Python (programming language)

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Python (programming language)
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{{Other uses|Python (disambiguation){{!}}Python}}{{short description|General-purpose, high-level programming language}}{{Use dmy dates |date=August 2015}}

2.7.16 / PYTHON 2.7.16 RELEASED PUBLISHER=THE PYTHON CORE DEVELOPERS LAST=PETERSON ACCESSDATE=4 MARCH 2019,weblink duck typing>Duck, dynamic typing, gradual typing>gradual (since 3.5)HTTPS://WWW.PYTHON.ORG/DEV/PEPS/PEP-0483/>TITLE=PEP 483 -- THE THEORY OF TYPE HINTS,, | implementations = CPython, PyPy, Stackless Python, MicroPython, CircuitPython, IronPython, Jython, RustPythonCython, RPython, Bazel (software)>StarlarkSTARLARK LANGUAGE>URL=HTTPS://DOCS.BAZEL.BUILD/VERSIONS/MASTER/SKYLARK/LANGUAGE.HTML, 25 May 2019, Apache Groovy, Boo (programming language)>Boo, Cobra (programming language), CoffeeScript,HTTPS://COFFEESCRIPT.ORG/ D (programming language)>D, F Sharp (programming language), Genie (programming language)>Genie,WEB
, Genie Language - A brief guide
, 28 December 2015, Go, JavaScript,WEB, Perl and Python influences in JavaScript
, 24 February 2013,
, 15 May 2015, WEB, Chapter 3: The Nature of JavaScript; Influences
, Rauschmayer
, Axel, O'Reilly, Speaking JavaScript
, 15 May 2015, Julia, Nim, Ring,WEB,weblink Ring and other languages, Ring Team, 4 December 2017,, ring-lang, Ruby, SwiftWEB,weblink Chris Lattner's Homepage, Lattner, Chris, 3 June 2014, 3 June 2014, Chris Lattner, The Swift language is the product of tireless effort from a team of language experts, documentation gurus, compiler optimization ninjas, and an incredibly important internal dogfooding group who provided feedback to help refine and battle-test ideas. Of course, it also greatly benefited from the experiences hard-won by many other languages in the field, drawing ideas from Objective-C, Rust, Haskell, Ruby, Python, C#, CLU, and far too many others to list., | license = Python Software Foundation License
weblink}}| wikibooks = Python ProgrammingABC (programming language)>ABC, ALGOL 68, APL (programming language),HTTPS://DOCS.PYTHON.ORG/3/LIBRARY/ITERTOOLS.HTMLWEBSITE=DOCS.PYTHON.ORG, C (programming language), C++, CLU (programming language)>CLU, Dylan (programming language), Haskell (programming language)>Haskell, Icon (programming language), Java (programming language)>Java, Lisp, Modula-3, Perl, Standard MLPEP 0488 {{notatypo>.pyw}}, .pyz (since 3.5)HTTPS://WWW.PYTHON.ORG/DEV/PEPS/PEP-0441/ >LAST=HOLTH DATE=30 MARCH 2014 TITLE=PEP 0441 -- IMPROVING PYTHON ZIP APPLICATION SUPPORT, }}Python is an interpreted, high-level, general-purpose programming language. Created by Guido van Rossum and first released in 1991, Python's design philosophy emphasizes code readability with its notable use of significant whitespace. Its language constructs and object-oriented approach aim to help programmers write clear, logical code for small and large-scale projects.Python is dynamically typed and garbage-collected. It supports multiple programming paradigms, including procedural, object-oriented, and functional programming. Python is often described as a "batteries included" language due to its comprehensive standard library.Python was conceived in the late 1980s as a successor to the ABC language. Python 2.0, released 2000, introduced features like list comprehensions and a garbage collection system capable of collecting reference cycles. Python 3.0, released 2008, was a major revision of the language that is not completely backward-compatible, and much Python 2 code does not run unmodified on Python 3. Due to concern about the amount of code written for Python 2, support for Python 2.7 (the last release in the 2.x series) was extended to 2020. Language developer Guido van Rossum shouldered sole responsibility for the project until July 2018 but now shares his leadership as a member of a five-person steering council.WEB, Guido van Rossum Stepping Down from Role as Python's Benevolent Dictator For Life {{!, Linux Journal |url= | |language=en}}NEWS, Python boss Guido van Rossum steps down after 30 years,weblink The Inquirer, en, WEB, PEP 8100,weblink python, Python Software Foundation, 4 May 2019, Python interpreters are available for many operating systems. A global community of programmers develops and maintains CPython, an open sourceWEB,weblink History and License, 5 December 2016, "All Python releases are Open Source" reference implementation. A non-profit organization, the Python Software Foundation, manages and directs resources for Python and CPython development.


