Hendrik Lorentz

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Hendrik Lorentz
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{{short description|Dutch physicist}}{{distinguish|text=Hendrikus Albertus Lorentz or Ludvig Lorenz. See also Lorentz and Lorenz}}

| birth_place = Arnhem, Netherlands192847df=y}}| death_place = Haarlem, Netherlands| nationality = Netherlands| field = Physics| alma_mater = University of Leiden| workplaces = University of Leiden| doctoral_advisor = Pieter Rijke }}Hendrik Antoon Lorentz ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|l|ɒr|ən|t|s}}; 18 July 1853 – 4 February 1928) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect. He also derived the transformation equations underpinning Albert Einstein's theory of special relativity.According to the biography published by the Nobel Foundation, "It may well be said that Lorentz was regarded by all theoretical physicists as the world's leading spirit, who completed what was left unfinished by his predecessors and prepared the ground for the fruitful reception of the new ideas based on the quantum theory."Hendrik A. Lorentz – Biographical, (retrieved: 4 November 2015) He received many honours and distinctions, including a term as chairman of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation,BOOK, Grandjean, Martin, 2018, Les réseaux de la coopération intellectuelle. La Société des Nations comme actrice des échanges scientifiques et culturels dans l'entre-deux-guerres, The Networks of Intellectual Cooperation. The League of Nations as an Actor of the Scientific and Cultural Exchanges in the Inter-War Period,weblink fr, Lausanne, Université de Lausanne, the forerunner of UNESCO, between 1925 and 1928.


Early life

Hendrik Lorentz was born in Arnhem, Gelderland, Netherlands, the son of Gerrit Frederik Lorentz (1822–1893), a well-off horticulturist, and Geertruida van Ginkel (1826–1861). In 1862, after his mother's death, his father married Luberta Hupkes. Despite being raised as a Protestant, he was a freethinker in religious matters.WEB, Lorentz, Hendrik Antoon,weblink Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 25 April 2012, Russell McCormmach, Although he grew up in Protestant circles, he was a freethinker in religious matters; he regularly attended the local French church to improve his French., From 1866 to 1869, he attended the "Hogere Burger School" in Arnhem, a new type of public high school recently established by Johan Rudolph Thorbecke. His results in school were exemplary; not only did he excel in the physical sciences and mathematics, but also in English, French, and German. In 1870, he passed the exams in classical languages which were then required for admission to University.ANNE J.>LAST=KOXJOURNAL=NEDERLANDS TIJDSCHIRFT VOOR NATUURKUNDEISSUE=12YEAR=2011, Lorentz studied physics and mathematics at the Leiden University, where he was strongly influenced by the teaching of astronomy professor Frederik Kaiser; it was his influence that led him to become a physicist. After earning a bachelor's degree, he returned to Arnhem in 1871 to teach night school classes in mathematics, but he continued his studies in Leiden in addition to his teaching position. In 1875, Lorentz earned a doctoral degree under Pieter Rijke on a thesis entitled "" (On the theory of reflection and refraction of light), in which he refined the electromagnetic theory of James Clerk Maxwell.WEB, Hendrik Lorentz,weblink Over de theorie der terugkaatsing en breking van het licht, 1875,


Professor in Leiden

File:Jan Veth05.jpg|thumb|Portrait by Jan VethJan VethOn 17 November 1877, only 24 years of age, Hendrik Antoon Lorentz was appointed to the newly established chair in theoretical physics at the University of Leiden. The position had initially been offered to Johan van der Waals, but he accepted a position at the Universiteit van Amsterdam. On 25 January 1878, Lorentz delivered his inaugural lecture on "" (The molecular theories in physics). In 1881, he became member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.WEB,weblink Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853 - 1928), Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, 17 July 2015, During the first twenty years in Leiden, Lorentz was primarily interested in the electromagnetic theory of electricity, magnetism, and light. After that, he extended his research to a much wider area while still focusing on theoretical physics. Lorentz made significant contributions to fields ranging from hydrodynamics to general relativity. His most important contributions were in the area of electromagnetism, the electron theory, and relativity.Lorentz theorized that atoms might consist of charged particles and suggested that the oscillations of these charged particles were the source of light. When a colleague and former student of Lorentz's, Pieter Zeeman, discovered the Zeeman effect in 1896, Lorentz supplied its theoretical interpretation. The experimental and theoretical work was honored with the Nobel prize in physics in 1902. Lorentz' name is now associated with the Lorentz-Lorenz formula, the Lorentz force, the Lorentzian distribution, and the Lorentz transformation.

