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Energy in Germany
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{{Multiple issues|{{Disputed|date=June 2016}}{{Update|date=October 2013}}}}{{Use dmy dates|date=May 2013}}(File:Lisberg Burg Windräder Solar power PC313027.jpg|thumb|Windmills and solar panels at Lisberg Castle in Germany)(File:Germany's electricity generation by major fuel, energy sources and share of electricity generation by fuel, energy source, from 2000 through 2017 (47958295396).png|thumb|Changes in source of German electricity, 2000–2017)Energy in Germany is sourced predominantly by fossil fuels, followed by nuclear power, biomass (wood and biofuels), wind, hydro and solar.The German economy is large and developed, ranking fourth in the world by GDP. Germany is sixth in global energy consumption between 2004 and 2007. Germany was Europe's largest consumer of electricity in 2002; electricity consumption that year totaled 512.9 terawatt-hours. In 2013 Germany's electricity production reached 631.4 TWh.Key to Germany's energy policies and politics is the "Energiewende", meaning "energy turnaround" or "energy transformation". Germany intends to eliminate current use of nuclear power by 2022. Operators have already closed plants ahead of their intended retirement dates. Presumably, fossil fuels, wind power, solar power, biofuels, and energy conservation will be enough to replace the existing capacity from nuclear power. The policy includes phasing out nuclear power, and progressive replacement of fossil fuels by renewables.">

Overview{| class"wikitable" style"text-align:right"|+ Energy in Germany

! ! Populationmillion! Prim. energyTWh! ProductionTWh! ImportTWh! ElectricityTWh! CO2-emissionMt
2004 82.5 4,048 1,582 2,509 580 849
2007 82.3 3,853 1,594 2,344 591 798
2008 82.1 3,899 1,560 2,453 587 804
2009 81.9 3,705 1,478 2,360 555 750
2010 81.8 3,807 1,528 2,362 590 762
2012 81.8 3,626 1,444 2,315 579 748
2012R 81.9 3,635 1,435 2,321 585 755
2013 82.1 3,694 1,400 2,411 576 760
change 2004–2010 −0.9% −5.9% −3.4% −5.9% 1.7% −10.3%
1{{nbsp}}Mtoe = 11.63{{nbsp}}TWhPrimary energy includes energy losses that are 2/3 for nuclear powerRow 2012R uses a different {{co2}} calculation criteria, the numbers are updated

Energy consumption

(File:Fossil fuel consumption in Germany.svg|thumb|Fossil fuel consumption in Germany, including combined former East and West from 1980 to 2011 from EIA data. Use of coal declined significantly after reunification.)Germany is the sixth largest consumer of energy in the world. Germany imports more than half of its energy. For example, Germany is the fifth-largest consumer of oil in the world. Germany largely imports its oil from Russia, Norway and the United Kingdom, in that order.Germany is also the world's largest importer of natural gas. Over 22.6% of its primary energy use comes from gas. Germany imports gas from the Netherlands and Norway. However, it also imports gas from Russia via the Nord Stream; in 2016, Germany imported 49.8 billion cubic metres (bcm) of gas from Gazprom. A terminal in Emden opened for gas from Norway in 2016.Because of its rich coal deposits, Germany has a long tradition of using coal.It is the fourth-largest consumer of coal in the world. Domestic coal mining has been almost completely phased out. This is because German coal is a lot more expensive to mine than importing coal from China or Australia. Germany has the largest national market of electricity in Europe.

Electricity production

{{Current German electricity by source}}(File:Electricity Production in Germany.svg|thumb|Electricity production in Germany, including combined former East and West since 1980 from EIA data.)

