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PostgreSQL
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{{short description|Free and open-source relational database management system}}{{Use mdy dates|date=February 2019}}











factoids
developer PostgreSQL Global Development Group

,
FreeBSD, Linux, macOS, OpenBSD, Microsoft Windows>Windows{{cite weburl=https://www.postgresql.org/download/, 2019-04-12, C (programming language)>CRelational database management system>RDBMSfree and open-source, permissive software licence>permissive)weblink}}}}







factoids
HTTPS://FEDORAPROJECT.ORG/WIKI/LICENSING:MAIN?RD=LICENSING>TITLE=LICENSING:MAIN, FedoraProject, WORK=FSF.ORG, | GPL compatible = Yes| copyleft = No| linking = Yesweblink}}}}PostgreSQL (also referred to as Postgres) is an open-source relational database management system (RDBMS) emphasizing extensibility and standards compliance. It can handle workloads ranging from single-machine applications to Web services or data warehousing with many concurrent users. It is the default database for macOS Server, and is also available for Linux, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, and Windows.PostgreSQL is ACID-compliant and transactional. It offers support for RDBMS features such as updatable and materialized views, triggers, foreign keys; functions and stored procedures. PostgreSQL is developed by the PostgreSQL Global Development Group, a diverse group of many companies and individual contributors. It is free and open-source software released under a permissive software license.

Name

PostgreSQL's developers pronounce PostgreSQL as {{IPAc-en|ˈ|p|oʊ|s|t|ɡ|ɹ|ɛ|s|_|ˌ|k|juː|_|ˈ|ɛ|l}}. It is abbreviated as Postgres because of ubiquitous support for the SQL standard among relational databases. Originally named POSTGRES, the name (Post Ingres) refers to the project's origins in that RDBMS that originated at University of California, Berkeley. After a review the PostgreSQL Core Team announced in 2007 that the product would continue to use the name PostgreSQL.

History

PostgreSQL evolved from the Ingres project at the University of California, Berkeley. In 1982, the leader of the Ingres team, Michael Stonebraker, left Berkeley to make a proprietary version of Ingres. He returned to Berkeley in 1985, and started a post-Ingres project to address the problems with contemporary database systems that had become increasingly clear during the early 1980s. He won the Turing Award in 2014 for these and other projectsWEB,weblink Michael Stonebraker - A.M. Turing Award Winner, Techniques pioneered in Postgres were widely implemented [..] Stonebraker is the only Turing award winner to have engaged in serial entrepreneurship on anything like this scale, giving him a distinctive perspective on the academic world., amturing.acm.org, en, March 20, 2018, and techniques pioneered in them.The new project, POSTGRES, aimed to add the fewest features needed to completely support types. These features included the ability to define types and to fully describe relationships{{snd}} something used widely, but maintained entirely by the user. In POSTGRES, the database understood relationships, and could retrieve information in related tables in a natural way using rules. POSTGRES used many of the ideas of Ingres, but not its code.Starting in 1986, published papers described the basis of the system, and a prototype version was shown at the 1988 ACM SIGMOD Conference. The team released version 1 to a small number of users in June 1989, followed by version 2 with a re-written rules system in June 1990. Version 3, released in 1991, again re-wrote the rules system, and added support for multiple storage managers{{citation needed|date=February 2017}} and an improved query engine. By 1993, the number of users began to overwhelm the project with requests for support and features. After releasing version 4.2 on June 30, 1994{{snd}} primarily a cleanup{{snd}} the project ended. Berkeley released POSTGRES under an MIT-style license, which enabled other developers to use the code for any use. At the time, POSTGRES used an Ingres-influenced POSTQUEL query language interpreter, which could be interactively used with a console application named monitor. In 1994, Berkeley graduate students Andrew Yu and Jolly Chen replaced the POSTQUEL query language interpreter with one for the SQL query language, creating Postgres95. monitor was also replaced by psql. Yu and Chen announced the first version (0.01) to beta testers on May 5, 1995. Version 1.0 of Postgres95 was announced on September 5, 1995, with a more liberal license that enabled the software to be freely modifiable.On July 8, 1996, Marc Fournier at Hub.org Networking Services provided the first non-university development server for the open-source development effort. With the participation of Bruce Momjian and Vadim B. Mikheev, work began to stabilize the code inherited from Berkeley.In 1996, the project was renamed to PostgreSQL to reflect its support for SQL. The online presence at the website PostgreSQL.org began on October 22, 1996. The first PostgreSQL release formed version 6.0 on January 29, 1997. Since then developers and volunteers around the world have maintained the software as The PostgreSQL Global Development Group.The project continues to make releases available under its free and open-source software PostgreSQL License. Code comes from contributions from proprietary vendors, support companies, and open-source programmers.

Multiversion concurrency control (MVCC)

PostgreSQL manages concurrency through multiversion concurrency control (MVCC), which gives each transaction a "snapshot" of the database, allowing changes to be made without affecting other transactions. This largely eliminates the need for read locks, and ensures the database maintains ACID principles. PostgreSQL offers three levels of transaction isolation: Read Committed, Repeatable Read and Serializable. Because PostgreSQL is immune to dirty reads, requesting a Read Uncommitted transaction isolation level provides read committed instead. PostgreSQL supports full serializability via the serializable snapshot isolation (SSI) technique.