Electrodynamics and relativity

In 1892 and 1895, Lorentz worked on describing electromagnetic phenomena (the propagation of light) in reference frames that move relative to the postulated luminiferous aether.{{Citation|author=Lorentz, Hendrik Antoon|year=1892|title=La Théorie electromagnétique de Maxwell et son application aux corps mouvants|url =weblink|journal=Archives Néerlandaises des Sciences Exactes et Naturelles|volume=25|pages=363–552}}{{Citation|author=Lorentz, Hendrik Antoon|year=1895|title=Versuch einer Theorie der electrischen und optischen Erscheinungen in bewegten Körpern|location=Leidentitle-link=s:de:Versuch einer Theorie der electrischen und optischen Erscheinungen in bewegten Körpern}}
  • English Wikisource translation: s:Translat He discovered that the transition from one to another reference frame could be simplified by using a new time variable that he called local time and which depended on universal time and the location under consideration. Although Lorentz did not give a detailed interpretation of the physical significance of local time, with it, he could explain the aberration of light and the result of the Fizeau experiment. In 1900 and 1904, Henri Poincaré called local time Lorentz's "most ingenious idea" and illustrated it by showing that clocks in moving frames are synchronized by exchanging light signals that are assumed to travel at the same speed against and with the motion of the frame{hide}Citation|author=Poincaré, Henri|year=1900|title=La théorie de Lorentz et le principe de réaction|journal=Archives Néerlandaises des Sciences Exactes et Naturelles|volume=5
title-link=s:fr:La théorie de Lorentz et le principe de réaction{edih}. See also the English translation.{{Citation|author=Poincaré, Henri|year=1904The Principles of Mathematical Physics]]|title=Congress of arts and science, universal exposition, St. Louis, 1904|volume=1|pages=604–622|publisher=Houghton, Mifflin and Company|location=Boston and New York}} (see Einstein synchronisation and Relativity of simultaneity). In 1892, with the attempt to explain the Michelson-Morley experiment, Lorentz also proposed that moving bodies contract in the direction of motion (see length contraction; George FitzGerald had already arrived at this conclusion in 1889).{{Citation|last=Lorentz|first=Hendrik Antoon|year=1892b|title=The Relative Motion of the Earth and the Aether|journal=Zittingsverlag Akad. V. Wet.|pages=74–79title-link=s:Translation:The Relative Motion of the Earth and the Aether}}In 1899 and again in 1904, Lorentz added time dilation to his transformations and published what Poincaré in 1905 named Lorentz transformations.{{Citation|author=Lorentz, Hendrik Antoon|year=1899|title=Simplified Theory of Electrical and Optical Phenomena in Moving Systems|journal=Proceedings of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences|volume=1title-link=s:Simplified Theory of Electrical and Optical Phenomena in Moving Systems|bibcode=1898KNAB....1..427L}}{{Citation|author=Lorentz, Hendrik Antoon|year=1904|title=Electromagnetic phenomena in a system moving with any velocity smaller than that of light|journal=Proceedings of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences|volume=6title-link=s:Electromagnetic phenomena|bibcode=1903KNAB....6..809L}}It was apparently unknown to Lorentz that Joseph Larmor had used identical transformations to describe orbiting electrons in 1897. Larmor's and Lorentz's equations look somewhat dissimilar, but they are algebraically equivalent to those presented by Poincaré and Einstein in 1905. Lorentz's 1904 paper includes the covariant formulation of electrodynamics, in which electrodynamic phenomena in different reference frames are described by identical equations with well defined transformation properties. The paper clearly recognizes the significance of this formulation, namely that the outcomes of electrodynamic experiments do not depend on the relative motion of the reference frame. The 1904 paper includes a detailed discussion of the increase of the inertial mass of rapidly moving objects in a useless attempt to make momentum look exactly like Newtonian momentum; it was also an attempt to explain the length contraction as the accumulation of "stuff" onto mass making it slow and contract.

