Minkowski space

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Minkowski space
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{{technical|date=June 2019}}{{confuse|text=Minovsky physics, an integral science in the Universal Century timeline of the Gundam franchise, or the Minovsky particle, the fictional particle that powers the science}}File:De Raum zeit Minkowski Bild.jpg|250px|right|thumb|Hermann Minkowski (1864–1909) found that the theory of special relativity, introduced by his former student Albert EinsteinAlbert EinsteinIn mathematical physics, Minkowski space (or Minkowski spacetime) is a combination of three-dimensional Euclidean space and time into a four-dimensional manifold where the spacetime interval between any two events is independent of the inertial frame of reference in which they are recorded. Although initially developed by mathematician Hermann Minkowski for Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism, the mathematical structure of Minkowski spacetime was shown to be an immediate consequence of the postulates of special relativity.{{harvnb|Landau|Lifshitz|2002|p=5}}Minkowski space is closely associated with Einstein's theory of special relativity and is the most common mathematical structure on which special relativity is formulated. While the individual components in Euclidean space and time may differ due to length contraction and time dilation, in Minkowski spacetime, all frames of reference will agree on the total distance in spacetime between events.This makes spacetime distance an invariant. Because it treats time differently than it treats the 3 spatial dimensions, Minkowski space differs from four-dimensional Euclidean space.In 3-dimensional Euclidean space (e.g., simply space in Galilean relativity), the isometry group (the maps preserving the regular Euclidean distance) is the Euclidean group. It is generated by rotations, reflections and translations. When time is amended as a fourth dimension, the further transformations of translations in time and Galilean boosts are added, and the group of all these transformations is called the Galilean group. All Galilean transformations preserve the 3-dimensional Euclidean distance. This distance is purely spatial. Time differences are separately preserved as well. This changes in the spacetime of special relativity, where space and time are interwoven.Spacetime is equipped with an indefinite non-degenerate bilinear form, variously called the Minkowski metric,{{harvnb|Lee|1997|p=31}} the Minkowski norm squared or Minkowski inner product depending on the context.Consistent use of the terms "Minkowski inner product", "Minkowski norm" or "Minkowski metric" is intended for the bilinear form here, since it is in widespread use. It is by no means "standard" in the literature, but no standard terminology seems to exist. The Minkowski inner product is defined so as to yield the spacetime interval between two events when given their coordinate difference vector as argument.BOOK, Independent Axioms for Minkowski Space-Time, illustrated, John W., Schutz, CRC Press, 1977, 978-0-582-31760-4, 184–185,weblink Extract of page 184 Equipped with this inner product, the mathematical model of spacetime is called Minkowski space. The analogue of the Galilean group for Minkowski space, preserving the spacetime interval (as opposed to the spatial Euclidean distance) is the Poincaré group.In summary, Galilean spacetime and Minkowski spacetime are, when viewed as manifolds, actually the same. They differ in what further structures are defined on them. The former has the Euclidean distance function and time (separately) together with inertial frames whose coordinates are related by Galilean transformations, while the latter has the Minkowski metric together with inertial frames whose coordinates are related by Poincaré transformations.



Four-dimensional Euclidean spacetime

{{See also|Four-dimensional space}}In 1905–06 Henri Poincaré showed{{harvnb|Poincaré|1905–1906|pp=129–176}} Wikisource translation: s:Translat that by taking time to be an imaginary fourth spacetime coordinate {{math|ict}}, where {{mvar|c}} is the speed of light and {{mvar|i}} is the imaginary unit, a Lorentz transformation can formally be regarded as a rotation of coordinates in a four-dimensional space with three real coordinates representing space, and one imaginary coordinate representing time, as the fourth dimension. In physical spacetime special relativity stipulates that the quantity
- t^2 + x^2 + y^2 + z^2
is invariant under coordinate changes from one inertial frame to another, i. e. under Lorentz transformations. Here the speed of light {{mvar|c}} is, following Poincaré, set to unity. In the space suggested by him (Poincaré mentions this only in passing) where physical spacetime is coordinatized by {{math|(t, x, y, z) ↦ (x, y, z, it)}}, call it coordinate space, Lorentz transformations appear as ordinary rotations preserving the quadratic form
x^2 + y^2 + z^2 + t^2
on coordinate space. The naming and ordering of coordinates, with the same labels for space coordinates, but with the imaginary time coordinate as the fourth coordinate, is conventional. The above expression, while making the former expression more familiar,The surface {{math|x2 + y2 + z2 + t2 {{=}} R2 > 0}} is a 3-sphere in {{math|ℝ4}} and linear transformations preserving {{math|R2}} are either rotations or reflections. may potentially be confusing because it is not the same {{mvar|t}} that appears in the latter (time coordinate) as in the former (time itself in some inertial system as measured by clocks stationary in that system).Rotations in planes spanned by two space unit vectors appear in coordinate space as well as in physical spacetime appear as Euclidean rotations and are interpreted in the ordinary sense. The "rotation" in a plane spanned by a space unit vector and a time unit vector, while formally still a rotation in coordinate space, is a Lorentz boost in physical spacetime with real inertial coordinates (see also hyperbolic rotation). The analogy with Euclidean rotations is thus only partial.This idea was elaborated by Hermann Minkowski,{{harvnb|Minkowski|1907–1908|pp=53–111}} *Wikisource translation: s:Translat. who used it to restate the Maxwell equations in four dimensions, showing directly their invariance under the Lorentz transformation. He further reformulated in four dimensions the then-recent theory of special relativity of Einstein. From this he concluded that time and space should be treated equally, and so arose his concept of events taking place in a unified four-dimensional spacetime continuum.

Minkowski space

In a further development in his 1908 "Space and Time" lecture,{{harvnb|Minkowski|1908–1909|pp=75–88}} Various English translations on Wikisource: "s:Translat." Minkowski gave an alternative formulation of this idea that used a real time coordinate instead of an imaginary one, representing the four variables {{math|(x, y, z, t)}} of space and time in coordinate form in a four dimensional real vector space. Points in this space correspond to events in spacetime. In this space, there is a defined light-cone associated with each point, and events not on the light-cone are classified by their relation to the apex as spacelike or timelike. It is principally this view of spacetime that is current nowadays, although the older view involving imaginary time has also influenced special relativity.In the English translation of Minkowski's paper, the Minkowski metric as defined below is referred to as the line element. The Minkowski inner product of below appears unnamed when referring to orthogonality (which he calls normality) of certain vectors, and the Minkowski norm squared is referred to (somewhat cryptically, perhaps this is translation dependent) as "sum".Minkowski's principal tool is the Minkowski diagram, and he uses it to define concepts and demonstrate properties of Lorentz transformations (e.g. proper time and length contraction) and to provide geometrical interpretation to the generalization of Newtonian mechanics to relativistic mechanics. For these special topics, see the referenced articles, as the presentation below will be principally confined to the mathematical structure (Minkowski metric and from it derived quantities and the Poincaré group as symmetry group of spacetime) following from the invariance of the spacetime interval on the spacetime manifold as consequences of the postulates of special relativity, not to specific application or derivation of the invariance of the spacetime interval. This structure provides the background setting of all present relativistic theories, barring general relativity for which flat Minkowski spacetime still provides a springboard as curved spacetime is locally Lorentzian.Minkowski, aware of the fundamental restatement of the theory which he had made, saidThough Minkowski took an important step for physics, Einstein saw its limitation:For further historical information see references {{harvtxt|Galison|1979}}, {{harvtxt|Corry|1997}} and {{harvtxt|Walter|1999}}.