File:Guido van Rossum OSCON 2006 cropped.png|thumb|150px|Guido van RossumGuido van RossumPython was conceived in the late 1980s by Guido van Rossum at Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI) in the Netherlands as a successor to the ABC language (itself inspired by SETL), capable of exception handling and interfacing with the Amoeba operating system. Its implementation began in December 1989. Van Rossum continued as Python's lead developer until July 12, 2018, when he announced his "permanent vacation" from his responsibilities as Python's Benevolent Dictator For Life, a title the Python community bestowed upon him to reflect his long-term commitment as the project's chief decision-maker. In January, 2019, active Python core developers elected Brett Cannon, Nick Coghlan, Barry Warsaw, Carol Willing and Van Rossum to a five-member "Steering Council" to lead the project.WEB, PEP 8100,weblink Python Software Foundation, 4 May 2019, Python 2.0 was released on 16 October 2000 with many major new features, including a cycle-detecting garbage collector and support for Unicode.Python 3.0 was released on 3 December 2008. It was a major revision of the language that is not completely backward-compatible. Many of its major features were backported to Python 2.6.x and 2.7.x version series. Releases of Python 3 include the 2to3 utility, which automates (at least partially) the translation of Python 2 code to Python 3.WEB,weblink Automated Python 2 to 3 code translation — Python Documentation, 11 February 2018, Python 2.7's end-of-life date was initially set at 2015 then postponed to 2020 out of concern that a large body of existing code could not easily be forward-ported to Python 3.WEB,weblink PEP 373 -- Python 2.7 Release Schedule,, 9 January 2017, WEB,weblink PEP 466 -- Network Security Enhancements for Python 2.7.x,, 9 January 2017, In January 2017, Google announced work on a Python 2.7 to Go transcompiler to improve performance under concurrent workloads.WEB,weblink Google Open Source Blog: Grumpy: Go running Python!, 4 January 2017, 7 March 2017,

Features and philosophy

Python is a multi-paradigm programming language. Object-oriented programming and structured programming are fully supported, and many of its features support functional programming and aspect-oriented programming (including by metaprogramming and metaobjects (magic methods)). Many other paradigms are supported via extensions, including design by contract and logic programming.Python uses dynamic typing, and a combination of reference counting and a cycle-detecting garbage collector for memory management. It also features dynamic name resolution (late binding), which binds method and variable names during program execution.Python's design offers some support for functional programming in the Lisp tradition. It has filter, map, and reduce functions; list comprehensions, dictionaries, sets and generator expressions. The standard library has two modules (itertools and functools) that implement functional tools borrowed from Haskell and Standard ML.The language's core philosophy is summarized in the document The Zen of Python (PEP 20), which includes aphorisms such as:
  • Beautiful is better than ugly
  • Explicit is better than implicit
  • Simple is better than complex
  • Complex is better than complicated
  • Readability counts
Rather than having all of its functionality built into its core, Python was designed to be highly extensible. This compact modularity has made it particularly popular as a means of adding programmable interfaces to existing applications. Van Rossum's vision of a small core language with a large standard library and easily extensible interpreter stemmed from his frustrations with ABC, which espoused the opposite approach.Python strives for a simpler, less-cluttered syntax and grammar while giving developers a choice in their coding methodology. In contrast to Perl's "there is more than one way to do it" motto, Python embraces a "there should be one—and preferably only one—obvious way to do it" design philosophy. Alex Martelli, a Fellow at the Python Software Foundation and Python book author, writes that "To describe something as 'clever' is not considered a compliment in the Python culture."Python's developers strive to avoid premature optimization, and reject patches to non-critical parts of the CPython reference implementation that would offer marginal increases in speed at the cost of clarity. When speed is important, a Python programmer can move time-critical functions to extension modules written in languages such as C, or use PyPy, a just-in-time compiler. Cython is also available, which translates a Python script into C and makes direct C-level API calls into the Python interpreter.An important goal of Python's developers is keeping it fun to use. This is reflected in the language's name—a tribute to the British comedy group Monty Python—and in occasionally playful approaches to tutorials and reference materials, such as examples that refer to spam and eggs (from a famous Monty Python sketch) instead of the standard foo and bar.WEB,weblink 15 Ways Python Is a Powerful Force on the Web, WEB,weblink pprint - Data pretty printer - Python Documentation, A common neologism in the Python community is pythonic, which can have a wide range of meanings related to program style. To say that code is pythonic is to say that it uses Python idioms well, that it is natural or shows fluency in the language, that it conforms with Python's minimalist philosophy and emphasis on readability. In contrast, code that is difficult to understand or reads like a rough transcription from another programming language is called unpythonic.Users and admirers of Python, especially those considered knowledgeable or experienced, are often referred to as Pythonists, Pythonistas, and Pythoneers.

Syntax and semantics

Python is meant to be an easily readable language. Its formatting is visually uncluttered, and it often uses English keywords where other languages use punctuation. Unlike many other languages, it does not use curly brackets to delimit blocks, and semicolons after statements are optional. It has fewer syntactic exceptions and special cases than C or Pascal.


