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crustacean
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{{Paraphyletic group| name = Crustaceans
511Cambrian to Holocene>present| image = Abludomelita obtusata.jpg| image_caption = Abludomelita obtusata, an amphipod| image_alt = A segmented animal is seen from the side. It has a long antennae and small black eyes; one pair of legs is much more robust than the others; the body is slightly arched and each segment carries a pair of appendages. The whole animal is translucent or a pale brown colour.| auto = yes| taxon = Crustacea| authority = | includes =Thylacocephala? †Branchiopoda RemipediaCephalocaridaMaxillopoda Ostracoda Malacostraca Hexapods}}Crustaceans (Crustacea {{IPAc-en|k|r|ʌ|ˈ|s|t|eɪ|ʃ|ə}}) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimps, prawns, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.EB1911, Crustacea, 7, 552, William Thomas, Calman, William Thomas Calman, The crustacean group is usually treated as a subphylum, and because of recent molecular studies it is now well accepted that the crustacean group is paraphyletic, and comprises all animals in the Pancrustacea clade other than hexapods.JOURNAL, Omar Rota-Stabelli, Ehsan Kayal, Dianne Gleeson, Jennifer Daub, Jeffrey L. Boore, Maximilian J. Telford, Davide Pisani, Mark Blaxter, Dennis V. Lavrov, yes, 2010, Ecdysozoan Mitogenomics: Evidence for a Common Origin of the Legged Invertebrates, the Panarthropoda, Genome Biology and Evolution, 2, 425–440, 10.1093/gbe/evq030, 20624745,weblink 2998192, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20120710135634weblink">weblink 2012-07-10, Some crustaceans are more closely related to insects and other hexapods than they are to certain other crustaceans.The 67,000 described species range in size from Stygotantulus stocki at {{convert|0.1|mm|3|abbr=on}}, to the Japanese spider crab with a leg span of up to {{convert|3.8|m|ft|1|abbr=on}} and a mass of {{convert|20|kg|lb|abbr=on}}. Like other arthropods, crustaceans have an exoskeleton, which they moult to grow. They are distinguished from other groups of arthropods, such as insects, myriapods and chelicerates, by the possession of biramous (two-parted) limbs, and by their larval forms, such as the nauplius stage of branchiopods and copepods.Most crustaceans are free-living aquatic animals, but some are terrestrial (e.g. woodlice), some are parasitic (e.g. Rhizocephala, fish lice, tongue worms) and some are sessile (e.g. barnacles). The group has an extensive fossil record, reaching back to the Cambrian, and includes living fossils such as Triops cancriformis, which has existed apparently unchanged since the Triassic period. More than 7.9 million tons of crustaceans per year are produced by fishery or farming for human consumptionWEB, The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2018 - Meeting the sustainable development goals,weblink Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, , the majority of it being shrimp and prawns. Krill and copepods are not as widely fished, but may be the animals with the greatest biomass on the planet, and form a vital part of the food chain. The scientific study of crustaceans is known as carcinology (alternatively, malacostracology, crustaceology or crustalogy), and a scientist who works in carcinology is a carcinologist.

