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George Sand
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{{short description|19th-century French novelist and memoirist}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2018}}







factoids
| birth_place = Paris, France187687df=y}}| death_place = Nohant-Vic, France| occupation = Novelist Romanticism Pastoral#Pastoral_literature_in_general>Pastoralism| parents = | mother = Sophie-Victorie Delaborde| father = Maurice DupinCasimir Dudevant1835|end=separated}}| children = Maurice SandSolange Sand}}{{French literature sidebar}}Amantine Lucile Aurore DupinDupin's first Christian name is sometimes rendered as "Amandine". ({{IPA-fr|amɑ̃tin lysil oʁɔʁ dypɛ̃|lang}}; 1 July 1804 â€“ 8 June 1876), best known by her pen name George Sand ({{IPA-fr|ʒɔʁʒ sɑ̃d|lang}}), was a French novelist, memoirist, and socialist.BOOK, Hart, Kathleen, Revolution and Women's Autobiography in Nineteenth-century France, 2004, Rodopi, 91, BOOK, Lewis, Linda M., Germaine de Staël, George Sand, and the Victorian Woman Artist, 2003, University of Missouri Press, 48, One of the most popular writers in Europe in her lifetime,NEWS, Eisler, Benita, ‘George Sand’ Review: Monstre Sacré,weblink 2018-11-06, WSJ, 8 June 2018, being more popular than both Victor Hugo and Honore de Balzac in England in the 1830s and 1840s,JOURNAL, Thomson, Patricia, July 1972, George Sand and English Reviewers: The First Twenty Years, The Modern Language Review, 67, 3, 501–516, 10.2307/3726119, 3726119, Sand is recognised as one of the most notable writers of the European Romantic era.

Personal life

George SandWEB,weblink George Sand, Archive.nytimes.com, – known to her friends and family as "Aurore" – was born in Paris and was raised for much of her childhood by her grandmother, Marie-Aurore de Saxe, Madame Dupin de Francueil, at her grandmother's estate, Nohant, in the French province of Berry (see House of George Sand).WEB,weblink George Sand {{!, French novelist|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|language=en|access-date=2019-03-02}} Sand later used the estate setting in many of her novels. Her father, Maurice Dupin, was the grandson of the Marshal General of France, Maurice, Comte de Saxe, an out-of-wedlock son of Augustus II the Strong, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, and a cousin to the sixth degree to Kings Louis XVI, Louis XVIII and Charles X of France.{{Citation|url=http://www.cbx41.com/extweblink |publisher=CBX41 |title=Musée de la Vie Romantique |place=Paris |type=family tree }}{{dead link|date=January 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}. She was also more distantly related to King Louis Philippe of France through common ancestors from German and Danish ruling families. Sand's mother, Sophie-Victoire Delaborde, was a commoner.{{cn|date=July 2019}}

Gender expression

Sand was one of many notable 19th-century women who chose to wear male attire in public. In 1800, the police issued an order requiring women to apply for a permit in order to wear male clothing. Some women applied for health, occupational, or recreational reasons (i.e. horseback riding), but many women chose to wear pants and other traditional male attire in public without receiving a permit, they did so as well for practical reasons, but also at times to subvert dominant stereotypes.WEB,weblink Clothes Make the (Wo)man? Pants Permits in Nineteenth-Century Paris, Wondersandmarvels.com, 2015-09-02, Sand was one of the women who did not apply for a permit and did sport men's clothing, which she justified by the clothes being, firstly less expensive, and also far sturdier than the typical dress of a noblewoman at the time. In addition to being comfortable, Sand's male attire enabled her to circulate more freely in Paris than most of her female contemporaries, and gave her increased access to venues from which women were often barred, even women of her social standing. Also scandalous was Sand's smoking tobacco in public; neither peerage nor gentry had yet sanctioned the free indulgence of women in such a habit, especially in public (though Franz Liszt's paramour Marie d'Agoult affected this as well, smoking large cigars). While there were many contemporary critics of her comportment, many people accepted her behaviour until they became shocked with the subversive tone of her novels. Those who found her writing admirable were not bothered by her ambiguous or rebellious public behaviour. As Victor Hugo commented, “George Sand cannot determine whether she is male or female. I entertain a high regard for all my colleagues, but it is not my place to decide whether she is my sister or my brother.”WEB,weblink Classic Women Authors in Men's Clothing: Expressing the Masculine,