Python uses whitespace indentation, rather than curly brackets or keywords, to delimit blocks. An increase in indentation comes after certain statements; a decrease in indentation signifies the end of the current block. Thus, the program's visual structure accurately represents the program's semantic structure.BOOK, MIT Press, 978-0-262-52962-4, Guttag, John V., Introduction to Computation and Programming Using Python: With Application to Understanding Data, 2016-08-12, This feature is also sometimes termed the off-side rule.

Statements and control flow

Python's statements include (among others):
  • The assignment statement (token '=', the equals sign). This operates differently than in traditional imperative programming languages, and this fundamental mechanism (including the nature of Python's version of variables) illuminates many other features of the language. Assignment in C, e.g., x = 2, translates to "typed variable name x receives a copy of numeric value 2". The (right-hand) value is copied into an allocated storage location for which the (left-hand) variable name is the symbolic address. The memory allocated to the variable is large enough (potentially quite large) for the declared type. In the simplest case of Python assignment, using the same example, x = 2, translates to "(generic) name x receives a reference to a separate, dynamically allocated object of numeric (int) type of value 2." This is termed binding the name to the object. Since the name's storage location doesn't contain the indicated value, it is improper to call it a variable. Names may be subsequently rebound at any time to objects of greatly varying types, including strings, procedures, complex objects with data and methods, etc. Successive assignments of a common value to multiple names, e.g., x = 2; y = 2; z = 2 result in allocating storage to (at most) three names and one numeric object, to which all three names are bound. Since a name is a generic reference holder it is unreasonable to associate a fixed data type with it. However at a given time a name will be bound to some object, which will have a type; thus there is dynamic typing.
  • The if statement, which conditionally executes a block of code, along with else and elif (a contraction of else-if).
  • The for statement, which iterates over an iterable object, capturing each element to a local variable for use by the attached block.
  • The while statement, which executes a block of code as long as its condition is true.
  • The try statement, which allows exceptions raised in its attached code block to be caught and handled by except clauses; it also ensures that clean-up code in a finally block will always be run regardless of how the block exits.
  • The raise statement, used to raise a specified exception or re-raise a caught exception.
  • The class statement, which executes a block of code and attaches its local namespace to a class, for use in object-oriented programming.
  • The def statement, which defines a function or method.
  • The with statement, from Python 2.5 released on September 2006,WEB,weblink Python 2.5 Release,, which encloses a code block within a context manager (for example, acquiring a lock before the block of code is run and releasing the lock afterwards, or opening a file and then closing it), allowing Resource Acquisition Is Initialization (RAII)-like behavior and replaces a common try/finally idiom.WEB,weblink Highlights: Python 2.5,,
  • The pass statement, which serves as a NOP. It is syntactically needed to create an empty code block.
  • The assert statement, used during debugging to check for conditions that ought to apply.
  • The yield statement, which returns a value from a generator function. From Python 2.5, yield is also an operator. This form is used to implement coroutines.
  • The import statement, which is used to import modules whose functions or variables can be used in the current program. There are three ways of using import: import [as ] or from import or from import [as ], [as ], ....
  • The print statement was changed to the print() function in Python 3.BOOK, Sweigart, Al, 2010, Appendix A: Differences Between Python 2 and 3, Invent Your Own Computer Games with Python,weblink 2, 978-0-9821060-1-3, 20 February 2014,
Python does not support tail call optimization or first-class continuations, and, according to Guido van Rossum, it never will. However, better support for coroutine-like functionality is provided in 2.5, by extending Python's generators. Before 2.5, generators were lazy iterators; information was passed unidirectionally out of the generator. From Python 2.5, it is possible to pass information back into a generator function, and from Python 3.3, the information can be passed through multiple stack levels.