Structure

File:Crab from Long Island.jpg|thumb|left|A shed carapace of a lady crab, part of the hard (exoskeleton]]|alt=A convex oval-shaped piece of shell, covered with fine orange-pink markings: the front edge is lined with 13 coarse serrations, while the rear edge is smooth.)(File:Krillanatomykils.jpg|thumb|right|Body structure of a typical crustacean – krill)The body of a crustacean is composed of segments, which are grouped into three regions: the cephalon or head,WEB,weblink Cephalon, Crustacean Glossary, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 2016-09-10, the pereon or thorax,WEB,weblink Thorax, Crustacean Glossary, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 2016-09-10, and the pleon or abdomen.WEB,weblink Abdomen, Crustacean Glossary, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 2016-09-10, The head and thorax may be fused together to form a cephalothorax,WEB,weblink Cephalothorax, Crustacean Glossary, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 2016-09-10, which may be covered by a single large carapace.WEB,weblink Carapace, Crustacean Glossary, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 2016-09-10, The crustacean body is protected by the hard exoskeleton, which must be moulted for the animal to grow. The shell around each somite can be divided into a dorsal tergum, ventral sternum and a lateral pleuron. Various parts of the exoskeleton may be fused together.BOOK, P. J. Hayward, J. S. Ryland, 1995, Handbook of the marine fauna of north-west Europe, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-854055-7, {{google books, y, sZ8mdRT4jbIC, |accessdate=2016-09-10}}{{rp|289}}Each somite, or body segment can bear a pair of appendages: on the segments of the head, these include two pairs of antennae, the mandibles and maxillae; the thoracic segments bear legs, which may be specialised as pereiopods (walking legs) and maxillipeds (feeding legs). The abdomen bears pleopods, and ends in a telson, which bears the anus, and is often flanked by uropods to form a tail fan.WEB,weblink Telson, Crustacean Glossary, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 2016-09-10, The number and variety of appendages in different crustaceans may be partly responsible for the group's success.JOURNAL, Science (journal), Science, July 4, 1997, 277, 5322, 36, 10.1126/science.277.5322.36, Crab legs and lobster claws, Elizabeth Pennisi, Crustacean appendages are typically biramous, meaning they are divided into two parts; this includes the second pair of antennae, but not the first, which is usually uniramous, the exception being in the Class Malacostraca where the antennules may be generally biramous or even triramous.WEB,weblink Antennule, Crustacean Glossary, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 2016-09-10, WEB,weblink Crustaceamorpha: appendages, University of California, Berkeley, 2016-09-10, It is unclear whether the biramous condition is a derived state which evolved in crustaceans, or whether the second branch of the limb has been lost in all other groups. Trilobites, for instance, also possessed biramous appendages.JOURNAL, Trilobite tagmosis and body patterning from morphological and developmental perspectives, N. C. Hughes, February 2003, Integrative and Comparative Biology, 43, 1, 185–206, 10.1093/icb/43.1.185, 21680423, {{See also|Hemolymph}}The main body cavity is an open circulatory system, where blood is pumped into the haemocoel by a heart located near the dorsum.WEB,weblink Closed and Open Circulatory System, Georgia State University, Akira Sakurai, 2016-09-10, Malacostraca have haemocyanin as the oxygen-carrying pigment, while copepods, ostracods, barnacles and branchiopods have haemoglobins.BOOK, Klaus Urich, 1994, Comparative Animal Biochemistry, Springer Science+Business Media, Springer, 978-3-540-57420-0, Respiratory pigments, 249–287, {{google books, y, GLbcWyeaCGQC, 272, }} The alimentary canal consists of a straight tube that often has a gizzard-like "gastric mill" for grinding food and a pair of digestive glands that absorb food; this structure goes in a spiral format.BOOK, H. J. Ceccaldi, Anatomy and physiology of digestive tract of Crustaceans Decapods reared in aquaculture, 243–259, AQUACOP, IFREMER. Actes de Colloque 9,weblink Advances in Tropical Aquaculture. Tahiti Feb. 20 – March 4, 1989, Structures that function as kidneys are located near the antennae. A brain exists in the form of ganglia close to the antennae, and a collection of major ganglia is found below the gut.BOOK, Encarta, 2005, Crustacean, Michael T., Ghiselin, Michael Ghiselin, Microsoft, Encarta, In many decapods, the first (and sometimes the second) pair of pleopods are specialised in the male for sperm transfer. Many terrestrial crustaceans (such as the Christmas Island red crab) mate seasonally and return to the sea to release the eggs. Others, such as woodlice, lay their eggs on land, albeit in damp conditions. In most decapods, the females retain the eggs until they hatch into free-swimming larvae.JOURNAL, Burkenroad, M. D., 1963, The evolution of the Eucarida (Crustacea, Eumalacostraca), in relation to the fossil record, Tulane Studies in Geology, 1, 1–17, 2,