Notable relationships

In 1822, at the age of eighteen, Sand married Casimir DudevantNEWS,weblink George Sand {{!, French novelist|work=Encyclopedia Britannica|access-date=2018-07-01|language=en}} (1795–1871; first name "François"), out-of-wedlock son of Baron Jean-François Dudevant. She and Dudevant had two children: Maurice (1823–1889) and Solange (1828–1899). In 1825 she had an intense but perhaps platonic affair with the young lawyer Aurélien de Sèze.{{citation|last=Leduc|first=Edouard|title=La Dame de Nohant: ou La vie passionnée de George Sand|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=WGK9BgAAQBAJ&pg=PA30|date=2015-03-05|publisher=Editions Publibook|isbn=978-2-342-03497-4|pages=30–}} In early 1831, she left her husband and entered upon a four- or five-year period of "romantic rebellion." In 1835, she was legally separated from Dudevant, and took custody of their children.{{cn|date=July 2019}}Sand had romantic affairs with Jules Sandeau (1831), Prosper Mérimée, Alfred de Musset (summer 1833 â€“ March 1835), Louis-Chrysostome Michel, Pierre-François Bocage, Charles Didier, Félicien Mallefille, Louis Blanc, and composer Frédéric Chopin (1837–1847).{{Sfn | Szulc | 1998 | pp = 160, 165, 194–95}} Later in her life, she corresponded with Gustave Flaubert, and despite their differences in temperament and aesthetic preference, they eventually became close friends. She engaged in an intimate friendship with actress Marie Dorval, which led to widespread but unconfirmed rumours of a romantic affair.{{Citation | url =weblink | title = George Sand | first = Belinda | last = Jack | publisher = Random House}}.File:George Sand by Nadar, 1864.jpg|thumb|George Sand by NadarNadar

Relationship with Chopin

Sand spent the winter of 1838-1839 with Chopin in Majorca at the (formerly abandoned) Carthusian monastery of Valldemossa.{{Citation | url =weblink | title = Museoin | publisher = Valldemossa}}. The trip to Majorca was described in her Un hiver à Majorque (A Winter in Majorca), first published in 1841.Travers, Martin (ed.), European Literature from Romanticism to Postmodernism: A Reader in Aesthetic Practice, Continuum publishing, 2006, p. 97, {{ISBN|9780826439604}} Chopin was already ill with incipient tuberculosis at the beginning of their relationship, and spending a cold and wet winter in Majorca where they could not get proper lodgings exacerbated his symptoms.NEWS, Pruszewicz, Marek, The mystery of Chopin's death,weblink 22 December 2014, 20 January 2015, BBC News, They separated two years before his death for a variety of reasons.WEB,weblink Frédéric Chopin and George Sand: A Collaborative Union {{!, The Romantic Piano|website=WQXR|language=en|access-date=2019-03-02}} In her novel Lucrezia Floriani, Sand used Chopin as a model for a sickly Eastern European prince named Karol. He is cared for by a middle-aged actress past her prime, Lucrezia, who suffers a great deal through her affection for Karol.{{Sfn | Szulc | 1998 | p = 326}} Though Sand claimed not to have made a cartoon out of Chopin, the book's publication and widespread readership may have exacerbated their later antipathy towards each other. The tipping point in their relationship involved her daughter Solange.{{cn|date=July 2019}}File:George Sand en Madeleine par Louis Boulanger.jpg|thumb|upright|Sand as Mary Magdalene in a sketch by Louis BoulangerLouis BoulangerChopin continued to be cordial to Solange after she and her husband, Auguste Clésinger, had a falling out with Sand over money. Sand took Chopin's support of Solange to be extremely disloyal, and confirmation that Chopin had always "loved" Solange.{{Sfn |From the correspondence of Sand and Chopin: Szulc | 1998 | p = 344}} Sand's son Maurice also disliked Chopin. Maurice wanted to establish himself as the "man of the estate" and did not wish to have Chopin as a rival. Chopin was never asked back to Nohant; in 1848, he returned to Paris from a tour of the United Kingdom, to die at the Place Vendôme in the following year. Chopin was penniless at that time; his friends had to pay for his stay there, as well as his funeral at the Madeleine. The funeral was attended by over 3,000 people, including Eugène Delacroix, Franz Liszt, Victor Hugo and other famous people. George Sand was notably absent.{{cn|date=June 2019}}