Lorentz and special relativity

File:Einstein en Lorentz.jpg|thumb|Albert Einstein and Hendrik Antoon Lorentz, photographed by Ehrenfest in front of his home in Leiden in 1921.]]File:League of Nations Commission 067.tif|thumb|Lorentz (left) at the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations, here with Albert EinsteinAlbert EinsteinIn 1905, Einstein would use many of the concepts, mathematical tools and results Lorentz discussed to write his paper entitled "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies",{{Citation|author=Einstein, Albert|year=1905|title=Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper|journal=Annalen der Physik|volume=322|issue=10|pages=891–921|url= = 1905AnP...322..891E }}. See also: English translation. known today as the Special relativity. Because Lorentz laid the fundamentals for the work by Einstein, this theory was originally called the Lorentz-Einstein theory.MILLER, ARTHUR I.TITLE=ALBERT EINSTEIN'S SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY. EMERGENCE (1905) AND EARLY INTERPRETATION (1905–1911)PUBLISHER=ADDISON–WESLEY, 978-0-201-04679-3, In 1906, Lorentz's electron theory received a full-fledged treatment in his lectures at Columbia University, published under the title The Theory of Electrons.The increase of mass was the first prediction of Lorentz and Einstein to be tested, but some experiments by Kaufmann appeared to show a slightly different mass increase; this led Lorentz to the famous remark that he was "au bout de mon latin" ("at the end of my [knowledge of] Latin" = at his wit's end)WEB,weblink Lorentz à Poincaré, 2017-03-31, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 21, 2005, The confirmation of his prediction had to wait until 1908 and later (see Kaufmann–Bucherer–Neumann experiments).Lorentz published a series of papers dealing with what he called "Einstein's principle of relativity". For instance, in 1909,{{citation |first = Hendrik Antoon |last = Lorentz |title = The theory of electrons and its applications to the phenomena of light and radiant heat; a course of lectures delivered in Columbia University, New York, in March and April 1906 |place = New York|publisher = Columbia University Press |year = 1916 | url=weblink}}{{failed verification|date=March 2018}} 1910,BOOK, Lorentz, Hendrik Antoonorig-year=1913Das Relativitätsprinzip und seine Anwendung auf einige besondere physikalische Erscheinungen]]editor=Blumenthal, Otto pages=74–89,
  • English Wikisource translation: s:Translat{{Citation|author=Lorentz, Hendrik Antoon
orig-year=1910|title=Lectures on theoretical physics, Vol. 3|publisher=MacMillan|location=London}}1914.LORENTZ, HENDRIK ANTOON>YEAR=1914PUBLISHER=B.G. TEUBNERTITLE-LINK=S:DE:DAS RELATIVITäTSPRINZIP (LORENTZ), In his 1906 lectures published with additions in 1909 in the book "The theory of electrons" (updated in 1915), he spoke affirmatively of Einstein's theory:Though Lorentz still maintained that there is an (undetectable) aether in which resting clocks indicate the "true time":Lorentz also gave credit to Poincaré's contributions to relativity.{{Citation|author=Lorentz, Hendrik Antoonorig-year=1914|title=Deux Mémoires de Henri Poincaré sur la Physique Mathématique|journal=Acta Mathematica|volume=38|issue=1|pages=293–308title-link=s:fr:Deux Mémoires de Henri Poincaré sur la Physique Mathématique}}
  • English Wikisource translation: s:Translat

Lorentz and general relativity

Lorentz was one of few scientists who supported Einstein's search for general relativity from the beginning – he wrote several research papers and discussed with Einstein personally and by letter.JOURNAL, Kox, A.J., 1993, Einstein, Lorentz, Leiden and general relativity, Class. Quantum Grav., 10, S187–S191, 10.1088/0264-9381/10/S/020, 1993CQGra..10S.187K, For instance, he attempted to combine Einstein's formalism with Hamilton's principle (1915),{{Citation|author=Lorentz, Hendrik Antoon|year=1915|title=On Hamilton's principle in Einstein's theory of gravitation|journal=Proceedings of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences|volume=19title-link=s:On Hamilton's principle in Einstein's theory of gravitation|bibcode=1917KNAB...19..751L}}and to reformulate it in a coordinate-free way (1916).{{Citation|author=Lorentz, Hendrik Antoon|year=1916|title=On Einstein's Theory of gravitation I–IV|journal=Proceedings of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences|volume=19/20title-link=s:On Einstein's Theory of gravitation}}BOOK, Janssen, M., 1992, H. A. Lorentz's Attempt to Give a Coordinate-free Formulation of the General. Theory of Relativity., Studies in the History of General Relativity, Birkhäuser, Boston, 978-0817634797, 344–363, Lorentz wrote in 1919:{{citation | first=Hendrik Antoon | last=Lorentz | title=The Einstein Theory of Relativity | location=New York | publisher=Bentano's | year=1920| title-link=s:The Einstein Theory of Relativity }}