Mathematical structure

Image:Image Tangent-plane.svg|thumb|A pictorial representation of the tangent space at a point, {{mvar|x}}, on a ℝ3}} itself. Then vectors in it would be called geometrical tangent vectors. By the same principle, the tangent space at a point in flat spacetime can be thought of as a subspace of spacetime which happens to be all of spacetime.It is assumed below that spacetime is endowed with a coordinate system corresponding to an inertial frame. This provides an origin, which is necessary in order to be able to refer to spacetime as being modeled as a vector space. This is not really physically motivated in that a canonical origin ("central" event in spacetime) should exist. One can get away with less structure, that of an affine space, but this would needlessly complicate the discussion and would not reflect how flat spacetime is normally treated mathematically in modern introductory literature.For an overview, Minkowski space is a {{math|4}}-dimensional real vector space equipped with a nondegenerate, symmetric bilinear form on the tangent space at each point in spacetime, here simply called the Minkowski inner product, with metric signature either {{math|(+ − − −)}} or {{math|(− + + +)}}. The tangent space at each event is a vector space of the same dimension as spacetime, {{math|4}}.

Tangent vectors

In practice, one need not be concerned with the tangent spaces. The vector space nature of Minkowski space allows for the canonical identification of vectors in tangent spaces at points (events) with vectors (points, events) in Minkowski space itself. See e.g. {{harvtxt|Lee|2003|loc=Proposition 3.8.}} These identifications are routinely done in mathematics. They can be expressed formally in Cartesian coordinates as{{harvnb|Lee|1997|p=15}}
(x^0, x^1, x^2, x^3) leftrightarrow x^0mathbf e_0|_p + x^1mathbf e_1|_p + x^2mathbf e_2|_p + x^3mathbf e_3|_p leftrightarrow x^0mathbf e_0|_q + x^1mathbf e_1|_q + x^2mathbf e_2|_q + x^3mathbf e_3|_q,
with basis vectors in the tangent spaces defined by
mathbf e_mu|_p = left .frac{partial}{partial x^mu}right|_p text{ or } mathbf e_0|_p = left(begin{matrix} 1end{matrix}right) text{, etc}.
Here {{math|p}} and {{math|q}} are any two events and the last identification is referred to as parallel transport. The first identification is the canonical identification of vectors in the tangent space at any point with vectors in the space itself. The appearance of basis vectors in tangent spaces as first order differential operators is due to this identification. It is motivated by the observation that a geometrical tangent vector can be associated in a one-to-one manner with a directional derivative operator on the set of smooth functions. This is promoted to a definition of tangent vectors in manifolds not necessarily being embedded in {{math|ℝn}}. This definition of tangent vectors is not the only possible one as ordinary n-tuples can be used as well.{{Hidden begin| titlestyle = color:green;background:lightgrey;|title=Definitions of tangent vectors as ordinary vectors}}A tangent vector at a point {{mvar|p}} may be defined, here specialized to Cartesian coordinates in Lorentz frames, as {{math|4 × 1}} column vectors {{mvar|v}} associated to each Lorentz frame related by Lorentz transformation {{math|Λ}} such that the vector {{mvar|v}} in a frame related to some frame by {{math|Λ}} transforms according to {{math|v → Λv}}. This is the same way in which the coordinates {{math|xμ}} transform. Explicitly,
begin{align}x'^mu &= {Lambda^mu}_nu x^nu, v'^mu &= {Lambda^mu}_nu v^nu.end{align}
This definition is equivalent to the definition given above under a canonical isomorphism.{{Hidden end}}For some purposes it is desirable to identify tangent vectors at a point {{math|p}} with displacement vectors at {{math|p}}, which is, of course, admissible by essentially the same canonical identification.{{harvnb|Lee|2003|loc=See Lee's discussion on geometric tangent vectors early in chapter 3.}} The identifications of vectors referred to above in the mathematical setting can correspondingly be found in a more physical and explicitly geometrical setting in {{harvtxt|Misner|Thorne|Wheeler|1973}}. They offer various degree of sophistication (and rigor) depending on which part of the material one chooses to read.

Metric signature

The metric signature refers to which sign the Minkowski inner product yields when given space (spacelike to be specific, defined further down) and time basis vectors (timelike) as arguments. Further discussion about this theoretically inconsequential, but practically necessary choice for purposes of internal consistency and convenience is deferred to the hide box below.{{Hidden begin| titlestyle = color:green;background:lightgrey;|title=The choice of metric signature}}In general, but with several exceptions, mathematicians and general relativists prefer spacelike vectors to yield a positive sign, {{math|(− + + +)}}, while particle physicists tend to prefer timelike vectors to yield a positive sign, {{math|(+ − − −)}}. Authors covering several areas of physics, e.g. Steven Weinberg and Landau and Lifshitz ({{math|(− + + +)}} and {{math|(+ − − −)}} respectively) stick to one choice regardless of topic. Arguments for the former convention include "continuity" from the Euclidean case corresponding to the non-relativistic limit {{math|c → ∞}}. Arguments for the latter include that minus signs, otherwise ubiquitous in particle physics, go away. Yet other authors, especially of introductory texts, e.g. {{harvtxt|Kleppner|Kolenkow|1978}}, do not choose a signature at all, but instead opt to coordinatize spacetime such that the time coordinate (but not time itself!) is imaginary. This removes the need of the explicit introduction of a metric tensor (which may seem as an extra burden in an introductory course), and one needs not be concerned with covariant vectors and contravariant vectors (or raising and lowering indices) to be described below. The inner product is instead effected by a straightforward extension of the dot product in {{math|ℝ3}} to {{math|ℝ3 × â„‚}}. This works in the flat spacetime of special relativity, but not in the curved spacetime of general relativity, see {{harvtxt|Misner|Thorne|Wheeler|1973|loc=Box 2.1, Farewell to ict}} (who, by the way use {{math|(− + + +)}}). MTW also argues that it hides the true indefinite nature of the metric and the true nature of Lorentz boosts, which aren't rotations. It also needlessly complicates the use of tools of differential geometry that are otherwise immediately available and useful for geometrical description and calculation – even in the flat spacetime of special relativity, e.g. of the electromagnetic field.{{Hidden end}}


Mathematically associated to the bilinear form is a tensor of type {{math|(0,2)}} at each point in spacetime, called the Minkowski metric.For comparison and motivation of terminology, take a Riemannian metric, which provides a positive definite symmetric bilinear form, i. e. an inner product proper at each point on a manifold. The Minkowski metric, the bilinear form, and the Minkowski inner product are actually all the very same object; it is a bilinear function that accepts two (contravariant) vectors and returns a real number. In coordinates, this is the {{math|4×4}} matrix representing the bilinear form.For comparison, in general relativity, a Lorentzian manifold {{math|L}} is likewise equipped with a metric tensor {{math|g}}, which is a nondegenerate symmetric bilinear form on the tangent space {{math|T'p'L}} at each point {{mvar|p}} of {{math|L}}. In coordinates, it may be represented by a {{math|4×4}} matrix depending on spacetime position. Minkowski space is thus a comparatively simple special case of a Lorentzian manifold. Its metric tensor is in coordinates the same symmetric matrix at every point of {{math|M}}, and its arguments can, per above, be taken as vectors in spacetime itself.Introducing more terminology (but not more structure), Minkowski space is thus a pseudo-Euclidean space with total dimension {{math|n {{=}} 4}} and signature {{math|(3, 1)}} or {{math|(1, 3)}}. Elements of Minkowski space are called events. Minkowski space is often denoted {{math|R3,1}} or {{math|R1,3}} to emphasize the chosen signature, or just {{math|M}}. It is perhaps the simplest example of a pseudo-Riemannian manifold.An interesting example of non-inertial coordinates for (part of) Minkowski spacetime are the Born coordinates. Another useful set of coordinates are the lightcone coordinates.

