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Jajce
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factoids
>population_as_of = 2013 censusarea_footnotes=HTTP://WWW.FZS.BA/KK6.HTM>TITLE=OSNOVNE INFORMACIJE O KANTONUACCESSDATE=2007-10-11ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20071010041455/HTTP://WWW.FZS.BA/KK6.HTM|population_density_km2 = 9144301710region:BA|display=inline,title}}|area_code = +387 30Official website>}}Jajce is a city and municipality located in Central Bosnia Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. As of 2013, it has a population of 30,758 inhabitants. It is situated in the region of Bosanska Krajina, on the crossroads between Banja Luka, Mrkonjić Grad and Donji Vakuf, on the confluence of the rivers Pliva and Vrbas.

History

Ancient times

Jajački Mithraeum is a temple dedicated to God of the Sun, Mithra.WEB, The historic (antique religious) monument of the Mithraeum in Jajce,weblink old.kons.gov.ba, Commission to preserve national monuments, 22 September 2018, en, bs, 12 January 2003, The god was worshiped and cult spread to other parts of Roman Empire throughout the Mediterranean basin by slaves and merchants from the Orient, and by Roman soldiers who came into contact with the followers of the cult in the East. Temple is dated to the 2nd century AD and repaired sometime during the 4th century AD. This particular Mithraeum is renowned as one of the best preserved in Europe. It was discovered accidentally during the construction of private house. Temple is protected by glass walls so that visitors can see inside even without entering facility. However, for entrance and closer look visitors need to give notice of their visitation in advance by contacting the Ethnological museum of Jajce.The Jajce Mithraeum is declared National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Bosnian Kingdom

File:Grad_Jajce.JPG|thumb|left|Citadel above Walled city of JajceWalled city of JajceJajce was first built in the 14th century and served as the capital of the independent Kingdom of Bosnia during its time. The first references to the name of Jajce in written sources is from the year 1396, but the fortress had already existed by then. The town has gates as fortifications, as well as a castle with walls which lead to the various gates around the town. About 10–20 kilometres from Jajce lies the Komotin Castle and town area which is older but smaller than Jajce. It is believed the town of Jajce was established after Komotin was struck by Black Death.{{citation needed|date=December 2015}}Jajce was the residence of the last Bosnian king Stjepan Tomašević, where he was slain.The Ottomans besieged the town and executed Tomašević, but held it only for six months. At this point it was Hungarians who looked to seize the opportunity to accomplish long-desired goal of capturing Bosnian realm. With the Bosnian King's death opportunity opened for Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus to try and capture Bosnia before Ottomans, which consequentially lead to Siege of Jajce and suppression of Ottoman forces advancement. This derailed Ottoman plans for nearly half of century, for which time Hungarians established the Banovina of Jajce.{{rp|36}} Before her death in 1478 Queen Catherine restored the Saint Mary's Church in Jajce, today the oldest church in town.

Ottoman period

Skenderbeg Mihajlović besieged Jajce again in 1501, which, although siege was unsuccessful, marked approaching demise of the town and Hungarian rule in Bosnia. Mihajlović was repelled by Ivaniš Korvin, who was assisted by Zrinski, Frankopan, Karlović and Cubor.{{citation needed|date=January 2017}} In 1527, Jajce became the last Bosnian town to fall to Ottoman rule.BOOK, Pinson, Mark, The Muslims of Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Historic Development from Middle Ages to the Dissolution of Yugoslavia,weblink 6 May 2012, Second, 1993, 1996, President and Fellows of Harvard College, United States of America, 0-932885-12-8, 11, [...] in Bosnia Jajce under Hungarian garrison actually held until 1527, Under the Ottomans, town lost its strategic importance, as the border moved further North.There are several churches and mosques built in different times during different rules, making Jajce a rather diverse town in this aspect.

Austria-Hungary period

Jajce passed with the rest of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the administration of Austria-Hungary in 1878. The Franciscan monastery of Saint Luke was completed in 1885.