Lorentz and quantum mechanics

Lorentz gave a series of lectures in the Fall of 1926 at Cornell University on the new quantum mechanics; in these he presented Erwin Schrödinger's wave mechanics.BOOK, Lorentz, H. A., The New Quantum Theory, 1926, Typescript of Lecture Notes, Ithaca, NY,weblink August 12, 2016,


(File:Lorentz-monument Park sonsbeek Arnhem Nederland, Netherlands Hendrik Antoon Lorentz Ludwig Oswald Wenckebach.jpg|thumb|Lorentz-monument Park Sonsbeek. Arnhem. Nederlands)Einstein wrote of Lorentz:
1953: For me personally he meant more than all the others I have met on my life's journey.''JUSTIN WINTLE
URL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=EF2FKDPP8S8C&PG=PA375DATE=2002ISBN=978-0-415-26584-3, 375–, }}Poincaré (1902) said of Lorentz's theory of electrodynamics:{{Citation|author=Poincaré, Henri|year=1902|title=Science and Hypothesis|location=London and Newcastle-on-Cyne (1905)title-link=Science and Hypothesis}}Paul Langevin (1911) said of Lorentz:{{citation |first = P. |last = Langevin |author-link = Paul Langevin|title = The evolution of space and timevolume = X year = 1911|url=}} (translated by J. B. Sykes, 1973).Lorentz and Emil Wiechert had an interesting correspondence on the topics of electromagnetism and the theory of relativity, and Lorentz explained his ideas in letters to Wiechert.(Arch. ex. hist. Sci, 1984).Lorentz was chairman of the first Solvay Conference held in Brussels in the autumn of 1911. Shortly after the conference, Poincaré wrote an essay on quantum physics which gives an indication of Lorentz's status at the time:{{Citation|author=Poincaré, Henri|year=1913|title=Last Essays|location=New York}}

Change of priorities

In 1910, Lorentz decided to reorganize his life. His teaching and management duties at Leiden University were taking up too much of his time, leaving him little time for research. In 1912, he resigned from his chair of theoretical physics to become curator of the "Physics Cabinet" at Teylers Museum in Haarlem. He remained connected to Leiden University as an external professor, and his "Monday morning lectures" on new developments in theoretical physics soon became legendary.Lorentz initially asked Einstein to succeed him as professor of theoretical physics at Leiden. However, Einstein could not accept because he had just accepted a position at ETH Zurich. Einstein had no regrets in this matter, since the prospect of having to fill Lorentz's shoes made him shiver. Instead Lorentz appointed Paul Ehrenfest as his successor in the chair of theoretical physics at the Leiden University, who would found the Institute for Theoretical Physics which would become known as the Lorentz Institute.

Civil work

After World War I, Lorentz was one of the driving forces behind the founding of the "Wetenschappelijke Commissie van Advies en Onderzoek in het Belang van Volkswelvaart en Weerbaarheid", a committee which was to harness the scientific potential united in the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW) for solving civil problems such as food shortage which had resulted from the war. Lorentz was appointed chair of the committee. However, despite the best efforts of many of the participants the committee would harvest little success. The only exception being that it ultimately resulted in the founding of TNO, the Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research.Lorentz was also asked by the Dutch government to chair a committee to calculate some of the effects of the proposed Afsluitdijk (Enclosure Dam) flood control dam on water levels in the Waddenzee. Hydraulic engineering was mainly an empirical science at that time, but the disturbance of the tidal flow caused by the Afsluitdijk was so unprecedented that the empirical rules could not be trusted. Originally Lorentz was only supposed to have a coordinating role in the committee, but it quickly became apparent that Lorentz was the only physicist to have any fundamental traction on the problem. In the period 1918 till 1926, Lorentz invested a large portion of his time in the problem."Lorenz - the Grand Old Man of Physics", Radio Netherlands Archives, March 13, 2000 Lorentz proposed to start from the basic hydrodynamic equations of motion and solve the problem numerically. This was feasible for a "human computer", because of the quasi-one-dimensional nature of the water flow in the Waddenzee. The Afsluitdijk was completed in 1932, and the predictions of Lorentz and his committee turned out to be remarkably accurate.WEB,weblink Carlo Beenakker,, 2012-02-01, One of the two sets of locks in the Afsluitdijk was named after him.