Pseudo-Euclidean metrics

The Minkowski metricThe Minkowski inner product is not an inner product, since it is not positive-definite, i.e. the quadratic form {{math|η(v, v)}} need not be positive for nonzero {{mvar|v}}. The positive-definite condition has been replaced by the weaker condition of non-degeneracy. The bilinear form is said to be indefinite. {{mvar|η}} is the metric tensor of Minkowski space. It is a pseudo-Euclidean metric, or more generally a constant pseudo-Riemannian metric in Cartesian coordinates. As such it is a nondegenerate symmetric bilinear form, a type {{math|(0,2)}} tensor. It accepts two arguments {{math|u'p, v'p}}, vectors in {{math|T'p'M, p ∈ M}}, the tangent space at {{math|p}} in {{math|M}}. Due to the above-mentioned canonical identification of {{math|T'p'M}} with {{math|M}} itself, it accepts arguments {{math|u, v}} with both {{math|u}} and {{math|v }} in {{math|M}}.As a notational convention, vectors {{mvar|v}} in {{mvar|M}}, called 4-vectors, are denoted in sans-serif italics, and not, as is common in the Euclidean setting, with boldface {{math|v}}. The latter is generally reserved for the {{math|3}}-vector part (to be introduced below) of a {{math|4}}-vector.The definition
u cdot v =eta(u, v)
yields an inner product-like structure on {{math|M}}, previously and also henceforth, called the Minkowski inner product, similar to the Euclidean inner product, but it describes a different geometry. It is also called the relativistic dot product. If the two arguments are the same,
u cdot u =eta(u, u) equiv ||u||^2 equiv u^2,
the resulting quantity will be called the Minkowski norm squared. The Minkowski inner product satisfies the following properties.
  • eta(au + v, w) = aeta(u, w) + eta(v, w), quad forall u, v in M, forall a in mathbb R qquad text{(linearity in first slot)}
  • eta( u, v) = eta( v, u) qquad text{(symmetry)}
  • eta( u, v) = 0 quad forall v in M Rightarrow u = 0 qquad text{(non-degeneracy)}
The first two conditions imply bilinearity. The defining difference between a pseudo-inner product and an inner product proper is that the former is not required to be positive definite, that is, {{math|η(u, u) < 0}} is allowed.The most important feature of the inner product and norm squared is that these are quantities unaffected by Lorentz transformations. In fact, it can be taken as the defining property of a Lorentz transformation that it preserves the inner product (i.e. the value of the corresponding bilinear form on two vectors). This approach is taken more generally for all classical groups definable this way in classical group. There, the matrix {{math|Φ}} is identical in the case {{math|O(3, 1)}} (the Lorentz group) to the matrix {{math|η}} to be displayed below.Two vectors {{math|v}} and {{math|w}} are said to be orthogonal if {{math|η(v, w) {{=}} 0}}. For a geometric interpretation of orthogonality in the special case when {{math|η(v, v) ≤ 0}} and {{math|η(w, w) ≥ 0}} (or vice versa), see hyperbolic orthogonality.A vector {{math|e}} is called a unit vector if {{math|η(e, e) {{=}} ±1}}. A basis for {{math|M}} consisting of mutually orthogonal unit vectors is called an orthonormal basis.{{citation needed|reason=M not inner product space|date=October 2017}}For a given inertial frame, an orthonormal basis in space, combined by the unit time vector, forms an orthonormal basis in Minkowski space. The number of positive and negative unit vectors in any such basis is a fixed pair of numbers, equal to the signature of the bilinear form associated with the inner product. This is Sylvester's law of inertia.More terminology (but not more structure): The Minkowski metric is a pseudo-Riemannian metric, more specifically, a Lorentzian metric, even more specifically, the Lorentz metric, reserved for {{math|4}}-dimensional flat spacetime with the remaining ambiguity only being the signature convention.

Minkowski metric

From the second postulate of special relativity, together with homogeneity of spacetime and isotropy of space, it follows that the spacetime interval between two arbitrary events called {{math|1}} and {{Math|2}} is:
pmleft[c^2(t_1 - t_2)^2 - (x_1 - x_2)^2 - (y_1 - y_2)^2 - (z_1 - z_2)^2right].
The interval is independent of the inertial frame chosen, as is shown here. The factor {{math|±1}} determines the choice of the metric signature as an arbitrary sign convention.BOOK, Flat and Curved Space-times, illustrated, G. F., Rayner Ellis, Ruth M., Williams, Oxford University Press, 2000, 978-0-19-850656-0, 209,weblink Extract of page 209 The numerical values of {{mvar|η}}, viewed as a matrix representing the Minkowski inner product, follow from the theory of bilinear forms.Just as the signature of the metric is differently defined in the literature, this quantity is not consistently named. The interval (as defined here) is sometimes referred to as the interval squared.{{harvnb|Sard|1970|p=71}} Even the square root of the present interval occurs.{{harvnb|Landau|Lifshitz|2002|p=4}} When signature and interval are fixed, ambiguity still remains as which coordinate is the time coordinate. It may be the fourth, or it may be the zeroth. This is not an exhaustive list of notational inconsistencies. It is a fact of life that one has to check out the definitions first thing when one consults the relativity literature.The invariance of the interval under coordinate transformations between inertial frames follows from the invariance of
pmleft[c^2t^2 - x^2 - y^2 - z^2right]
(with either sign {{math|±}} preserved), provided the transformations are linear. This quadratic form can be used to define a bilinear form
u cdot v = pmleft[c^2t_1t_2 - x_1x_2 - y_1y_2 - z_1z_2right].
via the polarization identity. This bilinear form can in turn be written as
u cdot v = u^{mathrm T}[eta] v,
where {{math|[η]}} is a {{math|4×4}} matrix associated with {{mvar|η}}. Possibly confusingly, denote {{math|[η]}} with just {{mvar|η}} as is common practice. The matrix is read off from the explicit bilinear form as
eta = pm begin{pmatrix}-1&0&0&0&1&0&0&0&1&0&0&0&1end{pmatrix},
and the bilinear form
u cdot v =eta(u, v),
with which this section started by assuming its existence, is now identified.For definiteness and shorter presentation, the signature {{math|(− + + +)}} is adopted below. This choice (or the other possible choice) has no (known) physical implications. The symmetry group preserving the bilinear form with one choice of signature is isomorphic (under the map given here) with the symmetry group preserving the other choice of signature. This means that both choices are in accord with the two postulates of relativity. Switching between the two conventions is straightforward. If the metric tensor {{math|η}} has been used in a derivation, go back to the earliest point where it was used, substitute {{math|η}} for {{math|–η}}, and retrace forward to the desired formula with the desired metric signature.

Standard basis

A standard basis for Minkowski space is a set of four mutually orthogonal vectors {{math|{ e0, e1, e2, e3 } }} such that
-eta(e_0, e_0) = eta(e_1, e_1) = eta(e_2, e_2) = eta(e_3, e_3) = 1 .
These conditions can be written compactly in the form
eta(e_mu, e_nu) = eta_{mu nu}.
Relative to a standard basis, the components of a vector {{math|v}} are written {{math|(v0, v1, v2, v3)}} where the Einstein notation is used to write {{math|v {{=}} v'μ'e'μ}}. The component {{math|v0}} is called the timelike component of {{math|v}} while the other three components are called the spatial components. The spatial components of a {{math|4}}-vector {{math|v}} may be identified with a {{math|3}}-vector {{math|v' {{=}} (v1, v2, v''3)}}.In terms of components, the Minkowski inner product between two vectors {{math|v}} and {{math|w}} is given by
eta(v, w) = eta_{mu nu} v^mu w^nu = v^0 w_0 + v^1 w_1 + v^2 w_2 + v^3 w_3 = v^mu w_mu = v_mu w^mu,
eta(v, v) = eta_{mu nu} v^mu v^nu = v^0v_0 + v^1 v_1 + v^2 v_2 + v^3 v_3 = v^mu v_mu.
Here lowering of an index with the metric was used.