Ecology

The majority of crustaceans are aquatic, living in either marine or freshwater environments, but a few groups have adapted to life on land, such as terrestrial crabs, terrestrial hermit crabs, and woodlice. Marine crustaceans are as ubiquitous in the oceans as insects are on land.WEB,weblink Crabs, lobsters, prawns and other crustaceans, Australian Museum, 2016-09-10, January 5, 2010, WEB,weblink Benthic animals, Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture (Iceland), Icelandic Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture, 2016-09-10, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140511155231weblink">weblink 2014-05-11, The majority of crustaceans are also motile, moving about independently, although a few taxonomic units are parasitic and live attached to their hosts (including sea lice, fish lice, whale lice, tongue worms, and Cymothoa exigua, all of which may be referred to as "crustacean lice"), and adult barnacles live a sessile life – they are attached headfirst to the substrate and cannot move independently. Some branchiurans are able to withstand rapid changes of salinity and will also switch hosts from marine to non-marine species.BOOK, James H. Thorp, Alan P. Covich, 1991, Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates, Academic Press, 978-0-12-690645-5, {{google books, y, hA9VWcz1lwsC, |accessdate=2016-09-10 |edition=1st |author1=Alan P. Covich |author2=James H. Thorp |chapter=Crustacea: Introduction and Peracarida |pages=665–722}}{{rp|672}} Krill are the bottom layer and the most important part of the food chain in Antarctic animal communities.BOOK, P. D., Virtue, P. D., Nichols, S., Nicols, Dietary-related mechanisms of survival in Euphasia superba: biochemical changes during long term starvation and bacteria as a possible source of nutrition., Bruno Battaglia, José, Valencia, D. W. H., Walton, 1997, Antarctic communities: species, structure, and survival, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-48033-8, {{google books, y, P_DMEiH6AM4C, |accessdate=2016-09-10}}{{rp|64}} Some crustaceans are significant invasive species, such as the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis,WEB, Global Invasive Species Database, Eriocheir sinensis,weblink 2016-09-10, Stephan, Gollasch, October 30, 2006, IUCN Species Survival Commission, Invasive Species Specialist Group, and the Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus.BOOK, Frederick R., Schram, Frederick Schram, J. C. von Vaupel, Klein, 1999, Crustaceans and the biodiversity crisis: Proceedings of the Fourth International Crustacean Congress, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, July 20–24, 1998, {{google books, y, msw2BgcugkcC, |accessdate=2016-09-10 |author= John J. McDermott |chapter=The western Pacific brachyuran Hemigrapsus sanguineus (Grapsidae) in its new habitat along the Atlantic coast of the United States: feeding, cheliped morphology and growth |pages= 425–444 |publisher= Koninklijke Brill |isbn= 978-90-04-11387-9}}

Life cycle

File:Potamon fluviatile9.jpg|thumb|right|Eggs of (Potamon fluviatile]], a freshwater crab|alt=Seven round translucent spheres: inside some of them, a pair of compound eyes can be seen.)File:Homarus gammarus zoea.jpg|thumb|right|Zoea larva of the alt=A grey-green translucent animal is seen from the side. The eye is large and shining and is in a recess of the large carapace and its long rostrum. An abdomen, similar in length to the carapace, projects from the rear, and below the carapace, there is a mass of legs, some with small claws.

Mating system

The majority of crustaceans have separate sexes, and reproduce sexually.BOOK,weblink Crustacean (arthropod), Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, A small number are hermaphrodites, including barnacles, remipedes,WEB,weblink Remipedia Yager, 1981, G. L. Pesce, and Cephalocarida.WEB,weblink Crustacean, The Canadian Encyclopedia, 2016-09-10, D. E. Aiken, V. Tunnicliffe, C. T. Shih, L. D. Delorme, Some may even change sex during the course of their life. Parthenogenesis is also widespread among crustaceans, where viable eggs are produced by a female without needing fertilisation by a male. This occurs in many branchiopods, some ostracods, some isopods, and certain "higher" crustaceans, such as the Marmorkrebs crayfish.