Storage and replication

Replication

PostgreSQL includes built-in binary replication based on shipping the changes (write-ahead logs (WAL)) to replica nodes asynchronously, with the ability to run read-only queries against these replicated nodes. This allows splitting read traffic among multiple nodes efficiently. Earlier replication software that allowed similar read scaling normally relied on adding replication triggers to the master, increasing load.PostgreSQL includes built-in synchronous replication that ensures that, for each write transaction, the master waits until at least one replica node has written the data to its transaction log. Unlike other database systems, the durability of a transaction (whether it is asynchronous or synchronous) can be specified per-database, per-user, per-session or even per-transaction. This can be useful for workloads that do not require such guarantees, and may not be wanted for all data as it slow performance due to the requirement of the confirmation of the transaction reaching the synchronous standby.Standby servers can be synchronous or asynchronous. Synchronous standby servers can be specified in the configuration which determines which servers are candidates for synchronous replication. The first in the list that is actively streaming will be used as the current synchronous server. When this fails, the syste fails over to the next in line.Synchronous multi-master replication is not included in the PostgreSQL core. Postgres-XC which is based on PostgreSQL provides scalable synchronous multi-master replication. It is licensed under the same license as PostgreSQL. A related project is called Postgres-XL. Postgres-R is yet another fork. Bi-directional replication (BDR) is an asynchronous multi-master replication system for PostgreSQL.Tools such as repmgr make managing replication clusters easier.Several asynchronous trigger-based replication packages are available. These remain useful even after introduction of the expanded core capabilities, for situations where binary replication of an entire database cluster is not appropriate:

Indexes

PostgreSQL includes built-in support for regular B-tree and hash indexes, and four index access methods: generalized search trees (GiST), generalized inverted indexes (GIN), Space-Partitioned GiST (SP-GiST) and Block Range Indexes (BRIN). In addition, user-defined index methods can be created, although this is quite an involved process. Indexes in PostgreSQL also support the following features:
  • Expression indexes can be created with an index of the result of an expression or function, instead of simply the value of a column.
  • Partial indexes, which only index part of a table, can be created by adding a WHERE clause to the end of the CREATE INDEX statement. This allows a smaller index to be created.
  • The planner is capable of using multiple indexes together to satisfy complex queries, using temporary in-memory bitmap index operations (useful in data warehousing applications for joining a large fact table to smaller dimension tables such as those arranged in a star schema).
  • k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) indexing (also referred to KNN-GiST) provides efficient searching of "closest values" to that specified, useful to finding similar words, or close objects or locations with geospatial data. This is achieved without exhaustive matching of values.
  • Index-only scans often allow the system to fetch data from indexes without ever having to access the main table.
  • PostgreSQL 9.5 introduced Block Range Indexes (BRIN).

Schemas

In PostgreSQL, a schema holds all objects (with the exception of roles and tablespaces). Schemas effectively act like namespaces, allowing objects of the same name to co-exist in the same database. By default, newly created databases have a schema called "public", but any additional schemas can be added, and the public schema isn't mandatory.A {{code|search_path}} setting determines the order in which PostgreSQL checks schemas for unqualified objects (those without a prefixed schema). By default, it is set to {{code|$user, public}} ({{code|$user}} refers to the currently connected database user). This default can be set on a database or role level, but as it is a session parameter, it can be freely changed (even multiple times) during a client session, affecting that session only.Non-existent schemas listed in search_path are silently skipped during objects lookup.New objects are created in whichever valid schema (one that presently exists) appears first in the search_path.Schema is an outline of database.

Data types

A wide variety of native data types are supported, including:
  • Boolean
  • Arbitrary precision numerics
  • Character (text, varchar, char)
  • Binary
  • Date/time (timestamp/time with/without timezone, date, interval)
  • Money
  • Enum
  • Bit strings
  • Text search type
  • Composite
  • HStore, an extension enabled key-value store within PostgreSQLWEB,weblink PostgreSQL, the NoSQL Database &124; Linux Journal, www.linuxjournal.com,
  • Arrays (variable length and can be of any data type, including text and composite types) up to 1 GB in total storage size
  • Geometric primitives
  • IPv4 and IPv6 addresses
  • CIDR blocks and MAC addresses
  • XML supporting XPath queries
  • UUID
  • JSON, and a faster binary JSONB (since version 9.4; not the same as BSON)
In addition, users can create their own data types which can usually be made fully indexable via PostgreSQL's indexing infrastructures{{snd}} GiST, GIN, SP-GiST. Examples of these include the geographic information system (GIS) data types from the PostGIS project for PostgreSQL.There is also a data type called a "domain", which is the same as any other data type but with optional constraints defined by the creator of that domain. This means any data entered into a column using the domain will have to conform to whichever constraints were defined as part of the domain.A data type that represents a range of data can be used which are called range types. These can be discrete ranges (e.g. all integer values 1 to 10) or continuous ranges (e.g. any point in time between 10:00 am and 11:00 am). The built-in range types available include ranges of integers, big integers, decimal numbers, time stamps (with and without time zone) and dates.Custom range types can be created to make new types of ranges available, such as IP address ranges using the inet type as a base, or float ranges using the float data type as a base. Range types support inclusive and exclusive range boundaries using the {{kbd|[}}/{{kbd|]}} and {{kbd|(}}/{{kbd|)}} characters respectively. (e.g., {{code|[4,9)}} represents all integers starting from and including 4 up to but not including 9.) Range types are also compatible with existing operators used to check for overlap, containment, right of etc.