Death

Sand died at Nohant, near Châteauroux, in France's Indre département on 8 June 1876, at the age of 71. She was buried in the private graveyard behind the chapel at Nohant-Vic.Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Location 41516). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition. In 2003, plans that her remains be moved to the Panthéon in Paris resulted in controversy.NEWS, Will George Sand Join the Immortals in the Pantheon?,weblink The Wall Street Journal, 30 January 2003, 17 October 2014, NEWS, Ashes to ashes, Sand to sand,weblink The Guardian, 13 September 2003, 17 October 2014,

Career and politics

File:Casimir Dudevant.jpeg|thumb|upright|Casimir DudevantCasimir DudevantFile:George Sand.jpg|thumb|upright|George Sand by 1835}})George Sand was the most popular writer (of any gender) in Europe by the age of 27, more popular than both Victor Hugo and Honore de Balzac in England in the 1830s and 1840s, and she remained immensely popular as a writer throughout her lifetime and long after her death. Early in her career, her work was in high demand and already by 1836, the first of several compendia of her writings was published in 24 volumes.BOOK,weblink 9782841338023, George Sand : Pratiques et imaginaires de l'écriture, 381–393, L'Édition complète des Å“uvres de George Sand " chaos pour le lecteur " ou essai de poétique éditoriale, Presses universitaires de Caen, 2017-03-30, Colloques de Cerisy, WEB,weblink Oeuvres complètes | George Sand | sous la direction de Béatrice Didier | 1836-1837, Culture.leclerc, In total, 4 separate editions of her "Complete Works" were published during her lifetime. In 1880 her children sold the rights to her literary estate for 125,000 Francs (equivalent to 36kg worth of gold, or 1.3 million dollars in 2015 USDWEB,weblink Historical Currency Converter, Historicalstatistics.org, )Drawing from her childhood experiences of the countryside, Sand wrote the pastoral novels La Mare au Diable (1846), François le Champi (1847–1848), La Petite Fadette (1849), and Les Beaux Messieurs de Bois-Doré (1857).BOOK, Kristeva, Julia, Julia Kristeva, Proust and the Sense of Time,weblink 1993, Columbia UP, 9780231084789, 35, A Winter in Majorca described the period that she and Chopin spent on that island from 1838 to 1839. Her other novels include Indiana (1832), Lélia (1833), Mauprat (1837), Le Compagnon du Tour de France (1840), Consuelo (1842–1843), and Le Meunier d'Angibault (1845). Theatre pieces and autobiographical pieces include Histoire de ma vie (1855), Elle et Lui (1859, about her affair with Musset), Journal Intime (posthumously published in 1926), and Correspondence. Sand often performed her theatrical works in her small private theatre at the Nohant estate.{{cn|date=July 2019}}Sand was well-known around the world, while her social practices, writings, and beliefs prompted much commentary, often by other members of the world of arts and letters.{{cn|date=July 2019}}Sand's literary debut came as a result of a collaboration with the writer Jules Sandeau. They published several stories together, signing them "Jules Sand." Sand's first published novel, Rose et Blanche (1831), was written in collaboration with Sandeau.WEB,weblink J. Sand : Rose et Blanche, george.sand.pagesperso-orange.fr, She subsequently adopted, for her first independent novel, Indiana (1832), the pen name that made her famous â€“ George Sand.{{Sfn | Bédé | 1986 | p = 218}}

