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pharaoh
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{{Other uses}}{{pp|small=yes}}{{short description|Title of Ancient Egyptian rulers}}







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{{Hiero|pr-ˤ3"Great house"|O1:O29|align=right|era=egypt}}{{Hiero|nswt-bjt"King of Upper and Lower Egypt"|sw:t L2:tA43 A45S1:t S3:tS2 S4S5|align=right|era=egypt}}Pharaoh ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|f|ɛər|oʊ}}, {{small|US also}} {{IPAc-en|ˈ|f|eɪ|.|r|oʊ}};{{citation|last=Wells|first=John C.|year=2008|title=Longman Pronunciation Dictionary|edition=3rd|publisher=Longman|isbn=9781405881180}} }} Pǝrro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE,Clayton, Peter A. Chronicle of the Pharaohs the Reign-by-reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. London: Thames & Hudson, 2012. Print. although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee ((wikt:nswt-bjtj|nswt-bjtj)) name, and the Two Ladies ((wikt:nbtj|nbtj)) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.In Egyptian society, religion was central to everyday life. One of the roles of the pharaoh was as an intermediary between the gods and the people. The pharaoh thus deputised for the gods; his role was both as civil and religious administrator. He owned all of the land in Egypt, enacted laws, collected taxes, and defended Egypt from invaders as the commander-in-chief of the army.WEB,weblink Pharaoh, 1999, AncientEgypt.co.uk, The British Museum, 20 December 2017, Religiously, the pharaoh officiated over religious ceremonies and chose the sites of new temples. He was responsible for maintaining Maat ((wikt:mꜣꜥt#Egyptian|mꜣꜥt)), or cosmic order, balance, and justice, and part of this included going to war when necessary to defend the country or attacking others when it was believed that this would contribute to Maat, such as to obtain resources.WEB,weblink Pharaoh - Ancient History Encyclopedia, Mark, Joshua, 2 September 2009, ancient.eu, Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited, 20 December 2017, During the early days prior to the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, the Deshret or the "Red Crown", was a representation of the kingdom of Lower Egypt, while the Hedjet, the "White Crown", was worn by the kings of the kingdom of Upper Egypt. After the unification of both kingdoms into one united Egypt, the Pschent, the combination of both the red and white crowns was the official crown of kings. With time new headdresses were introduced during different dynasties like the Khat, Nemes, Atef, Hemhem crown, and Khepresh. At times, it was depicted that a combination of these headdresses or crowns would be worn together.