User-defined objects

New types of almost all objects inside the database can be created, including:
  • Casts
  • Conversions
  • Data types
  • Domains
  • Functions, including aggregate functions and window functions
  • Indexes including custom indexes for custom types
  • Operators (existing ones can be overloaded)
  • Procedural languages

Inheritance

Tables can be set to inherit their characteristics from a "parent" table. Data in child tables will appear to exist in the parent tables, unless data is selected from the parent table using the ONLY keyword, i.e. {{code |lang="sql" | SELECT * FROM ONLY parent_table;}}. Adding a column in the parent table will cause that column to appear in the child table.Inheritance can be used to implement table partitioning, using either triggers or rules to direct inserts to the parent table into the proper child tables.{{As of|2010}}, this feature is not fully supported yet{{snd}} in particular, table constraints are not currently inheritable. All check constraints and not-null constraints on a parent table are automatically inherited by its children. Other types of constraints (unique, primary key, and foreign key constraints) are not inherited.Inheritance provides a way to map the features of generalization hierarchies depicted in entity relationship diagrams (ERDs) directly into the PostgreSQL database.

Other storage features

  • Referential integrity constraints including foreign key constraints, column constraints, and row checks
  • Binary and textual large-object storage
  • Tablespaces
  • Per-column collation
  • Online backup
  • Point-in-time recovery, implemented using write-ahead logging
  • In-place upgrades with pg_upgrade for less downtime (supports upgrades from 8.3.x and later)

Control and connectivity

Foreign data wrappers

PostgreSQL can link to other systems to retrieve data via foreign data wrappers (FDWs).BOOK, Obe, Regina, Hsu, Leo S., 10: Replication and External Data, PostgreSQL: Up and Running,weblink 1, Sebastopol, CA, O'Reilly Media, Inc., 2012, 129, 978-1-4493-2633-3, October 17, 2016, Foreign Data Wrappers (FDW) [...] are mechanisms of querying external datasources. PostgreSQL 9.1 introduced this SQL/MED standards compliant feature., These can take the form of any data source, such as a file system, another RDBMS, or a web service. This means that regular database queries can use these data sources like regular tables, and even join multiple data-sources together.

Interfaces

PostgreSQL has several interfaces available and is also widely supported among programming language libraries. Built-in interfaces include libpq (PostgreSQL's official C application interface) and ECPG (an embedded C system). External interfaces include:
  • libpqxx: C++ interface
  • Pgfe: C++ interface
  • PostgresDAC: PostgresDAC (for Embarcadero RadStudio/Delphi/CBuilder XE-XE3)
  • DBD::Pg: Perl DBI driver
  • JDBC: JDBC interface
  • Lua: Lua interface
  • Npgsql: .NET data provider
  • ST-Links SpatialKit: Link Tool to ArcGIS
  • PostgreSQL.jl: Julia interface
  • node-postgres: Node.js interface
  • pgoledb: OLEDB interface
  • psqlODBC: ODBC interface
  • psycopg2: Python interface (also used by HTSQL)
  • pgtclng: Tcl interface
  • pyODBC: Python library
  • php5-pgsql: PHP driver based on libpq
  • postmodern: A Common Lisp interface
  • pq: A pure Go PostgreSQL driver for the Go database/sql package. The driver passes the compatibility test suite.WEB, SQL database drivers,weblink Go wiki, golang.org, June 22, 2015,
  • RPostgreSQL: R interfaceWEB, RPostgreSQL: R Interface to the 'PostgreSQL' Database System,weblink CRAN, cran.r-project.org, August 3, 2017,
  • dpq: D interface to libpq
  • epgsql: Erlang interface
  • Rust-Postgres: Rust interface

Procedural languages

Procedural languages allow developers to extend the database with custom subroutines (functions), often called stored procedures. These functions can be used to build triggers (functions invoked upon modification of certain data) and custom aggregate functions. Procedural languages can also be invoked without defining a function, using the DO command at SQL level.Languages are divided into two groups: "Safe" languages are sandboxed and can be safely used by any user. Procedures written in "unsafe" languages can only be created by superusers, because they allow bypassing the database's security restrictions, but can also access sources external to the database. Some languages like Perl provide both safe and unsafe versions.PostgreSQL has built-in support for three procedural languages:
  • Plain SQL (safe). Simpler SQL functions can get expanded inline into the calling (SQL) query, which saves function call overhead and allows the query optimizer to "see inside" the function.
  • PL/pgSQL (safe), which resembles Oracle's PL/SQL procedural language and SQL/PSM.
  • C (unsafe), which allows loading custom shared libraries into the database. Functions written in C offer the best performance, but bugs in code can crash and potentially corrupt the database. Most built-in functions are written in C.
In addition, PostgreSQL allows procedural languages to be loaded into the database through extensions. Three language extensions are included with PostgreSQL to support Perl, Python and Tcl. There are external projects to add support for many other languages, including Java, JavaScript (PL/V8), R, Ruby, and others.

Triggers

Triggers are events triggered by the action of SQL DML statements. For example, an INSERT statement might activate a trigger that checks if the values of the statement are valid. Most triggers are only activated by either INSERT or UPDATE statements.Triggers are fully supported and can be attached to tables. Triggers can be per-column and conditional, in that UPDATE triggers can target specific columns of a table, and triggers can be told to execute under a set of conditions as specified in the trigger's WHERE clause. Triggers can be attached to views by using the INSTEAD OF condition. Multiple triggers are fired in alphabetical order. In addition to calling functions written in the native PL/pgSQL, triggers can also invoke functions written in other languages like PL/Python or PL/Perl.

