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peer review
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{{about||Wikipedia's Peer Review area|:Wikipedia:Peer review|other uses}}{{Redirect-distinguish|Independent review|The Independent Review}}{{globalize|date=October 2015}}{{Use mdy dates|date=October 2012}}File:ScientificReview.jpg|thumb|upright=1.2|A reviewer at the American National Institutes of Health evaluates a grant proposal.]]Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competences as the producers of the work ((:wiktionary:peer#Etymology 2|peers)). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field. Peer review methods are used to maintain quality standards, improve performance, and provide credibility. In academia, scholarly peer review is often used to determine an academic paper's suitability for publication. Peer review can be categorized by the type of activity and by the field or profession in which the activity occurs, e.g., medical peer review.

Professional

Professional peer review focuses on the performance of professionals, with a view to improving quality, upholding standards, or providing certification. In academia, peer review is used to inform in decisions related to faculty advancement and tenure.{{citation needed|date=September 2017}} Henry Oldenburg (1619–1677) was a British philosopher who is seen as the 'father' of modern scientific peer review.WEB,weblink The Scientific Revolution: Correspondence Networks, Hatch, Robert A., February 1998, University of Florida, 21 August 2016, JOURNAL, Oldenburg, Henry, 10.1098/rstl.1665.0001, Epistle Dedicatory, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 1, 0, 1665, BOOK, Hall, Marie Boas, Marie Boas Hall, Henry Oldenburg: shaping the Royal Society, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2002, 978-0-19-851053-6, harv, 2002heol.book.....B, WA prototype is a professional peer-review process originally recommended in the Ethics of the Physician written by Ishāq ibn ʻAlī al-Ruhāwī (854–931). He stated that a visiting physician had to make duplicate notes of a patient's condition on every visit. When the patient was cured or had died, the notes of the physician were examined by a local medical council of other physicians, who would decide whether the treatment had met the required standards of medical care.JOURNAL, Spier, Ray, The history of the peer-review process, Trends in Biotechnology, 20, 8, 357–8, 2002, 10.1016/S0167-7799(02)01985-6, 12127284, Professional peer review is common in the field of health care, where it is usually called clinical peer review.JOURNAL, Dans, PE, Clinical peer review: burnishing a tarnished image, Annals of Internal Medicine, 118, 7, 566–8, 1993,weblink 8442628, 10.7326/0003-4819-118-7-199304010-00014, Further, since peer review activity is commonly segmented by clinical discipline, there is also physician peer review, nursing peer review, dentistry peer review, etc.JOURNAL, Milgrom P, Weinstein P, Ratener P, Read WA, Morrison K, Dental Examinations for Quality Control: Peer Review versus Self-Assessment, American Journal of Public Health, 68, 4, 394–401, 1978, 1653950, 10.2105/AJPH.68.4.394, 645987, Weinstein, Ratener, Read, Morrison, Many other professional fields have some level of peer review process: accounting,WEB,weblink AICPA Peer Review Manual, American Institute of CPAs, October 4, 2010, WEB,weblink 2012 Peer Review Program Manual, aicpa.org, law,WEB,weblink Peer Review, UK Legal Services Commission, October 4, 2010, WEB,weblink Peer Review Ratings, Martindale, October 4, 2010, engineering (e.g., software peer review, technical peer review), aviation, and even forest fire management.WEB,weblink Peer Review Panels – Purpose and Process, USDA Forest Service, February 6, 2006, October 4, 2010, Peer review is used in education to achieve certain learning objectives, particularly as a tool to reach higher order processes in the affective and cognitive domains as defined by Bloom's taxonomy. This may take a variety of forms, including closely mimicking the scholarly peer review processes used in science and medicine.JOURNAL, Sims Gerald K., 1989, The review process was double-blind to provide anonymity for both authors and reviewers, but was otherwise handled in a fashion similar to that used by scientific journals, Student Peer Review in the Classroom: A Teaching and Grading Tool,weblink Journal of Agronomic Education, 18, 105–108, JOURNAL, 10.1641/0006-3568(2002)052[0824:PRITC]2.0.CO;2,weblink 2002, 52, Peer Review in the Classroom, Liu, Jianguo, Pysarchik, Dawn Thorndike, Taylor, William W., BioScience, 9, 824–829,

