 2011, The Wall Street Journal reported that Oracle was being investigated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation for paying bribes to government officials in order to win business in Africa, in contravention of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA).WEB, Farrar, James,weblink Oracle under fire over ethics again: Feds investigating bribery for business in Africa, ZDNet, August 31, 2011, June 15, 2013,

GSA business bidding ban

On April 20, 2012 the US General Services Administration banned Oracle from the most popular portal for bidding on GSA contracts for undisclosed reasons. Oracle has previously used this portal for around four hundred million dollars a year in revenue.WEB,weblink Feds Banish Oracle From Popular Contract Vehicle, Hoover, J. Nicholas, 2012-04-20, InformationWeek, 2017-10-04, Oracle previously settled a lawsuit filed under the False Claims Act, which accused the company of overbilling the US government between 1998 and 2006. The 2011 settlement forced Oracle to pay $199.5 million to the General Services Administration.NEWS,weblink Oracle to Pay $199.5 Million to Settle Overbilling Charges, September 16, 2013, October 7, 2011, The New York Times,

People

  • Mark Hurd: (CEO since September 2014),NEWS,weblink Larry Ellison Says He Is Done as Chief at Oracle, Hardy, Quentin, September 18, 2014, The New York Times, September 19, 2014, previously co-president (since 2010). In 2007, Mark Hurd was ranked {{Numero|16}} on Fortune{{'}}s list of the 25 Most Powerful People in Business.WEB,weblink 25 most powerful people in business, Fortune, April 17, 2015,
  • Safra Catz: (CEO since September 2014), previously co-president (since 2004) and CFO.NEWS,weblink New Rivals Clip Oracle's Wings, Hickens, Michael, March 21, 2013, The Wall Street Journal, March 23, 2013, B1–2, paper, In 2016, she was ranked 10th on Fortune's Most Powerful Women list.NEWS,weblink Safra Catz, 2016-09-08, Fortune, 2017-09-14, en-US,
  • Larry Ellison: executive chairman and CTO (since September 2014), co-founder of the company, previously CEO (1977–2014), previously chairman (1990–2004). He owns 25% of the company.
  • Jeff Henley: vice chairman (since September 2014), chairman (2004–2014). Previously CFO of Oracle (1991–2004).
  • Charles Phillips: past co-president and director from 2003 to 2010, replaced by Mark Hurd.
  • Ed Oates: co-founder of the company. Retired from Oracle in 1996.
  • Bob Miner: co-founder of the company and co-architect of Oracle Database. Led product design and development for Oracle Database from 1977 to 1992. Spun off a technology group within Oracle in 1992. Oracle board member until 1993.
  • Umang Gupta: former vice president and general manager (1981–1984). Wrote the first business plan for the company. Current chairman and CEO of Keynote Systems, Inc.
  • Bruce Scott: One of the first employees (number 4) at Oracle (then Software Development Laboratories), Scott served as the co-author and co-architect of Oracle V1, V2 and V3 until leaving Oracle in 1984.
  • Adam Edelman (born 1991), American-born four-time Israeli National Champion in skeleton event, and Israeli Olympian

Offices

Oracle Corporation has its overall headquarters on the San Francisco Peninsula in the Redwood Shores area of Redwood City, adjacent to Belmont and near San Carlos Airport (IATA airport code: SQL).Oracle HQ stands on the former site of Marine World Africa USA, which moved from Redwood Shores to Vallejo in 1986. Oracle Corporation originally leased two buildings on the site, moving its finance and administration departments from the corporation's former headquarters on Davis Drive, Belmont, California. Eventually, Oracle purchased the complex and constructed a further four main buildings.The distinctive Oracle Parkway buildings, nicknamed the Emerald City,NEWS
,weblink
, When it comes to {{sic, y, acquistion, acquisition, plans, it's Oracle vs Oracle
|accessdate = March 27, 2011
|first = Laura
|last = Rich
|date = July 23, 2010
|publisher = CNNMoney.com
|deadurl = yes
|archiveurl =weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100827184259weblink">weblink
|archivedate = August 27, 2010
|df = mdy-all
}} served as sets for the futuristic headquarters of the fictional company "NorthAm Robotics" in the Robin Williams film Bicentennial Man (1999).WEB
,weblink
, Trivia for Bicentennial Man
, March 27, 2011
, Internet Movie Database
, The campus represented the headquarters of Cyberdyne Systems in the movie Terminator Genisys (2015).WEB
,weblink
, Trivia for Terminator Genisys
, July 9, 2015
, Internet Movie Database
, {{wide image|Oracle Redwood City February 2013 panorama.jpg|1200px|Oracle headquarters in Redwood Shores, California.}}File:Oracle Redwood City May 2011 001.jpg|300 Oracle Parkway at Oracle Corporation headquarters in Redwood Shores, California.File:Oracle Aoyama Center 01.JPG|Oracle Aoyama Center Building, with Lexus International Gallery AoyamaFile:Oracle HQ3.jpg|Oracle HQ, with Oracle Plaza building in left foregroundFile:Oracle Conference Center, Oracle HQ.JPG|The Oracle Conference Center at Oracle Corporation headquarters in Redwood Shores, CaliforniaFile:Oracle Fountain (6532480).jpg|Fountain in the Oracle lake, Redwood ShoresFile:Oracle at Thames Valley Park.jpg|Oracle Corporation has a major business campus at Thames Valley Park in Reading in EnglandFile:OracleMarkham.JPG|Oracle in Markham, Ontario

Corporate structures

{{expand section|date=July 2016}}Oracle Corporation operates in multiple markets and has acquired several companies which formerly functioned autonomously. In some cases these provided the starting points for global business units (GBUs) targeting particular vertical markets.NEWS, Sanati, Cyrus, Inside Oracle's Acquisition Machine,weblink 18 December 2017, Fortune, 16 August 2016, Oracle Corporation GBUs include:
  • Communications
  • Construction and engineering - formerly the Primavera GBU
  • Financial services
  • Health sciences
  • Hospitality
  • Retail
  • Utilities

Sponsorships

(File:German Sailing Grand Prix 2006 Oracle-2.jpg|thumb|BMW Oracle Racing USA-71, at the German Sailing Grand Prix Kiel 2006. It was moored at Oracle headquarters in Redwood Shores, California until 2014.)On October 20, 2006, the Golden State Warriors and the Oracle Corporation announced a 10-year agreement in which the Oakland Arena would become known as the Oracle Arena.WEB,weblink Golden State Warriors, Oracle Reach Arena Naming Rights Agreement, October 20, 2006, National Basketball Association, Larry Ellison's sailing team competes as Oracle Team USA. The team has won the America's Cup twice, in 2010 (as BMW Oracle Racing)WEB,weblink Ellison's team wins long-sought sailing trophy, February 16, 2010, Shankland, Stephen, CNET, and in 2013.WEB,weblink Oracle Team USA stages massive comeback to win 34th America's Cup, America's Cup, September 25, 2013, March 12, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140312213827weblink">weblink March 12, 2014, mdy-all, Sean Tucker's "Challenger II" stunt biplane performs frequently at air shows around the US.WEB,weblink Team Oracle Sponsors and Suppliers, Oracle Corporation,

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • JOURNAL, Mendelsohn, Andrew, The Oracle Story: 1984-2001, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, 35, 2, 10–23, 10.1109/MAHC.2012.56,

External links

{{Commons category}}
  • {{Official website}}
{{Finance links|name = Oracle Corporation |symbol = ORCL |sec_cik = 1341439 |yahoo = ORCL|google = ORCL}}
  • {{OpenCorp|Oracle}}
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