Asynchronous notifications

PostgreSQL provides an asynchronous messaging system that is accessed through the NOTIFY, LISTEN and UNLISTEN commands. A session can issue a NOTIFY command, along with the user-specified channel and an optional payload, to mark a particular event occurring. Other sessions are able to detect these events by issuing a LISTEN command, which can listen to a particular channel. This functionality can be used for a wide variety of purposes, such as letting other sessions know when a table has updated or for separate applications to detect when a particular action has been performed. Such a system prevents the need for continuous polling by applications to see if anything has yet changed, and reducing unnecessary overhead. Notifications are fully transactional, in that messages are not sent until the transaction they were sent from is committed. This eliminates the problem of messages being sent for an action being performed which is then rolled back.Many of the connectors for PostgreSQL provide support for this notification system (including libpq, JDBC, Npgsql, psycopg and node.js) so it can be used by external applications.

Rules

Rules allow the "query tree" of an incoming query to be rewritten. Rules, or more properly, "Query Re-Write Rules", are attached to a table/class and "Re-Write" the incoming DML (select, insert, update, and/or delete) into one or more queries that either replace the original DML statement or execute in addition to it. Query Re-Write occurs after DML statement parsing, but before query planning.

Other querying features

  • Transactions
  • Full-text search
  • Views
    • Materialized views
    • Updateable views
    • Recursive views
  • Inner, outer (full, left and right), and cross joins
  • Sub-selects
    • Correlated sub-queries
  • Regular expressions
  • Common table expressions and writable common table expressions
  • Encrypted connections via TLS (current versions do not use vulnerable SSL, even with that configuration option)
  • Domains
  • Savepoints
  • Two-phase commit
  • TOAST (The Oversized-Attribute Storage Technique) is used to transparently store large table attributes (such as big MIME attachments or XML messages) in a separate area, with automatic compression.
  • Embedded SQL is implemented using preprocessor. SQL code is first written embedded into C code. Then code is run through ECPG preprocessor, which replaces SQL with calls to code library. Then code can be compiled using a C compiler. Embedding works also with C++ but it does not recognize all C++ constructs.

Concurrency model

PostgreSQL server is process-based (not threaded), and uses one operating system process per database session. Multiple sessions are automatically spread across all available CPUs by the operating system. Starting with PostgreSQL 9.6, many types of queries can also be parallelized across multiple background worker processes, taking advantage of multiple CPUs or cores.WEB,weblink PostgreSQL 9.6 Beta and PGCon 2016, Berkus, Josh, June 2, 2016, LWN.net, Client applications can use threads and create multiple database connections from each thread.WEB,weblink FAQ - PostgreSQL wiki, wiki.postgresql.org, en, April 13, 2017,

Security

PostgreSQL manages its internal security on a per-role basis. A role is generally regarded to be a user (a role that can log in), or a group (a role of which other roles are members). Permissions can be granted or revoked on any object down to the column level, and can also allow/prevent the creation of new objects at the database, schema or table levels.PostgreSQL's SECURITY LABEL feature (extension to SQL standards), allows for additional security; with a bundled loadable module that supports label-based mandatory access control (MAC) based on SELinux security policy.WEB,weblink SEPostgreSQL Documentation - PostgreSQL wiki, wiki.postgresql.org, WEB,weblink NB SQL 9.3 - SELinux Wiki, selinuxproject.org, PostgreSQL natively supports a broad number of external authentication mechanisms, including: The GSSAPI, SSPI, Kerberos, peer, ident and certificate methods can also use a specified "map" file that lists which users matched by that authentication system are allowed to connect as a specific database user.These methods are specified in the cluster's host-based authentication configuration file (pg_hba.conf), which determines what connections are allowed. This allows control over which user can connect to which database, where they can connect from (IP address/IP address range/domain socket), which authentication system will be enforced, and whether the connection must use TLS.

Standards compliance

PostgreSQL claims high, but not complete, conformance with the SQL standard. One exception is the handling of unquoted identifiers like table or column names. In PostgreSQL they are folded{{snd}} internal{{snd}} to lower case characters whereas the standard says that unquoted identifiers should be folded to upper case. Thus, {{code|Foo}} should be equivalent to {{code|FOO}} not {{code|foo}} according to the standard.

Benchmarks and performance

Many informal performance studies of PostgreSQL have been done. Performance improvements aimed at improving scalability started heavily with version 8.1. Simple benchmarks between version 8.0 and version 8.4 showed that the latter was more than 10 times faster on read-only workloads and at least 7.5 times faster on both read and write workloads.The first industry-standard and peer-validated benchmark was completed in June 2007, using the Sun Java System Application Server (proprietary version of GlassFish) 9.0 Platform Edition, UltraSPARC T1-based Sun Fire server and PostgreSQL 8.2. This result of 778.14 SPECjAppServer2004 JOPS@Standard compares favourably with the 874 JOPS@Standard with Oracle 10 on an Itanium-based HP-UX system.In August 2007, Sun submitted an improved benchmark score of 813.73 SPECjAppServer2004 JOPS@Standard. With the system under test at a reduced price, the price/performance improved from $84.98/JOPS to $70.57/JOPS.The default configuration of PostgreSQL uses only a small amount of dedicated memory for performance-critical purposes such as caching database blocks and sorting. This limitation is primarily because older operating systems required kernel changes to allow allocating large blocks of shared memory. PostgreSQL.org provides advice on basic recommended performance practice in a wiki.In April 2012, Robert Haas of EnterpriseDB demonstrated PostgreSQL 9.2's linear CPU scalability using a server with 64 cores.Matloob Khushi performed benchmarking between Postgresql 9.0 and MySQL 5.6.15 for their ability to process genomic data. In his performance analysis he found that PostgreSQL extracts overlapping genomic regions eight times faster than MySQL using two datasets of 80,000 each forming random human DNA regions. Insertion and data uploads in PostgreSQL were also better, although general searching capability of both databases was almost equivalent.JOURNAL, Matloob, Khushi, 25560631, Benchmarking database performance for genomic data., J Cell Biochem, June 2015, 116, 10.1002/jcb.25049, 877–83,