Etymology

The word pharaoh ultimately derives from the Egyptian compound ', *{{ipa|/ËŒpaɾuwˈʕaÊ€/}} "great house", written with the two biliteral hieroglyphs ' "house" and "column", here meaning "great" or "high". It was used only in larger phrases such as (wikt:smr#Etymology 1|smr) pr-ꜥꜣ "Courtier of the High House", with specific reference to the buildings of the court or palace.A. Gardiner, Ancient Egyptian Grammar (3rd edn, 1957), 71–76. From the Twelfth Dynasty onward, the word appears in a wish formula "Great House, May it Live, Prosper, and be in Health", but again only with reference to the royal palace and not the person.Sometime during the era of the New Kingdom, Second Intermediate Period, pharaoh became the form of address for a person who was king. The earliest confirmed instance where pr ꜥꜣ is used specifically to address the ruler is in a letter to Akhenaten (reigned c. 1353–1336 BCE) which is addressed to "Great House, L, W, H, the Lord".Hieratic Papyrus from Kahun and Gurob, F. LL. Griffith, 38, 17.BOOK,weblink Illahun, Kahun and Gurob : 1889-1890, Petrie, W. M. (William Matthew Flinders), Sayce, A. H. (Archibald Henry), Griffith, F. Ll (Francis Llewellyn), 1891, London : D. Nutt, Cornell University Library, 50, However, there is a possibility that the title pr ꜥꜣ was applied to Thutmose III (c. 1479–1425 BCE), depending on whether an inscription on the Temple of Armant can be confirmed to refer to that king.(iarchive:EXCMEM43 1/page/n2|Robert Mond and O.H. Meyers. Temples of Armant, a Preliminary Survey: The Text, The Egypt Exploration Society, London, 1940), 160. During the Eighteenth Dynasty (16th to 14th centuries BCE) the title pharaoh was employed as a reverential designation of the ruler. About the late Twenty-first Dynasty (10th century BCE), however, instead of being used alone as before, it began to be added to the other titles before the ruler's name, and from the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty (eighth to seventh centuries BCE) it was, at least in ordinary usage, the only epithet prefixed to the royal appellative."pharaoh" in Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008.From the nineteenth dynasty onward pr-ꜥꜣ on its own was used as regularly as (wiktionary:ḥm#Egyptian|ḥm), "Majesty".BOOK, Doxey, Denise M., Denise M. Doxey, Egyptian Non-Royal Epithets in the Middle Kingdom: A Social and Historical Analysis,weblink 1998, BRILL, 90-04-11077-1, 119, {{refn|group="note"|The Bible refers to Egypt as the "Land of Ham".}} The term, therefore, evolved from a word specifically referring to a building to a respectful designation for the ruler, particularly by the Twenty-Second Dynasty and Twenty-third Dynasty.{{citation needed|date=October 2010}}For instance, the first dated appearance of the title pharaoh being attached to a ruler's name occurs in Year 17 of Siamun on a fragment from the Karnak Priestly Annals. Here, an induction of an individual to the Amun priesthood is dated specifically to the reign of Pharaoh Siamun.J-M. Kruchten, Les annales des pretres de Karnak (OLA 32), 1989, pp. 474–478. This new practice was continued under his successor Psusennes II and the Twenty-second Dynasty kings. For instance, the Large Dakhla stela is specifically dated to Year 5 of king "Pharaoh Shoshenq, beloved of Amun", whom all Egyptologists concur was Shoshenq I—the founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty—including Alan Gardiner in his original 1933 publication of this stela.Alan Gardiner, "The Dakhleh Stela", Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 19, No. 1/2 (May, 1933) pp. 193–200. Shoshenq I was the second successor of Siamun. Meanwhile, the old custom of referring to the sovereign simply as pr-ˤ3 continued in traditional Egyptian narratives.{{citation needed|date=October 2010}}By this time, the Late Egyptian word is reconstructed to have been pronounced {{IPA|*[parÊ•oÊ”]}} whence Herodotus derived the name of one of the Egyptian kings, .Herodotus, Histories 2.111.1. See BOOK, Brill, 1972, Diodorus Siculus, Book 1: A Commentary, Anne Burton, , commenting on ch. 59.1. In the Hebrew Bible, the title also occurs as {{IPA|[parÊ•oːh]}};Elazar Ari Lipinski: "Pesach – A holiday of questions. About the Haggadah-Commentary Zevach Pesach of Rabbi Isaak Abarbanel (1437–1508). Explaining the meaning of the name Pharaoh." Published first in German in the official quarterly of the Organization of the Jewish Communities of Bavaria: Jüdisches Leben in Bayern. Mitteilungsblatt des Landesverbandes der Israelitischen Kultusgemeinden in Bayern. Pessach-Ausgabe Nr. 109, 2009, {{ZDB|2077457-6}}, S. 3–4. from that, in the Septuagint, , and then in Late Latin pharaō, both -n stem nouns. The Qur'an likewise spells it firÊ¿awn with n (here, always referring to the one evil king in the Book of Exodus story, by contrast to the good king Aziz in surah Yusuf's story). The Arabic combines the original ayin from Egyptian along with the -n ending from Greek.In English, it was at first spelled "Pharao", but the translators of the King James Bible revived "Pharaoh" with "h" from the Hebrew. Meanwhile, in Egypt itself, {{IPA|*[par-Ê•oÊ”]}} evolved into Sahidic Coptic {{coptic|ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ}} pÉ™rro and then É™rro by mistaking p- as the definite article "the" (from ancient Egyptian (wikt:pꜣ|pꜣ)).Walter C. Till: "Koptische Grammatik". VEB Verläg Enzyklopädie, Leipzig, 1961. p. 62.Other notable epithets are (wikt:nswt|nswt), translated to "king"; (wikt:jty|jty) for "monarch or sovereign"; (wikt:nb|nb) for "lord";{{refn|group="note"|nb.f means "his lord", the monarchs were introduced with (.f) for his, (.k) for your.}} and (wikt:ḥqꜣ|ḥqꜣ) for "ruler".