World War II

(File:Jajce AVNOJ museum.JPG|thumb|left|AVNOJ Museum in Jajce)From 1929-41, Jajce was part of the Vrbas Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. During the Second World War, Jajce gained importance as centre of a large swath of free territory, and on 29 November 1943 it hosted the second convention of the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ). There, representatives from throughout Yugoslavia decided to establish a federal Yugoslavia in equality of its nations, and established that Bosnia and Herzegovina would be one of its constitutive Republics. The post-war economy of Jajce in socialist times was based on industry and tourism.{{rp|36}}At the beginning of the Bosnian War, Jajce was inhabited by people from all ethnic groups, and was situated at a junction between areas of Serb majority to the north, Bosnian Muslim majority areas to the south-east and Croatian majority areas to the south-west.{{citation needed|date=May 2015}}

Bosnian war

(File:Pravoslavna_crkva_u_Jajcu.JPG|thumb|Ruins of the Orthodox monastery in Jajce)At the end of April and the beginning of May 1992, almost all ethnic Serbs left and fled or were expelled to territory under Republika Srpska control. In the summer of 1992, the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) started heavy bombardment of the city; the town, that was defended by Croat (HVO) and Bosniak (ARBiH) forces with two separate command lines, fell to Serb forces on 29 October. Retreating forces where joined by a column of 30,000 to 40,000 civilian refugees, stretching {{convert|10|mi|abbr=off|order=flip}} towards Travnik, under VRS sniping and shelling. Shrader defined it as "the largest and most wretched single exodus" of the Bosnian War.BOOK, harv,weblink The Muslim-Croat Civil War in Central Bosnia: A Military History, 1992–1994, Charles R., Shrader, Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas, 2003, 978-1-58544-261-4, , p. 3Bosniak refugees re-settled in Central Bosnia, while Croats moved either to Croatia or closer to the Croatian border due to rising tensions. By November 1992 the pre-war population of Jajce had shrunk from 45,000 to just several thousand.BOOK, Toal, Gerard, Dahlman, Carl T., Bosnia Remade: Ethnic Cleansing and Its Reversal, Oxford University Press, New York, 2011, 978-0-19-973036-0,weblink harv, 126, In the following weeks, all mosques and Catholic churches in Jajce were demolished as retribution for the HVO's destruction of the town's only Serbian Orthodox monastery on 10–11 October. The VRS converted the town's Franciscan monastery into a prison and its archives, museum collections and artworks were looted; the monastery church was completely destroyed. By 1992, all religious buildings in Jajce had been destroyed, save for two mosques whose perilous positioning on a hilltop had made them unsuitable for demolition.BOOK, Walasek, Helen, Walesek, Helen, 2013, Bosnia and the Destruction of Cultural Heritage, Destruction of the Cultural Heritage in Bosnia-Herzegovina: An Overview, Ashgate Publishing, London, UK, 978-1-40943-704-8,weblink harv, pp=82, 292Jajce was recaptured together with Bosanski Petrovac in mid-September 1995 during Operation Mistral 2 by the Croatian Defence Council (HVO),Richard Holbrooke, To end a war, Random House 1998, p. 158 after VRS forces had evacuated the Serb population. Jajce became part of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina according to the Dayton Agreement. Returning Bosniaks were at start blocked by a mob of Croats in early August 1996, which according to US diplomat Robert Gelbard was personally directed by convicted Bosnian Croat war criminal Dario Kordić. Bosniak refugees could return peacefully only few weeks after, being followed by many more. Dario Kordić surrendered and was flown to the Hague following political pressure on Zagreb, particularly by the United States.Richard Holbrooke, To end a war, Random House 1998, p. 350A significant number of Serb refugees settled in Brčko while the rest settled in Mrkonjić Grad, Šipovo, and Banja Luka.REPORT, A Tale of Two Cities: Return of Displaced Persons to Jajce and Travnik, 38, International Crisis Group, 3 June 1998,weblink 2–7, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304110108weblink">weblink 4 March 2016,

Economy and tourism

The economy of the Jajce municipality is nowadays weak. UNESCO has started to renovate the historical parts of the city together with Kulturarv utan gränser (Cultural Heritage without Borders), a Swedish organisation. The main project of the company was to renovate the old traditional houses which symbolised the panoramic view of the city and the waterfall. As of 2006, most of the houses were rebuilt.

