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Travnik
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Cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina>CantonCentral Bosnia}}Central European Time>CET|utc_offset = +1|map_caption = Location of Travnik within Bosnia and Herzegovina.Central European Summer Time>CEST|utc_offset_DST = +2|image_shield = Coat of Arms of Travnik.pngCoat of Arms of Travnik>Municipality coat of arms|image_map = Travnik Municipality Location.pngParty of Democratic Action>SDA)| leader_title = Mayor| area_total_km2 = 529| population_total = 53482| population_footnotes = | population_as_of = 2013 census| population_density_km2 = 101.10| population_urban = 16534|pushpin_map = Bosnia and Herzegovina |pushpin_label_position = |pushpin_map_caption =|pushpin_mapsize =44351735region:BA|display=inline,title}}|elevation_m = 514|postal_code_type = Postal code|postal_code = 72270|area_code = (+387) 30weblink}}}}Travnik ({{IPA-sh|trâːʋniːk|bs|bs-Travnik.ogg}}) is a city and the administrative center of Central Bosnia Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is situated in central Bosnia and Herzegovina, {{convert|90|km|0|abbr=off}} west of Sarajevo. As of 2013, city had a population of 16,534 inhabitants, while the municipality had 53,482 inhabitants.Historically, it was the capital city of the governors of Bosnia from 1699 to 1850, and has a cultural heritage dating from that periodweblink

Geography

Travnik is located near the geographic center of Bosnia and Herzegovina at {{Coord|44|14|N|17|40|E|}}. The river Lašva passes through the city, flowing from west to east before joining the Bosna. Travnik itself is built in the large Lašva valley, which connects the Bosna river valley in the east with the Vrbas river valley in the west.Travnik is found {{convert|514|m|ft|abbr=off}} above sea level. Its most distinguishing geographic feature are its mountains, Vilenica and Vlašić. Vlašić, named after the Vlachs, is one of the tallest mountains in the country at {{convert|1,933|m|ft|abbr=off}}.Large karst spring, the Plava Voda wellspring, rises under Vlašić mountain, just below Travnik Castle, in the very center of Old Town of Travnik.

Climate

Travnik has a continental climate, located between the Adriatic sea to the South and Pannonia to the North. Average summer temperature is {{convert|18.2|°C|1}}. Average winter temperature on the other hand is a cold {{convert|0.5|°C|1}}. It snows in Travnik every year.

History

Although there is evidence of some settlement in the region dating back to the Bronze Age, the true history of Travnik begins during the first few centuries AD. Dating from this time there are numerous indications of Roman settlement in the region, including graves, forts, the remains of various other structures, early Christian basilicas, etc. In the city itself, Roman coins and plaques have been found. Some writing found indicates the settlement is closely connected to the known Roman colony in modern-day Zenica, {{convert|30|km|mi|abbr=on}} away.In the Middle Ages the Travnik area was known as the župa Lašva province of the medieval Bosnian Kingdom. The area is first mentioned by Bela IV of Hungary in 1244. Travnik itself was one of a number of fortified towns in the region, with its fortress Kaštel becoming today's old town sector. The city itself is first mentioned by the Ottomans during their conquest of nearby Jajce.After the Ottoman conquest of Bosnia in the 15th century, much of the local population converted to Islam. The city quickly grew into one of the more important settlements in the region, as authorities constructed mosques, marketplaces, and various infrastructure. During 1699 when Sarajevo was set afire by soldiers of Field-Marshal Prince Eugene of Savoy, Travnik became the capital of the Ottoman province of Bosnia and residence of the Bosnian viziers. The city became an important center of government in the whole Western frontier of the empire, and consulates were established by the governments of France and Austria-Hungary.The period of Austrian occupation brought westernization and industry to Travnik, but also a reduction of importance. While cities such as Banja Luka, Sarajevo, Tuzla, and Zenica grew rapidly, Travnik changed so little that during 1991 it had a mere 30,000 or so people, with 70,000 in the entire municipality.A large fire started by a spark from a locomotive in September 1903 destroyed most of the towns buildings and homes, leaving only some hamlets and the fortress untouched.BOOK,weblink Bosnia and Herzegovina; page 243, Google Books, 2013, 20 October 2014, The cleanup and rebuilding took several years.BOOK,weblink A British Officer in the Balkans; page 196, Google Books, 1909, 20 October 2014, From 1929 to 1941, Travnik was part of the Drina Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.During the Bosnian War, the town mostly escaped damage from conflict with Serbian forces, hosting refugees from nearby Jajce, but the area experienced fighting between local Bosniak and Croat factions before the Washington Agreement was signed in 1994. After the war, Travnik was made the capital of the Central Bosnia Canton.(File:Travnik Fort.jpg|400px|thumb|center|Travnik Fortress)

Administration

(File:Naselja u Travniku.png|thumb|right|Villages within Travnik municipality)(File:BiH municipality location Travnik.svg|thumb|right|Travnik Municipality within the Central Bosnia Canton)The town of Travnik is the administrative centre of the Travnik Municipality, whose area of jurisdiction covers Travnik and the outlying villages and small towns. Travnik is also the capital of the Central Bosnia Canton, one of the ten Cantons of Bosnia. The municipality government has various bureau's dedicated to help in the running of the region, ranging from the bureau of urbanization and construction, to the bureau of refugees and displaced persons.