Some Python expressions are similar to languages such as C and Java, while some are not:
  • Addition, subtraction, and multiplication are the same, but the behavior of division differs. There are two types of divisions in Python. They are floor divisio and integer/division.WEB, division,,, Python also added the operator for exponentiation.
  • From Python 3.5, the new @ infix operator was introduced. It is intended to be used by libraries such as NumPy for matrix multiplication.WEB, PEP 0465 -- A dedicated infix operator for matrix multiplication,weblink, 1 January 2016, WEB, Python 3.5.1 Release and Changelog,weblink, 1 January 2016,
  • In Python, == compares by value, versus Java, which compares numerics by valueWEB,weblink Chapter 15. Expressions - 15.21.1. Numerical Equality Operators == and !=, Oracle Corporation, 28 August 2016, and objects by reference.WEB,weblink Chapter 15. Expressions - 15.21.3. Reference Equality Operators == and !=, Oracle Corporation, 28 August 2016, (Value comparisons in Java on objects can be performed with the equals() method.) Python's is operator may be used to compare object identities (comparison by reference). In Python, comparisons may be chained, for example a y, which shifts x to the right y places, the same as (2y) .WEB,, BitwiseOperators - Python Wiki,,
The behavior of division has changed significantly over time so that division between integers produces accurate floating point results:
  • Python 2.1 and earlier use the C division behavior. The / operator is integer division if both operands are integers, and floating-point division otherwise. Integer division rounds towards 0, e.g. {{nowrap|1=7/3 == 2}} and {{nowrap|1=-7/3 == -2.}}
  • Python 2.2 changes integer division to round towards negative infinity, e.g. 7/3 == 2 and -7/3 == -3. The floor division operator is introduced. So 73 == 2, -3 == -3, 7.53 == 2.0 and -7.5//3 == -3.0. Adding from __future__ import division causes a module to use Python 3.0 rules for division (see next).
  • Python 3.0 changes / to always be floating-point division, e.g. {{nowrap|1=5/2 == 2.5}}. In Python terms, the pre-3.0 / is classic division, the version-3.0 / is true division, and // is floor division.
Rounding towards negative infinity, though different from most languages, adds consistency. For instance, it means that the equation (a + bb == ab + 1 is always true. It also means that the equation b*(a//b) + a%b == a is valid for both positive and negative values of a. However, maintaining the validity of this equation means that while the result of a%b is, as expected, in the half-open interval [0, b), where b is a positive integer, it has to lie in the interval (b, 0] when b is negative.Python provides a round function for rounding a float to the nearest integer. For tie-breaking, versions before 3 use round-away-from-zero: round(0.5) is 1.0, round(-0.5) is −1.0. Python 3 uses round to even: round(1.5) is 2, round(2.5) is 2.Python allows boolean expressions with multiple equality relations in a manner that is consistent with general use in mathematics. For example, the expression a < b < c tests whether a is less than b and b is less than c. C-derived languages interpret this expression differently: in C, the expression would first evaluate a < b, resulting in 0 or 1, and that result would then be compared with c.Python has extensive built-in support for arbitrary precision arithmetic. Integers are transparently switched from the machine-supported maximum fixed-precision (usually 32 or 64 bits), belonging to the python type int, to arbitrary precision, belonging to the Python type long, where needed. The latter have an "L" suffix in their textual representation.WEB, Built-in Type,weblink, (In Python 3, the distinction between the int and long types was eliminated; this behavior is now entirely contained by the int class.) The Decimal type/class in module decimal (since version 2.4) provides decimal floating point numbers to arbitrary precision and several rounding modes.WEB, PEP 0327 -- Decimal Data Type,weblink, 26 September 2015, Batista, Facundo, The Fraction type in module fractions (since version 2.6) provides arbitrary precision for rational numbers.WEB, What's New in Python 2.6 — Python v2.6.9 documentation,weblink, 26 September 2015, Due to Python's extensive mathematics library, and the third-party library NumPy that further extends the native capabilities, it is frequently used as a scientific scripting language to aid in problems such as numerical data processing and manipulation.WEB,weblink 10 Reasons Python Rocks for Research (And a Few Reasons it Doesn't) — Hoyt Koepke,, 2019-02-03, WEB,weblink An introduction to Python for scientific computing, Shell, Scott, 17 June 2014, 3 Feb 2019,


Python's large standard library, commonly cited as one of its greatest strengths, provides tools suited to many tasks. For Internet-facing applications, many standard formats and protocols such as MIME and HTTP are supported. It includes modules for creating graphical user interfaces, connecting to relational databases, generating pseudorandom numbers, arithmetic with arbitrary precision decimals, manipulating regular expressions, and unit testing.Some parts of the standard library are covered by specifications (for example, the Web Server Gateway Interface (WSGI) implementation wsgiref follows PEP 333), but most modules are not. They are specified by their code, internal documentation, and test suites (if supplied). However, because most of the standard library is cross-platform Python code, only a few modules need altering or rewriting for variant implementations.{{As of|2018|03|post=,}} the Python Package Index (PyPI), the official repository for third-party Python software, contains over 130,000WEB,weblink Module Counts, ModuleCounts, Debill, Erik, 20 September 2017, packages with a wide range of functionality, including:
  • Graphical user interfaces
  • Web frameworks
  • Multimedia
  • Databases
  • Networking
  • Test frameworks
  • Automation
  • Web scrapingWEB,weblink 20+ Python Web Scraping Examples (Beautiful Soup & Selenium) - Like Geeks, 5 December 2017,, 12 March 2018,
  • Documentation
  • System administration
  • Scientific computing
  • Text processing
  • Image processing

