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American Medical Association
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| key_people = Board Chair Jesse M Ehrenfeld; CEO & EVP James Madara, M.D.| budget = | name = American Medical Association| location = United States| website =weblinkWEBSITE=AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, 20 May 2019, }}The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897,WEB,weblink AMA (AMA History) 1847 to 1899, American Medical Association, 2009-02-16,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090209162032weblink">weblink 9 February 2009, no, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.NEWS,weblink AMA Recognizes Obesity as a Disease, New York Times, 2013-07-21, Andrew, Pollack, 2013-06-18, The AMA's mission is "to promote the art and science of medicine and the betterment of public health."WEB,weblink About the American Medical Association - AMA, Ama-assn.org, 19 April 2018, The Association also publishes the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).WEB,weblink About JAMA: JAMA website, Jama.ama-assn.org, 19 April 2018, The AMA also publishes a list of Physician Specialty Codes which are the standard method in the U.S. for identifying physician and practice specialties.The American Medical Association is governed by a House of Delegates as well as a board of trustees in addition to executive management.BOOK, Questioning the Premedical Paradigm: Enhancing Diversity in the Medical Profession a Century after the Flexner Report, Donald A. Barr, March 12, 2010, The organization maintains the AMA Code of Medical Ethics that is the guide to ethical practice of medicine and the AMA Physician Masterfile containing data on United States Physicians.BOOK, Health United States 1998: With Socioeconomic Status and Health Chart Book, E. Pamuk, 1999, The Current Procedural Terminology coding system was first published in 1966, and is maintained by the Association. It has also published works such as the Guides to Evaluation of Permanent Impairment and established the American Medical Association Foundation and the American Medical Political Action Committee.Patrice A. Harris, MD, MA, a psychiatrist from Atlanta, became the 174th president of the American Medical Association in June 2019, and the organization's first African-American woman to hold this position.WEB,weblink Patrice A. Harris, MD, MA {{!, Board of Trustees President-elect {{!}} AMA|website=American Medical Association|language=en|access-date=2019-06-21}} Susan R. Bailey, M.D., an allergist and immunologist from Fort Worth, Texas, became president-elect in June 2019. When Dr. Bailey is inaugurated in 2020, the AMA will for the first time in its history have three consecutive female physicians as president.WEB,weblink PHOTO: Historic first, AMA to have three consecutive female presidents, American Medical Association, en, 2019-06-21, Jesse M. Ehrenfeld MD MPH, an anesthesiologist from Nashville, Tennessee, currently serves as Chair of the AMA Board of Trustees.WEB,weblink AMA announces Board of Trustees for 2019-2020, American Medical Association, en, 2019-07-09,

History

{{See also|List of presidents of the American Medical Association}}

1847–1900

In 1847, the American Medical Association was founded in Philadelphia by Nathan Smith Davis as a national professional medical organization. The organization was established not only to advance scientific research and improve medical education standards but to improve public health. The AMA established the world's first national code for ethical medical practice, the AMA Code of Medical Ethics. The organization educated people about the dangers of patent medicines and called for legislation regulating their production and sale. One resulting legislation was the Drug Importation Act of 1848.BOOK, A Brief History of Pharmacy: Humanity's Search for Wellness, In May 1848, the AMA held its first meeting in Baltimore. The resulting Committee on Surgery produced the report Transactions of the American Medical Association which included lists and reports of cases of physiological effects of ether and chloroform at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, the New York Hospital and the clinics of the University of Pennsylvania and Jefferson Medical College.WEB,weblink StackPath, Essentialcivilwarcurriculum.com, 20 May 2019, In 1846, the organization created a committee dedicated to analyzing the methodology of vital records registration.JOURNAL, History of the birth certificate: from inception to the future of electronic data, Journal of Perinatology, 32, 6, 407–411, 10.1038/jp.2012.3, 22301527, 2012, Brumberg, H. L., Dozor, D., Golombek, S. G., It urged state governments to adopt measures to register births, marriages and deaths within their populations.BOOK, Journal of the American Medical Association, Volume 23, At the organization's second meeting in 1849, Thomas Wood suggested a committee on medical science to establish a board to analyze quack remedies and nostrums to be published in order to inform the public about the dangers of such remedies.BOOK, Druggists' Circular, Volume 51, The AMA's attempts to expose quack remedies aided the passage of the first Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906.BOOK, Pharmaceuticals and Society: Critical Discourses and Debates, The AMA Committee on Ethics advocated for recognition of qualified female physicians in 1869, and the AMA inducted its first female member, Sarah Hackett Stevenson, as an Illinois State Medical Society delegate in 1876.BOOK, History of Women's Suffrage Trilogy – Part 1, The Journal of the American Medical Association was launched in 1883. The organization's founder, Nathan Smith Davis, served as the first editor of the publication.BOOK, Encyclopedia of Global Health, Volume 1, In 1897, the American Medical Association was incorporated in the state of Illinois.BOOK, The Journal of the American Medical Association, Volume 40, Part 2, The Association's Committee on National Legislation established the Committee on Medical Legislation in 1899.BOOK, Journal of the American Medical Association, Volume 50 Part 2, Also in 1899, the Association appointed a committee to report on tuberculosis, included its communicability and prevention.BOOK, Gaillard's Medical Journal, Volumes 72-73, The Committee on Tuberculosis presented its report in October 1900.BOOK, Journal of the American Medical Association, Volume 35, Part 2, AMA pushed for laws requiring compulsory smallpox vaccinations in 1899.BOOK, The Progressive Era's Health Reform Movement: A Historical Dictionary,