Political views

In addition, Sand authored literary criticism and political texts. Because of her early life, she sided with the poor and working class as well as women's rights. When the 1848 Revolution began, she was an ardent republican. Sand started her own newspaper, which was published in a workers' co-operative.{{Sfn | Paintault | Cerf | 2004}}However, she was appalled by the violence of the Paris Commune. She wrote: "The horrible adventure continues. They ransom, they threaten, they arrest, they judge. They have taken over all the city halls, all the public establishments, they’re pillaging the munitions and the food supplies."George Sand correspondence, edited by Pivot, Sylvain (2003)File: Eugène Ferdinand Victor Delacroix 041.jpg|thumb|upright|Sand sewing, from Portrait of Frédéric Chopin and George SandPortrait of Frédéric Chopin and George SandPolitically, she became very active after 1841 and the leaders of the day often consulted with her and took her advice. She was a member of the provisional government of 1848, and during Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte’s coup d’état of December 1851, she negotiated pardons and reduced sentences for her friends.Sand was known for her implication and writings during the Paris Commune, where she took a position for the Versailles assembly against the "communards," urging them to take violent action against the "rebels."{{Citation|last=Guillemin|first=Henri|title=Les archives de la RTS|url=https://www.rts.ch/archives/dossiers/henri-guillemin/3477764-la-commune-de-paris.html|contribution=La Commune de Paris|place=Switzerland|publisher=RTS|date=2009-08-13}}

Criticism

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Opinions on her writings

Sand's writing was immensely popular during her lifetime and she was highly respected by the literary and cultural elite in France. Victor Hugo, in the eulogy he gave at her funeral, said "the lyre was within her."BOOK, Anna Livia, Kira Hall, Queerly Phrased: Language, Gender, and Sexuality,weblink 20 November 1997, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-535577-2, 157–, }} Eugene Delacroix was a close friend and respected her literary gifts.weblink {{dead link|date=August 2019}} Flaubert, by no means an indulgent or forbearing critic, was an unabashed admirer. Honoré de Balzac, who knew Sand personally, once said that if someone thought she wrote badly, it was because their own standards of criticism were inadequate. He also noted that her treatment of imagery in her works showed that her writing had an exceptional subtlety, having the ability to "virtually put the image in the word."{{Citation | last = Pasco | first = Allan H | chapter = George Sand | page = 161 | language = French | title = Nouvelles Françaises du Dix-Neuviéme Siécle: Anthologie | year = 2006 | publisher = Rookwood Press}}.WEB,weblink Famous Affinities of History - the Story of George Sand (by Lyndon Orr), Alfred de Vigny referred to her as "Sappho"Not all of her contemporaries admired her or her writing: poet Charles Baudelaire was one contemporary critic of George Sand:NEWS,weblink The riddle of Miss Sand, 2005-02-21, Robb, Graham, "She is stupid, heavy and garrulous. Her ideas on morals have the same depth of judgment and delicacy of feeling as those of janitresses and kept women ... The fact that there are men who could become enamoured of this slut is indeed a proof of the abasement of the men of this generation."BOOK, Baudelaire, Charles, Peter, Quennell, My Heart Laid Bare, Haskell House, 1975, 184, 978-0-8383-1870-6, Trans. Norman Cameron,

Influences on literature

Fyodor Dostoevsky "read widely in the numerous novels of George Sand" and translated her La dernière Aldini in 1844, but "discovered to his dismay that the work had already appeared in Russian".Joseph Frank, Dostoevsky: A Writer in His Time. Princeton University Press, 2009, p. 71; {{ISBN|1400833418}}. In his novel Demons (1871), the character of Stepan Verkhovensky takes to translating the works of George Sand in his periodical, before the periodical was subsequently seized by the ever-cautious Russian government of the 1840s. The English poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806–61) wrote two poems: "To George Sand: A Desire" (1853) and "To George Sand: A Recognition". The American poet Walt Whitman cited Sand's novel Consuelo as a personal favorite, and the sequel to this novel, La Comtesse de Rudolstadt, contains at least a couple of passages that appear to have had a very direct influence on him. In the first episode of the "Overture" to Swann's Way—the first novel in Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time sequence—a young, distraught Marcel is calmed by his mother as she reads from François le Champi, a novel which (it is explained) was part of a gift from his grandmother, which also included La Mare au Diable, La Petite Fadette, and Les Maîtres Sonneurs. As with many episodes involving art in À la recherche du temps perdu, this reminiscence includes commentary on the work. Sand is also referred to in Virginia Woolf's book-length essay A Room of One's Own along with George Eliot and Charlotte Brontë as "all victims of inner strife as their writings prove, sought ineffectively to veil themselves by using the name of a man."Virginia Woolf, A Room of One's Own, Penguin Books, 1929, p. 52; {{ISBN|9780141183534}}.Frequent literary references to George Sand can be found in (Possession: A Romance|Possession) (1990) by A. S. Byatt and in the play Voyage, the first part of Tom Stoppard's The Coast of Utopia trilogy (2002). George Sand also makes an appearance in Isabel Allende's Zorro, going still by her given name, as a young girl in love with Diego de la Vega, i.e., Zorro.{{cn|date=July 2019}}