Raising and lowering of indices

File:1-form linear functional.svg|thumb|400px|Linear functionals (1-forms) α, β and their sum σ and vectors u, v, w, in 3d Euclidean space. The number of (1-form) hyperplanes intersected by a vector equals the Misner|Thorne|Wheeler|1973}}Technically, a non-degenerate bilinear form provides a map between a vector space and its dual, in this context, the map is between the tangent spaces of {{math|M}} and the cotangent spaces of {{math|M}}. At a point in {{math|M}}, the tangent and cotangent spaces are dual vector spaces (so the dimension of the cotangent space at an event is also {{math|4}}). Just as an authentic inner product on a vector space with one argument fixed, by Riesz representation theorem, may be expressed as the action of a linear functional on the vector space, the same holds for the Minkowski inner product of Minkowski space.{{harvnb|Lee|2003}}. One point in Lee's proof of existence of this map needs modification (Lee deals with Riemannian metrics.). Where Lee refers to positive definiteness to show injectivity of the map, one needs instead appeal to non-degeneracy.Thus if {{math|v'μ}} are the components of a vector in a tangent space, then {{math|η'μν'v'μ {{=}} v'ν}} are the components of a vector in the cotangent space (a linear functional). Due to the identification of vectors in tangent spaces with vectors in {{math|M}} itself, this is mostly ignored, and vectors with lower indices are referred to as covariant vectors. In this latter interpretation, the covariant vectors are (almost always implicitly) identified with vectors (linear functionals) in the dual of Minkowski space. The ones with upper indices are contravariant vectors. In the same fashion, the inverse of the map from tangent to cotangent spaces, explicitly given by the inverse of {{math|η}} in matrix representation, can be used to define raising of an index. The components of this inverse are denoted {{math|η'μν}}. It happens that {{math|η'μν {{=}} η'μν}}. These maps between a vector space and its dual can be denoted {{math|η♭}} (eta-flat) and {{math|η♯}} (eta-sharp) by the musical analogy.{{harvnb|Lee|2003|loc=The tangent-cotangent isomorphism p. 282.}}Contravariant and covariant vectors are geometrically very different objects. The first can and should be thought of as arrows. A linear functional can be characterized by two objects: its kernel, which is a hyperplane passing through the origin, and its norm. Geometrically thus, covariant vectors should be viewed as a set of hyperplanes, with spacing depending on the norm (bigger = smaller spacing), with one of them (the kernel) passing through the origin. The mathematical term for a covariant vector is 1-covector or 1-form (though the latter is usually reserved for covector fields).{{harvtxt|Misner|Thorne|Wheeler|1973}} uses a vivid analogy with wave fronts of a de Broglie wave (scaled by a factor of Planck's reduced constant) quantum mechanically associated to a momentum four-vector to illustrate how one could imagine a covariant version of a contravariant vector. The inner product of two contravariant vectors could equally well be thought of as the action of the covariant version of one of them on the contravariant version of the other. The inner product is then how many time the arrow pierces the planes. The mathematical reference, {{harvtxt|Lee|2003}}, offers the same geometrical view of these objects (but mentions no piercing).The electromagnetic field tensor is a differential 2-form, which geometrical description can as well be found in MTW.One may, of course, ignore geometrical views all together (as is the style in e.g. {{harvtxt|Weinberg|2002}} and {{harvnb|Landau|Lifshitz|2002}}) and proceed algebraically in a purely formal fashion. The time-proven robustness of the formalism itself, sometimes referred to as index gymnastics, ensures that moving vectors around and changing from contravariant to covariant vectors and vice versa (as well as higher order tensors) is mathematically sound. Incorrect expressions tend to reveal themselves quickly.

The formalism of the Minkowski metric

The present purpose is to show semi-rigorously how formally one may apply the Minkowski metric to two vectors and obtain a real number, i.e. to display the role of the differentials, and how they disappear in a calculation. The setting is that of smooth manifold theory, and concepts such as convector fields and exterior derivatives are introduced.{{Hidden begin| titlestyle = color:green;background:lightgrey;|title=A formal approach to the Minkowski metric}}A full-blown version of the Minkowski metric in coordinates as a tensor field on spacetime has the appearance
eta_{munu} dx^mu otimes dx^nu = eta_{munu} dx^mu odot dx^nu = eta_{munu} dx^mu dx^nu.
Explanation: The coordinate differentials are 1-form fields. They are defined as the exterior derivative of the coordinate functions {{math|xμ}}. These quantities evaluated at a point {{mvar|p}} provide a basis for the cotangent space at {{mvar|p}}. The tensor product (denoted by the symbol {{math|⊗}}) yields a tensor field of type {{math|(0, 2)}}, i.e. the type that expects two contravariant vectors as arguments. On the right hand side, the symmetric product (denoted by the symbol {{math|⊙}} or by juxtaposition) has been taken. The equality holds since, by definition, the Minkowski metric is symmetric.{{harvnb|Lee|2003}} The notation on the far right is also sometimes used for the related, but different, line element. It is not a tensor. For elaboration on the differences and similarities, see {{harvtxt|Misner|Thorne|Wheeler|1973|loc=Box 3.2 and section 13.2.}}Tangent vectors are, in this formalism, given in terms of a basis of differential operators of the first order,
left .frac{partial}{partial x^mu} right|_p,
where {{mvar|p}} is an event. This operator applied to a function {{mvar|f}} gives the directional derivative of {{mvar|f}} at {{mvar|p}} in the direction of increasing {{math|x'μ}} with {{math|x'ν, ν ≠ μ}} fixed. They provide a basis for the tangent space at {{mvar|p}}.The exterior derivative {{math|df}} of a function {{mvar|f}} is a covector field, i.e. an assignment of a cotangent vector to each point {{math|p}}, by definition such that
df(X) = Xf,
for each vector field {{mvar|X}}. A vector field is an assignment of a tangent vector to each point {{math|p}}. In coordinates {{mvar|X}} can be expanded at each point {{mvar|p}} in the basis given by the {{math|∂/∂x'ν{{!}}p}}. Applying this with {{math|f {{=}} x'μ}}, the coordinate function itself, and {{math|X {{=}} ∂/∂xν}}, called a coordinate vector field, one obtains
dx^muleft(frac{partial}{partial x^nu}right) = frac{partial x^mu}{partial x^nu} = delta_nu^mu.
Since this relation holds at each point {{mvar|p}}, the {{math|dx'μ{{!}}p}} provide a basis for the cotangent space at each {{mvar|p}} and the bases {{math|dx'μ{{!}}p}} and {{math|∂/∂xν{{!}}p}} are dual to each other,
left .dx^muright|_pleft(left .frac{partial}{partial x^nu}right|_pright) = delta^mu_nu.
at each {{mvar|p}}. Furthermore, one has
alpha otimes beta (a, b) = alpha(a)beta(b)
for general one-forms on a tangent space {{math|α, β}} and general tangent vectors {{math|a, b}}. (This can be taken as a definition, but may also be proved in a more general setting.)Thus when the metric tensor is fed two vectors fields {{math|a, b}}, both expanded in terms of the basis coordinate vector fields, the result is
eta_{munu} dx^mu otimes dx^nu(a, b) = eta_{munu} a^mu b^nu,
where {{math|a'μ}}, {{math|b'ν}} are the component functions of the vector fields. The above equation holds at each point {{mvar|p}}, and the relation may as well be interpreted as the Minkowski metric at {{mvar|p}} applied to two tangent vectors at {{mvar|p}}.As mentioned, in a vector space, such as that modelling the spacetime of special relativity, tangent vectors can be canonically identified with vectors in the space itself, and vice versa. This means that the tangent spaces at each point are canonically identified with each other and with the vector space itself. This explains how the right hand side of the above equation can be employed directly, without regard to spacetime point the metric is to be evaluated and from where (which tangent space) the vectors come from.This situation changes in general relativity. There one has
g(p)_{munu} dx^mu|_p dx^nu|_p(a, b) = g(p)_{munu} a^mu b^nu,
where now {{math|η → g(p)}}, i.e. {{mvar|g}} is still a metric tensor but now depending on spacetime and is a solution of Einstein's field equations. Moreover, {{math|a, b}} must be tangent vectors at spacetime point {{mvar|p}} and can no longer be moved around freely.{{Hidden end}}