Family life

In 1881, Lorentz married Aletta Catharina Kaiser. Her father was J.W. Kaiser, a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts. He was the Director of the museum which later became the well-known Rijksmuseum (National Gallery). He also was the designer of the first postage stamps of The Netherlands.There were two daughters, and one son from this marriage.Dr. Geertruida Luberta Lorentz, the eldest daughter, was a physicist. She married Professor W.J. de Haas, who was the Director of the Cryogenic Laboratory at the University of Leidenweblink Nobel Prize biography


In January 1928, Lorentz became seriously ill, and died shortly after on February 4. The respect in which he was held in the Netherlands is apparent from Owen Willans Richardson's description of his funeral:Unique 1928 film footage of the funeral procession with a lead carriage followed by ten mourners, followed by a carriage with the coffin, followed in turn by at least four more carriages, passing by a crowd at the Grote Markt, Haarlem from the Zijlstraat to the Smedestraat, and then back again through the Grote Houtstraat towards the Barteljorisstraat, on the way to the "Algemene Begraafplaats" at the Kleverlaan (northern Haarlem cemetery) has been digitized on YouTube.{{YouTube|H2VtrJD0xJk|Funeral procession}} Hendrik Lorentz Einstein gave a eulogy at a memorial service at Leiden University.


Lorentz is considered one of the prime representatives of the "Second Dutch Golden Age", a period of several decades surrounding 1900 in which in the natural sciences in the Netherlands flourished.Richardson describes Lorentz as:
[A] man of remarkable intellectual powers ... . Although steeped in his own investigation of the moment, he always seemed to have in his immediate grasp its ramifications into every corner of the universe. ... The singular clearness of his writings provides a striking reflection of his wonderful powers in this respect. .... He possessed and successfully employed the mental vivacity which is necessary to follow the interplay of discussion, the insight which is required to extract those statements which illuminate the real difficulties, and the wisdom to lead the discussion among fruitful channels, and he did this so skillfully that the process was hardly perceptible.
M. J. Klein (1967) wrote of Lorentz's reputation in the 1920s:
For many years physicists had always been eager "to hear what Lorentz will say about it" when a new theory was advanced, and, even at seventy-two, he did not disappoint them.
In addition to the Nobel prize, Lorentz received a great many honours for his outstanding work. He was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 1905.WEB,weblink 2015-03-16,weblink Royal Society, London, Fellows of the Royal Society, The Society awarded him their Rumford Medal in 1908 and their Copley Medal in 1918. He was elected an Honorary Member of the Netherlands Chemical Society in 1912.Honorary members – website of the Royal Netherlands Chemical Society

See also



Primary sources

{{Wikisource author}}{{Wikisourcelang|de|Hendrik Antoon Lorentz}}
  • Many papers by Lorentz (mostly in English) are available for online viewing in the Proceedings of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Science, Amsterdam.
  • {{citation | first=Hendrik Antoon | last=Lorentz | title=Considerations on Gravitation | url= | journal=Proc. Acad. Science Amsterdam | volume=2 | pages=559–74 | year=1900|ref=none}}
  • {{citation | first=Hendrik Antoon | last=Lorentz | title=Lectures on Theoretical Physics (vol. I–III) | place=New York | publisher=Macmillan & Co. | year=1927–1931|ref=none}}, (Vol. I online)