1901–1920

In 1901, the AMA was reorganized with its central authority shifted to a House of Delegates, a board of trustees, and executive offices. The House of Delegates was modeled after the United States House of Representatives and included representatives from medical organizations across the United States as a formal, reform-minded legislative body.BOOK, A Companion to the Gilded Age and Progressive Era, Christopher M. Nichols, March 6, 2017, The organization's new president appointed a Committee on Medical Education in order to evaluate medical education in the United States and make recommendations for its improvement.AMA created the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry in 1905 to set standards for drug manufacturing and advertising.BOOK, The Journal of the American Medical Association, Volume 72, Issue 2, 1919, That same year, the Association began a voluntary program of drug approval, which would remain in effect until 1955. Drug companies were required to show proof of the effectiveness of their drugs to advertise them in AMA's journal.WEB,weblink A History of the FDA and Drug Regulation in the United States, Fda.gov, 20 May 2019, In 1906, the American Medical Association established a Physician Masterfile designed to contain data on physicians in the United States as well as graduates of American medical schools and international graduates who are in the United States. Each file is established when an individual either enters medical schools or enters the United States.The AMA established the Council for the Defense of Medical Research in 1908.BOOK, Political Animals: Animal Protection Politics in Britain and the United States, Robert Garner, July 27, 2016, AMA's Council on Medical Education and Hospitals first published its annual list of hospitals approved for internships in 1914.BOOK, The Business of Private Medical Practice: Doctors, Specialization, and Urban Change in Philadelphia, 1900-1940, James A. Schafer, December 26, 2013, The American Medical Association established a policy of opposition to compulsory health insurance by state or federal government in 1920.BOOK, A History of Public Health, George Rosen, January 16, 2015,

1921–1960

In May 1922, the Woman's Auxiliary to the American Medical Association was organized.BOOK, Kentucky Medical Journal, Volume 28, 1930, The following year, the AMA established standards for medical specialty training residency programs.BOOK, Doctors in Community: The Training of Interns and Residents at Brackenridge Hospital, Austin, Texas, Christopher S. Chenault, July 26, 2017, The Association later published its first list of hospitals approved for residency training in 1927.BOOK, Modern Concepts of Hospital Administration, Joseph Karlton Own, 1962,
In 1927, Congress passed the Caustic Poison Act, lobbied by the American Medical Association, which required product labels to include warnings if they included lye or 10 other caustic chemicals.WEB,weblink The Story of the Laws Behind the Labels, Fda.gov, 20 May 2019, The Normal Diet, a comprehensive listing of what Americans should be eating, was published by the AMA in 1938.WEB,weblink History of American Medical Association – FundingUniverse, Fundinguniverse.com, 20 May 2019, A formal partnership between the AMA and the Association of American Medical Colleges formed the Liaison Committee on Medical Education in 1942 in order to establish requirements for certification of medical schools.BOOK, Continuing Medical Education: Looking Back, Planning Ahead, Dennis K. Wentz, 2011, In 1951, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals was created through merging the Hospital Standardization Program with quality standards from the American College of Physicians, the American Hospital Association, and the American Medical Association.BOOK, Practical Predictive Analytics and Decisioning Systems for Medicine, September 27, 2014, The Commission, established for evaluation and accreditation of healthcare organizations in the United States, governed by a board of commissioners including physicians, consumers and administrators.BOOK, Cytology: Diagnostic Principles and Clinical Correlates, Edmund S. Cibas, January 20, 2009, AMA publicly endorsed the principle of fluoridation of community and water supplies in 1951.BOOK, Descriptive Inorganic, Coordination, and Solid State Chemistry, Glen E. Rodgers, January 19, 2011, The Physicians Advisory Committee on Television, Radio and Motion Pictures was established by the AMA in 1955 in order to maintain medical accuracy in media.BOOK, Consumer Education in the Human Services: Pergamon Policy Studies, Alan Gartner, May 19, 2014, The American Medical Association's Committee on Alcoholism issued a statement in 1956 calling alcoholism an illness and encouraging medical personnel and institutions to admit and treat alcoholic patients.BOOK, Psychiatric Services for Addicted Patients, 1995,