Development environments

{{See also|Comparison of integrated development environments#Python}}Most Python implementations (including CPython) include a read–eval–print loop (REPL), permitting them to function as a command line interpreter for which the user enters statements sequentially and receives results immediately.Other shells, including IDLE and IPython, add further abilities such as auto-completion, session state retention and syntax highlighting.As well as standard desktop integrated development environments, there are Web browser-based IDEs; SageMath (intended for developing science and math-related Python programs); PythonAnywhere, a browser-based IDE and hosting environment; and Canopy IDE, a commercial Python IDE emphasizing scientific computing.WEB, Enthought, Canopy, Canopy,weblink, 20 August 2016,


{{See also|List of Python software#Python implementations}}

Reference implementation

CPython is the reference implementation of Python. It is written in C, meeting the C89 standard with several select C99 features. It compiles Python programs into an intermediate bytecode which is then executed by its virtual machine. CPython is distributed with a large standard library written in a mixture of C and native Python. It is available for many platforms, including Windows and most modern Unix-like systems. Platform portability was one of its earliest priorities.

Other implementations

PyPy is a fast, compliant interpreter of Python 2.7 and 3.5. Its just-in-time compiler brings a significant speed improvement over CPython.Stackless Python is a significant fork of CPython that implements microthreads; it does not use the C memory stack, thus allowing massively concurrent programs. PyPy also has a stackless version.MicroPython and CircuitPython are Python 3 variants optimised for microcontrollers. This includes Lego Mindstorms EV3.WEB,weblink Python-for-EV3, LEGO Education, en, 2019-04-17, RustPython is a Python 3 interpreter written in Rust.{{Citation|title=A Python Interpreter written in Rust. Contribute to RustPython/RustPython development by creating an account on GitHub|date=2019-09-13|url=|publisher=RustPython|access-date=2019-09-13}}

Unsupported implementations

Other just-in-time Python compilers have been developed, but are now unsupported:
  • Google began a project named Unladen Swallow in 2009 with the aim of speeding up the Python interpreter fivefold by using the LLVM, and of improving its multithreading ability to scale to thousands of cores.
  • Psyco is a just-in-time specialising compiler that integrates with CPython and transforms bytecode to machine code at runtime. The emitted code is specialised for certain data types and is faster than standard Python code.
In 2005, Nokia released a Python interpreter for the Series 60 mobile phones named PyS60. It includes many of the modules from the CPython implementations and some additional modules to integrate with the Symbian operating system. The project has been kept up-to-date to run on all variants of the S60 platform, and several third-party modules are available. The Nokia N900 also supports Python with GTK widget libraries, enabling programs to be written and run on the target device.WEB, Python on the Nokia N900,weblink Stochastic Geometry, 2010-04-29,

Cross-compilers to other languages

There are several compilers to high-level object languages, with either unrestricted Python, a restricted subset of Python, or a language similar to Python as the source language:
  • Jython compiles into Java byte code, which can then be executed by every Java virtual machine implementation. This also enables the use of Java class library functions from the Python program.
  • IronPython follows a similar approach in order to run Python programs on the .NET Common Language Runtime.
  • The RPython language can be compiled to C, Java bytecode, or Common Intermediate Language, and is used to build the PyPy interpreter of Python.
  • Pyjs compiles Python to JavaScript.
  • Cython compiles Python to C and C++.
  • Numba uses LLVM to compile Python to machine code.
  • Pythran compiles Python to C++.
  • Somewhat dated Pyrex (latest release in 2010) and Shed Skin (latest release in 2013) compile to C and C++ respectively.
  • Google's Grumpy compiles Python to Go.
  • MyHDL compiles Python to VHDL.
  • Nuitka compiles Python into C++.WEB,weblink Nuitka Home {{!, Nuitka Home||language=en|access-date=18 August 2017}}


A performance comparison of various Python implementations on a non-numerical (combinatorial) workload was presented at EuroSciPy '13.CONFERENCE, Performance of Python runtimes on a non-numeric scientific code, Murri, Riccardo, European Conference on Python in Science (EuroSciPy), 2013, 1404.6388, 2014arXiv1404.6388M,