Coal power

{{see also|Fossil-fuel phase-out#Germany}}File:Nuclear plant at Grafenrheinfeld.jpg|thumb|Grafenrheinfeld Power Plant.]]Coal is the largest source of electricity in Germany. {{Asof|2016}}, around 40% of the electricity in the country is generated from coal. This was slightly down from 2013, when coal made up about 45% of Germany's electricity production (19% from hard coal and 26% from lignite).Germany is also a major producer of coal. Lignite is extracted in the extreme western and eastern parts of the country, mainly in Nordrhein-Westfalen, Sachsen and Brandenburg. Considerable amounts are burned in coal plants near the mining areas to produce electricity and transporting lignite over far distances is not economically feasible; therefore, the plants are located near the extraction sites. Bituminous coal is mined in Nordrhein-Westfalen and Saarland. Most power plants burning bituminous coal operate on imported material, therefore, the plants are located not only near to the mining sites, but throughout the country.German coal-fired power plants are being designed and modified so they can be increasingly flexible to support the fluctuations resulting from increased renewable energy. Existing power plants in Germany are designed to operate flexibly. Load following is achieved by German natural gas combined cycle plants and coal-fired power plants. New coal-fired power plants have a minimum load capability of approximately 40%, with further potential to reduce this to 20–25%. The reason is that the output of the coal boiler is controlled via direct fuel combustion and not, as is the case with a gas combined-cycle power plant, via a heat recovery steam generator with an upstream gas turbine.Germany has been opening new coal power plants until recently, following a 2007 plan to build 26 new coal plants. This has been controversial in light of Germany's commitment to curbing carbon emissions. By 2015, the growing share of renewable energy in the national electricity market (26% in 2014, up from 4% in 1990) and the government's mandated CO2 emission reduction targets (40% below 1990 levels by 2020; 80% below 1990 levels by 2050) have increasingly curtailed previous plans for new, expanded coal power capacity.On 26 January 2019, a group of federal and state leaders as well as industry representatives, environmentalists, and scientists made an agreement to close all 84 coal plants in the country by 2038. The move is projected to cost {{euro}}40 billion in compensation alone to closed businesses. Coal was used to generate almost 40% of the country's electricity in 2018 and is expected to be replaced by renewable energy. 24 coal plants are planned to be closed by 2022 with all but 8 closed by 2030. The final date is expected to be assessed every 3 years.

Nuclear power

Nuclear power has been a topical political issue in recent decades, with continuing debates about when the technology should be phased out. A coalition government of Gerhard Schroeder took the decision in 2002 to phaseout all nuclear power by 2022. The topic received renewed attention at the start of 2007 due to the political impact of the Russia-Belarus energy dispute and in 2011 after the Fukushima I nuclear accidents in Japan. Within days of the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, large anti-nuclear protests occurred in Germany. Protests continued and, on 29 May 2011, Merkel's government announced that it would close all of its nuclear power plants by 2022. Eight of the seventeen operating reactors in Germany were permanently shut down following Fukushima in 2011. German coal consumption has risen during 2011, 2012 and 2013.Chancellor Angela Merkel said the phase-out of plants, previously scheduled to go offline as late as 2036, would give Germany a competitive advantage in the renewable energy era, stating, "As the first big industrialized nation, we can achieve such a transformation toward efficient and renewable energies, with all the opportunities that brings for exports, developing new technologies and jobs". Merkel also pointed to Japan's "helplessness" – despite being an industrialized, technologically advanced nation – in the face of its nuclear disaster.In September 2011, German engineering giant Siemens announced a complete withdrawal from the nuclear industry, as a response to the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Remaining nuclear companies in Germany are E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Vattenfall Europe Nuclear Energy GmbH, RWE Power AG, and EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG.