List of Pharaohs

Regalia

Scepters and staves

(File:Khasekhemwy-BeadedScepter MuseumOfFineArtsBoston.png|thumb|Beaded scepter of Khasekhemwy (Museum of Fine Arts in Boston).)Sceptres and staves were a general sign of authority in ancient Egypt.Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001, p. 158. One of the earliest royal scepters was discovered in the tomb of Khasekhemwy in Abydos. Kings were also known to carry a staff, and Pharaoh Anedjib is shown on stone vessels carrying a so-called mks-staff.Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001, p. 159. The scepter with the longest history seems to be the heqa-sceptre, sometimes described as the shepherd's crook.Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001, p. 160. The earliest examples of this piece of regalia dates to prehistoric Egypt. A scepter was found in a tomb at Abydos that dates to Naqada III.Another scepter associated with the king is the was-sceptre. This is a long staff mounted with an animal head. The earliest known depictions of the was-scepter date to the First Dynasty. The was-scepter is shown in the hands of both kings and deities.The flail later was closely related to the heqa-scepter (the crook and flail), but in early representations the king was also depicted solely with the flail, as shown in a late pre-dynastic knife handle which is now in the Metropolitan museum, and on the Narmer Macehead.Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001, p. 161.

The Uraeus

The earliest evidence known of the Uraeus—a rearing cobra—is from the reign of Den from the First Dynasty. The cobra supposedly protected the pharaoh by spitting fire at its enemies.Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001, p. 162.

Crowns and headdresses

{{multiple image|align=center|total_width=640|header=Narmer Palette|image1=NarmerPalette-CloseUpOfNarmer-ROM.png|image2=NarmerPalette-CloseUpOfProcession-ROM.pngcaption2=Narmer wearing the red crown}}

Deshret

The red crown of Lower Egypt, the Deshret crown, dates back to pre-dynastic times and symbolised chief ruler. A red crown has been found on a pottery shard from Naqada, and later, Narmer is shown wearing the red crown on both the Narmer Macehead and the Narmer Palette.

Hedjet

The white crown of Upper Egypt, the Hedjet, was worn in the Predynastic Period by Scorpion II, and, later, by Narmer.

Pschent

This is the combination of the Deshret and Hedjet crowns into a double crown, called the Pschent crown. It is first documented in the middle of the first dynasty. The earliest depiction may date to the reign of Djet, and is otherwise surely attested during the reign of Den.Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt. Routledge, 2001 {{ISBN|978-0-415-26011-4}}

Khat

(File:Den1.jpg|thumb|right|Den)The khat headdress consists of a kind of "kerchief" whose end is tied similarly to a ponytail. The earliest depictions of the khat headdress comes from the reign of Den, but is not found again until the reign of Djoser.

Nemes

The Nemes headdress dates from the time of Djoser. It is the most common type of crown that has been depicted throughout Pharaonic Egypt. Any other type of crown, apart from the Khat headdress, has been commonly depicted on top of the Nemes. The statue from his Serdab in Saqqara shows the king wearing the nemes headdress.File:Kneeling Statuette of Pepy I, ca. 2338-2298 B.C.E., 39.121.jpg|left|thumb|Statuette of Pepy I (ca. 2338-2298 B.C.E.) wearing a nemes headdress Brooklyn MuseumBrooklyn Museum

Atef

Osiris is shown to wear the Atef crown, which is an elaborate Hedjet with feathers and disks. Depictions of Pharaohs wearing the Atef crown originate from the Old Kingdom.

Hemhem

The Hemhem crown is usually depicted on top of Nemes, Pschent, or Deshret crowns. It is an ornate triple Atef with corkscrew sheep horns and usually two uraei. The usage (depiction) of this crown begins during the Early 18th dynasty of Egypt.

Khepresh

Also called the blue crown, the Khepresh crown has been depicted in art since the New Kingdom. It is often depicted being worn in battle, but it was also frequently worn during ceremonies. It used to be called a war crown by many, but modern historians refrain from defining it thus.