Lorentz transformations and symmetry

missing image!
- Standard conf.png -
Standard configuration of coordinate systems for Lorentz transformations.
The Poincaré group is the group of all transformations preserving the interval. The interval is quite easily seen to be preserved by the translation group in {{math|4}} dimensions. The other transformations are those that preserve the interval and leave the origin fixed. Given the bilinear form associated with the Minkowski metric, the appropriate group follows directly from the theory (in particular the definition) of classical groups. In the linked article, one should identify {{math|η}} (in its a matrix representation) with the matrix {{math|Φ}}.The appropriate group is {{math|O(3,1)}}, in this context called the Lorentz group. Its elements are called (homogeneous) Lorentz transformations. For other methods of derivation, with a more physical twist, see derivations of the Lorentz transformations.Among the simplest Lorentz transformations is a Lorentz boost. For reference, a boost in the {{math|x}}-direction is given by
begin{bmatrix}U'_0 U'_1 U'_2 U'_3end{bmatrix}

begin{bmatrix}gamma&-beta gamma&0&0-beta gamma&gamma&0&0end{bmatrix}begin{bmatrix}U_0 U_1 U_2 U_3end{bmatrix}, where
gamma = { 1 over sqrt{1 - {v^2 over c^2}} }
is the Lorentz factor, and
beta = { v over c} ,.
Other Lorentz transformations are pure rotations, and hence elements of the {{math|SO(3)}} subgroup of {{math|O(3,1)}}. A general homogeneous Lorentz transformation is a product of a pure boost and a pure rotation. An inhomogeneous Lorentz transformation is a homogeneous transformation followed by a translation in space and time. Special transformations are those that invert the space coordinates ({{math|P}}) and time coordinate ({{math|T}}) respectively, or both {{math|(PT)}}.All four-vectors in Minkowski space transform, by definition, according to the same formula under Lorentz transformations. Minkowski diagrams illustrate Lorentz transformations.

Causal structure

File:World line.svg|250px|thumb|right|Subdivision of Minkowski spacetime with respect to an event in four disjoint sets. The Sard|1970}}.File:Lorentz transform of world line.gif|right|framed|The momentarily co-moving inertial frames along the trajectory ("world line") of a rapidly accelerating observer (center). The vertical direction indicates time, while the horizontal indicates distance, the dashed line is the spacetimespacetimeWhere {{math|v}} is velocity, and {{math|x}}, {{math|y}}, and {{math|z}} are Cartesian coordinates in 3-dimensional space, and {{math|c}} is the constant representing the universal speed limit, and t is time, the four-dimensional vector {{math|v {{=}} (ct, x, y, z) {{=}} (ct, r)}} is classified according to the sign of {{math|c2t2 − r2}}. A vector is timelike if {{math|c2t2 > r2}}, spacelike if {{math|c2t2 < r2}}, and null or lightlike if {{math|c2t2 {{=}} r2}}. This can be expressed in terms of the sign of {{math|η(v,v)}} as well, but depends on the signature. The classification of any vector will be the same in all frames of reference that are related by a Lorentz transformation (but not by a general Poincaré transformation because the origin may then be displaced) because of the invariance of the interval.The set of all null vectors at an eventTranslate the coordinate system so that the event is the new origin. of Minkowski space constitutes the light cone of that event. Given a timelike vector {{math|v}}, there is a worldline of constant velocity associated with it, represented by a straight line in a Minkowski diagram.Once a direction of time is chosen,This corresponds to the time coordinate either increasing or decreasing when proper time for any particle increases. An application of {{mvar|T}} flips this direction. timelike and null vectors can be further decomposed into various classes. For timelike vectors one has
  1. future-directed timelike vectors whose first component is positive, (tip of vector located in absolute future in figure) and
  2. past-directed timelike vectors whose first component is negative (absolute past).
Null vectors fall into three classes:
  1. the zero vector, whose components in any basis are {{math|(0, 0, 0, 0)}} (origin),
  2. future-directed null vectors whose first component is positive (upper light cone), and
  3. past-directed null vectors whose first component is negative (lower light cone).
Together with spacelike vectors there are 6 classes in all.An orthonormal basis for Minkowski space necessarily consists of one timelike and three spacelike unit vectors. If one wishes to work with non-orthonormal bases it is possible to have other combinations of vectors. For example, one can easily construct a (non-orthonormal) basis consisting entirely of null vectors, called a null basis.Vector fields are called timelike, spacelike or null if the associated vectors are timelike, spacelike or null at each point where the field is defined.

Chronological and causality relations

Let {{math|x, y ∈ M}}. We say that
  1. {{math|x}} chronologically precedes {{math|y}} if {{math|y − x}} is future-directed timelike. This relation has the transitive property and so can be written {{math|x < y}}.
  2. {{math|x}} causally precedes {{math|y}} if {{math|y − x}} is future-directed null or future-directed timelike. It gives a partial ordering of space-time and so can be written {{math|x ≤ y}}.
Suppose x ∈ M is timelike. Then the simultaneous hyperplane for x is {y : eta(x, y ) = 0}. Since this hyperplane varies as x varies, there is a relativity of simultaneity in Minkowski space.

Reversed triangle inequality

If {{math|v}} and {{math|w}} are both future-directed timelike four-vectors, then in the {{math|(+ − − −)}} sign convention, norms are non-negative and
left| v+w right| ge left| v right| + left| w right| .


A Lorentzian manifold is a generalization of Minkowski space in two ways. The total number of spacetime dimensions is not restricted to be {{math|4}} ({{math|2}} or more) and a Lorentzian manifold need not be flat, i.e. it allows for curvature.

Generalized Minkowski space

Minkowski space refers to a mathematical formulation in four dimensions. However, the mathematics can easily be extended or simplified to create an analogous generalized Minkowski space in any number of dimensions. If {{math|n ≥ 2}}, {{math|n}}-dimensional Minkowski space is a vector space of real dimension {{math|n}} on which there is a constant Minkowski metric of signature {{math|(n − 1, 1)}} or {{math|(1, n − 1)}}. These generalizations are used in theories where spacetime is assumed to have more or less than {{math|4}} dimensions. String theory and M-theory are two examples where {{math|n > 4}}. In string theory, there appears conformal field theories with {{math|1 + 1}} spacetime Sitter space can be formulated as a submanifold of generalized Minkowski space as can the model spaces of hyperbolic geometry (see below).


