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1066 Granada massacre

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1066 Granada massacre
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{{Coord|37|10|37|N|3|35|24|W|display=title}}{{Antisemitism}}The 1066 Granada massacre took place on 30 December 1066 (9 Tevet 4827; 10 Safar 459 AH) when a Muslim mob stormed the royal palace in Granada, in the Taifa of Granada,{{sfn|Molins|2010|p=34}} crucified the Jewish vizier (:es:Yusuf ibn Nagrela|Joseph ibn Naghrela), and massacred much of the Jewish population of the city.BOOK, Lucien Gubbay, Sunlight and Shadow: The Jewish Experience of Islam, Other Press, New York City, New York, 80, 1999, 1-892746-69-7, BOOK, Norman Roth, Jews, Visigoths, and Muslims in Medieval Spain: Cooperation and Conflict, E. J. Brill, Netherlands, 110, 1994, 90-04-09971-9,

Joseph ibn Naghrela

Joseph ibn Naghrela, or Joseph ha-Nagid ( Ribbi Yehosef ben Shemu'el ha-Lewi ha-Nagid; Abu Hussein bin Naghrela) (15 September 1035In his preface to one of his father's collections of Hebrew poetry, Joseph gives his precise date and time of birth as Monday evening, the evening preceding the 11th of Tishrei 4796 AM, corresponding to the 11th of Dhu al-Qi'dah 426 AH, at 3 hours 56 minutes into the evening. (Diwan of Shemuel Hannaghid, ed. David S. Sassoon (London: Oxford University Press, 1934), p. א.) – 30 December 1066), was a vizier to the Berber taifa king Badis al-Muzaffar of Granada, during the Moorish rule of Al-Andalus, and the leader of the Jewish community there.

Life and career

Joseph was born in Granada, the eldest son of Rabbi and famous poet and warrior Sh'muel ha-Nagid.Some information about his childhood and upbringing is preserved in the collection of his father's Hebrew poetry in which Joseph writes that he began copying at the age of eight and a half. For example, he tells how once (at nine and a half, in the spring of 1045) he accompanied his father to the battlefield, only to suffer from severe homesickness, about which he wrote a short poem.Diwan of Shemuel Hannaghid, ed. David S. Sassoon (London: Oxford University Press, 1934, page סבHis primary school teacher was his father. On the basis of a letter to Rabbi Nissim Gaon attributed to him,Published in Otzar Tov, 1881–82, pp. 45ff. in which Joseph refers to himself as R' Nissim's disciple, it is possible to infer that he also studied under R' Nissim at Kairouan.Diwan, p. xxiii. In 1049, Joseph married Rabbi Nissim's daughter.BOOK
, Davidson
, Israel
, Zangwill
, Israel
, Israel Davidson
, Selected Religious Poems of Solomon ibn Gabirol
, Schiff Library of Jewish Classics
, JPS
, 1924
, Philadelphia
, 247
, 73-2210
, 0-8276-0060-7
,
{{rp|xix}}After the death of his father, Joseph succeeded him as vizier and rabbi, directing at the same time an important yeshiva. Among his students were Rabbi Isaac ben Baruch ibn Albalia and Rabbi Isaac ibn Ghayyat.

Character

Rabbi Abraham ibn Daud describes Joseph in highly laudatory terms, saying that he lacked none of his father's good qualities, except that he was not quite as humble, having been brought up in luxury.Sefer ha-Kabbalah (weblink), p. 73.The 1906 edition of the Jewish Encyclopedia states, "Arabic chroniclers relate that he believed neither in the faith of his fathers nor in any other faith. It may also be doubted that he openly declared the principles of Islam to be absurd."Dozy, "Geschichte der Mauren in Spanien," ii. 301 Arabic poets also praised his liberality.Nagdela (Nagrela), Abu Husain Joseph Ibn by Richard Gottheil, Meyer Kayserling, Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906 ed.The Jewish Encyclopedia also reported that Joseph "completely ruled King Badis, who was nearly always drunk, and surrounded him with spies".Muslim leaders accused him of several acts of violence, which drew upon him the hatred of the Berbers, the ruling majority at Granada. The most bitter among his many enemies was Abu Ishak of Elvira, who hoped to obtain an office at court and wrote a malicious poem against Joseph and his fellow Jews. The poem made little impression upon the king, who trusted Joseph implicitly, but it created a great sensation among the Berbers. A rumor spread to the effect that Joseph intended to kill Badis, deliver the realm into the hands of Al-Mutasim of Almería, with whom the king was at war, and then kill Al-Mutasim and seize the throne himself.{{Citation needed| date=September 2013}}