Platforms

PostgreSQL is available for the following operating systems: Linux (all recent distributions), Windows (Windows 2000 SP4 and later; compilable by e.g. Visual Studio, now with up to most recent 2017 version), FreeBSD, OpenBSD,WEB,weblink postgresql-client-10.5p1 – PostgreSQL RDBMS (client), OpenBSD ports, October 4, 2018, October 10, 2018, NetBSD, OS X (macOS), AIX, HP-UX, Solaris, and UnixWare; and not officially tested: DragonFly BSD, BSD/OS, IRIX, OpenIndiana, OpenSolaris, OpenServer, and Tru64 Unix. Most other Unix-like systems could also work; most modern do support.PostgreSQL works on any of the following instruction set architectures: x86 and x86-64 on Windows and other operating systems; these are supported on other than Windows: IA-64 Itanium (external support for HP-UX), PowerPC, PowerPC 64, S/390, S/390x, SPARC, SPARC 64, ARMv8-A (64-bit) and older ARM (32-bit, including older such as ARMv6 in Raspberry Pi), MIPS, MIPSel, and PA-RISC. It is also known to work on Alpha (dropped in 9.5), M68k, M32R, NS32k, and VAX. In addition to these, it is possible to build PostgreSQL for an unsupported CPU by disabling spinlocks.

Database administration

{{See also|Comparison of database tools}}Open source front-ends and tools for administering PostgreSQL include:
{{anchor|psql}}psql: The primary front-end for PostgreSQL is the {{code|psql}} command-line program, which can be used to enter SQL queries directly, or execute them from a file. In addition, psql provides a number of meta-commands and various shell-like features to facilitate writing scripts and automating a wide variety of tasks; for example tab completion of object names and SQL syntax.
{{anchor|pgAdmin}}pgAdmin: The pgAdmin package is a free and open-source graphical user interface administration tool for PostgreSQL, which is supported on many computer platforms. The program is available in more than a dozen languages. The first prototype, named pgManager, was written for PostgreSQL 6.3.2 from 1998, and rewritten and released as pgAdmin under the GNU General Public License (GPL) in later months. The second incarnation (named pgAdmin II) was a complete rewrite, first released on January 16, 2002. The third version, pgAdmin III, was originally released under the Artistic License and then released under the same license as PostgreSQL. Unlike prior versions that were written in Visual Basic, pgAdmin III is written in C++, using the wxWidgetsWEB,weblink Debian -- Details of package pgadmin3 in jessie, March 10, 2017, framework allowing it to run on most common operating systems. The query tool includes a scripting language called pgScript for supporting admin and development tasks. In December 2014, Dave Page, the pgAdmin project founder and primary developer,WEB, pgAdmin Development Team,weblink pgadmin.org, June 22, 2015, announced that with the shift towards web-based models work has started on pgAdmin 4 with the aim of facilitating Cloud deployments.WEB, Dave, Page, The story of pgAdmin,weblink Dave's Postgres Blog, pgsnake.blogspot.co.uk, December 7, 2014, In 2016, pgAdmin 4 was released. pgAdmin 4 backend was written in Python, using Flask and Qt framework.WEB, pgAdmin 4 README,weblink August 15, 2018,
phpPgAdmin: phpPgAdmin is a web-based administration tool for PostgreSQL written in PHP and based on the popular phpMyAdmin interface originally written for MySQL administration.
PostgreSQL Studio: PostgreSQL Studio allows users to perform essential PostgreSQL database development tasks from a web-based console. PostgreSQL Studio allows users to work with cloud databases without the need to open firewalls.
TeamPostgreSQL: AJAX/JavaScript-driven web interface for PostgreSQL. Allows browsing, maintaining and creating data and database objects via a web browser. The interface offers tabbed SQL editor with auto-completion, row-editing widgets, click-through foreign key navigation between rows and tables, "favorites" management for commonly used scripts, among other features. Supports SSH for both the web interface and the database connections. Installers are available for Windows, Mac and Linux, as well as a simple cross-platform archive that runs from a script.
LibreOffice/OpenOffice.org Base: LibreOffice/OpenOffice.org Base can be used as a front-end for PostgreSQL.
pgBadger: The pgBadger PostgreSQL log analyzer generates detailed reports from a PostgreSQL log file.
pgDevOps: pgDevOps is a suite of web tools to install & manage multiple PostgreSQL versions, extensions, and community components, develop SQL queries, monitor running databases and find performance problems.WEB, pgDevOps,weblink BigSQL.org, May 4, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170401220832weblink">weblink April 1, 2017, yes,
A number of companies offer proprietary tools for PostgreSQL. They often consist of a universal core that is adapted for various specific database products. These tools mostly share the administration features with the open source tools but offer improvements in data modeling, importing, exporting or reporting.