As a flat spacetime, the three spatial components of Minkowski spacetime always obey the Pythagorean Theorem. Minkowski space is a suitable basis for special relativity, a good description of physical systems over finite distances in systems without significant gravitation. However, in order to take gravity into account, physicists use the theory of general relativity, which is formulated in the mathematics of a non-Euclidean geometry. When this geometry is used as a model of physical space, it is known as curved space.Even in curved space, Minkowski space is still a good description in an infinitesimal region surrounding any point (barring gravitational singularities).This similarity between flat and curved space at infinitesimally small distance scales is foundational to the definition of a manifold in general. More abstractly, we say that in the presence of gravity spacetime is described by a curved 4-dimensional manifold for which the tangent space to any point is a 4-dimensional Minkowski space. Thus, the structure of Minkowski space is still essential in the description of general relativity.


The meaning of the term geometry for the Minkowski space depends heavily on the context. Minkowski space is not endowed with a Euclidean geometry, and not with any of the generalized Riemannian geometries with intrinsic curvature, those exposed by the model spaces in hyperbolic geometry (negative curvature) and the geometry modeled by the sphere (positive curvature). The reason is the indefiniteness of the Minkowski metric. Minkowski space is, in particular, not a metric space and not a Riemannian manifold with a Riemannian metric. However, Minkowski space contains submanifolds endowed with a Riemannian metric yielding hyperbolic geometry.Model spaces of hyperbolic geometry of low dimension, say {{math|2}} or {{math|3}}, cannot be isometrically embedded in Euclidean space with one more dimension, i.e. {{math|ℝ3}} or {{math|ℝ4}} respectively, with the Euclidean metric {{math|{{overline|g}}}}, disallowing easy visualization.There is an isometric embedding into {{math|ℝn}} according to the Nash embedding theorem ({{harvtxt|Nash|1956}}), but the embedding dimension is much higher, {{math|n {{=}} (m/2)(m + 1)(3m + 11)}} for a Riemannian manifold of dimension {{mvar|m}}.{{harvnb|Lee|1997|p=66}} By comparison, model spaces with positive curvature are just spheres in Euclidean space of one higher dimension.{{harvnb|Lee|1997|p=33}} It turns out however that these hyperbolic spaces can be isometrically embedded in spaces of one more dimension when the embedding space is endowed with the Minkowski metric {{math|η}}.Define {{math|H{{su|p=1(n)|b=R}} ⊂ Mn+1}} to be the upper sheet ({{math|ct > 0}}) of the hyperboloid
mathbf H_R^{1(n)} = left{left(ct, x^1, ldots, x^nright) in mathbf M^n: c^2 t^2 - left(x^1right)^2 cdots left(x^nright)^2 = R^2, ct > 0right}
in generalized Minkowski space {{math|Mn+1}} of spacetime dimension {{math|n + 1}}. This is one of the surfaces of transitivity of the generalized Lorentz group. The induced metric on this submanifold,
h_R^{1(n)} = iota^* eta,
the pullback of the Minkowski metric {{math|η}} under inclusion, is a Riemannian metric. With this metric {{math|H{{su|p=1(n)|b=R}}}} is a Riemannian manifold. It is one of the model spaces of Riemannian geometry, the hyperboloid model of hyperbolic space. It is a space of constant negative curvature {{math|−1/R2}}.{{harvnb|Lee|1997}} The {{math|1}} in the upper index refers to an enumeration of the different model spaces of hyperbolic geometry, and the {{math|n}} for its dimension. A {{math|2(2)}} corresponds to the Poincaré disk model, while {{math|3(n)}} corresponds to the Poincaré half-space model of dimension {{math|n}}.


In the definition above {{math|ι:H{{su|p=1(n)|b=R}} → Mn+1}} is the inclusion map and the superscript star denotes the pullback. The present purpose is to describe this and similar operations as a preparation for the actual demonstration that {{math|H{{su|p=1(n)|b=R}}}} actually is a hyperbolic space. {| class="wikitable collapsible collapsed"! Behavior of tensors under inclusion, pullback of covariant tensors under general maps and pushforward of vectors under general maps|Behavior of tensors under inclusion:For inclusion maps from a submanifold {{mvar|S}} into {{mvar|M}} and a covariant tensor {{mvar|α}} of order {{mvar|k}} on {{mvar|M}} it holds that
iota^*alphaleft(X_1, X_2, ldots, X_kright) = alphaleft(iota_*X_1, iota_*X_2, ldots, iota_*X_kright) = alphaleft(X_1, X_2, ldots, X_kright),
where {{math|X1, X1, ..., Xk}} are vector fields on {{mvar|S}}. The subscript star denotes the pushforward (to be introduced later), and it is in this special case simply the identity map (as is the inclusion map). The latter equality holds because a tangent space to a submanifold at a point is in a canonical way a subspace of the tangent space of the manifold itself at the point in question. One may simply write
iota^*alpha = alpha|_S,
meaning (with slight abuse of notation) the restriction of {{mvar|α}} to accept as input vectors tangent to some {{math|s ∈ S}} only.Pullback of tensors under general maps:The pullback of a covariant {{mvar|k}}-tensor {{mvar|α}} (one taking only contravariant vectors as arguments) under a map {{math|F:M → N}} is a linear map
F^*:T_{F(p)}^k N rightarrow T_p^k M,
where for any vector space {{mvar|V}},
T^k V = underbrace{V^* otimes V^* cdots otimes V^*}_{ktext{ times}}.
It is defined by
F^*(alpha)left(X_1, X_2, ldots, X_kright) = alphaleft(F_* X_1, F_*X_2, ldots, F_* X_kright),
where the subscript star denotes the pushforward of the map {{mvar|F}}, and {{math|X1, X2, ..., Xk}} are vectors in {{math|T'p'M}}. (This is in accord with what was detailed about the pullback of the inclusion map. In the general case here, one cannot proceed as simply because {{math|F∗X1 ≠ X1}} in general.)The pushforward of vectors under general maps:Heuristically, pulling back a tensor to {{math|p ∈ M}} from {{math|F(p) ∈ N}} feeding it vectors residing at {{math|p ∈ M}} is by definition the same as pushing forward the vectors from {{math|p ∈ M}} to {{math|F(p) ∈ N}} feeding them to the tensor residing at {{math|F(p) ∈ N''}}.Further unwinding the definitions, the pushforward {{math|F∗:TM'p → TN'F(p)}} of a vector field under a map {{math|F:M → N}} between manifolds is defined by
F_*(X)f = X(f circ F),
where {{mvar|f}} is a function on {{mvar|N}}. When {{math|M {{=}} ℝm, N{{=}} ℝn}} the pushforward of {{mvar|F}} reduces to {{math|DF:ℝm → ℝn}}, the ordinary differential, which is given by the Jacobian matrix of partial derivatives of the component functions. The differential is the best linear approximation of a function {{mvar|F}} from {{math|ℝm}} to {{math|ℝn}}. The pushforward is the smooth manifold version of this. It acts between tangent spaces, and is in coordinates represented by the Jacobian matrix of the coordinate representation of the function.The corresponding pullback is the dual map from the dual of the range tangent space to the dual of the domain tangent space, i.e. it is a linear map,
F^*:T^*_{F(p)}N rightarrow T^*_p M.