1961–1980

In 1961, the American Medical Association opposed the King-Anderson bill proposing Medicare legislation and took out advertisements in newspapers, radio and television against government health insurance. The Association established the American Medical Political Action Committee, which was separate from AMA though the Association nominated its board of directors.BOOK, Government and Public Health in America, Ronald Hamowy, January 1, 2008, The AMA's efforts to defeat Medicare legislation was called Operation Coffee Cup and included secretive meetings in which the vinyl LP "Ronald Reagan Speaks Out Against Socialized Medicine" was played.BOOK, Deadly Spin: An Insurance Company Insider Speaks Out on How Corporate PR Is Killing Health Care and Deceiving Americans, Wendell Potter, November 9, 2010, The AMA created an "Eldercare" proposal rather than hospital insurance through Social Security.BOOK, American Medicine and the Public Interest, Rosemary Stevens, 1998, The AMA first published the Current Procedural Terminology coding system in 1966. The system was created for uniform reporting of outpatient physician services. The first manual was 163 pages and contained only four-digit codes with descriptions of each.BOOK, Understanding Current Procedural Terminology and HCPCS Coding Systems, Mary Jo Bowie, January 1, 2018, A second edition of the book was published in 1970 with a fifth digit added.BOOK, 215 Coding Workbook for the Physician's Office, Alice Covell, January 29, 2015, In 1969, AMA proposed the Medicredit program. The program was created to be flexible so that all people had an option for health insurance.BOOK, Social security and welfare proposals, 1970, The American Medical Association published the first Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment in 1971. The guides were later republished in 1977 before the AMA Council on Scientific Affairs created 12 committees to review the guides before the second edition was published in 1984.BOOK, Understanding the AMA Guides in Workers' Compensation, Steven Babitsky, 2011, The AMA spoke out against gender discrimination in medical institutions in the 1970s. In the 1970s, the AMA spoke out against gender discrimination in medical institutions.WEB,weblink Facts About the American Medical Association (AMA), 5 February 2013, Medical Bag, 20 May 2019, In 1972, the AMA launched a "war on smoking" and supported legislation that would prohibit tobacco sample disbursement.JOURNAL, Historical Perspectives of the Causation of Lung Cancer: Nursing as a Bystander, Tracy A., Ruegg, 5 November 2015, Global Qualitative Nursing Research, 2, 233339361558597, 10.1177/2333393615585972, 28462309, 5342645, The following year, in 1973, the AMA urged physicians to combat hypertension through a national program.WEB,weblink AMA history, American Medical Association, 20 May 2019, In 1975, the American Medical Association adopted a policy stating that "unequivocal-discrimination based on sexual orientation is improper and unacceptable by any part of the federation of medicine."BOOK, I Could Not Speak My Heart: Education and Social Justice for Gay and Lesbian Youth, 2004, It adopted a resolution to repeal all state sodomy laws.BOOK, Gay and Lesbian Rights: A Reference Handbook, David E. Newton, October 27, 2009, In 1976, the AMA began encouraging all public facilities to have handicap access.WEB,weblink World Medical Journal, Wma.net, 20 May 2019,

