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glacial period
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{{redirect|Glacial|the science fiction short story|Glacial (short story)}}A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances. Interglacials, on the other hand, are periods of warmer climate between glacial periods. The last glacial period ended about 15,000 years ago.JOURNAL, J. Severinghaus, E. Brook, Abrupt Climate Change at the End of the Last Glacial Period Inferred from Trapped Air in Polar Ice, Science, 286, 1999, 930–4,weblink 10.1126/science.286.5441.930, 10542141, 5441, The Holocene epoch is the current interglacial. A time with no glaciers on Earth is considered a greenhouse climate state.BOOK, Bralower, T.J., Premoli Silva, Malone, I., M.J., 2006, Leg 198 Synthesis : A Remarkable 120-m.y. Record of Climate and Oceanography from Shatsky Rise, Northwest Pacific Ocean, Abstract Summary, Proceedings of the Ocean drilling program., 47, 10.2973/odp.proc.ir.198.2002, 1096-2158, April 9, 2014, JOURNAL
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, Christopher M. Fedo, Grant M. Young, H. Wayne Nesbitt, Paleoclimatic control on the composition of the Paleoproterozoic Serpent Formation, Huronian Supergroup, Canada: a greenhouse to icehouse transition
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, Miriam E. Katz, Kenneth G. Miller, James D. Wright, Bridget S. Wade, James V. Browning, Benjamin S. Cramer, Yair Rosenthal, Stepwise transition from the Eocene greenhouse to the Oligocene icehouse
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{{Wiktionary|glaciation}}

Quaternary ice age

File:Co2 glacial cycles 800k.png|320px|thumb|Glacial and interglacial cycles as represented by atmospheric CO2, measured from ice core samples going back 800,000 years. The stage names are part of the North American and the European Alpine subdivisions. The correlation between both subdivisions is tentative.]]Within the Quaternary (about 2.6 Ma to present), there have been a number of glacials and interglacials.WEB, Cohen, K.M., Finney, S.C., Gibbard, P.L., Fan, J.-X., International Chronostratigraphic Chart 2013,weblink stratigraphy.org, ICS, 7 January 2019, ICS2013,

Penultimate Glacial Period

The Penultimate Glacial Period (PGP) is the glacial period that occurred before the Last Glacial Period. It began ~194,000 years ago, and ended 135,000 years ago with the beginning of the Eemian interglacial.Climate dynamics during the penultimate glacial period recorded in a speleothem from Kanaan Cave, Lebanon (central Levant)weblink

Last Glacial Period

The last glacial period was the most recent glacial period within the Quaternary Ice Age, occurring in the Pleistocene epoch, which began about 110,000 years ago and ended about 15,000 years ago. The glaciations that occurred during this glacial period covered many areas of the Northern Hemisphere and have different names, depending on their geographic distributions: Wisconsin (in North America), Devensian (in Great Britain), Midlandian (in Ireland), Würm (in the Alps), Weichsel (in northern central Europe), Dali (in East China), Beiye (in North China), Taibai (in Shaanxi) Luojishan (in Southwest Sichuan), Zagunao (in Northwest Sichuan), Tianchi (in Tianshan Mountains) Qomolangma (in Himalaya), and Llanquihue (in Chile). The glacial advance reached its maximum extent about 26,500 BP. In Europe, the ice sheet reached Northern Germany. In the last 650,000 years, there were, on average, seven cycles of glacial advance and retreat.

Next glacial period

{{see also|Milankovitch cycles}}Since orbital variations are predictable,JOURNAL, F. Varadi, B. Runnegar, M. Ghil, Michael Ghil, Successive Refinements in Long-Term Integrations of Planetary Orbits, The Astrophysical Journal, 592, 2003, 620–630,weblink 10.1086/375560, 2003ApJ...592..620V, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071128074218weblink">weblink 2007-11-28, computer models that relate orbital variations to climate can predict future climate possibilities. Work by Berger and Loutre suggests that the current warm climate may last another 50,000 years.JOURNAL, Berger A, Loutre MF, Climate: An exceptionally long interglacial ahead?, Science, 297, 5585, 2002, 1287–8, 10.1126/science.1076120, 12193773, The amount of heat trapping gases emitted into Earth's Oceans and atmosphere will prevent the next glacial period (ice age), which otherwise would begin in around 1,000 years, and likely more glacial cycles.WEB,weblink Global Warming Good News: No More Ice Ages, 2007, LiveScience, WEB,weblink Human-made climate change suppresses the next ice age, 2016, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research in Germany,

See also

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References

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External links

{{Ice Ages}}

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