Renewable energy

File:Schneebergerhof 01.jpg|thumb|Photovoltaic array and wind turbines at the Schneebergerhof wind farm in the German state of Rheinland-PfalzRheinland-Pfalz(File:Germany renewable electricity generation percentage-2011.png|thumb|Renewable electric power produced in 2011 by energy source)The share of electricity produced from renewable energy in Germany has increased from 6.3 percent of the national total in 2000 to over 25 percent in the first half of 2012. Germany renewable power market grew from 0.8 million residential customers in 2006 to 4.9 million in 2012, or 12.5% of all private households in the country. In 2011, they purchased 15 terawatt-hours (TWh) of green power, and commercial customers bought a further 10.3 TWh. Renewable energy share of gross electricity consumption rose from 10% in 2005 to 20% in 2011. Main renewable electricity sources were in first half of 2012: Wind energy 36.6%, biomass 22.5%, hydropower 14.7%, photovoltaics (solar) 21.2% and biowaste 3.6%. Wood-fire plants fuelled by wood pellets are included in biomass. Half of Germany's timber production is consumed by wood fired plants. Wood fired plants are counted as renewable energy by Germany and the European Union counting them as "carbon neutral".In 2010, investments totaling 26 billion euros were made in Germany’s renewable energies sector. Germany spends about 20 billion euros per year subsidizing renewable energy. According to official figures, some 370,000 people in Germany were employed in the renewable energy sector in 2010, especially in small and medium-sized companies. This is an increase of around 8 percent compared to 2009 (around 339,500 jobs), and well over twice the number of jobs in 2004 (160,500). About two-thirds of these jobs are attributed to the Renewable Energy Sources ActGermany has been called "the world's first major renewable energy economy". In the first half of 2012 25.1% of Germany's electricity supply was produced from renewable energy sources, more than the electricity generated by nuclear power stations.In end of 2011, the cumulative installed total of renewable power was 65.7GW. Although Germany does not really have a very sunny climate, solar photovoltaic power is used massively (4% of annual electricity needs). On 25 May 2012, a Saturday, solar power reached a new record with feeding 22 GW, as much as can be produced by 20 nuclear reactors, into the German power grid. This met 50% of the nation's mid-day electricity demand on that day.(File:Power-generation-germany 2016.png|thumb|right|Germany's Gross Power Generation Mix 2016. The total amount of renewable generation is 191 TWh.)In 2016 renewable energy based electricity generation reached 29.5%. Renewables are an important energy source in Germany but coal remains a factor at 40.1% of total generation. Wind was the leading source at 12.3%, followed by biomass at 7.9% and solar PV at 5.9%.{| style="float: center; margin: 10px auto;"|ImageSize = width:550 height:300PlotArea = width:500 height:200 left:40 bottom:40AlignBars = lateDateFormat = x.yPeriod = from:0 till:35TimeAxis = orientation:verticalScaleMajor = unit:month increment:5 start:0TextData =
