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Elba
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{{short description|Mediterranean island near Italy}}{{Redirect|Elba Island|other uses|Elba (disambiguation)}}{{Distinguish|Elbe|Ebla}}







factoids
| archipelago = Tuscan Archipelago| total_islands = 7Gorgona, Italy>Gorgona, Capraia, Pianosa, Montecristo, Isola del Giglio, and Giannutri| area_km2 = 224| length_km = 29| width_km = 18| coastline_km = 147| highest_mount = Monte Capanne| elevation_m = 1018| country = ItalyRegions of Italy>Region| country_admin_divisions = TuscanyProvinces of Italy>ProvinceProvince of Livorno>LivornoComune>Communes of ElbaPortoferraio, Campo nell'Elba, Capoliveri, Marciana, Marciana Marina, Porto Azzurro, Rio, Italy>Rio| country_largest_city = Portoferraio| country_largest_city_population = 12,013| population = 32,162ACCESSDATE=19 JUNE 2015, | density_km2 = 140| ethnic_groups =| additional_info =}}(File:Tuscan archipelago.png|thumb|270px|Map of the Tuscan Archipelago)Elba (, {{IPA-it|ˈiːzola ˈdelba|pron}}; ; Ancient Greek: Αἰθαλία, Aithalia) is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, {{convert|10|km}} from the coastal town of Piombino, and the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago. It is also part of the Arcipelago Toscano National Park,WEB, Elba,weblink Parco nazionale dell'Arcipelago Toscano, 15 January 2012, 16 February 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130528085511weblink">weblink 28 May 2013, and the third largest island in Italy, after Sicily and Sardinia. It is located in the Tyrrhenian Sea about {{convert|50|km|-1}} east of the French island of Corsica.The island is part of the province of Livorno and is divided into seven municipalities, with a total population of about 30,000 inhabitants which increases considerably during the summer. The municipalities are Portoferraio (which is also the island's principal town), Campo nell'Elba, Capoliveri, Marciana, Marciana Marina, Porto Azzurro, and Rio.

Geology

Elba is the largest remaining stretch of land from the ancient tract that once connected the Italian peninsula to Corsica. The northern coast faces the Ligurian Sea, the eastern coast the Piombino Channel, the southern coast the Tyrrhenian Sea, and the Corsica Channel divides the western tip of the island from neighbouring Corsica.The island itself is made up of slices of rocks which once formed part of the ancient Tethyan seafloor.WEB,weblink The association of continental crust rocks with ophiolites in the Northern Apennines (Italy): implications for the continent-ocean transition in the Western Tethys, els-cdn.com, These rocks have been through at least two orogenies, the Alpine orogeny and the Apennine orogeny. The second of these two events was associated with subduction of the Tethyan oceanic crust underneath Italy and the obduction of parts of the ancient seafloor onto the continents. Later extension within the stretched inner part of the Apennine mountains caused adiabatic melting and the intrusion of the Mount Capanne and the La Serra-Porto Azzuro granitoids. These igneous bodies brought with them skarn fluids which dissolved and replaced some of the carbonate units, precipitating iron-rich minerals in their place. One of the iron-rich minerals, ilvaite, was first identified on the island and takes its name from the Latin word for Elba. More recently, high-angle faults formed within the tectonic pile, allowing for the migration of iron-rich fluids through the crust. The deposits left behind by these fluids formed the island's rich seams of iron ore.The terrain is quite varied and is thus divided into several areas based on geomorphology. The mountainous and most recent part of the island can be found to the west, the centre of which is dominated by Mount Capanne ({{convert|1018|m|ft|disp=x|/}}), also called the "roof of the Tuscan Archipelago". The mountain is home to many animal species including the mouflon and wild boar, two species that flourish despite the continuous influx of tourists. The central part of the island is a mostly flat section with the width being reduced to just four kilometres ({{convert|4|km|abbr=off|disp=output only}}). It is where the major centres can be found: Portoferraio, Campo nell'Elba. To the east is the oldest part of the island, formed over 3 million years ago.WEB,weblink Login, ofioliti.it, In the hilly area, dominated by Monte Calamita, are the deposits of iron that made Elba famous.