1981–2000

The AMA released a survey in 1981 that found two short-term effects of dioxin on humans and recommended further studies. By 1983, the Association accused the news media of conducting a "witch hunt" against the toxic chemical and launched a public information campaign to counter media hysteria.weblink {{dead link|date=May 2019}}In the early 1980s, the American Medical Association advocated for raising the national legal drinking age to 21.WEB,weblink WITHDRAWN: Reprint of "The Legal Minimum Drinking Age in Texas: Effects of an Increase from 18 to 19", Richard G., Maybee, Alexander C., Wagenaar, 20 May 2019, Semanticscholar.org, 20 May 2019, The Supreme Court of the United States upheld Federal Trade Commission order that allowed doctors and dentists to advertise without professional associations interfering in 1982. The order restrained the American Medical Association from obstructing agreements between physicians and health maintenance organizations.NEWS,weblink Supreme Court Upholds FTC Order Letting Doctors and Dentists Advertise, The Washington Post, 20 May 2019, In May 1983, the Journal of the American Medical Association published a report that reviewed cases of childhood AIDS.WEB,weblink AIDS Doctors, Archive.nytimes.com, 20 May 2019, The American Medical Association called for a ban on advertising and promotion of all tobacco products in any form of media.WEB,weblink A.m.a. Votes to Seek Total Ban on Advertising Tobacco Products, Philip M., Boffey, Special to The New York, Times, 11 December 1985, 20 May 2019, Nytimes.com, The AMA also proposed declaring snuff and chewing tobacco a health hazard, increasing the tax on cigarettes, prohibiting smoking on public transportation and urged medical facilities to ban smoking on their premises.WEB,weblink AMA'S PROPOSED TOBACCO-AD BAN LIGHTS LEGAL FIRE, George E. Curry, Chicagotribune.com, 20 May 2019, A Federal district judge ruled that the AMA had violated the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1987 by depriving chiropractors access to the Association. The lawsuit, filed by four chiropractors, accused AMA of conspiring to prevent chiropractors from practicing in the United States.WEB,weblink U.S. Judge Finds Medical Group Conspired Against Chiropractors, Ap, 29 August 1987, 20 May 2019, Nytimes.com, In 1990, AMA published Health Assess America, which proposed improved access to affordable health care for citizens without healthcare insurance.JOURNAL,weblink Health Access America—Strengthening the US Health Care System, Lynn K., Harvey, John A., Krichbaum, Steven V., Seekins, James S., Todd, 15 May 1991, JAMA, 265, 19, 2503–2506, 20 May 2019, jamanetwork.com, 10.1001/jama.1991.03460190079024, The Journal of the American Medical Association first documented that Joe Camel cartoons reached more children than adults in December 1991. The Association called for the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company to stop using the Joe Camel character in its advertising because of its appeal to youth.WEB,weblink Advertising and Promotion of Alcohol and Tobacco Products to Youth, Apha.org, 20 May 2019, In 1995, Lonnie R. Bristow became the first African-American president of the American Medical Association. Before he became president, Bristow was the first African-American member of the Board of Trustees and first African-American chairman of the Board.WEB,weblink Man in the News; Black Leader for A.M.A. -- Dr. Lonnie Robert Bristow, Barnaby J., Feder, 22 June 1995, 20 May 2019, Nytimes.com, The AMA campaigned against health plan "gag clauses" in 1996, stating that the stipulations inhibit the communication of information and restrict the care doctors can give their patients. The clauses were removed from 5 leading providers, and laws prohibiting such clauses were passed in 16 states.WEB,weblink AMA rips gag clauses, okays AIDS tests, Upi.com, 20 May 2019, In 1997, the AMA established the National Patient Safety Foundation as an independent, nonprofit research and education organization focused on patient safety.WEB,weblink Medscape Log In, Login.medscape.com, 20 May 2019, Nancy W. Dickey was named president of the American Medical Association in June 1998. She was the first woman to head the organization and had been part of AMA's leadership since 1977.WEB,weblink Former American Medical Association President Named as Editor of Medem, Ann CarrnsStaff Reporter of The Wall Street, Journal, Wsj.com, 20 May 2019,