Eggs

In many groups of crustaceans, the fertilised eggs are simply released into the water column, while others have developed a number of mechanisms for holding on to the eggs until they are ready to hatch. Most decapods carry the eggs attached to the pleopods, while peracarids, notostracans, anostracans, and many isopods form a brood pouch from the carapace and thoracic limbs. Female Branchiura do not carry eggs in external ovisacs but attach them in rows to rocks and other objects.BOOK, James H. Thorp, Alan P. Covich, 2001, Ecology and classification of North American freshwater invertebrates, Academic Press, 978-0-12-690647-9, {{google books, y, aj2ZMSekmHEC, |accessdate=2016-09-10|edition=2nd |author1=Alan P. Covich |author2=James H. Thorp |chapter=Introduction to the Subphylum Crustacea |pages=777–798}}{{rp|788}} Most leptostracans and krill carry the eggs between their thoracic limbs; some copepods carry their eggs in special thin-walled sacs, while others have them attached together in long, tangled strings.

Larvae

Crustaceans exhibit a number of larval forms, of which the earliest and most characteristic is the nauplius. This has three pairs of appendages, all emerging from the young animal's head, and a single naupliar eye. In most groups, there are further larval stages, including the zoea (pl. zoeæ or zoeas{{OED|Zoea}}). This name was given to it when naturalists believed it to be a separate species.EB1911, Crab, 7, 356, William Thomas, Calman, William Thomas Calman, It follows the nauplius stage and precedes the post-larva. Zoea larvae swim with their thoracic appendages, as opposed to nauplii, which use cephalic appendages, and megalopa, which use abdominal appendages for swimming. It often has spikes on its carapace, which may assist these small organisms in maintaining directional swimming.JOURNAL, W. F. R. Weldon, Raphael Weldon, July 1889, Note on the function of the spines of the Crustacean zoœa, Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 1, 2, 169–172,weblink 10.1017/S0025315400057994, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110717055819weblink">weblink 2011-07-17, In many decapods, due to their accelerated development, the zoea is the first larval stage. In some cases, the zoea stage is followed by the mysis stage, and in others, by the megalopa stage, depending on the crustacean group involved.