pos:(15,280) textcolor:black fontsize:M
text:%
pos:(280,25) textcolor:black fontsize:S
text:Year
pos:(70,280) textcolor:black fontsize:M
text:Renewables as a percentage of gross electricity consumption
Colors =
id:yellow value:blue
PlotData=
width:20 textcolor:black
bar:1990 color:blue from:0 till:3.4 text:3.4 shift:(-10,18)
bar:1995 color:blue from:0 till:4.7 text:4.7 shift:(-10,20)
bar:2000 color:blue from:0 till:6.2 text:6.2 shift:(-10,30)
bar:2001 color:blue from:0 till:6.6 text:6.6 shift:(-10,30)
bar:2002 color:blue from:0 till:7.7 text:7.7 shift:(-10,32)
bar:2003 color:blue from:0 till:7.6 text:7.6 shift:(-10,30)
bar:2004 color:blue from:0 till:9.3 text:9.3 shift:(-10,40)
bar:2005 color:blue from:0 till:10.2 text:10.2 shift:(-10,40)
bar:2006 color:blue from:0 till:11.6 text:11.6 shift:(-10,45)
bar:2007 color:blue from:0 till:14.2 text:14.2 shift:(-10,50)
bar:2008 color:blue from:0 till:15.1 text:15.1 shift:(-10,50)
bar:2009 color:blue from:0 till:16.3 text:16.3 shift:(-10,60)
bar:2010 color:blue from:0 till:17.0 text:17.0 shift:(-10,65)
bar:2011 color:blue from:0 till:20.3 text:20.3 shift:(-10,70)
bar:2012 color:blue from:0 till:23.5 text:23.5 shift:(-10,80)
bar:2013 color:blue from:0 till:25.1 text:25.1 shift:(-10,85)
bar:2014 color:blue from:0 till:27.3 text:27.3 shift:(-10,90)
bar:2015 color:blue from:0 till:31.6 text:31.6 shift:(-10,100)
|ImageSize = width:550 height:300PlotArea = width:500 height:200 left:40 bottom:40AlignBars = lateDateFormat = x.yPeriod = from:0 till:13TimeAxis = orientation:verticalScaleMajor = unit:month increment:1 start:0TextData =
pos:(15,280) textcolor:black fontsize:M
text:%
pos:(280,25) textcolor:black fontsize:S
text:Year
pos:(70,280) textcolor:black fontsize:M
text:Renewables as a percentage of primary energy consumption
Colors =
id:yellow value:green
PlotData=
width:20 textcolor:black
bar:1990 from:0 till:1.3 text:1.3 shift:(-10,18)
bar:1995 from:0 till:1.9 text:1.9 shift:(-10,20)
bar:2000 from:0 till:2.9 text:2.9 shift:(-10,30)
bar:2001 from:0 till:2.9 text:2.9 shift:(-10,30)
bar:2002 from:0 till:3.2 text:3.2 shift:(-10,30)
bar:2003 from:0 till:3.8 text:3.8 shift:(-10,35)
bar:2004 from:0 till:4.5 text:4.5 shift:(-10,40)
bar:2005 from:0 till:5.3 text:5.3 shift:(-10,50)
bar:2006 from:0 till:6.3 text:6.3 shift:(-10,55)
bar:2007 from:0 till:7.9 text:7.9 shift:(-10,70)
bar:2008 from:0 till:8.0 text:8.0 shift:(-10,70)
bar:2009 from:0 till:8.9 text:8.9 shift:(-10,76)
bar:2010 from:0 till:9.9 text:9.9 shift:(-10,85)
bar:2011 from:0 till:10.8 text:10.8 shift:(-10,95)
bar:2012 from:0 till:10.3 text:10.3 shift:(-10,90)
bar:2013 from:0 till:10.8 text:10.4 shift:(-10,90)
bar:2014 from:0 till:11.5 text:11.5 shift:(-10,95)
bar:2015 from:0 till:12.5 text:12.5 shift:(-10,100)