In film

George Sand is portrayed by Merle Oberon in A Song to Remember,{{AFI film|id=24590|title=A Song to Remember}} by Patricia Morison in Song Without End,{{AFI film|id=53289|title=Song Without End}} by Rosemary Harris in Notorious Woman,NEWS,weblink TV: ‘Notorious Woman’, O'Connor, John J., 1975-11-20, The New York Times, 2019-06-12, dmy-all, 0362-4331, by Judy Davis in James Lapine's 1991 British-American film Impromptu;{{amg title|v24455|Impromptu}} and by Juliette Binoche in the 1999 French film Children of the Century (Les Enfants du siècle).{{BFI|4ce2b8178c267|Les Enfants du siècle (2000)}}

Works

{{div col|colwidth=25em}}

Novels

  • Rose et Blanche (1831, with Jules Sandeau)
  • Indiana (1832)
  • Valentine (1832)
  • Lélia (1833)
  • Andréa (1833)
  • Mattéa (1833)
  • Jacques (1833)
  • Kouroglou / Épopée Persane (1833)
  • Leone Leoni (1833)
  • André (1834)
  • La Marquise (1834)
  • Simon (1835)
  • Mauprat (1837)
  • Les Maîtres mosaïstes (The Master Mosaic Workers) (1837)
  • L'Oreo (1838)
  • L'Uscoque (The Uscoque, or The Corsair) (1838)
  • Spiridion (1839)
  • Pauline (1839)
  • Horace (1840)
  • Le Compagnon du tour de France (The Journeyman Joiner, or the Companion of the Tour of France) (1840)
  • Consuelo (1842)
  • La Comtesse de Rudolstadt (1843, a sequel to Consuelo)
  • Jeanne (1844)
  • Teverino (1845) (translated as Jealousy: Teverino)
  • Le Péché de M. Antoine (The Sin of M. Antoine) (1845)
  • Le Meunier d'Angibault (The Miller of Angibault) (1845)
  • La Mare au Diable (The Devil's Pool) (1846)
  • Lucrezia Floriani (1846)
  • François le Champi (The Country Waif) (1847)
  • La Petite Fadette (1849)
  • Château des Désertes (1850)
  • Histoire du véritable Gribouille (1851, translated as The Mysterious Tale of Gentle Jack and Lord Bumblebee)
  • Les Maîtres sonneurs (The Bagpipers) (1853)
  • La Daniella (1857)
  • Les Beaux Messiers de Bois-Dore (The Gallant Lords of Bois-Dore or The Fine Gentlemen of Bois-Dore) (1857)
  • Elle et Lui (She and He) (1859)
  • Narcisse (1859)
  • Jean de la Roche (1859)
  • L'Homme de neige (The Snow Man) ( 1859)
  • La Ville noire (The Black City) (1860)
  • Marquis de Villemer (1860)
  • Valvedre (1861)
  • Antonia (1863)
  • Mademoiselle La Quintinie (1863)
  • Laura, Voyage dans le cristal (Laura, or Voyage into the Crystal) (1864)
  • Monsieur Sylvestre (1866)
  • Le Dernier Amour (1866, dedicated to Flaubert)
  • Mademoiselle Merquem (1868)
  • Pierre Qui Roule (A Rolling Stone) (1870)
  • Le Beau Laurence (Handsome Lawrence) (1870, a sequel to Pierre Qui Roule)
  • Malgretout (1870)
  • Cesarine Dietrich (1871)
  • Nanon (1872)
  • Ma Soeur Jeanne (My Sister Jeannie) (1874)
  • Flamarande (1875)
  • Les Deux Freres (1875, a sequel to Flamarande)
  • Marianne (1876)
  • La Tour de Percemont (The Tower of Percemont) (1876)