Notable users

Notable organizations and products that use PostgreSQL as the primary database include:
  • In 2009, the social-networking website Myspace used Aster Data Systems's nCluster database for data warehousing, which was built on unmodified PostgreSQL.
  • Geni.com uses PostgreSQL for their main genealogy database.
  • OpenStreetMap, a collaborative project to create a free editable map of the world.
  • Afilias, domain registries for .org, .info and others.
  • Sony Online multiplayer online games.
  • BASF, shopping platform for their agribusiness portal.
  • Reddit social news website.
  • Skype VoIP application, central business databases.WEB,weblink PostgreSQL @Skype, Pihlak, Martin, wiki.postgresql.org, January 16, 2019,
  • Sun xVM, Sun's virtualization and datacenter automation suite.
  • MusicBrainz, open online music encyclopedia.
  • The International Space Station – for collecting telemetry data in orbit and replicating it to the ground.
  • MyYearbook social-networking site.
  • Instagram, a mobile photo-sharing service.
  • Disqus, an online discussion and commenting service.
  • TripAdvisor, travel-information website of mostly user-generated content.
  • Yandex, a Russian internet company switched its Yandex.Mail service from Oracle to Postgres.WEB,weblink Yandex.Mail's successful migration from Oracle to Postgres [pdf] {{!, Hacker News|website=news.ycombinator.com|access-date=September 28, 2016}}
  • AWS Redshift, a columnar OLAP system based on ParAccel's Postgres modifications.
  • NOAA's National Weather Service, Interactive Forecast Preparation System (IFPS), a system that integrates data from the NEXRAD weather radars, surface, and hydrology systems to build detailed localized forecast models.BOOK, W. Jason Gilmore, R.H. Treat, Beginning PHP and PostgreSQL 8: From Novice to Professional,weblink August 30, 2017, 2006, Apress, 978-1-43020-136-6, BOOK, S. Riggs, G. Ciolli, H. Krosing, G. Bartolini, PostgreSQL 9 Administration Cookbook - Second Edition,weblink September 5, 2017, 2015, Packt, 978-1-84951-906-9,
  • United Kingdom's national weather service, Met Office, has started swapping Oracle for PostgreSQL in a strategy to deploy more open source technology.WEB,weblink Met Office swaps Oracle for PostgreSQL, computerweekly.com, September 5, 2017,
  • WhitePages.com had been using OracleOracle Database{{Better source|reason=per WP:CIRCULAR|date=October 2017}} and MySQL, but when it came to moving its core directories in-house, it turned to PostgreSQL. Because WhitePages.com needs to combine large sets of data from multiple sources, PostgreSQL's ability to load and index data at an extremely high rate was a key to its decision to use PostgreSQL.
  • FlightAware, a flight tracking website.WEB, Open Source Software,weblink FlightAware, November 22, 2017,
  • Grofers, an online grocery delivery service.NEWS,weblink Ansible at Grofers (Part 2) — Managing PostgreSQL – Lambda - The Grofers Engineering Blog, February 28, 2017, Lambda - The Grofers Engineering Blog, September 5, 2018,
  • The Guardian migrated from MongoDB to PostgreSQL in 2018.NEWS,weblink Bye bye Mongo, Hello Postgres {{!, Digital blog|last=McMahon|first=Philip|date=November 30, 2018|work=The Guardian|last2=Chiorean|first2=Maria-Livia|language=en-GB|issn=0261-3077|last3=Coleman|first3=Susie|last4=Askoolum|first4=Akash}}

Service implementations

Some notable vendors offer PostgreSQL as software as a service:
  • Heroku, a platform as a service provider, has supported PostgreSQL since the start in 2007. They offer value-add features like full database "roll-back" (ability to restore a database from any point in time), which is based on WAL-E, open-source software developed by Heroku.
  • In January 2012, EnterpriseDB released a cloud version of both PostgreSQL and their own proprietary Postgres Plus Advanced Server with automated provisioning for failover, replication, load-balancing, and scaling. It runs on Amazon Web Services.
  • VMware has offered vFabric Postgres (also known as vPostgresBOOK, O'Doherty, Paul, Asselin, Stephane, 3: VMware Workspace Architecture, VMware Horizon Suite: Building End-User Services,weblink VMware Press Technology, Upper Saddle River, NJ, VMware Press, 2014, 65, 978-0-13-347910-2, September 19, 2016, In addition to the open source version of PostgreSQL, VMware offers vFabric Postgres, or vPostgres. vPostgres is a PostgreSQL virtual appliance that has been tuned for virtual environments.
, ) for private clouds on vSphere since May 2012.

Release history {| class"wikitable"