Python's development is conducted largely through the Python Enhancement Proposal (PEP) process, the primary mechanism for proposing major new features, collecting community input on issues and documenting Python design decisions. Python coding style is covered in PEP 8.WEB,weblink PEP 8 -- Style Guide for Python Code,, Outstanding PEPs are reviewed and commented on by the Python community and the steering council.Enhancement of the language corresponds with development of the CPython reference implementation. The mailing list python-dev is the primary forum for the language's development. Specific issues are discussed in the Roundup bug tracker maintained at Development originally took place on a self-hosted source-code repository running Mercurial, until Python moved to GitHub in January 2017.WEB, Python Developer's Guide,weblink CPython's public releases come in three types, distinguished by which part of the version number is incremented:
  • Backward-incompatible versions, where code is expected to break and need to be manually ported. The first part of the version number is incremented. These releases happen infrequently—for example, version 3.0 was released 8 years after 2.0.
  • Major or "feature" releases, about every 18 months, are largely compatible but introduce new features. The second part of the version number is incremented. Each major version is supported by bugfixes for several years after its release.
  • Bugfix releases, which introduce no new features, occur about every 3 months and are made when a sufficient number of bugs have been fixed upstream since the last release. Security vulnerabilities are also patched in these releases. The third and final part of the version number is incremented.
Many alpha, beta, and release-candidates are also released as previews and for testing before final releases. Although there is a rough schedule for each release, they are often delayed if the code is not ready. Python's development team monitors the state of the code by running the large unit test suite during development, and using the BuildBot continuous integration system.The community of Python developers has also contributed over 86,000WEB, DeBill, Erik, Module Counts,weblink, 20 August 2016, software modules ({{as of|2016|08|20|lc=yes}}) to the Python Package Index (PyPI), the official repository of third-party Python libraries.The major academic conference on Python is PyCon. There are also special Python mentoring programmes, such as Pyladies.


Python's name is derived from the British comedy group Monty Python, whom Python creator Guido van Rossum enjoyed while developing the language. Monty Python references appear frequently in Python code and culture; for example, the metasyntactic variables often used in Python literature are spam and eggs instead of the traditional foo and bar. The official Python documentation also contains various references to Monty Python routines.BOOK, Lutz, Mark, Learning Python: Powerful Object-Oriented Programming, 2009, O'Reilly Media, Inc., 9781449379322, 17,weblink en, BOOK, Fehily, Chris, Python, 2002, Peachpit Press, 9780201748840, xv,weblink en, The prefix Py- is used to show that something is related to Python. Examples of the use of this prefix in names of Python applications or libraries include Pygame, a binding of SDL to Python (commonly used to create games); PyQt and PyGTK, which bind Qt and GTK to Python respectively; and PyPy, a Python implementation originally written in Python.

API documentation generators

Python API documentation generators include:


Since 2003, Python has consistently ranked in the top ten most popular programming languages in the TIOBE Programming Community Index where, {{as of|2018|12|lc=y}}, it is the third most popular language (behind Java, and C).WEB,weblink TIOBE Index, TIOBE - The Software Quality Company, 7 March 2017, It was selected Programming Language of the Year in 2007, 2010, and 2018.An empirical study found that scripting languages, such as Python, are more productive than conventional languages, such as C and Java, for programming problems involving string manipulation and search in a dictionary, and determined that memory consumption was often "better than Java and not much worse than C or C++".Large organizations that use Python include Pseudopedia, Google, Yahoo!, CERN, NASA, Facebook,WEB,weblink Tornado: Facebook's Real-Time Web Framework for Python - Facebook for Developers, Facebook for Developers, en-US, 2018-06-19, Amazon, Instagram,WEB,weblink What Powers Instagram: Hundreds of Instances, Dozens of Technologies, Instagram Engineering, 27 May 2019, SpotifyWEB,weblink How we use Python at Spotify, Spotify Labs, en-US, 2018-07-25, 2013-03-20, and some smaller entities like ILM and ITA. The social news networking site Reddit is written entirely in Python.{{Citation|title=historical code from Contribute to reddit-archive/reddit development by creating an account on GitHub|date=2019-03-19|url=|publisher=The Reddit Archives|access-date=2019-03-20}}Python can serve as a scripting language for web applications, e.g., via mod_wsgi for the Apache web server. With Web Server Gateway Interface, a standard API has evolved to facilitate these applications. Web frameworks like Django, Pylons, Pyramid, TurboGears, web2py, Tornado, Flask, Bottle and Zope support developers in the design and maintenance of complex applications. Pyjs and IronPython can be used to develop the client-side of Ajax-based applications. SQLAlchemy can be used as data mapper to a relational database. Twisted is a framework to program communications between computers, and is used (for example) by Dropbox.Libraries such as NumPy, SciPy and Matplotlib allow the effective use of Python in scientific computing,JOURNAL, Oliphant, Travis, Python for Scientific Computing, Computing in Science and Engineering, 9, 3, 10–20, 2007,weblink 10.1109/MCSE.2007.58,, 2007CSE.....9c..10O, JOURNAL, K. Jarrod, Millman, Michael, Aivazis, Python for Scientists and Engineers, Computing in Science and Engineering, 13, 2, 9–12, 2011,weblink 10.1109/MCSE.2011.36, 2011CSE....13b...9M, with specialized libraries such as Biopython and Astropy providing domain-specific functionality. SageMath is a mathematical software with a notebook interface programmable in Python: its library covers many aspects of mathematics, including algebra, combinatorics, numerical mathematics, number theory, and calculus.Python has been successfully embedded in many software products as a scripting language, including in finite element method software such as Abaqus, 3D parametric modeler like FreeCAD, 3D animation packages such as 3ds Max, Blender, Cinema 4D, Lightwave, Houdini, Maya, modo, MotionBuilder, Softimage, the visual effects compositor Nuke, 2D imaging programs like GIMP,WEB,weblink Installers for GIMP for Windows - Frequently Asked Questions, 26 July 2013, 26 July 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 July 2013, dmy-all, Inkscape, Scribus and Paint Shop Pro, and musical notation programs like scorewriter and capella. GNU Debugger uses Python as a pretty printer to show complex structures such as C++ containers. Esri promotes Python as the best choice for writing scripts in ArcGIS. It has also been used in several video games, and has been adopted as first of the three available programming languages in Google App Engine, the other two being Java and Go.Python is commonly used in artificial intelligence projects with the help of libraries like TensorFlow, Keras and Scikit-learn.WEB, Dean, Jeff, Monga, Rajat, Sanjay, Ghemawat, 2, Jeff Dean (computer scientist), TensorFlow: Large-scale machine learning on heterogeneous systems,weblink, Google Research, November 10, 2015, November 9, 2015, WEB, Piatetsky, Gregory, Python eats away at R: Top Software for Analytics, Data Science, Machine Learning in 2018: Trends and Analysis,weblink KDnuggets, KDnuggets, 30 May 2018, WEB,weblink Who is using scikit-learn? — scikit-learn 0.20.1 documentation,, WEB, Jouppi, Norm, Google supercharges machine learning tasks with TPU custom chip,weblink Google Cloud Platform Blog, May 19, 2016, As a scripting language with modular architecture, simple syntax and rich text processing tools, Python is often used for natural language processing.Many operating systems include Python as a standard component. It ships with most Linux distributions, AmigaOS 4, FreeBSD (as a package), NetBSD, OpenBSD (as a package) and macOS and can be used from the command line (terminal). Many Linux distributions use installers written in Python: Ubuntu uses the Ubiquity installer, while Red Hat Linux and Fedora use the Anaconda installer. Gentoo Linux uses Python in its package management system, Portage.Python is used extensively in the information security industry, including in exploit development.Most of the Sugar software for the One Laptop per Child XO, now developed at Sugar Labs, is written in Python. The Raspberry Pi single-board computer project has adopted Python as its main user-programming language.LibreOffice includes Python, and intends to replace Java with Python. Its Python Scripting Provider is a core featureWEB, 4.0 New Features and Fixes, The Document Foundation,, 2013,weblink 25 February 2013, since Version 4.0 from 7 February 2013.