Hydrography

Rivers rarely exceed {{convert|3|km|0|abbr=off}} in length, and it is common for the shorter ones to dry up during the summer. The largest rivers, sorted by length, are:
  • Fosso San Francesco {{convert|6.5|km}};
  • Fosso Barion, {{convert|5.1|km}};
  • Fosso Redinoce, {{convert|2|km}}
Between Poggio and Marciana, at the foot of Mount Capanne, is a spring called Fonte Napoleone, known for its quality.

Climate

The climate of the island is predominantly Mediterranean, except for Mount Capanne, where winters tend to be moderately cold. Precipitation is concentrated in autumn and comprises a normal rainfall. The island lies in the rain shadow of the large and mountainous island of Corsica, so precipitation totals are somewhat reduced from the mainland (most of the island receives less than 750 mm (30 inches) annually). Snowfall in winter is rare in the lowlands and melts quickly. The table below shows the average temperatures for the islands by month.{{Weather box|location = Elba|metric first = yes|single line = yes|Jan record high C = 16.2|Feb record high C = 18.0|Mar record high C = 20.0|Apr record high C = 22.4|May record high C = 29.6|Jun record high C = 32.0|Jul record high C = 34.3|Aug record high C = 36.1|Sep record high C = 32.0|Oct record high C = 25.0|Nov record high C = 24.6|Dec record high C = 16.8|year record high C =|Jan high C = 9.6|Feb high C = 10.0|Mar high C = 12.0|Apr high C = 14.2|May high C = 18.8|Jun high C = 22.7|Jul high C = 26.5|Aug high C = 26.7|Sep high C = 22.6|Oct high C = 18.0|Nov high C = 13.4|Dec high C = 10.5|year high C =|Jan mean C = 7.4|Feb mean C = 7.5|Mar mean C = 9.2|Apr mean C = 11.4|May mean C = 15.6|Jun mean C = 19.3|Jul mean C = 22.7|Aug mean C = 23.1|Sep mean C = 19.5|Oct mean C = 15.4|Nov mean C = 11.2|Dec mean C = 8.5|year mean C =|Jan low C = 5.3|Feb low C = 5.0|Mar low C = 6.3|Apr low C = 8.5|May low C = 12.3|Jun low C = 15.8|Jul low C = 19.0|Aug low C = 19.5|Sep low C = 16.4|Oct low C = 12.9|Nov low C = 9.0|Dec low C = 6.5|year low C =|Jan record low C = -7.4|Feb record low C = -4.4|Mar record low C = -5.4|Apr record low C = 1.2|May record low C = 3.4|Jun record low C = 5.0|Jul record low C = 12.2|Aug record low C = 11.6|Sep record low C = 7.6|Oct record low C = 2.0|Nov record low C = -1.0|Dec record low C = -5.4|year record low C =|precipitation colour=green|Jan precipitation mm = 59.5|Feb precipitation mm = 75.6|Mar precipitation mm = 56.2|Apr precipitation mm = 57.8|May precipitation mm = 31.6|Jun precipitation mm = 26.8|Jul precipitation mm = 13.8|Aug precipitation mm = 41.5|Sep precipitation mm = 75.0|Oct precipitation mm = 101.6|Nov precipitation mm = 88.7|Dec precipitation mm = 50.5|Jan humidity = 77|Feb humidity = 76|Mar humidity = 75|Apr humidity = 76|May humidity = 76|Jun humidity = 73|Jul humidity = 68|Aug humidity = 72|Sep humidity = 76|Oct humidity = 80|Nov humidity = 81|Dec humidity = 79|Jan precipitation days = 6.7|Feb precipitation days = 6.2|Mar precipitation days = 6.9|Apr precipitation days = 7.0|May precipitation days = 5.0|Jun precipitation days = 3.5|Jul precipitation days = 1.6|Aug precipitation days = 2.4|Sep precipitation days = 5.0|Oct precipitation days = 7.9|Nov precipitation days = 7.3|Dec precipitation days = 5.8|unit precipitation days = 1.0 mm|Jan sun = 133.3|Feb sun = 118.7|Mar sun = 155.0|Apr sun = 183.0|May sun = 195.3|Jun sun = 237.0|Jul sun = 275.9|Aug sun = 257.3|Sep sun = 201.0|Oct sun = 151.9|Nov sun = 117.0|Dec sun = 114.7|source 1 = Servizio Meteorologico (temperature and precipitation data 1971–2000)WEB,weblink Servizio Meteorologico, Elba/M. Calamita, 13 October 2012, |source 2 = Servizio Meteorologico (relative humidity and sun data 1961–1990)HTTP://CLIMA.METEOAM.IT/VIEWCLINO.PHP?TYPE=FILE&STATION=197&NAME_STATION=ELBA >PUBLISHER =SERVIZIO METEOROLOGICO, Monte Calamita – Elba, 13 October 2012, |date=August 2010}}