|+ Release history! scope="col" | Release! scope="col" | First release! scope="col" | Latest minor version! scope="col" | Latest release! scope="col" | End ofLifeWEB, Versioning policy, PostgreSQL Global Development Group,weblink June 1, 2016, ! scope="col" | Milestones! scope="row" | 6.0 1997-01-29| {{NA}}| {{NA}}| {{NA}}| First formal release of PostgreSQL, unique indexes, pg_dumpall utility, ident authentication! scope="row" | 6.1 1997-06-08o style=text-align:center; white-space:nowrap}}| 1997-07-22| {{NA}}| Multi-column indexes, sequences, money data type, GEQO (GEnetic Query Optimizer)! scope="row" | 6.2| 1997-10-02o style=text-align:center}}| 1997-10-17| {{NA}}| JDBC interface, triggers, server programming interface, constraints! scope="row" | 6.3| 1998-03-01o style=text-align:center}}| 1998-04-07| 2003-04| SQL-92 subselect capability, PL/pgTCL! scope="row" | 6.4| 1998-10-30o style=text-align:center}}| 1998-12-20| 2003-10| VIEWs (then only read-only) and RULEs, PL/pgSQL! scope="row" | 6.5| 1999-06-09o style=text-align:center}} 1999-10-13 2004-06Multiversion concurrency control>MVCC, temporary tables, more SQL statement support (CASE, INTERSECT, and EXCEPT)! scope="row" | 7.0| 2000-05-08o style=text-align:center}}| 2000-11-11| 2004-05| Foreign keys, SQL-92 syntax for joins! scope="row" | 7.1| 2001-04-13o style=text-align:center}}| 2001-08-15| 2006-04| Write-ahead log, outer joins! scope="row" | 7.2| 2002-02-04o style=text-align:center}}| 2005-05-09| 2007-02Object identifier>OIDs no longer required, internationalization of messages! scope="row" | 7.3| 2002-11-27o style=text-align:center}}| 2008-01-07| 2007-11prepared queryLISA DATE=DECEMBER 2, 2002 URL=HTTP://WWW.EWEEK.COM/C/A/DATABASE/DATABASES-TARGET-ENTERPRISES EWEEK >ACCESS-DATE=OCTOBER 29, 2016, ! scope="row" | 7.4| 2003-11-17o style=text-align:center}}| 2010-10-04| 2010-10data warehousing functionsKRILL DATE=NOVEMBER 20, 2003 URL=HTTP://WWW.INFOWORLD.COM/ARTICLE/2670451/DATABASE/POSTGRESQL-BOOSTS-OPEN-SOURCE-DATABASE.HTML INFOWORLD >ACCESS-DATE=OCTOBER 21, 2016, ! scope="row" | 8.0| 2005-01-19o style=text-align:center}}| 2010-10-04| 2010-10Microsoft Windows, savepoints, tablespaces, point-in-time recoveryKRILL DATE=JANUARY 19, 2005 URL=HTTP://WWW.INFOWORLD.COM/ARTICLE/2668622/OPERATING-SYSTEMS/POSTGRESQL-OPEN-SOURCE-DATABASE-BOASTS-WINDOWS-BOOST.HTML INFOWORLD >ACCESS-DATE=NOVEMBER 2, 2016, ! scope="row" | 8.1| 2005-11-08o style=text-align:center}}| 2010-12-16| 2010-11Partition (database)>partitioning, index bitmap scan, shared row locking, roles! scope="row" | 8.2| 2006-12-05o style=text-align:center}}| 2011-09-26| 2011-12DATE=DECEMBER 5, 2006 URL=HTTP://WWW.COMPUTERWORLD.COM/ARTICLE/2548483 COMPUTERWORLD >ACCESS-DATE=OCTOBER 17, 2016, ! scope="row" | 8.3| 2008-02-04o style=text-align:center}}| 2013-02-07| 2013-12full text search,GILBERTSON DATE=FEBRUARY 5, 2008 URL=HTTPS://WWW.WIRED.COM/2008/02/POSTGRESQL_8DOT3_OPEN_SOURCE_DATABASE_PROMISES_BLAZING_SPEED/ WIRED (MAGAZINE)>WIRED SQL/XML, ENUM types, Universally unique identifier>UUID types! scope="row" | 8.4| 2009-07-01o style=text-align:center}}| 2014-07-24| 2014-07common table expressions and recursive queriesHUBER DATE=JULY 2, 2009 URL=HTTP://WWW.LINUX-MAGAZINE.COM/ONLINE/NEWS/POSTGRESQL-8.4-PROVES-FEATURE-RICH/(LANGUAGE)/ENG-US LINUX MAGAZINE >ACCESS-DATE=OCTOBER 17, 2016, ! scope="row" | 9.0| 2010-09-20o style=text-align:center}}| 2015-10-08| 2015-09Replication (computing)>replication, hot standby, in-place upgrade capability, 64-bit WindowsHTTPS://WWW.LINUX.COM/NEWS/FIVE-ENTERPRISE-FEATURES-POSTGRESQL-9 >TITLE=FIVE ENTERPRISE FEATURES IN POSTGRESQL 9 FIRST=JOE WEBSITE=LINUX.COM LINUX FOUNDATION >ACCESS-DATE=FEBRUARY 6, 2017, ! scope="row" | 9.1| 2011-09-12o style=text-align:center}}| 2016-10-27| 2016-09Synchronous replication, per-column collations, unlogged tables, serializable snapshot isolation, writeable common table expressions, Security-Enhanced Linux>SELinux integration, extensions, foreign tablesTIMOTHY PRICKETT MORGAN >DATE=SEPTEMBER 12, 2011 URL=HTTPS://WWW.THEREGISTER.CO.UK/2011/09/12/POSTGRESQL_9_1_CLOUD_SERVER/ THE REGISTER >ACCESS-DATE=FEBRUARY 6, 2017, ! scope="row" | 9.2WEBSITE=WWW.POSTGRESQL.ORG, o style=text-align:center}}| 2017-11-09| 2017-09| Cascading streaming replication, index-only scans, native JSON support, improved lock management, range types, pg_receivexlog tool, space-partitioned GiST indexes! scope="row" | 9.3| 2013-09-09o style=text-align:center}}| 2018-11-08| 2018-11| Custom background workers, data checksums, dedicated JSON operators, LATERAL JOIN, faster pg_dump, new pg_isready server monitoring tool, trigger features, view features, writeable foreign tables, materialized views, replication improvements! scope="row" | 9.4| 2014-12-18co style=text-align:center}}| 2019-02-14| 2019-12WEBSITE=INFOQ, ! scope="row" | 9.5| 2016-01-07co style=text-align:center}}| 2019-02-14| 2021-01Block Range Index>BRIN indexRICHARD >FIRST=CHIRGWIN TITLE=SAY OOPS, UPSERT YOUR HEAD: POSTGRESQL VERSION 9.5 HAS LANDED MAGAZINE=THE REGISTER, October 17, 2016, ! scope="row" | 9.6| 2016-09-29co style=text-align:center}}| 2019-02-14| 2021-09| Parallel query support, PostgreSQL foreign data wrapper (FDW) improvements with sort/join pushdown, multiple synchronous standbys, faster vacuuming of large table! scope="row" | 10| 2017-10-05co style=text-align:center}}| 2019-02-14| 2022-10WEBSITE=WWW.POSTGRESQL.ORG, declarative table partitioning, improved query parallelism! scope="row" | 11| 2018-10-18c style=text-align:center}}| 2019-02-14| 2023-11ACCESSDATE=OCTOBER 18, 2018, POSTGRESQLRELEASE NOTES >URL=HTTPS://WWW.POSTGRESQL.ORG/DOCS/11/STATIC/RELEASE-11.HTML, October 18, 2018, {{Version|l|show=111111}}{{Timeline PostgreSQL}}