Languages influenced by Python

Python's design and philosophy have influenced many other programming languages:
  • Boo uses indentation, a similar syntax, and a similar object model.
  • Cobra uses indentation and a similar syntax, and its "Acknowledgements" document lists Python first among languages that influenced it. However, Cobra directly supports design-by-contract, unit tests, and optional static typing.
  • CoffeeScript, a programming language that cross-compiles to JavaScript, has Python-inspired syntax.
  • ECMAScript borrowed iterators and generators from Python.
  • Go is designed for the "speed of working in a dynamic language like Python" and shares the same syntax for slicing arrays.
  • Groovy was motivated by the desire to bring the Python design philosophy to Java.
  • Julia was designed "with true macros [.. and to be] as usable for general programming as Python [and] should be as fast as C".WEB, Why We Created Julia, February 2012, Julia website,weblink 5 June 2014, Calling to or from Julia is possible; to with PyCall.jl and a Python package pyjulia allows calling, in the other direction, from Python.
  • Kotlin is a functional programming language with an interactive shell similar to Python. However, Kotlin is strongly typed with access to standard Java libraries.WEB,weblink Working with the Command Line Compiler - Kotlin Programming Language, Kotlin, 12 March 2018,
  • Ruby's creator, Yukihiro Matsumoto, has said: "I wanted a scripting language that was more powerful than Perl, and more object-oriented than Python. That's why I decided to design my own language."
  • Swift, a programming language developed by Apple, has some Python-inspired syntax.WEB,weblink Chris Lattner's Homepage, Chris Lattner, Chris, Lattner, Chris Lattner, 3 June 2014, 3 June 2014, I started work on the Swift Programming Language in July of 2010. I implemented much of the basic language structure, with only a few people knowing of its existence. A few other (amazing) people started contributing in earnest late in 2011, and it became a major focus for the Apple Developer Tools group in July 2013 [...] drawing ideas from Objective-C, Rust, Haskell, Ruby, Python, C, CLU, and far too many others to list.,
  • GDScript, dynamically typed programming language used to create video-games. It is extremely similar to Python with a few minor differences.
Python's development practices have also been emulated by other languages. For example, the practice of requiring a document describing the rationale for, and issues surrounding, a change to the language (in Python, a PEP) is also used in Tcl and Erlang.Python received TIOBE's Programming Language of the Year awards in 2007, 2010 and 2018. The award is given to the language with the greatest growth in popularity over the year, as measured by the TIOBE index.