Secondary sources

{{citation |editor-first1 = Karl|editor-last1 = Przibram |translator-first = Martin J. |translator-last = Klein |title = Letters of wave mechanics: Schrödinger, Planck, Einstein, Lorentz. Edited by Karl Przibram for the Austrian Academy of Sciences |place = New York |publisher = Philosophical Library |year = 1967}}{{citation |doi = 10.1112/jlms/s1-4.3.183 |first = O. W. |last = Richardson |title = Hendrik Antoon Lorentz |journal = J. London Math. Soc. |volume = 4 |issue = 1 |pages = 183–92 |year = 1929}}. The biography which refers to this article (but gives no pagination details other than those of the article itself) is {{MacTutor Biography|id=Lorentz}}}}
  • {{citation |first1 = Geertruida L. |last1 = de Haas-Lorentz |author-link = Geertruida de Haas-Lorentz |first2 = Joh. C. (trans.) |last2 = Fagginger Auer |title = H.A. Lorentz: impressions of his life and work |year = 1957 |place= Amsterdam |publisher= North-Holland Pub. Co.|ref=none}}
  • {{citation |first = Paul |last = Langevin |author-link = Paul Langevin |title = L'évolution de l'espace et du temps |journal = Scientia |volume = X |pages = 31–54 |year = 1911 |ref=none}}
  • {{citation |first = Henri |last = Poincaré |author-link = Henri Poincaré |title = La théorie de Lorentz et le principe de réaction |journal = Archives Néerlandaises des Sciences Exactes et Naturelles |volume = V |pages = 253–78 |year = 1900 |ref=none}} See English translation.
  • {{citation |first = Henri |last = Poincaré |author-link = Henri Poincaré |title = La science et l'hypothèse |place = Paris|publisher = Ernest Flammarion |year = 1902|title-link = La science et l'hypothèse|ref=none }} : n.p.. The quotation is from the English translation ({{citation |first = Henri |last = Poincaré |author-link = Henri Poincaré |title = Science and hypothesis |place = New York|publisher = Dover Publications |page = 175 |year = 1952|title-link = Science and hypothesis|ref=none }})
  • {{citation |first = Henri |last = Poincaré |author-link = Henri Poincaré |title = Dernières pensées |place = Paris|publisher = Ernest Flammarion |year = 1913|ref=none}} :n.p.. The quotation in the article is from the English translation: ({{citation |first1 = Henri |last1 = Poincaré |author-link = Henri Poincaré

|first2 = John W. (trans.) |last2 = Bolduc |title = Mathematics and science: last essays |place = New York |publisher = Dover Publications |year = 1963|ref=none}} :n.p.)
  • Sri Kantha, S. Einstein and Lorentz. Nature, July 13, 1995; 376: 111. (Letter)

External links

{{commons|Hendrik Antoon Lorentz}}
  • Scanned publications of H.A. Lorentz
  • Scanned Ph.D. theses of the students of Lorentz.
  • WEB, Karl Grandin, Hendrik A. Lorentz Biography,weblink Les Prix Nobel, The Nobel Foundation, 1902, 2008-07-29,
  • {{Gutenberg author | id=Lorentz,+H.+A.+(Hendrik+Antoon) | name=Hendrik Antoon Lorentz}}
  • {{Internet Archive author |sname=Hendrik Antoon Lorentz}}
  • {{Librivox author |id=1789}}
  • {{citation |first = Carlo |last = Beenakker |title = Lorentz and the Zuiderzee project |url =weblink |place = Leiden, [The Netherlands] |publisher = Instituut Lorentz, University of Leiden|ref=none}}
  • {{citation |first = Albert |last = van Helden |contribution = Hendrik Antoon Lorentz 1853–1928 |url =weblink|editor1-first = Klaas |editor1-last = van Berkel |editor2-first = Albert |editor2-last = van Helden |editor3-first = Lodewijk|editor3-last = Palm |title = A History of Science in The Netherlands: Survey, Themes and Reference |place = Leiden, [The Netherlands] |publisher = Brill |pages = 514–518 |year = 1999 |isbn = 978-90-04-10006-0 |ref=none}}
  • {{citation |first1 = John J. |last1 = O'Connor |first2 = Edmund F. |last2 = Robertson |title = Hendrik Lorentz, MacTutor History of Mathematics archive |url =weblink |accessdate = 2008-05-01 |ref=none}}
  • weblink" title="">Movie of Lorentz's funeral
  • {{PM20|FID=pe/011649}}
{{Relativity}}{{Copley Medallists 1901-1950}}{{Nobel Prize in Physics Laureates 1901-1925}}{{Nobel Prize laureates from The Netherlands|state=collapsed}}{{Authority control}}

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