Classification

The name "crustacean" dates from the earliest works to describe the animals, including those of Pierre Belon and Guillaume Rondelet, but the name was not used by some later authors, including Carl Linnaeus, who included crustaceans among the "Aptera" in his '.BOOK,weblink Introduction, 1–2, FAO Species Catalogue, Volume 13, Marine Lobsters of the World, Lipke B. Holthuis, Lipke Holthuis, Food and Agriculture Organization, 1991, 978-92-5-103027-1, The earliest nomenclaturally valid work to use the name "Crustacea" was Morten Thrane Brünnich's ' in 1772,BOOK, M. T. Brünnich, Morten Thrane Brünnich, 1772, Zoologiæ fundamenta prælectionibus academicis accomodata. Grunde i Dyrelaeren, Latin, Danish, Fridericus Christianus Pelt, Copenhagen & Leipzig, 1–254,weblink although he also included chelicerates in the group.The subphylum Crustacea comprises almost 67,000 described species,JOURNAL, Zhi-Qiang Zhang, 2011, Z.-Q. Zhang, Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness - Phylum Arthropoda von Siebold, 1848, Zootaxa, 4138, 99–103,weblink which is thought to be just {{frac|1|10}} to {{frac|1|100}} of the total number as the majority of species remain as yet undiscovered.BOOK,weblink Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, Crustaceans — bugs of the sea, Ministry for Culture and Heritage (New Zealand), Ministry for Culture and Heritage, 2016-09-10, Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand, Although most crustaceans are small, their morphology varies greatly and includes both the largest arthropod in the world – the Japanese spider crab with a leg span of {{convert|12|ft|order=flip}}WEB,weblink Japanese Spider Crabs Arrive at Aquarium, Oregon Coast Aquarium, 2016-09-10, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100323043021weblink">weblink 2010-03-23, – and the smallest, the 100-micrometre-long (0.00004 in) Stygotantulus stocki.JOURNAL, Biodiversity and body size are linked across metazoans, Craig R. McClain, Alison G. Boyer, 10.1098/rspb.2009.0245, 2677615, (Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences), 19324730, June 22, 2009, 276, 1665, 2209–2215,weblink Despite their diversity of form, crustaceans are united by the special larval form known as the nauplius.The exact relationships of the Crustacea to other taxa are not completely settled {{as of|2012|April|lc=yes}}. Studies based on morphology led to the Pancrustacea hypothesis,JOURNAL, J. Zrzavý, P. Å tys, The basic body plan of arthropods: insights from evolutionary morphology and developmental biology, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, May 1997, 10, 3, 353–367, 10.1046/j.1420-9101.1997.10030353.x, in which Crustacea and Hexapoda (insects and allies) are sister groups. More recent studies using DNA sequences suggest that Crustacea is paraphyletic, with the hexapods nested within a larger Pancrustacea clade.JOURNAL, Jerome C. Regier, Jeffrey W. Shultz, Andreas Zwick, April Hussey, Bernard Ball, Regina Wetzer, Joel W. Martin, Clifford W. Cunningham, February 25, 2010, Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences, Nature (journal), Nature, 463, 1079–1083, 10.1038/nature08742, 20147900, 7284, 2010Natur.463.1079R, JOURNAL, Björn M. von Reumont, Ronald A. Jenner, Matthew A. Wills, Emiliano Dell'Ampio, Günther Pass, Ingo Ebersberger, Benjamin Meyer, Stefan Koenemann, Thomas M. Iliffe, Alexandros Stamatakis, Oliver Niehuis, Karen Meusemann, Bernhard Misof, March 2012, Pancrustacean phylogeny in the light of new phylogenomic data: support for Remipedia as the possible sister group of Hexapoda, Molecular Biology and Evolution, 29, 3, 1031–1045, 10.1093/molbev/msr270, 22049065, Although the classification of crustaceans has been quite variable, the system used by Martin and DavisBOOK,weblink An Updated Classification of the Recent Crustacea, Joel W. Martin, George E. Davis, 2001, 1–132, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, largely supersedes earlier works. Mystacocarida and Branchiura, here treated as part of Maxillopoda, are sometimes treated as their own classes. Six classes are usually recognised:File:Haeckel Copepoda.jpg|thumb|right|Copepods, from Ernst Haeckel's 1904 work Kunstformen der NaturKunstformen der Natur(File:Haeckel Decapoda.jpg|thumb|right|Decapods, from Ernst Haeckel's 1904 work Kunstformen der Natur){|class="wikitable"! Class !! Members !! Orders !! Photo
Branchiopoda >brine shrimpfairy shrimpwater fleastadpole shrimpclam shrimp >Fairy shrimp>AnostracaLipostracaNotostracaLaevicaudataSpinicaudataCyclestheridaCladocera (File:Daphnia pulex.pngalt=A microscopic, transparent, oval animal against a black background. The head has a large eye, antennae, and comes to a pointed beak. The rest of the animal is smooth round and fat, culminating in a pointed tail. The internal anatomy is apparent.)Daphnia pulex (Cladocera)
Remipedia >Nectiopoda >200px|alt=)Speleonectes tanumekes (Speleonectidae)
Cephalocarida >horseshoe shrimp >Brachypoda >|
Maxillopoda >barnaclescopepods >CalanoidaGoose barnacle>PedunculataSessiliac. 20 others (File:Chthamalus stellatus.jpgalt=Many barnacles living on a rock. Each one consists of a round wall with a central hole closed off by two hard plates.)Chthamalus stellatus (Sessilia)
Ostracoda >seed shrimp >MyodocopidaHalocypridaPlatycopidaPodocopida >200px|alt=A translucent, sculptured shell conceals a small animal. Some of its appendages extend beyond the shell.)Cylindroleberididae
Malacostraca >crabslobsterscrayfishCaridea>shrimpkrillmantis shrimpwoodlousehooded shrimpScud (crustacean)>scudssandhoppersetc. DecapodaIsopodaAmphipodaMantis shrimpc. 12 others >200px|alt=A small, curled-up animal has feathery appendages which it is holding at diverse angles.)Gammarus roeseli (Amphipoda)