Source:

Bioenergy

In October 2016 the German Biomass Research Center ((:de:Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum|Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum)) (DBFZ) launched an online biomass atlas for researchers, investors and the interested public.

Energy efficiency

The energy efficiency bottom-up index for the whole economy (ODEX) in Germany decreased by 18% between 1991–2006, which is equivalent to an energy efficiency improvement by 1.2% per annum on average based on the ODEX, which calculates technical efficiency improvements. Since the beginning of the new century, however, the efficiency improvement measured by the ODEX has slowed down. While a continuous decrease by 1.5%/y could be observed between 1991 and 2001, the decrease in the period from 2001 to 2006 only amounted to 0.5%, which is below the EU-27 level.(File:GET en Germany’s plan- drive down energy demand-.png|thumb|German Energy Efficiency Targets)By 2050 Germany projects a 25% drop in electricity demand.

Government energy policy

Germany is the fourth-largest producer of nuclear power in the world, but in 2000, the government and the German nuclear power industry agreed to phase out all nuclear power plants by 2021, as a result of an initiative with a vote result of 513 Yes, 79 No and 8 Empty. The seven oldest reactors were permanently closed after the Fukushima accident. However, being an integral part of the EU's internal electricity market, Germany will continue to consume foreign nuclear electricity even after 2022.In September 2010, Merkel's government reached a late-night deal which would see the country's 17 nuclear plants run, on average, 12 years longer than planned, with some remaining in production until well into the 2030s. Then, following Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, the government changed its mind again, deciding to proceed with the plan to close all nuclear plants in the country by 2022.Government policy emphasizes conservation and the development of renewable sources, such as solar, wind, biomass, water, and geothermal power. As a result of energy saving measures, energy efficiency (the amount of energy required to produce a unit of gross domestic product) has been improving since the beginning of the 1970s. The government has set the goal of meeting 80% of the country's energy demands from alternative energy by 2050.After becoming Chancellor of Germany, Angela Merkel expressed concern for overreliance on Russian energy, but she received little support from others in Berlin.{| class="wikitable" |+ 2019 fossil fuel taxes! || Gas oil (>50 mg/kg sulfur) || Gas oil(≤50 mg/kg sulfur) || Heavy oil || Other oils || Natural Gas || Liquefied petroleum gas
liter >liter >kg >liter >Kilowatt hour#Multiples>MWh €/tonne
Taxation >| 60.60

Sustainable energy

In September 2010, the German government announced a new aggressive energy policy with the following targets:
  • Reducing CO2 emissions 40% below 1990 levels by 2020 and 80% below 1990 levels by 2050
  • Increasing the relative share of renewable energy in gross energy consumption to 18% by 2020, 30% by 2030 and 60% by 2050
  • Increasing the relative share of renewable energy in gross electrical consumption to 35% by 2020 and 80% by 2050
  • Increasing the national energy efficiency by cutting electrical consumption 50% below 2008 levels by 2050
Forbes ranked German Aloys Wobben ($3B), founder of Enercon, as the richest person in the energy business (wind power) in Germany in 2013.