Scholarly

{{:Scholarly peer review}}

Government policy

{{Further|U.S. Government peer review policies}}The European Union has been using peer review in the "Open Method of Co-ordination" of policies in the fields of active labour market policy since 1999.WEB,weblink Mutual Learning Programme - Employment, Social Affairs & Inclusion - European Commission, ec.europa.eu, In 2004, a program of peer reviews started in social inclusion.WEB,weblink Social Peer to Peer – Online Casino Reviews, www.peer-review-social-inclusion.eu, Each program sponsors about eight peer review meetings in each year, in which a "host country" lays a given policy or initiative open to examination by half a dozen other countries and the relevant European-level NGOs. These usually meet over two days and include visits to local sites where the policy can be seen in operation. The meeting is preceded by the compilation of an expert report on which participating "peer countries" submit comments. The results are published on the web.The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, through UNECE Environmental Performance Reviews, uses peer review, referred to as "peer learning", to evaluate progress made by its member countries in improving their environmental policies.The State of California is the only U.S. state to mandate scientific peer review. In 1997, the Governor of California signed into law Senate Bill 1320 (Sher), Chapter 295, statutes of 1997, which mandates that, before any CalEPA Board, Department, or Office adopts a final version of a rule-making, the scientific findings, conclusions, and assumptions on which the proposed rule are based must be submitted for independent external scientific peer review. This requirement is incorporated into the California Health and Safety Code Section 57004.WEB,weblink What is Scientific Peer Review?, ceparev.berkeley.edu, en-US, 2017-03-30,

Medical

Medical peer review may be distinguished in 4 classifications: 1) clinical peer review; 2) peer evaluation of clinical teaching skills for both physicians and nurses;Medschool.ucsf.edu {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100814052748weblink |date=August 14, 2010 }}JOURNAL, Ludwick R, Dieckman BC, Herdtner S, Dugan M, Roche M, Documenting the scholarship of clinical teaching through peer review
volume=23 pages=17–20 doi=10.1097/00006223-199811000-00008, 9934106,
3) scientific peer review of journal articles; 4) a secondary round of peer review for the clinical value of articles concurrently published in medical journals.JOURNAL
TITLE=SECOND-ORDER PEER REVIEW OF THE MEDICAL LITERATURE FOR CLINICAL PRACTITIONERSVOLUME=295 PAGES=1801–8, 2006, 10.1001/jama.295.15.1801, 16622142, etal, Additionally, "medical peer review" has been used by the American Medical Association to refer not only to the process of improving quality and safety in health care organizations, but also to the process of rating clinical behavior or compliance with professional society membership standards.WEB,weblink (page 131), ama-assn.org, Ama-assn.org {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100306064610weblink |date=March 6, 2010 }} Thus, the terminology has poor standardization and specificity, particularly as a database search term.{{citation needed|date=December 2015}}

Technical

In engineering, technical peer review is a type of engineering review. Technical peer reviews are a well defined review process for finding and fixing defects, conducted by a team of peers with assigned roles. Technical peer reviews are carried out by peers representing areas of life cycle affected by material being reviewed (usually limited to 6 or fewer people). Technical peer reviews are held within development phases, between milestone reviews, on completed products or completed portions of products.BOOK, NASA Systems Engineering Handbook, SP-610S, 2007, NASA,weblink

Criticism

To an outsider, the anonymous, pre-publication peer review process is opaque. Certain journals are accused of not carrying out stringent peer review in order to more easily expand their customer base, particularly in journals where authors pay a fee before publication.JOURNAL, Peer Review and Reproducibility. Crisis or Time for Course Correction?, John R., Couchman, November 11, 2013, Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry, 62, 1, 9–10, 10.1369/0022155413513462, 24217925, 3873808, Richard Smith, MD, former editor of the British Medical Journal, has claimed that peer review is "ineffective, largely a lottery, anti-innovatory, slow, expensive, wasteful of scientific time, inefficient, easily abused, prone to bias, unable to detect fraud and irrelevant; Several studies have shown that peer review is biased against the provincial and those from low- and middle-income countries; Many journals take months and even years to publish and the process wastes researchers' time. As for the cost, the Research Information Network estimated the global cost of peer review at £1.9 billion in 2008."NEWS,weblink The peer review drugs don't work, 2015-05-28, Times Higher Education (THE), 2018-10-23, en, In addition, Australia's Innovative Research Universities group (a coalition of seven comprehensive universities committed to inclusive excellence in teaching, learning and research in Australia) has found that "peer review disadvantages researchers in their early careers, when they rely on competitive grants to cover their salaries, and when unsuccessful funding applications often mark the end of a research idea".NEWS,weblink Peer review 'works against' early career researchers, 2018-07-16, Times Higher Education (THE), 2018-10-23, en,

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links

{{Academic publishing}}


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