Massacre

On 30 December 1066 (9 Tevet 4827), Muslim mobs stormed the royal palace where Joseph had sought refuge, then crucified him. In the ensuing massacre of the Jewish population, many of the Jews of Granada were murdered. The 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia claims, "More than 1,500 Jewish families, numbering 4,000 persons, fell in one day."Granada by Richard Gottheil, Meyer Kayserling, Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906 ed. However, the 1971 edition does not give precise casualty figures,1971 Jewish Encyclopedia while the Encyclopaedia Judaica confirms the figures : «According to a later testimony,Solomon ibn Verga, Shevet Yehudah, ed. A. Shochat (1947), p. 22. "more than 1,500 householders" were killed. »Encyclopaedia Judaica, 2007, vol. 8, p. 32.Joseph's wife fled to Lucena with her son Azariah, where she was supported by the community. Azariah, however, died in early youth.According to historian Bernard Lewis, the massacre is "usually ascribed to a reaction among the Muslim population against a powerful and ostentatious Jewish vizier."BOOK, Lewis, Bernard, Bernard Lewis, The Jews of Islam, 1984, 1987, Princeton University Press
Princeton, New Jersey>Princeton New Jersey, 978-0-691-00807-3, 17588445, 54, 84042575, Lewis writes:Particularly instructive in this respect is an ancient anti-Semitic poem of Abu Ishaq, written in Granada in 1066. This poem, which is said to be instrumental in provoking the anti-Jewish outbreak of that year, contains these specific lines:
Do not consider it a breach of faith to kill them, the breach of faith would be to let them carry on. They have violated our covenant with them, so how can you be held guilty against the violators? How can they have any pact when we are obscure and they are prominent? Now we are humble, beside them, as if we were wrong and they were right!BOOK, Lewis, Bernard, Bernard Lewis, The Jews of Islam, 1984, 1987, Princeton University Press
Princeton, New Jersey>Princeton, N.J., 978-0-691-00807-3, 17588445, 44–45, 84042575, Lewis continues: "Diatribes such as Abu Ishaq's and massacres such as that in Granada in 1066 are of rare occurrence in Islamic history."The episode has been characterized as a pogrom. Walter Laqueur writes, "Jews could not as a rule attain public office (as usual there were exceptions), and there were occasional pogroms, such as in Granada in 1066."BOOK, Laqueur, Walter, Walter Laqueur, The changing face of antisemitism: from ancient times to the present day, 2006, Oxford University Press, New York, New York, 978-0-19-530429-9, 62127914, 68, 2005030491, Erika Spivakovsky questions the death rate, suspecting it to be an example of "the usual hyperbole in numerical estimates, with which history abounds."JOURNAL, The Jewish presence in Granada, Erika Spivakovsky, Journal of Medieval History, 2, 3, 1971, 215–238, 10.1016/0304-4181(76)90021-x,

See also

Sources and further reading

  • Constable, Olivia Remie, Medieval Iberia: Readings from Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011. {{ISBN|978-0-812-22168-8}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Bibliography

  • Munk, Notice sur Abou'l Walid, pp. 94 et seq.;
  • Dozy, R. Geschichte der Mauren in Spanien, German ed., ii. 300 et seq.;
  • Grätz, Geschichte vi. 55 et seq., 415 et seq.;
  • Ersch & Gruber, Encyclopedia section ii., part 31, p. 86.;
  • BOOK,weblink The Western Islamic World, Eleventh to Eighteenth Centuries, Molins, Viguera-Molins, Cambridge University Press, 2010, 9780521200943, Fierro, Maribel, Maribel Fierro, The New Cambridge History of Islam, 2, Cambridge University Press, Al-Andalus and the Maghrib (from the fifth/eleventh century to the fall of the Almoravids), harv,
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Abraham Ibn Daud: On Samuel Ha-Nagid, Vizier of Granada, 11 Cent
  • Nagdela (Nagrela), Abu Husain Joseph Ibn by Richard Gottheil, Meyer Kayserling, Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906 ed.
{{Jewish Encyclopedia}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2011}}{{Massacres of Jews}}


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