See also

{{Commons category|Energy in Germany}}

References

, 2006 {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091012043312weblink |date=12 October 2009 }} IEA October, crude oil p.11, coal p. 13 gas p. 15Energy in Sweden 2010 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131016045634weblink |date=16 October 2013 }}, Facts and figures, The Swedish Energy Agency, Table 8 Losses in nuclear power stations Table 9 Nuclear power bruttoWEB,weblink Free publications, Iea.org, 29 December 2017, WEB,weblink Infografic: Can Germany's Energiewende ensure supply?, euractive.com, 1 February 2017, weblink {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080701224043weblink |date=1 July 2008 }}NEWS,weblink Germany’s dependence on imported fossil fuels, 2015-06-22, Clean Energy Wire, 2018-04-24, en, WEB,weblink Gazprom says exports to Germany hit record high in 2016, EurActiv.com, 17 January 2017, 1 February 2017, WEB,weblink New German terminal for Norwegian gas, Euro-petrole.com, 24 May 2016, WEB,weblink Germany Plans Boom in Coal Power Plants, 21 March 2007, 29 December 2017, Bloomberg.com, WEB,weblink US, Independent.co.uk, 29 December 2017, NEWS,weblink Germany to mothball largest coal power plants to meet climate targets, The Guardian, 2015-07-02, 2015-08-17, WEB,weblink Green and brown clash as Germany struggles to end coal, Christian Schwägerl, GreenBiz.com, 2015-08-05, 2015-08-17, Gürtler, Detlef: Wirtschaftsatlas Deutschland. Rowohlt Berlin, 2010.WEB,weblink The Flexibility of German Coal-Fired Power Plants Amid Increased Renewables, Cornerstonemag.net, 29 December 2017, weblink {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150724003402weblink |date=24 July 2015 }}NEWS, Technica, Ars, It’ll cost $45 billion, but Germany proposes to eliminate coal in 19 years,weblink 29 January 2019, Ars Technica, 28 January 2019, WEB, The history behind Germany's nuclear phase-out,weblink Cleanenergywire.org, 2015-08-17, NEWS, Germany renounces nuclear power,weblink BBC, 2000-06-15, 2015-08-17, NEWS,weblink Germany: Nuclear power plants to close by 2022, 30 May 2011, BBC, 30 May 2011, WEB,weblink The implications of Fukushima: The European perspective, Caroline Jorant, July 2011, 67, 4, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 15, NEWS,weblink Merkel shuts down seven nuclear reactors, Knight, Ben, 15 March 2011, Deutsche Welle, 15 March 2011, NEWS,weblink Germany Decides to Abandon Nuclear Power by 2022, Juergen, Baetz, 30 May 2011, Associated Press, 30 May 2011, NEWS,weblink The Year of Peril and Promise in Energy Production, John Broder, 10 October 2011, New York Times, NEWS,weblink Siemens to quit nuclear industry, 18 September 2011, BBC News, WEB, BDEW,weblink$file/Strom_Erneuerbaren_Energien_1_Halbjahr_2012.pdf, Electricity – Renewable Energies in the first half of 2012, Bdew.de, 28 December 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121010174909weblink">weblink$file/Strom_Erneuerbaren_Energien_1_Halbjahr_2012.pdf, 10 October 2012, dead, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Renewables 2014 Global Status Report, page 27, Ren21.net, 28 December 2017, {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121010174909weblink$file/Strom_Erneuerbaren_Energien_1_Halbjahr_2012.pdf |date=10 October 2012 }}NEWS,weblink The Economist, The fuel of the future, 6 April 2013, WEB,weblink Four Lessons Obama Should Learn From Merkel’s Energy Revolution, Stefan Nicola, Bloomberg.com, 29 December 2017, WEB,weblink Renewable Energy Sources in Figures – National and International Development, Erneuerbare-energien.de, 28 December 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120302094445weblink">weblink 2 March 2012, dead, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Germany Leads Way on Renewables, Sets 45% Target by 2030 - Worldwatch Institute, Worldwatch.org, 29 December 2017, WEB,weblink Germany: The World's First Major Renewable Energy Economy, Renewableeneregyworld.com, 29 December 2017, [link=http:/-/www.erneuerbare-energien.de/files/pdfs/allgemein/application/pdf/ee_in_deutschland_graf_tab.pdfweblink[/link] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110408201352weblink |date=8 April 2011 }}NEWS,weblink Reuters, Germany sets new solar power record, institute says, 26 May 2012, WEB,weblink Renewable Energy Germany - German Energy Transition, Energy, Girl, Strom-report.de, 29 December 2017, NEWS,weblink Strom-Report, Germany’s Power Generation Mix 2016, 13 Feb 2017, WEB, BMWi - Erneuerbare Energien - Zeitreihen Erneuerbare Energien, BMWi - Renewable Energy - Renewable Energy Time Series, de,weblink Erneuerbare Energien, 6 December 2016, Table 2, WEB
, Online biomass atlas
, 17 October 2016
, Clean Energy Wire (CLEW)
, Berlin, Germany
,weblink
, 2016-11-08
, WEB
, Bioenergiedaten: Potenziale
, Bioenergy data: potentials
, German, Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ)
, Leipzig, Germany
,weblink
, 2016-11-08
, WEB,weblink Energy Efficiency Trends & Policies - ODYSSEE-MURE, Odyssee-indicators.org, 29 December 2017, WEB,weblink Germany split over green energy, 25 February 2005, 29 December 2017, News.bbc.co.uk, WEB,weblink Energiewende: Bundestag besiegelt den Atomausstieg, 30 June 2011, Zeit.de, 29 December 2017, Severin Fischer/Oliver Geden (2011), Europeanising the German energy transition, SWP Comments 55German Energy Blog Government Adopts Energy ConceptNEWS,weblink BBC News, Germany: Nuclear power plants to close by 2022, 30 May 2011, Dependence on Russian gas worries some – but not all – European countries David Francis, The Christian Science Monitor, 6 March 2008weblink {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101214094757weblink |date=14 December 2010 }}WEB,weblink Aloys Wobben, Forbes.com, 29 December 2017, }}

External links

{{Germany topics}}{{Energy in Europe}}

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