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North China
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factoids
name North China| native_name = | native_name_lang =
(File:Broader definition of north china.jpg|thumb|Another broader definition of North China (in pink))North China ({{Zh|s= (wikt:华|华)(wikt:北|北)|t= (wikt:華|華)(wikt:北|北)|p=Huáběi}}; literally "China's north") is a geographical region of China, lying North of the Qinling Huaihe Line.JOURNAL, Shuangshuang, LI, Saini, YANG, Xianfeng, LIU, Spatiotemporal variability of extreme precipitation in north and south of the Qinling-Huaihe region and influencing factors during 1960-2013, The Chinese journal of geography, 10 September 2015, 34, 3, 354–363,weblink 25 May 2017, File:Qinling Huaihe Line.png|thumb|right|The Qinling Huaihe LineQinling Huaihe LineThe heartland of North China is the North China Plain, or the Yellow River Plain. North China is usually restricted to the northern part of China proper (inner China and excludes Xinjiang and often Manchuria and Northeast China.The vast region in China from the Yellow River Valley south to the Yangtze River was the centre of Chinese empires and home to Confucian civilization. Historically, the language used in this area was Ancient Chinese of the Huaxia, Old Chinese of the Shang, Zhou and Han dynasties. In prehistory and early history, the plain (Henan in particular) is considered the origin of Chinese civilization in official Chinese history. Rice domestication originated in this area at least 9000 years ago, although later on in Chinese history, cultivation of wheat took over as the soils became leeched with the arrivals of the Mongolians and Manchurians from the North, which greatly influenced the area culturally, politically, linguistically and genetically, while earlier scions and their descendants migrated South of the Yangtze River to flee from the invasion of the barbarians. Refugees have fled the area since the collapse of the Han dynasty established by Qinshihuang, especially the Royalty. Imperialty, as well as families of soldiers which formed the Hakka migration, in order to escape persecutions from the new dynasties of the barbarians.In modern times, the area has shifted in terms of linguistic, cultural, socio-political, economic and genetic composition. Nowadays unique embracing a North Chinese culture, it is heavily influenced by Marxism, Communism, Leninism, Soviet systems of farming while preserving a Traditional Chinese indigenous culture. The region has been cultivating wheat, and most inhabitants here nowadays speak variants of Northern Chinese languages such as the standard (Mandarin), which includes Beijing dialect, which is largely the basis of Standard Chinese (Mandarin), the official language of the People's Republic of China (PRC), and its cousin variants. Jin Chinese and Mongolian are also widely spoken due to the political and cultural history of the area. Other than the British Colony of Hong Kong, the revival of Shanghai as financial center, the old imperial city of the Purple Forbidden Citadel of China's Last 24 Emperors known by Westerners as Peking, now modernized as Beijing City, this is the ancient and historical region which remains truly at the heart of Chinese civilisation. It remains the political, military, and cultural center of the People's Republic of China.

History

{{expand section|date=December 2016}}In prehistory, the region was home to the Yangshao and Longshan cultures. Peking man was found near modern-day Beijing (Peking).Culturally Northern China also includes Shandong, northern parts of Anhui and Xuzhou.Tens of millions of people have starved to death or died of floods in northern china, most notably the Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79 which killed about 13 million, 1938 Yellow River flood which killed up to 800,000, 1887 Yellow River flood killed 900,000, Chinese famine of 1942–43 killed 3 million and the Great famine which killed tens of millions of mandarin speaking peoples in Northern China and Sichuan.">

Administrative divisions in the PRC {| class"wikitable sortable" style"font-size: 100%;"

style="background: #efefef;"!align="center"|GBGB/T 2260 codes for the provinces of China!align="center"|(ISO 3166-2:CN|ISO №)(ISO 3166-2:CN) (ISO3166-2 codes for the provinces of China)!align="left"|Province!align="left"|Chinese Name!align="left"|Capital!align="right"|Population¹!align="right"|Density²!align="right"|Area³!align="center" class="alphabetical"| Abbreviation/Symbol
{{tent division chn 1|Beijing Municipality |北京市|北京市|Běijīng Shì | |11|ff8585| |Beijing| 19,612,368| 1,167.40|16,800|BJ|Jīng}}{{tent division chn 1|Tianjin Municipality |天津市|天津市|Tiānjīn Shì | |12|ff8585| |Tianjin| 12,938,224| 1,144.46|11,305|TJ|Jīn}}{{tent division chn 1|Hebei Province |河北省|河北省|Héběi Shěng ||13|9696ff| |Shijiazhuang| 71,854,202| 382.81|187,700|HE|Jì}}{{tent division chn 1|Shanxi Province |山西省|山西省|Shānxī Shěng | |14|9696ff| |Taiyuan | 35,712,111| 228.48|156,300|SX|Jìn}}{{tent division chn 1|Inner Mongolia Autonomous RegionNei Mongol Autonomous Region |內蒙古自治区|内蒙古自治區|Nèi Měnggǔ Zìzhìqū| |15|fffb91||Hohhot| 24,706,321| 20.88|1,183,000|NM|Měng (Nèi Měnggǔ)}}

Cities with urban area over one million in population

Provincial capitals in bold.{|class="wikitable sortable" style="font-size:90%;"!#!!City!!style ="background-color: #aaaaff;"|Urban area!!style ="background-color: #aaffaa;"|District area!!style ="background-color: #ffaaaa;"|City properBOOK, 国务院人口普查办公室、国家统计局人口和社会科技统计司编, 2012, zh:中国2010年人口普查分县资料, Beijing, China Statistics Press, 978-7-5037-6659-6, !!Prov.!!Census date
Beijing>|2010-11-01
Tianjin>|2010-11-01
Taiyuan>|2010-11-01
Shijiazhuang>|2010-11-01
Tangshan>|2010-11-01
Baotou>|2010-11-01
Hohhot>|2010-11-01
Datong>|2010-11-01
Handan>|2010-11-01
Baoding>|2010-11-01

See also

References

{{Reflist}}{{-}}{{China topics}}

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