Tourism

missing image!
- Zentralbibliothek Zürich - Jajce Wasserfall - 400017380.jpg -
Waterfall, 1901
Jajce was a popular tourist destination in Yugoslav times, mostly due to the historical importance of the AVNOJ session. Tourism has restarted, and its numbers (20-55,000 tourists in 2012-2013) are relevant in relation with the municipality's population (25,000). Tourists from across former Yugoslavia still make up most of tourism in Jajce, but middle-eastern tourists have also increased since the early 2000s; organised school trips also are a significant portion of touristic influx. Spring and autumn are the main tourist seasons.The wider benefits of investment in cultural heritage: Case studies in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. Council of Europe, 2015{{rp|40}}The town is famous for its beautiful {{convert|22|m|ft|adj=on}} high waterfall where the Pliva River meets the river Vrbas. It was damaged during the Bosnian war, by high waters and severe flooding, as the area of Jajce-1 Hydroelectric Power Station intake was at the battlefront and out of service, sudden rise in water-level and discharge created tidal wave which damaged travertine body of the waterfall.Jajce is situated in the mountains, there is a beautiful countryside near the city, rivers such as the Vrbas and Pliva, lakes like Pliva lake, which is also a popular destination for the local people and some tourists. This lake is called Brana in the local parlance. Not far from Jajce there are mountains that are over two thousand meters high like Vlasic near the city of Travnik. Travelling through the mountain roads to the city may not sit well with some visitors, because the roads are in poor condition, but the scenery is picturesque.Visit Jajce{{dead link|date=November 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}BiH TourismBradt Guide

Demographics

(File:Ramadan begova džamija, Jajce.JPG|thumb|left|Bosnian-style wooden mosque (Ramadan begova džamija), reconstructed)In 1931 today's municipality of Jajce was part of the much bigger Jajce County (together with today's municipalities of Jezero, Dobretići and Å ipovo).{|border="2" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4" rules="all" width="50%" style="clear:all; margin:6px 0 0em 0em; border-style: solid; border-width: 1px; border-collapse:collapse; font-size:85%; empty-cells:show"Ethnic Composition bgcolor="#FFEBCD"!Year!Serb! %!Bosniaks! %!Croats! %!Yugoslavs! %!Others! %!Total bgcolor="#f5f5f5"| 48,510 bgcolor="#fffaf0"| 34,488 bgcolor="#f5f5f5"| 35,002 bgcolor="#fffaf0"| 41,197 bgcolor="#f5f5f5"| 45,007 bgcolor="#fffaf0"| 27,258WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060517103208weblink">weblink dead, 17 May 2006, StanovniÅ¡tvo prema općinama po mjesnim zajednicama po nacionalnoj pripadnosti, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina:Federal Bureau of statistics, 17 March 2006, 11 October 2007, '''365 Serbs from Jajce are documented to have been murdered at the Jasenovac concentration camp during World War II.cp13.heritagewebdesign.com Serb victims at Jasenovac {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110711164031weblink |date=2011-07-11 }}; accessed 16 May 2015.

1991

In the town itself, there was 13,579 people, with distribution by ethnic groups:

Climate

{{Weather box|location = Jajce (1961–1990)|metric first = Y|single line = Y| Jan record high C = 16.6| Feb record high C = 21.4| Mar record high C = 26.6| Apr record high C = 29.4| May record high C = 33.4| Jun record high C = 34.6| Jul record high C = 37.6| Aug record high C = 37.0| Sep record high C = 37.0| Oct record high C = 29.4| Nov record high C = 23.2| Dec record high C = 19.8|year record high C = 37.6| Jan high C = 3.1| Feb high C = 6.4| Mar high C = 11.1| Apr high C = 16.0| May high C = 21.0| Jun high C = 23.9| Jul high C = 26.3| Aug high C = 26.2| Sep high C = 22.7| Oct high C = 17.3| Nov high C = 10.6| Dec high C = 4.2|year high C = 15.7| Jan mean C = -0.8| Feb mean C = 1.8| Mar mean C = 5.5| Apr mean C = 10.1| May mean C = 14.5| Jun mean C = 17.4| Jul mean C = 19.2| Aug mean C = 18.7| Sep mean C = 15.4| Oct mean C = 10.8| Nov mean C = 5.7| Dec mean C = 0.7|year mean C = 9.9| Jan low C = -4.7| Feb low C = -2.6| Mar low C = 0.1| Apr low C = 4.1| May low C = 8.2| Jun low C = 11.4| Jul low C = 12.5| Aug low C = 12.4| Sep low C = 9.9| Oct low C = 5.7| Nov low C = 1.2| Dec low C = -2.9|year low C = 4.6| Jan record low C = -25.4| Feb record low C = -18.6| Mar record low C = -15.2| Apr record low C = -4.4| May record low C = -1.5| Jun record low C = 1.2| Jul record low C = 5.4| Aug record low C = 4.8| Sep record low C = -2.0| Oct record low C = -5.8| Nov record low C = -14.8| Dec record low C = -18.8|year record low C = -25.4|precipitation colour = green| Jan precipitation mm = 60.2| Feb precipitation mm = 61.3| Mar precipitation mm = 65.7| Apr precipitation mm = 70.3| May precipitation mm = 87.4| Jun precipitation mm = 96.5| Jul precipitation mm = 81.8| Aug precipitation mm = 77.9| Sep precipitation mm = 74.8| Oct precipitation mm = 68.4| Nov precipitation mm = 91.5| Dec precipitation mm = 80.5|year precipitation mm = 916.2|unit precipitation days = 0.1 mm| Jan precipitation days = 12.0| Feb precipitation days = 11.3| Mar precipitation days = 13.0| Apr precipitation days = 13.7| May precipitation days = 14.5| Jun precipitation days = 14.4| Jul precipitation days = 10.0| Aug precipitation days = 10.0| Sep precipitation days = 10.1| Oct precipitation days = 9.6| Nov precipitation days = 11.5| Dec precipitation days = 12.8|year precipitation days = 143.1|unit snow days = 1.0 cm| Jan snow days = 15.4| Feb snow days = 11.5| Mar snow days = 4.0| Apr snow days = 0.5| May snow days = 0.0| Jun snow days = 0.0| Jul snow days = 0.0| Aug snow days = 0.0| Sep snow days = 0.0| Oct snow days = 0.0| Nov snow days = 3.5| Dec snow days = 11.5|year snow days = 46.4| Jan humidity = 82.7| Feb humidity = 79.4| Mar humidity = 75.1| Apr humidity = 72.3| May humidity = 75.2| Jun humidity = 76.9| Jul humidity = 75.8| Aug humidity = 76.8| Sep humidity = 78.8| Oct humidity = 80.2| Nov humidity = 81.9| Dec humidity = 84.4|year humidity = 78.3| Jan sun = 52.5| Feb sun = 71.1| Mar sun = 115.3| Apr sun = 147.7| May sun = 180.7| Jun sun = 197.3| Jul sun = 243.8| Aug sun = 221.2| Sep sun = 165.6| Oct sun = 120.5| Nov sun = 72.0| Dec sun = 44.2|year sun = 1631.9|source 1 = Meteorological Institute of Bosnia and HerzegovinaWEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180507015809weblink">weblink 7 May 2018,weblink Meteorlogical data for station Jajce in period 1961–1990, Meteorological Institute of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 6 May 2018, }}

Settlements

{{div col|colwidth=18em}} {{div col end}}

Twin towns

Notable people

References

{{reflist|2}}

External links

{{commons category|Jajce}}{{EB1911 Poster|Jajce}} {{Central Bosnia Canton}}{{Political divisions of Bosnia and Herzegovina}}{{Authority control}}

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