2000–present

In 2002, the American Medical Association released a report that found a medical liability insurance crisis in at least a dozen states forcing physicians to either close practices or limit services. The association called for Congress to take action and campaigned for national reform.WEB,weblink AMA: States are in crisis of liability and of costs, Ahcmedia.com, August 1, 2002, The American Medical Association launched the "Voice for the Uninsured" campaign in 2007 to promote coverage for uninsured citizens.WEB,weblink AMA campaign to psuh coverage for uninsured, Modern Healthcare, August 23, 2007, In 2007, AMA called for state and federal agencies to investigate potential conflicts of interest between the retail clinics and pharmacy chains.WEB,weblink In-store clinics, 2007-07-22, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070929123431weblink">weblink 2007-09-29, The American Medical Association issued a formal apology for previous policies that excluded African-Americans from the organization and announced increased efforts to increase minority physician participation in the AMA in 2008.NEWS,weblink Group Apologizes for Its Racial Bias, The New York Times, July 11, 2008, In 2009, the American Medical Association released a public letter to the United States Congress and President Barack Obama endorsing his proposed overhaul to the public health care system, including universal health coverage.NEWS,weblink A.M.A. Endorses a Health Care Overhaul, The New York Times, September 9, 2009, David D. Kirkpatrick, The following year, it offered "qualified support" for the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.NEWS,weblink A.M.A. Offers 'Qualified Support' for Health Bill, The New York Times, March 19, 2010, David M. Herzenhorn, The AMA officially recognized obesity as a disease in 2013 in an attempt to change how the medical community approaches the issue.NEWS,weblink A.M.A. Recognizes Obesity as a Disease, The New York Times, June 18, 2013, Andrew Pollack, In 2014, the Association created the AMA Opioid Task Force to evaluate prescription opioid use and abuse.NEWS,weblink Addressing Opioid Addiction in America, Birmingham Medical News, September 22, 2017, Cindy Sanders, The American Medical Association supported the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 which introduced Medicare reforms and replaced the SGR formula with increased Medicare physician reimbursement.WEB,weblink Senate Passes Historic SGR Repeal Bill By Vote of 92-8, Medpage Today, April 14, 2015, Joyce Frieden, In 2015, the AMA declared there is no medically valid reason to exclude transgender individuals from serving in the U.S. military. The Human Rights Campaign lauded the decision.WEB,weblink Voters Reject Cruz's False Scare Tactics Against Trans Americans - Human Rights Campaign, Human Rights, Campaign, Human Rights Campaign, 19 April 2018, The Association announced its opposition to replacing the federal health care law in March 2017, claiming millions of Americans would lose health care coverage.NEWS,weblink American Medical Association Opposes Republican Health Plan, The New York Times, March 8, 2017, Reed Abelson,

Policy positions

The AMA has one of the largest political lobbying budgets of any organization in the United States. Its political positions throughout its history have often been controversial. In the 1930s, the AMA attempted to prohibit its members from working for the health maintenance organizations established during the Great Depression, which violated the Sherman Antitrust Act and resulted in a conviction ultimately affirmed by the US Supreme Court.American Medical Ass'n. v. United States, {{ussc|317|519|1943}} The American Medical Association's vehement campaign against Medicare in the 1950s and 1960s included the Operation Coffee Cup, supported by Ronald Reagan. Since the enactment of Medicare, the AMA reversed its position and now opposes any "cut to Medicare funding or shift [of] increased costs to beneficiaries at the expense of the quality or accessibility of care". However, the AMA remains opposed to any single-payer health care plan that might enact a National Health Service-style organization in the United States, such as the United States National Health Care Act. In the 1990s, the organization was part of the coalition that defeated the health care reform advanced by Hillary and Bill Clinton.{{Citation needed|date=August 2017}}The AMA has also supported changes in medical malpractice law to limit damage awards, which, it contends, makes it difficult for patients to find appropriate medical care. In many states, high risk specialists have moved to other states that have enacted reform. For example, in 2004, all neurosurgeons had relocated out of the entire southern half of Illinois.NEWS, The doctors are leaving,weblink The Chicago Tribune, April 18, 2004, The main legislative emphasis in multiple states has been to effect caps on the amount that patients can receive for pain and suffering. These costs for pain and suffering are only those that exceed the actual costs of healthcare and lost income. At the same time however, states without caps also experienced similar results; suggesting that other market factors may have contributed to the decreases. Some economic studies have found that caps have historically had an uncertain effect on premium rates.WEB,weblink Weiss Ratings - Weiss Ratings, Weissratings.com, 19 April 2018, Nevertheless, the AMA believes the caps may alleviate what is often perceived as an excessively litigious environment for many doctors.{{Citation needed|date=November 2010}} A recent report by the AMA found that in a 12-month period, five percent of physicians had claims filed against them.WEB,weblink Medical Liability Claim Frequency: A 2007-2008 Snapshot of Physicians, Ama-assn.org, 19 April 2018, The AMA sponsors the Specialty Society Relative Value Scale Update Committee which is an influential group of 29 physicians, mostly specialists, who help determine the value of different physicians' labor in Medicare prices.Collections of the association's papers dating from the late 1860s to the late 1960s are held at the National Library of Medicine.WEB,weblink American Medical Association annual meetings collection 1866-1890, National Library of Medicine, WEB,weblink AMA Deceased Physicians Masterfile 1906-1969, National Library of Medicine,