Hyperbolic stereographic projection

File:HyperboloidProjection.png|thumb|right|Red circular arc is geodesic in Poincaré disk modelPoincaré disk modelIn order to exhibit the metric it is necessary to pull it back via a suitable parametrization. A parametrization of a submanifold {{mvar|S}} of {{math|M}} is a map {{math|U ⊂ ℝm → M}} whose range is an open subset of {{math|S}}. If {{mvar|S}} has the same dimension as {{math|M}}, a parametrization is just the inverse of a coordinate map {{math|φ:M → U ⊂ ℝm}}. The parametrization to be used is the inverse of hyperbolic stereographic projection. This is illustrated in the figure to the left for {{math|n {{=}} 2}}. It is instructive to compare to stereographic projection for spheres.Stereographic projection {{math|σ:H{{su|p=n|b=R}} → ℝn}} and its inverse {{math|σ−1:ℝn → H{{su|p=n|b=R}}}} are given by{hide}Equation box 1|indent =:|equation =
sigma(tau, mathbf x) &= mathbf u = frac{Rmathbf x}{R + tau},
sigma^{-1}(mathbf u) = (tau, mathbf x) &= left(Rfrac{R^2 + |u|^2}{R^2 - |u|^2}, frac{2R^2mathbf u}{R^2 - |u|^2}right),
end{align}|cellpadding= 6|border|border colour = #0073CF|bgcolor=#F9FFF7{edih}where, for simplicity, {{math|τ ≡ ct}}. The {{math|(τ, x)}} are coordinates on {{math|Mn+1}} and the {{math|u}} are coordinates on {{math|ℝn}}.{{-}}{| class="wikitable collapsible collapsed"!Detailed derivation|Let
mathbf H_R^n = left{left(tau, x^1, ldots, x^nright) subset mathbf M: -tau^2 + left(x^1right)^2 + cdots + left(x^nright)^2 = -R^2, tau > 0right}
and let
S = (-1, 0, ldots, 0)
P = left(tau, x^1, ldots, x^nright) in mathbf H_R^n,
then it is geometrically clear that the vector
intersects the hyperplane
left{left(tau, x^1, ldots x^nright) in M: tau = 0right}
once in point denoted
U = left(0, u^1(P), ldots, u^n(P)right) equiv (0, mathbf u).
One has
S + overrightarrow{SU} &= U Rightarrow overrightarrow{SU} = U - S,
S + overrightarrow{SP} &= P Rightarrow overrightarrow{SP} = U - P
overrightarrow{SU} &= (0, mathbf u) - (-R, 0) = (R, mathbf u),
overrightarrow{SP} &= (tau, mathbf x) - (-R, 0) = (tau + R, mathbf x).
end{align}By construction of stereographic projection one has
overrightarrow{SU} = lambda(tau)overrightarrow{SP}.
This leads to the system of equations
R &= lambda(tau + R),
mathbf u &= lambda mathbf x.
end{align}The first of these is solved for lambda and one obtains for stereographic projection
sigma(tau, mathbf x) = mathbf u = frac{Rmathbf x}{R + tau}.
Next, the inverse sigma^{-1}(u) = (tau, mathbf x) must be calculated. Use the same considerations as before, but now with
U &= (0, mathbf u)
P &= (tau(mathbf u), xi(mathbf u)).
end{align}One gets
tau &= frac{R(1 - lambda)}{lambda},
mathbf x &= frac{mathbf u}{lambda},
end{align}but now with lambda depending on mathbf u. The condition for {{mvar|P}} lying in the hyperboloid is
-tau^2 + mathbf u cdot mathbf u = -tau^2 + |u|^2 = -R^2,
-frac{R^2(1 - lambda)^2}{lambda^2} = frac{|u|^2}{lambda^2},
leading to
lambda = frac{R^2 - |u|^2}{2R^2}.
With this lambda, one obtains
sigma^{-1}(mathbf u) = (tau, mathbf x) = left(Rfrac{R^2 + |u|^2}{R^2 - |u|^2}, frac{2R^2mathbf u}{R^2 - |u|^2}.right)

Pulling back the metric

One has
h_R^{1(n)} = eta|_{mathbf H_R^{1(n)}} = left(dx^1right)^2 + cdots + left(dx^nright)^2 - dtau^2
and the map
sigma^{-1}:mathbb R^n rightarrow mathbf H_R^{1 (n)}; sigma^{-1}(mathbf u) = (tau (mathbf u), mathbf x (mathbf u)) = left(Rfrac{R^2 + |u|^2}{R^2 - |u|^2}, frac{2R^2mathbf u}{R^2 - |u|^2}right).
The pulled back metric can be obtained by straightforward methods of calculus;
left.left(sigma^{-1}right)^* etaright|_{mathbf H_R^{1 (n)}} = left(dx^1(mathbf u)right)^2 + cdots + left(dx^n(mathbf u)right)^2 - left(dtau(mathbf u)right)^2.
One computes according to the standard rules for computing differentials (though one is really computing the rigorously defined exterior derivatives),
dx^1(mathbf u) &= dleft(frac{2R^2 u^1}{R^2 - |u|^2}right)
= frac{partial}{partial u^1}frac{2R^2 u^1}{R^2 - |u|^2}du^1 + cdots +
frac{partial}{partial u^n}frac{2R^2 u^1}{R^2 - |u|^2}du^n +
frac{partial}{partial tau}frac{2R^2 u^1}{R^2 - |u|^2}dtau,
dx^n(mathbf u) &= dleft(frac{2R^2 u^n}{R^2 - |u|^2}right) = cdots,
dtau(mathbf u) &= dleft(Rfrac{R^2 + |u|^2}{R^2 - |u|^2}right) = cdots,end{align}
and substitutes the results into the right hand side. This yields{{Equation box 1|indent =:|equation =
left(sigma^{-1}right)^* h_R^{1(n)} = frac{4R^2 left[left(du^1right)^2 + cdots + left(du^nright)^2right]}{left(R^2 - |u|^2right)^2} equiv h_R^{2(n)}. |cellpadding= 6|border|border colour = #0073CF|bgcolor=#F9FFF7
}}{| class="wikitable collapsible collapsed"! Detailed outline of computation|One has
frac{partial}{partial u^1}frac{2R^2 u^1}{R^2 - |u|^2}du^1 &= frac{2left(R^2 -|u|^2right) + 4R^2 left(u^1right)^2}{left(R^2 - |u|^2right)^2}du^1,
frac{partial}{partial u^2}frac{2R^2 u^1}{R^2 - |u|^2}du^2 &= frac{4R^2 u^1 u^2 du^2}{left(R^2 - |u|^2right)^2}du^2,
frac{partial}{partial tau}frac{2R^2 u^1}{R^2 - |u|^2}dtau^2 = 0.
With this one may write
dx^1(mathbf u) = frac{2R^2 left(R^2 - |u|^2right)du^1 + 4R^2 u^1(mathbf u cdot dmathbf u)}{left(R^2 - |u|^2right)^2},
from which
left(dx^1(mathbf u)right)^2 = frac{4R^2 left(r^2 - |u|^2right)^2 left(du^1right)^2 + 16R^4 left(R^2 - |u|^2right)left(mathbf u cdot dmathbf uright)u^1 du^1 + 14R^r left(u^1right)^2 left(mathbf u cdot dmathbf uright)^2}{left(R^2 - |u|^2right)^4}.
Summing this formula one obtains
&left(dx^1(mathbf u)right)^2 + cdots + left(dx^n(mathbf u)right)^2
={} &frac{4R^2 left(R^2 - |u|^2right)^2 left[left(du^1right)^2 + cdots + left(du^nright)^2right] +
16R^4 left(R^2 - |u|^2right)(mathbf u cdot dmathbf u)(mathbf u cdot dmathbf u) +
16R^4 |u|^2 (mathbf u cdot dmathbf u)^2}
{left(R^2 - |u|^2right)^4}
={} &frac{4R^2 left(R^2 - |u|^2right)^2 left[left(du^1right)^2 + cdots + left(du^nright)^2right]}{left(R^2 - |u|^2right)^4} +
R^2 frac{16R^4 (mathbf u cdot dmathbf u)}{left(R^2 - |u|^2right)^4}.
end{align}Similarly, for {{mvar|Ï„}} one gets
dtau = sum_{i=1}^n frac{partial}{partial u^i} Rfrac{R^2 + |u|^2}{R^2 + |u|^2}du^i + frac{partial}{partialtau}Rfrac{R^2 + |u|^2}{R^2 + |u|^2}dtau
= sum_{i=1}^n R^4frac{4R^2u^idu^i}{left(R^2 - |u|^2right)},
-dt^2 = -left(Rfrac{4R^4left(mathbf u cdot dmathbf uright)}{left(R^2 - |u|^2right)^2}right)^2 = -R^2frac{14R^4(mathbf u cdot dmathbf u)^2}{left(R^2 - |u|^2right)^4}.
Now add this contribution to finally get
left(sigma^{-1}right)^* h_R^{1(n)} = frac{4R^2left[left(du^1right)^2 + cdots + left(du^nright)^2right]}{left(R^2 - |u|^2right)^2} equiv h_R^{2(n)}.
This last equation shows that the metric on the ball is identical to the Riemannian metric {{math|h{{su|p=2(n)|b=R}}}} in the Poincaré ball model, another standard model of hyperbolic geometry.{| class="wikitable collapsible collapsed"! Alternative calculation using the pushforward|The pullback can be computed in a different fashion. By definition,
left(sigma^{-1}right)^* h_R^{1(n)}(V, V) = h_R^{1(n)}left(left(sigma^{-1}right)_* V, left(sigma^{-1}right)_* Vright) = eta|_{mathbf H_R^{1(n)}} left(left(sigma^{-1}right)_* V, left(sigma^{-1}right)_* Vright).
In coordinates,
(sigma^{-1})_*V = (sigma^{-1})_*V^ifrac{partial}{partial u^i} = V^ifrac{partial x^j}{partial u^i}frac{partial}{partial x^j} + V^ifrac{partial tau}{partial u^i}frac{partial}{partial tau} = V^ifrac{partial }x^j{partial u^i}frac{partial}{partial x^j} + V^ifrac{partial }tau{partial u^i}frac{partial}{partial tau} = Vx^jfrac{partial}{partial x^j} + Vtau frac{partial}{partial tau}.
One has from the formula for {{math|σ–1}}
begin{align}Vx^j &= V^ifrac{partial}{partial u^i}left(frac{2R^2u^j}{R^2 - |u|^2}right) = frac{2R^2V^j}{R^2 - |u|^2} - frac{4R^2u^jlangle mathbf V, mathbf urangle}{left(R^2 - |u|^2right)^2}, qquad left(text{here } V|u|^2 = 2Sigma_{k=1}^nV^ku^k equiv 2langle mathbf V, mathbf urangleright)
Vtau &= Vleft (Rfrac{R^2 + |u|^2}{R^2 - |u|^2}right) = frac{4R^3langle mathbf V, mathbf urangle}{left(R^2 - |u|^2right)^2}.end{align}Lastly,
eta(sigma_*^{-1}V, sigma_*^{-1})V) = Sigma_{j=1}^nleft(Vx^jright)^2 - (Vtau)^2 = frac{4R^4 |V|^2}{left(R^2 - |u|^2right)^2} = h_R^{2(n)}(V, V),
and the same conclusion is reached.