History

{{multiple image
| direction = vertical
| width = 200
| footer =
| image1 = Aufstieg-und-Niederfall-Napoleons.png
| alt1 =
| caption1 = The map of Elba in The Rise and Fall of Napoleon, 1814 cartoon by Johann Michael Voltz
| image2 = Napoleon on Elba.jpg
| alt2 =
| caption2 = Napoleon on Elba
| image3 = Beaume - Napoléon Ier quittant l'île d'Elbe - 1836.jpg
| alt3 =
| caption3 = Napoleon Bonaparte leaving Elba on 26 February 1815
| image4 =
| alt4 =
| caption4 = Boney's Elb(ow)a chair, satirical image about Napoleon at Elba, published exactly seven years before his death.
}}
The island was originally inhabited by Ligures Ilvates, who gave it the ancient name Ilva. It was well known from very ancient times for its iron resources and valued mines. The Greeks called it Aethalia (Αιθαλία, "fume"), after the fumes of the metal producing furnaces. Apollonius of Rhodes mentions it in his epic poem Argonautica, describing that the Argonauts rested here during their travels. He writes that signs of their visit were still visible in his day, including skin-coloured pebbles that they dried their hands on and large stones which they used at discus. Strabo (5.2.6) presents a slightly different account: "because the scrapings, which the Argonauts formed when they used their strigils, became congealed, the pebbles on the shore remain variegated still to this day."BOOK, Race, W. H., Apollonius Rhodius: Argonautica, Loeb Classical Library, 2008, II, 654–58, 381–3, See note 95, p. 383 for Strabo quote.The island was invaded by the Etruscans, who called the island Elba{{Citation needed|date=August 2019}}, and later (after 480 BC) by the Romans. In the middle ages, it was invaded by the Ostrogoths and the Lombards, and then it became a possession of the Republic of Pisa. After the battle of Meloria, the Republic of Genova took possession of Elba, but it was regained by Pisa in 1292.WEB,weblink History of Elba Island, elbaworld.com, The island was retained for two centuries by the Appiani family, Lords of Piombino, when they sold Pisa to the house of Visconti of Milan in 1399.In 1544, the Barbary pirates from North Africa devastated Elba and the coasts of Tuscany.BOOK, David, Robert C.,weblink Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500–1800, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004, 1-4039-4551-9, In 1546, part of the island was handed over to Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, who fortified Portoferraio and renamed it "Cosmopoli", while the rest of the island was returned to the Appiani in 1577. In 1596, Philip II of Spain captured Porto Longone and had two fortresses built there. This part of Elba came into the direct power of Spain through the State of the Presidi, including Porto Longone. In 1736, the sovereignity of this part of Elba was claimed by the Kingdom of Naples but remained abandoned.Roberto Ferretti (a cura di), Aspetti e problemi di storia dello Stato dei Presìdi in Maremma, 1979;Giuseppe Caciagli, Stato dei Presidi, Pontedera, Arnera Edizioni, 1992The British landed on the Island of Elba in 1796, after the occupation of Livorno by the French Republican troops, to protect the 4,000 French royalists who had found asylum in Portoferraio two years earlier. In 1801, the Peace of Luneville gave Elba to the Kingdom of Etruria, and it was transferred to France in 1802 by the Peace of Amiens.WEB,weblink Catholic Encyclopedia, Elba, WEB,weblink History of Elba Island, Elbaworld.com, The French Emperor Napoleon was exiled to Elba, after his forced abdication following the Treaty of Fontainebleau (1814), and he arrived at Portoferraio on 30 May 1814. He was allowed to keep a personal guard of 600 men and was nominally sovereign of Elba, although the nearby sea was patrolled by the French and British navies. During the months that he stayed on the island, Napoleon carried out a series of economic and social reforms to improve the quality of life. After staying on for almost ten months he escaped to France on 26 February 1815. At the Congress of Vienna, Elba was restored to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. In 1860, it became part of the new unified Kingdom of Italy. The island was liberated from the Germans by the French 1er Corps d'Armée on 17 June 1944, in Opération Brassard. Faulty intelligence and strong defences made the battle more difficult than expected.NEWS
,weblink
, Operation Brassard The Invasion of Elba
, Bill, McGrann
, Peoples' War Stories, BBC, 16 March 2010
, (File:Elba Drunken cake.jpg|thumb|right|Schiaccia briaca (drunken cake) from Elba and Aleatico (Elban wine) used in the recipe)More recently, the island has become famed for its wine and is a noted tourist destination.WEB
,weblink
, Food and Wine
, Elba Island World
, 16 March 2010
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100316063024weblink">weblink
, 2010-03-16
,