See also

References

{{Reflist|refs =WEB,weblink Audio sample, 5.6k MP3, WEB,weblink PostgreSQL: History, PostgreSQL Global Development Group, August 27, 2016,weblink March 26, 2017, yes,
| title = Historie projektu PostgreSQL | language = Czech | url =weblink }}
a new indexing framework for PostgreSQL | conference = PGCon 2011 | location = Ottawa, Canada | format = PDF | url =weblink | accessdate = January 31, 2016 }}
WEB,weblink PostgreSQL + Python | Psycopg, initd.org, WEB,weblink A few short notes about PostgreSQL and POODLE, hagander.net, WEB,weblink AArch64 planning BoF at DebConf, debian.org,
| publisher = Packt Publishing | isbn = 978-1-84951-030-1 | url =weblink }}
| title = Architecture Overview | work = Reddit software wiki | publisher = Reddit | url =weblink | accessdate = November 25, 2014 }}
CONFERENCE,weblink At The Heart Of A Giant: Postgres At TripAdvisor, Matthew Kelly, March 27, 2015, PGConf US 2015, July 23, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150723181100weblink">weblink July 23, 2015, yes, (Presentation video)
| author = Alex Williams | title = Heroku Forces Customer Upgrade To Fix Critical PostgreSQL Security Hole | publisher = TechCrunch | url =weblink }}
| author = Barb Darrow | title = Heroku gussies up Postgres with database roll-back and proactive alerts | url =weblink | publisher = GigaOM }}
| author = Craig Kerstiens | title = WAL-E and Continuous Protection with Heroku Postgres | publisher = Heroku blog | url =weblink }}
| author = Al Sargent | title = Introducing VMware vFabric Suite 5.1: Automated Deployment, New Components, and Open Source Support | url =weblink | publisher = VMware blogs }}
| author = Jeff | title = Amazon RDS for PostgreSQL â€“ Now Available | publisher = Amazon Web Services Blog | url =weblink }}
| author = Alex Williams | title = PostgreSQL Now Available On Amazon's Relational Database Service | publisher = TechCrunch | url =weblink }}
WEB,weblink Postgres-R: a database replication system for PostgreSQL, Postgres Global Development Group, August 27, 2016, WEB,weblink Postgres-BDR, 2ndQuadrant Ltd, August 27, 2016, WEB,weblink Step 5 (update): Installing PostgreSQL on my Raspberry Pi 1 and 2, Rubens, Souza, June 17, 2015, August 27, 2016, Raspberry PG, WEB,weblink Mac OS X packages, The PostgreSQL Global Development Group, August 27, 2016, }}

Further reading

  • BOOK, PostgreSQL: Up and Running, Regina, Obe, Leo, Hsu, July 8, 2012, O'Reilly, 1-4493-2633-1,weblink
  • BOOK, PostgreSQL Server Programming, second, Hannu, Krosing, Kirk, Roybal, June 15, 2013, Packt Publishing, 978-1-84951-698-3,weblink
  • BOOK, PostgreSQL 9 Administration Cookbook, second, Simon, Riggs, Hannu, Krosing, October 27, 2010, Packt Publishing, 1-84951-028-8,weblink
  • BOOK, PostgreSQL 9 High Performance, Greg, Smith, October 15, 2010, Packt Publishing, 1-84951-030-X,weblink
  • BOOK, Beginning PHP and PostgreSQL 8: From Novice to Professional, W. Jason, Gilmore, Robert, Treat, February 27, 2006, Apress, 1-59059-547-5,weblink 896, April 28, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090708113944weblink">weblink July 8, 2009, yes, mdy-all,
  • BOOK, PostgreSQL, second, Korry, Douglas, August 5, 2005, Sams Publishing, Sams, 0-672-32756-2,weblink 1032,
  • BOOK, Beginning Databases with PostgreSQL, second, Neil, Matthew, Richard, Stones, April 6, 2005, Apress, 1-59059-478-9,weblink 664, April 28, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090409150911weblink">weblink April 9, 2009, yes, mdy-all,
  • BOOK, Practical PostgreSQL, John C, Worsley, Joshua D, Drake, January 2002, O'Reilly Media, 1-56592-846-6,weblink 636,

External links

{{Commons category}}
  • {{Official website}}
  • {{dmoz|Computers/Software/Databases/PostgreSQL/}}
{{Software in the Public Interest}}

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