Fossil record

File:Eryma mandelslohi (Krebs) - Oberer Brauner Jura - Bissingen unter Teck.jpg|thumb|right|Eryma mandelslohi, a fossil decapod from the Jurassic of Bissingen an der Teck, alt=In a smooth grey block of stone, there is a brown fossil similar to a crayfish. Two long legs, each with a large claw extend forwards from the animal; one of the claws is held open.Crustaceans have a rich and extensive fossil record, which begins with animals such as Canadaspis and Perspicaris from the Middle Cambrian age Burgess Shale.WEB,weblink Fossil Record, Fossil Groups: Crustacea, University of Bristol, 2016-09-10, Most of the major groups of crustaceans appear in the fossil record before the end of the Cambrian, namely the Branchiopoda, Maxillopoda (including barnacles and tongue worms) and Malacostraca; there is some debate as to whether or not Cambrian animals assigned to Ostracoda are truly ostracods, which would otherwise start in the Ordovician.WEB,weblink Ostracods, University College, London, An insight into micropalaeontology, Matthew Olney, 2016-09-10, The only classes to appear later are the Cephalocarida,BOOK, R. R., Hessler, 1984, Cephalocarida: living fossil without a fossil record, N. Eldredge, S. M. Stanley, Living Fossils, Springer Verlag, New York, 181–186, {{google books, y, yeU1zmMkAtgC, |isbn=978-3-540-90957-6}} which have no fossil record, and the Remipedia, which were first described from the fossil Tesnusocaris goldichi, but do not appear until the Carboniferous.JOURNAL, Stefan Koenemann, Frederick R. Schram, Mario Hönemann, Thomas M. Iliffe, 12 April 2007, Phylogenetic analysis of Remipedia (Crustacea), Organisms Diversity & Evolution, 7, 1, 33–51, 10.1016/j.ode.2006.07.001, Most of the early crustaceans are rare, but fossil crustaceans become abundant from the Carboniferous period onwards.File:Shrimps at market in Valencia.jpg|thumb|right|alt=A heap of small pink lobsters on their sides, with their claws extended forwards towards the camera.Within the Malacostraca, no fossils are known for krill,WEB,weblink Antarctic Prehistory, Australian Antarctic Division, July 29, 2008, while both Hoplocarida and Phyllopoda contain important groups that are now extinct as well as extant members (Hoplocarida: mantis shrimp are extant, while Aeschronectida are extinct;JOURNAL,weblink Contributions to Zoology, 67, 3, 155–186, 1998, Palaeo- and archaeostomatopods (Hoplocarida: Crustacea) from the Bear Gulch Limestone, Mississippian (Namurian), of central Montana, Ronald A. Jenner, Cees H. J. Hof, Frederick R. Schram, Phyllopoda: Canadaspidida are extinct, while Leptostraca are extantJOURNAL, Derek Briggs, Derek Briggs, January 23, 1978, The morphology, mode of life, and affinities of Canadaspis perfecta (Crustacea: Phyllocarida), Middle Cambrian, Burgess Shale, British Columbia, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 281, 984, 439–487, 10.1098/rstb.1978.0005, 1978RSPTB.281..439B, ). Cumacea and Isopoda are both known from the Carboniferous,JOURNAL, Frederick Schram, Frederick Schram, Cees H. J. Hof, Royal H. Mapes, Polly Snowdon, yes, 2003,weblink Paleozoic cumaceans (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Peracarida) from North America, Contributions to Zoology, 72, 1, 1–16, JOURNAL, Frederick R. Schram, Frederick R. Schram, August 28, 1970, Isopod from the Pennsylvanian of Illinois, Science (journal), Science, 169, 3948, 854–855, 10.1126/science.169.3948.854, 5432581, 1970Sci...169..854S, as are the first true mantis shrimp.JOURNAL, Fossil stomatopods (Crustacea: Malacostraca) and their phylogenetic impact, Cees H. J. Hof, 10.1080/00222939800771101, Journal of Natural History, 32, 10 & 11, 1998, 1567–1576, In the Decapoda, prawns and polychelids appear in the Triassic,WEB,weblink Dendrobranchiata, University of Bristol, Order Decapoda, Robert P. D. Crean, November 14, 2004, JOURNAL,weblink Hiroaki Karasawa, Fumio Takahashi, Eiji Doi, Hideo Ishida, 2003, First notice of the family Coleiidae Van Straelen (Crustacea: Decapoda: Eryonoides) from the upper Triassic of Japan, Paleontological Research, 7, 4, 357–362, 10.2517/prpsj.7.357, and shrimp and crabs appear in the Jurassic;JOURNAL, Two new caridean shrimps, one representing a new family, from marine pools on Ascension Island (Crustacea: Decapoda: Natantia), Fenner A. Chace Jr., Fenner A. Chace Jr., Raymond B. Manning, Raymond B. Manning, yes, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 1972, 131, 131, 1–18, 10.5479/si.00810282.131, . The fossil burrow Ophiomorpha is attributed to ghost shrimps, whereas the fossil burrow Camborygma is attributed to crayfishes.The Permian–Triassic deposits of Nurra preserve the oldest (Permian: Roadian) fluvial burrows ascribed to ghost shrimps (Decapoda: Axiidea, Gebiidea) and crayfishes (Decapoda: Astacidea, Parastacidea), respectivelyBaucon, A., Ronchi, A., Felletti, F., Neto de Carvalho, C. 2014. Evolution of Crustaceans at the edge of the end-Permian crisis: ichnonetwork analysis of the fluvial succession of Nurra (Permian-Triassic, Sardinia, Italy). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 410. Abstract available froweblink However, the great radiation of crustaceans occurred in the Cretaceous, particularly in crabs, and may have been driven by the adaptive radiation of their main predators, bony fish.JOURNAL, J. W. Wägele, December 1989, On the influence of fishes on the evolution of benthic crustaceans, Zeitschrift für Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung, 27, 4, 297–309, 10.1111/j.1439-0469.1989.tb00352.x, The first true lobsters also appear in the Cretaceous.JOURNAL, Journal of Paleontology, 2005, 79, 5, 961–968, 10.1666/0022-3360(2005)079[0961:HAANSO]2.0.CO;2, Hoploparia albertaensis, a new species of clawed lobster (Nephropidae) from the Late Coniacean, shallow-marine Bad Heart Formation of northwestern Alberta, Canada, Dale Tshudy, W. Steven Donaldson, Christopher Collom, Rodney M. Feldmann, Carrie E. Schweitzer,