Plays

  • Gabriel (1839)
  • Cosima ou La haine dans l'amour (1840)
  • Les Sept cordes de la lyre (translated as A Woman's Version of the Faust Legend: The Seven Strings of the Lyre) (1840)
  • François le Champi (1849)
  • Claudie (1851)
  • Le Mariage de Victorine (1851)
  • Le Pressoir (1853)
  • French adaptation of As You Like It (1856)
  • Le Pavé (1862, "The Paving Stone")
  • Le Marquis de Villemer (1864)
  • Le Lis du Japon (1866, "The Japanese Lily")
  • L'Autre (1870, with Sarah Bernhardt)
  • Un Bienfait n'est jamais perdu (1872, "A Good Deed Is Never Wasted")
{{div col end}}Source: WEB,weblink George Sand (1804-1876) - Auteur du texte, data.bnf.fr, Bibliothèque nationale de France, 2019-06-12, dmy-all,

See also

References

NotesSources
  • George Sand – Bicentennial Exhibition, Musée de la Vie romantique, Paris, 2004, curated by Jérôme Godeau. Contributions by Diane de Margerie, Yves Gagneux, Françoise Heilbrun, Isabelle Leroy-Jay Lemaistre, Claude Samuel, Arlette Sérullaz, Vincent Pomarède, Nicole Savy & Martine Reid.
  • {{Citation | first = Jean-Albert | last = Bédé | contribution = Sand, George | title = Encyclopedia Americana | year = 1986 | volume = 24 | pages = 218–19| title-link = Encyclopedia Americana }}.
  • {{Citation | title = Correspondence | type = letters | first = George | last = Sand}} (see "Writings by George Sand").
  • {{Citation | first = Tad | last = Szulc | author-link = Tad Szulc | title = Chopin in Paris: the Life and Times of the Romantic Composer | place = New York | publisher = Scribner | year = 1998 | isbn = 978-0-684-82458-1}}.
  • {{gutenberg|no=138|name=Doumic, René – George Sand, some aspects of her life and writings}}
  • In French:
    • {{gutenberg|no=13038|name=Caro, Elme – George Sand}}
    • {{gutenberg|no=13737|name=Roy, Albert le – George Sand et ses amis}}
    • {{Citation | title = Dictionnaire Encyclopédique de la Langue Française | edition = 3ième}}
  • {{Citation | url =weblink | title = George Sand: The Story of Her Life | last1 = Paintault | first1 = Micheline (Director) | last2 = Cerf | first2 = Claudine (Author) | format = DVD | publisher = France 5 | year = 2004}}.
  • {{Citation | last = Yates | first = Jim | title = Oh! Père Lachaise: Oscar's Wilde Purgatory | publisher = Édition d'Amèlie | year = 2007 | isbn = 978-0-9555836-1-2}} Oscar Wilde dreams of George Sand and is invited to a soirée at Nohant.

Further reading

  • Tim Parks, "Devils v. Dummies" (review of George Sand, La Petite Fadette, translated by Gretchen van Slyke, Pennsylvania State, 2017, {{ISBN|978 0 271 07937 0}}, 192 pp.; and Martine Reid, George Sand, translated by Gretchen van Slyke, Pennsylvania State, 2019, {{ISBN|978 0 271 08106 9}}, 280 pp.), London Review of Books, vol. 41, no. 10 (23 May 2019), pp. 31–32. "'The men that Sand loved,' Reid observes, 'all had a certain physical resemblance... fragile, slight and a bit reserved.' Unthreatening, in short. Above all, they were younger than her. Sandeau, Musset and then, for the nine years between 1838 and 1847, Chopin, were all six years her junior." (p. 32.)
  • Harlan, Elizabeth (2004 ) George Sand. New Haven: Yale University Press {{ISBN|0-300-10417-0}}

External links

{{Library resources box|by=yes|onlinebooks=yes|viaf=46766944}}{{Commons}} {{George Sand}}{{Authority control}}

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