Criticism

During the Civil Rights Movement, the American Medical Association's policy of allowing its constituent groups to be racially segregated in areas with widespread prejudice faced opposition from doctors as well as other healthcare professionals. Pressure from organizations such as the Medical Committee for Human Rights (MCHR) resulted in changed policies by the late 1960s. The AMA was also criticized for the lack of newly licensed foreign-trained medical professionals after Adolf Hitler came to power, who were fleeing to the U.S. from Nazi-controlled Germany and adjacent nations.Nobel Memorial Prize-winning economist Milton Friedman as well as his wife, Rose Friedman, have claimed that the organization acts as a guild and has attempted to increase physicians' wages and fees by influencing limitations on the supply of physicians and competition from non-physicians. In the book Free to Choose, the Friedmans stated that "the AMA has engaged in extensive litigation charging chiropractors and osteopathic physicians with the unlicensed practice of medicine, in an attempt to restrict them to as narrow an area as possible."BOOK, Friedman, Milton, Milton Friedman, Rose, Friedman, Rose D. Friedman, 1990, Free to Choose: A Personal Statement, Mariner Books, 9780156334600, 238–241, Profession and Monopoly also criticized the AMA for limiting the supply of physicians and inflating the cost of medical care in the U.S as well as its influence on hospital regulation.BOOK
, Berlant
, Jeffrey
, Profession and Monopoly: a study of medicine in the United States and Great Britain
, Medical History
, 20
, 3
, University of California Press
, 1975
,
, 342
,
, 1081816
,
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In a 1987 antitrust court case, a federal district judge called the AMA's behavior toward chiropractors "systematic, long-term wrongdoing". The AMA was accused of limiting the associations between physicians and chiropractors. In the 1960s and 1970s, the association's Committee on Quackery was said to have targeted the chiropractic profession, and for many years the AMA held that it was unethical for physicians to refer patients to chiropractors or to receive referrals from chiropractors.NEWS, U.S. judge finds medical group conspired against chiropractors,weblink October 23, 2016, The New York Times, Associated Press, 29 August 1987,

Structure

The AMA is composed of various internal groups that discuss policy twice a year. There is an annual meeting, always held in Chicago, IL and an Interim meeting set on a rotating schedule for different locations.WEB, Meeting Dates,weblink Ama-assn.org, 2015-09-23, Within the AMA, there are sections that can make up the total AMA. These sections include Medical Students, Resident and Fellows, Academic physicians, Medical School Deans and Faculty, Physicians in group practice setting, Retired and Senior Physicians, International Medical graduates, Woman physicians, Physician Diversity and Minority health, GLBT, USAN, AMA board of Trustees, Foundation and Council.WEB, Physician Leadership Opportunities at the AMA,weblink Ama-assn.org, 2015-09-23, Externally to the AMA, there are organizations that come to these meetings by sending representatives. These representatives meet two a year in the House of Delegates at the Interim and/or annual meeting. Representatives come from medical societies that are either from a state, specialty or the federal services/government services. These organizations are called AMA member organizations.WEB, Member Organizations,weblink Ama-assn.org, 2015-09-23,

Charitable activities

The AMA Foundation provides approximately $1,000,000 annually in tuition assistance to financially needy students. This has to be seen on the background that in 2007, graduating medical students carried a mean debt load of $140,000 which rose to $220,000 after four years of negative amortization during residencyWEB,weblink House passes partial forgiveness for medical student loans, Ama-assn.org, medical student debt has increased by 7% each successive year.WEB,weblink Medical Student Debt, 2010-11-07,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101030071531weblink">weblink 30 October 2010, no, By the time debt is paid off, it is sometimes almost half a million dollars.WEB, $1 million mistake: Becoming a doctor,weblink Cbsnews.com, 2015-09-23,

See also

Notes and references

{{Reflist}}

General references

WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100703052856weblink">weblink Wayback Machine, 3 July 2010, Web.archive.org, 20 May 2019,

External links

{{Commons category|American Medical Association}}
  • {{Official website|www.ama-assn.org}}
{{American Medical Association state affiliates}}

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