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food chain
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{{other uses}}File:Food chain.png|thumb|160px|right|Food chain in a Swedish lake. Osprey feed on northern pike, which in turn feed on perch which eat bleak that feedon mountain shrimp.]]
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria). A food chain also shows how the organisms are related with each other by the food they eat. Each level of a food chain represents a different trophic level. A food chain differs from a food web, because the complex network of different animals' feeding relations are aggregated and the chain only follows a direct, linear pathway of one animal at a time. Natural interconnections between food chains make it a food web. A common metric used to the quantify food web trophic structure is food chain length. In its simplest form, the length of a chain is the number of links between a trophic consumer and the base of the web and the mean chain length of an entire web is the arithmetic average of the lengths of all chains in a food web.JOURNAL, Briand, F., Cohen, J. E., Environmental correlates of food chain length., 1987, Science (journal), Science, 4829, 956–960, 10.1126/science.3672136,weblink 238, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120425235347weblink">weblink 2012-04-25, JOURNAL, Post, D. M., Pace, M. L., Haristis, A. M., Parasites dominate food web links, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 30, 2006, 11211–11216, 10.1073/pnas.0604755103,weblink 1544067, Many food webs have a keystone species (Such as Sharks) . A keystone species is a species that has a large impact on the surrounding environment and can directly affect the food chain. If this keystone species dies off it can set the entire food chain off balance. Keystone species keep herbivores from depleting all of the foliage in their environment and preventing a mass extinction.WEB,weblink The Food Chain, www2.nau.edu, 2019-05-04, Food chains were first introduced by the Arab scientist and philosopher Al-Jahiz in the 10th century and later popularized in a book published in 1927 by Charles Elton, which also introduced the food web concept.BOOK, Elton, C. S., Animal Ecology, Sidgwick and Jackson, London, UK., 1927, 0-226-20639-4,weblink JOURNAL, Allesina, S., Alonso, D., Pascal, M., A general model for food web structure., Science (journal), Science, 320, 5876, 658–661, 10.1126/science.1156269,weblink yes,weblink 2016-05-15, JOURNAL, Egerton, F. N., 2007, Understanding food chains and food webs, 1700-1970, Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America, 88, 50–69,weblink 10.1890/0012-9623(2007)88[50:UFCAFW]2.0.CO;2,

Food chain length

{{Rp|370}}| width = 215px| align = left}}File:Chesapeake Waterbird Food Web.jpg|thumb|270px|right|This food web of waterbirds from Chesapeake BayChesapeake BayThe food chain's length is a continuous variable that provides a measure of the passage of energy and an index of ecological structure that increases in value counting progressively through the linkages in a linear fashion from the lowest to the highest trophic (feeding) levels.JOURNAL, Vander Zanden, M. J., Shuter, B. J., Lester, N., Rasmussen, J. B., Patterns of food chain length in lakes: A stable isotope study., The American Naturalist, 154, 4, 406–416, 1999, 10.1086/303250,weblink 10523487, Food chains are often used in ecological modeling (such as a three species food chain). They are simplified abstractions of real food webs, but complex in their dynamics and mathematical implications.JOURNAL, Post, D. M., Conners, M. E., Goldberg, D. S., Prey preference by a top predator and the stability of linked food chains., Ecology, 2000, 81, 8–14, 10.1890/0012-9658(2000)081[0008:PPBATP].0.CO;2],weblink Ecologists have formulated and tested hypotheses regarding the nature of ecological patterns associated with food chain length, such as increasing length increasing with ecosystem size, reduction of energy at each successive level, or the proposition that long food chain lengths are unstable. Food chain studies have an important role in ecotoxicology studies tracing the pathways and biomagnification of environmental contaminants.BOOK, Odum, E. P., Barrett, G. W., Fundamentals of ecology, Cengage Learning, Brooks/Cole, 978-0-534-42066-6, 2005, 598,weblink Producers, such as plants, are organisms that utilize solar or chemical energy to synthesize starch. All food chains must start with a producer. In the deep sea, food chains centered on hydrothermal vents and cold seeps exist in the absence of sunlight. Chemosynthetic bacteria and archaea use hydrogen sulfide and methane from hydrothermal vents and cold seeps as an energy source (just as plants use sunlight) to produce carbohydrates; they form the base of the food chain. Consumers are organisms that eat other organisms. All organisms in a food chain, except the first organism, are consumers.{{citation needed|date=September 2017}}In a food chain, there is also reliable energy transfer through each stage{{how|date=September 2017}}. However, all the energy at one stage of the chain is not absorbed by the organism at the next stage. The amount of energy from one stage to another decreases.WEB,weblink ''Food chains and cycles,'' bitesize, BBC, Bbc.co.uk, 1970-01-01, 2018-08-14, {{clear}}

See also

References

{{reflist}}{{modelling ecosystems|expanded=none}}

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