See also


{{citation |url= |accessdate=14 August 2011 |title=round |work=The Python standard library, release 3.2, §2: Built-in functions}}BOOK, Python Essential Reference, David M., Beazley, 4th, 2009, 66, BOOK, The C Programming Language, Brian W., Kernighan, Dennis M., Ritchie, The C Programming Language, 2nd, 1988, 206, WEB,weblink PEP 7 â€“ Style Guide for C Code, van Rossum, Guido, 5 June 2001, Python Enhancement Proposals, Python Software Foundation, 24 November 2008, WEB,weblink CPython byte code,, 16 February 2016, WEB,weblink Python 2.5 internals, 19 April 2011, WEB,weblink An Interview with Guido van Rossum,, 24 November 2008, WEB,weblink PyPy compatibility,, 3 December 2012, WEB,weblink speed comparison between CPython and Pypy,, 3 December 2012, WEB,weblink Application-level Stackless features — PyPy 2.0.2 documentation,, 17 July 2013, WEB,weblink Plans for optimizing Python, Google Project Hosting, 15 December 2009, 24 September 2011, WEB, Przemyslaw, Piotrowski,weblink Build a Rapid Web Development Environment for Python Server Pages and Oracle, Oracle Technology Network, Oracle, July 2006, 12 March 2012, WEB,weblink PEP 327 â€“ Decimal Data Type, Batista, Facundo, 17 October 2003, Python Enhancement Proposals, Python Software Foundation, 24 November 2008, WEB,weblink PEP 333 â€“ Python Web Server Gateway Interface v1.0, Eby, Phillip J., 7 December 2003, Python Enhancement Proposals, Python Software Foundation, 19 February 2012, WEB,weblink Gotchas for Python Users,, Codehaus Foundation, 24 November 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 December 2008, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Acknowledgements, Esterbrook, Charles,, Cobra Language, 7 April 2010, WEB,weblink Comparison to Python, Esterbrook, Charles,, Cobra Language, 7 April 2010, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 20 October 2007, Proposals: iterators and generators [ES4 Wiki],, 24 November 2008, NEWS,weblink Google's Go: A New Programming Language That's Python Meets C++, Kincaid, Jason, 10 November 2009, TechCrunch, 29 January 2010, WEB, Strachan, James, 29 August 2003, Groovy â€“ the birth of a new dynamic language for the Java platform,weblink WEB,weblink An Interview with the Creator of Ruby,, 3 December 2012, WEB,weblink TIP #3: TIP Format, Kupries, Andreas, Fellows, Donal K.,, Tcl Developer Xchange, 14 September 2000, 24 November 2008, WEB,weblink EEP 1: EEP Purpose and Guidelines, Gustafsson, Per, Niskanen, Raimo,, 29 January 2007, 19 April 2011, WEB,weblink TIOBE Programming Community Index for March 2012, March 2012, TIOBE Software, 25 March 2012, MAGAZINE,weblink Guido van Rossum Stepping Down from Role as Python's Benevolent Dictator For Life, Fairchild, Carlie, Linux Journal, 12 July 2018, 13 July 2018, }}


  • WEB,weblink Python for Artificial Intelligence,, 19 July 2012, 3 December 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 November 2012,
  • JOURNAL, Paine, Jocelyn, AI in Python, AI Expert Newsletter, Amzi!, August 2005,weblink 11 February 2012,
  • WEB,weblink PyAIML 0.8.5 : Python Package Index,, 17 July 2013,
  • BOOK, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, Russell, Stuart J., Stuart J. Russell, Norvig, Peter, Peter Norvig, y, 3rd, 2009, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 978-0-13-604259-4,

Further reading

  • BOOK, Downey, Allen B., Think Python: How to Think Like a Computer Scientist, Version 1.6.6, May 2012, 978-0-521-72596-5,
  • NEWS,weblink The A-Z of Programming Languages: Python, Hamilton, Naomi, 5 August 2008, Computerworld, 31 March 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 December 2008, dmy-all,
  • BOOK, Lutz, Mark, Learning Python, O'Reilly Media, 2013, 5th, 978-0-596-15806-4,
  • BOOK, Pilgrim, Mark, Dive Into Python, Apress, 2004, 978-1-59059-356-1, registration,weblink
  • BOOK, Pilgrim, Mark, Dive Into Python 3, Apress, 2009, 978-1-4302-2415-0,
  • BOOK, Summerfield, Mark, Programming in Python 3, Addison-Wesley Professional, 2009, 2nd, 978-0-321-68056-3,

External links

{{Sister project links |wikt=no |commons=Category:Python (programming language) |b=Python Programming |n=no |s=no |voy=no |species=no |d=no }}
  • {{Official website}}
  • {{Curlie|Computers/Programming/Languages/Python}}
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