See also

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  • BOOK, harv, Lee, J. M., Introduction to Smooth manifolds, 2003, Springer Graduate Texts in Mathematics, 978-0-387-95448-6, 218,
  • BOOK, harv, Lee, J. M., Riemannian Manifolds – An Introduction to Curvature, 1997, Springer Verlag, New York · Berlin · Heidelberg, Springer Graduate Texts in Mathematics, 176, 978-0-387-98322-6,
  • {{Citation|last=Minkowski|first=Hermann|authorlink=Hermann Minkowski|year=1907–1908|title=Die Grundgleichungen für die elektromagnetischen Vorgänge in bewegten Körpern|trans-title=The Fundamental Equations for Electromagnetic Processes in Moving Bodies|journal=Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Mathematisch-Physikalische Klasse|pages=53–111|title-link=s:de:Die Grundgleichungen für die elektromagnetischen Vorgänge in bewegten Körpern}} Wikisource translation: s:Translat
  • {{Citation|last=Minkowski|first=Hermann|year=1908–1909|title=Raum und Zeit|trans-title=Space and Time|journal=Physikalische Zeitschrift|volume=10|pages=75–88|title-link=s:de:Raum und Zeit (Minkowski)}} Various English translations on Wikisource: s:Translat
  • {{Citation|first=Charles W.|last=Misner|authorlink=Charles W. Misner|first2=Kip. S.|last2=Thorne|author2-link=Kip Thorne|first3=John A.|last3=Wheeler|author3-link=John A. Wheeler|title=Gravitation|publisher= W. H. Freeman|date=1973|isbn=978-0-7167-0344-0|title-link=Gravitation (book)|ref=harv}}
  • BOOK, harv, Naber, G. L., The Geometry of Minkowski Spacetime, 1992, Springer-Verlag, New York, 978-0-387-97848-2,
  • JOURNAL, harv, J., Nash, John Forbes Nash, The Imbedding Problem for Riemannian Manifolds, Annals of Mathematics, 1956, 63, 1, 20–63, 10.2307/1969989, 0075639, 1969989,
  • BOOK, harv, Penrose, Roger, Roger Penrose, 2005, Road to Reality : A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe, 18 Minkowskian geometry, Alfred A. Knopf, 9780679454434,weblink
  • {{Citation|last=Poincaré|first=Henri|authorlink=Henri Poincaré|year=1905–1906|title=Sur la dynamique de l'électron|trans-title=On the Dynamics of the Electron|journal=Rendiconti del Circolo Matematico di Palermo|volume=21|pages=129–176|doi=10.1007/BF03013466|title-link=s:fr:Sur la dynamique de l'électron (juillet)|hdl=2027/uiug.30112063899089|url=}} Wikisource translation: s:Translat
  • BOOK, harv, Sard, R. D., Relativistic Mechanics - Special Relativity and Classical Particle Dynamics, 1970, W. A. Benjamin, New York, 978-0805384918,
  • BOOK, harv, Shaw, R., 1982, Linear Algebra and Group Representations, § 6.6 Minkowski space, § 6.7,8 Canonical forms pp 221–242, Academic Press, 978-0-12-639201-2,
  • BOOK, Walter, Scott A., The Expanding Worlds of General Relativity, Minkowski, Mathematicians, and the Mathematical Theory of Relativity, Goenner, Hubert, 1999, Birkhäuser, Boston, 978-0-8176-4060-6, 45–86,weblink etal, harv,
  • {{citation|last=Weinberg|first=S.|year=2002|title=The Quantum Theory of Fields|volume=1|isbn=978-0-521-55001-7|authorlink=Steven Weinberg|publisher=Cambridge University Press|url=}}

External links

{{Commons category-inline|bullet=none|Minkowski diagrams}}
  • {{YouTube|C2VMO7pcWhg|Animation clip}} visualizing Minkowski space in the context of special relativity.
  • weblink" title="">The Geometry of Special Relativity: The Minkowski Space - Time Light Cone
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