Physical evidence

Egyptologist Bob Brier has noted that despite their widespread depiction in royal portraits, no ancient Egyptian crown has ever been discovered. Tutankhamun's tomb, discovered largely intact, did contain such regalia as his crook and flail, but no crown was found among the funerary equipment. Diadems have been discovered.Shaw, Garry J. The Pharaoh, Life at Court and on Campaign. Thames and Hudson, 2012, pp. 21, 77.It is presumed that crowns would have been believed to have magical properties. Brier's speculation is that crowns were religious or state items, so a dead pharaoh likely could not retain a crown as a personal possession. The crowns may have been passed along to the successor.Bob Brier, The Murder of Tutankhamen, 1998, p. 95.

Titles

During the early dynastic period kings had three titles. The Horus name is the oldest and dates to the late pre-dynastic period. The Nesu Bity name was added during the first dynasty. The Nebty name was first introduced toward the end of the first dynasty. The Golden falcon (bik-nbw) name is not well understood. The prenomen and nomen were introduced later and are traditionally enclosed in a cartouche. By the Middle Kingdom, the official titulary of the ruler consisted of five names; Horus, nebty, golden Horus, nomen, and prenomenIan Shaw, The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press 2000, p. 477 for some rulers, only one or two of them may be known.

Nesu Bity name

The Nesu Bity name, also known as Prenomen, was one of the new developments from the reign of Den. The name would follow the glyphs for the "Sedge and the Bee". The title is usually translated as king of Upper and Lower Egypt. The nsw bity name may have been the birth name of the king. It was often the name by which kings were recorded in the later annals and king lists.

Horus name

The Horus name was adopted by the king, when taking the throne. The name was written within a square frame representing the palace, named a serekh. The earliest known example of a serekh dates to the reign of king Ka, before the first dynasty.Toby A. H. Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge 1999, pp. 57f. The Horus name of several early kings expresses a relationship with Horus. Aha refers to "Horus the fighter", Djer refers to "Horus the strong", etc. Later kings express ideals of kingship in their Horus names. Khasekhemwy refers to "Horus: the two powers are at peace", while Nebra refers to "Horus, Lord of the Sun".

Nebty name

The earliest example of a nebty name comes from the reign of king Aha from the first dynasty. The title links the king with the goddesses of Upper and Lower Egypt Nekhbet and Wadjet. The title is preceded by the vulture (Nekhbet) and the cobra (Wadjet) standing on a basket (the neb sign).

Golden Horus

The Golden Horus or Golden Falcon name was preceded by a falcon on a gold or nbw sign. The title may have represented the divine status of the king. The Horus associated with gold may be referring to the idea that the bodies of the deities were made of gold and the pyramids and obelisks are representations of (golden) sun-rays. The gold sign may also be a reference to Nubt, the city of Set. This would suggest that the iconography represents Horus conquering Set.

Nomen and prenomen

The prenomen and nomen were contained in a cartouche. The prenomen often followed the King of Upper and Lower Egypt (nsw bity) or Lord of the Two Lands (nebtawy) title. The prenomen often incorporated the name of Re. The nomen often followed the title Son of Re (sa-ra) or the title Lord of Appearances (neb-kha).Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. {{ISBN|0-500-05128-3}}File:S F-E-CAMERON EGYPT 2005 RAMASEUM 01360.JPG|thumb|upright=2.05|center|Nomen and prenomen of Ramesses IIIRamesses III

See also

Notes

{{Reflist|group="note"}}

References

{{Reflist}}

Bibliography

  • Shaw, Garry J. The Pharaoh, Life at Court and on Campaign, Thames and Hudson, 2012.
  • Sir Alan Gardiner Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs, Third Edition, Revised. London: Oxford University Press, 1964. Excursus A, pp. 71–76.
  • Jan Assmann, "Der Mythos des Gottkönigs im Alten Ägypten," in Christine Schmitz und Anja Bettenworth (hg.), Menschen - Heros - Gott: Weltentwürfe und Lebensmodelle im Mythos der Vormoderne (Stuttgart, Franz Steiner Verlag, 2009), pp. 11–26.

External links

{{Sister project links|wikt=pharaoh|commons=Category:Pharaohs|v=no|n=no|q=no|b=Ancient History/Egypt/Pharaohs}} {{Wikivoyage|Pharaohs}}{{Ancient Egypt topics}}{{Pharaohs}}{{Ancient Egyptian royal titulary}}{{Authority control}}

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