Economy

The economy of the Travnik region, which was never anything extraordinary, suffered greatly during the war period of the early 1990s. In 1981 Travnik's GDP per capita was 63% of the Yugoslav average.BOOK, Atlas svijeta: Novi pogled na Zemlju, 1984, 3rd, Sveučilišna naklada Liber, Zagreb, Croatian, Radovan, Radovinović, Ivan, Bertić, Nowadays, most of the region deals with typical rural work such as farming and herding. As for urban industry, Travnik has several factories producing everything from matches to furniture. Food processing is also a strong industry in the region, especially meat and milk companies.

Tourism

(File:Bogomilen-Schrein Travnik crop (jha).jpg|thumb|right|Vizier's grave (turbe) in Travnik.)Like many Bosnian towns, Travnik's tourism is based largely on its history and geography. Nearby Mt. Vlašić is one of the tallest peaks in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and an excellent spot for skiing, hiking, and sledding. Though tourism isn't very strong for the city, Mt. Vlašić is probably its chief tourist attraction. The city itself is also of interest. Numerous structures dating to the Ottoman era have survived in near perfect condition, such as numerous mosques, oriental homes, two clock towers (sahat kula; Travnik is the only city in Bosnia and Herzegovina to have two clock towers), and fountains. The city's old town dates back to the early 15th century, making it one of the most popular widely accessible sites from that time.(File:Plave vode mlin.png|thumb|Old watermill by Plava voda)(File:Plave vode.png|thumb|Plava voda)

Demographics

(File:Evstafiev-bosnia-travnik-girl-doll-refugee.jpg|thumb|right|Refugees in Travnik, 1993)

1971

55,822 total
  • Bosniaks – 24,480 (43.85%)
  • Croats – 22,645 (40.56%)
  • Serbs – 7,554 (13.53%)
  • Yugoslavs – 626 (1.12%)
  • others – 517 (0.94%)
  • Turks - 10

1991

70,747 total
  • Bosniaks – 31,813 (45%)
  • Croats – 26,118 (37%)
  • Serbs – 7,777 (11%)
  • Yugoslavs – 3,743 (5%)
  • Others – 1,296 (2%)
The town of Travnik: 19,041 total.
  • Bosniaks – 7,373 (39%)
  • Croats – 6,043 (32%)
  • Serbs – 2,131 (12%)
  • Yugoslavs – 2,800 (14%)
  • Others – 694 (4%)

2013weblink total
  • Bosniaks – 35,648 (66.65%)
  • Croats – 15,102 (28.23%)
  • Serbs – 640 (1.19%)
  • not declared – 327 (0.61%)
  • others – 1628 (3.04%)
  • no answer - 137 (0.25%)

Culture

File:Rodna_kuća_Ive_Andrića_u_Travniku_0.jpg|thumb|Birthplace of Ivo AndrićIvo AndrićTravnik has a strong culture, mostly dating back to its time as the center of local government in the Ottoman Empire. Travnik has a popular old town district however, which dates back to the period of Bosnian independence during the first half of the 15th century. Numerous mosques and churches exist in the region, as do tombs of important historical figures and excellent examples of Ottoman architecture. The city museum, built in 1950, is one of the more impressive cultural institutions in the region.Travnik became famous by important persons who were born or lived in the city. The most important of which are Ivo Andrić (writer, Nobel Prize for literature in 1961), Miroslav Ćiro Blažević (football coach of Croatian national team, won third place 1998 in France), Josip Pejaković (actor), Seid Memić (pop-singer) and Davor Džalto (artist and art historian, the youngest PhD in Germany and in the South-East European region).One of the main works of Ivo Andrić, himself a native of Travnik, is the Bosnian Chronicle (or Travnik Chronicle),WEB,weblink Bosnian Chronicle, Ivoandric.org.rs, 15 June 2011, depicting life in Travnik during the Napoleonic Wars and itself written during World War II. In this work Travnik and its people - with their variety of ethnic and religious communities - are described with a mixture of affection and exasperation.The Bosnian Tornjak, one of Bosnia's two major dog breeds and national symbol, originated in the area, found around Vlašić mountain.

Sport

The local football team is NK Travnik, established in 1922.

Notable people

Twin cities

  • {{flagicon|GER}} Leipzig, Germany
  • {{flagicon|SRB}} KruÅ¡evac, Serbia
  • (File:Downtown travnik.png|thumb|Travnik downtown from castle){{flagicon|SRB}} Gornji Milanovac, Serbia
  • {{flagicon|CRO}} Makarska, Croatia

Gallery

File:Suleimania Mosque.JPG|Suleimania MosqueFile:Suleimania Mosque.jpg|Suleimania MosqueFile:Suleimania Mosque 02.JPG|Suleimania MosqueFile:Suleimania Mosque 03.JPG|Suleimania MosqueFile:Sahat Kule 01.JPG|Sahat Kula, Clock TowerFile:Sahat Kule 02.JPG|Another Clock TowerFile:TravnikCastle01.JPG|View from Travnik CastleFile:Travnik Ivo Andric1.jpg|Birthplace (home) of Ivo AndrićFile:Travnik street 01.jpg|Poturmahala.File:Travnik 02.jpg|Old TownFile:Travnik 06.jpgFile:Travnik entry.png|Entry to Travnik from eastern side

References

{{reflist|2}}

External links

{{commons category|Travnik}} {{Central Bosnia Canton}}{{Political divisions of Bosnia and Herzegovina}}{{Authority control}}

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