Consumption by humans

Many crustaceans are consumed by humans, and nearly 10,700,000 tons were produced in 2007; the vast majority of this output is of decapod crustaceans: crabs, lobsters, shrimp, crawfish, and prawns.WEB,weblink Food and Agriculture Organization, 2016-09-10, FIGIS: Global Production Statistics 1950–2007, Over 60% by weight of all crustaceans caught for consumption are shrimp and prawns, and nearly 80% is produced in Asia, with China alone producing nearly half the world's total. Non-decapod crustaceans are not widely consumed, with only 118,000 tons of krill being caught, despite krill having one of the greatest biomasses on the planet.BOOK, Steven, Nicol, Yoshinari, Endo,weblink Fisheries Technical Paper, 367, Krill Fisheries of the World, Food and Agriculture Organization, 1997, 978-92-5-104012-6, {{clear}}

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Sources

  • BOOK, Frederick, Schram, Frederick Schram, Crustaceans, {{google books, y, tm8WAQAAIAAJ, |isbn=978-0-19-503742-5 |publisher = Oxford University Press |year=1986}}

External links

{{Commons category|Crustacea}}{{Wikispecies|Crustacea}}
  • {hide}Wikisource-inline|list=
    • AMERICANA, Crustacea, 8, x, x,
    • NIE, Clark, Hubert Lyman, Ingersoll, Ernest, Hubert Lyman Clark, Ernest Ingersoll, Crustacea, 5, x, x,
{edih} {{Arthropods}}{{Taxonbar|from=Q25364}}{{Authority control}}{{good article}}

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