Transportation

The island is connected to the mainland via the four ferry companies, Toremar, Moby Lines, Blunavy and Corsica Ferries - Sardinia Ferries,WEB,weblink Traversate traghetti Sardegna, Corsica e Isola d'Elba, CorsicaFerries / SardiniaFerries, all offering routes between Piombino and Portoferraio, the capital located in the north, Cavo, Rio Marina and Porto Azzurro, on the east coast of the island.WEB
,weblink
, Ferries to Elba
, Tuscany Live
, 16 March 2010
, WEB
,weblink
, Ferries to the island of Elba
, Ferry Elba Reservation
, 16 March 2010
, WEB
,weblink
, Blunavy ticket reservation (EN)
, Blunavy
, 19 June 2011
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110619212552weblink">weblink
, 2011-06-19
, WEB
,weblink
, Toremar ticket reservation (IT)
, Toremar
, 19 June 2011
, WEB
,weblink
, Moby Lines ticket reservation (EN)
, Moby Lines
, 19 June 2011
, There is an airport on the island, Marina di Campo Airport. It is served by Silver Air with flights to the Italian mainland.WEB,weblink Home – Elba Island Airport, 16 July 2016,

Cycling

The island has a network of trails for road racers looking for more technical routes for their training, trails and dirt roads for bikers to have fun on, and accessible routes for families with children who need safe and relaxing routes. On the road from Rio nell'Elba going to Porto Azzurro is the "Fonte di Coppi". Towards the end of his career Fausto Coppi, the "campionissimo", came here to train on the roads of Elba. He still retained a celebrity status but was no longer at the peak of his career that ended with his death a few years later. The plaque on the fountain reads: "1960–2010, here the champion quenched his thirst, since fifty years on the run".

Gallery

File:Elba Enfola.jpg|Enfola BeachFile:Elba litorale.jpg|South coast of ElbaFile:Elba Westküste.jpg|West coast of ElbaFile:Aerial view of Elba 2.jpg|Aerial view of ElbaFile:MteCapanne.JPG|Mount CapanneFile:Portoferraio Lighthouse 01.jpg| Lighthouse in PortoferraioFile:Marciana Marina - Hafen und Monte Capanne.jpg|Marciana MarinaFile:Capoliveri 01.jpg|CapoliveriFile:Capoliveri Elbe Elba.JPG|CapoliveriFile:Fetovaia01.jpg|Fetovaia beachFile:Bandiera_isola_elba.JPG| Flag of Elba

See also

References

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, Chandler, David G., The Illustrated Napoleon, New York, Henry Holt & Co, 1990, 0-8050-0442-4,
  • JOURNAL, Carta, Angelino, Forbicioni, Leonardo, Frangini, Giuliano, Pierini, Brunello, Peruzzi, Lorenzo, An updated inventory of the vascular flora of Elba island (Tuscan Archipelago, Italy), Italian Botanist, 6, 2018, 1–22, 2531-4033, 10.3897/italianbotanist.6.26568,weblink

External links

{{Wikivoyage|Elba}}{{commons|Elba island|Elba}}
  • {{Dmoz|World/Italiano/Regionale/Europa/Italia/Toscana/Provincia_di_Livorno/Isola_d'Elba/}}
{{Tuscan Archipelago}}{{Authority control}}

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