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Russia in the European energy sector

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Russia in the European energy sector
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{{update|date=August 2018}}{{Use dmy dates|date=May 2012}}(File:Europe natural gas supply composition (2010-2017) (44636201715).png|thumb|upright=1.3|Sources of European natural gas, 2010–2017. Russia (dark brown) was the source of 35% of total EU natural gas consumption in 2017.)The Russian Federation supplies a significant volume of fossil fuels and is the largest exporter of oil and natural gas to the European Union. In 2017, energy products accounted around 60% of the EU's total imports from Russia.WEB,weblink EU imports of energy products - recent developments, 4 July 2018, Eurostat, 3–4, live, 11 August 2018, dmy-all,
According to Eurostat, 30% of the EU's petroleum oil imports and 39% of total gas imports came from Russia in 2017. For Estonia, Poland, Slovakia and Finland, more than 75 % of their imports of petroleum oils originated in Russia.
The Russian state-owned company Gazprom exports natural gas to Europe. It also controls many subsidiaries, including various infrastructure assets. According to a study published by the Research Centre for East European Studies, the liberalization of the EU gas market has driven Gazprom's expansion in Europe by increasing its share in the European downstream market. It has established sale subsidiaries in many of its export markets, and has also invested in access to industrial and power generation sectors in Western and Central Europe. In addition, Gazprom has established joint ventures to build natural gas pipelines and storage depots in a number of European countries.JOURNAL
, Research Centre for East European Studies
, Gazprom's Expansion Strategy in Europe and the Liberalization of EU Energy Markets
,weblink
, Andreas Heinrich
, Koszalin
, Russian Analytical Digest
, 34 Russian Business Expansion
, 5 February 2008
, 23 February 2008
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110706230818weblink">weblink
, 6 July 2011
, dmy-all
,
Transneft, a Russian state-owned company responsible for the national oil pipelines, is another Russian company that supplies energy to Europe.{{citation needed|date=April 2013}}
In September 2012, the European Commission opened formal proceedings to investigate whether Gazprom was hindering competition in Central and Eastern European gas markets, in breach of EU competition law. In particular, the Commission looked into Gazprom's usage of ‘no resale’ clauses in supply contracts, alleged prevention of diversification of gas supplies, and imposition of unfair pricing by linking oil and gas prices in long-term contracts.European Commission, Antitrust: Commission Opens Proceedings Against Gazprom, IP/12/937 The Russian Federation responded by issuing blocking legislation, which introduced a default rule prohibiting Russian strategic firms, including Gazprom, to comply with any foreign measures or requests.Marek Martyniszyn, Legislation Blocking Antitrust Investigations and the September 2012 Russian Executive Order, 37(1) World Competition 103 (2014) Compliance is subject to prior permission granted by the Russian government.

History

In the early 1980s there were American efforts, led by the Reagan administration, to convince European countries, through which a proposed Soviet gas pipeline was to be built, to deny firms responsible for construction the ability to purchase supplies and parts for the pipeline and associated facilities. Ronald Reagan feared that a Kremlin-controlled European natural gas pipeline infrastructure would increase the USSR's influence not only in Eastern Europe, but also in Western Europe. For this reason, during his first term in office, he attempted — unsuccessfully — to stop the first natural gas pipeline from being built between the USSR and Germany. The pipeline was built despite these protests and the rise of large Russian gas firms such as Gazprom as well as increased Russian fossil fuel production has facilitated a large expansion in the quantity of gas supplied to the European market since the 1990s.BOOK, Natural Gas as an Instrument of Russian State Power, Iftimie, Ion, Westphalia Press, January 22, 2015, 9781633911390, Second edition, fully revised and updated, Washington, D.C., 74, 908407323,

Natural gas deliveries

(File:Major russian gas pipelines to europe.png|thumb|upright=1.3|Major existing and planned natural gas pipelines supplying Russian gas to Europe)In 2017, 39% of the European Union's natural gas total imports originated in Russia. As of 2009, Russian natural gas was delivered to Europe through 12 pipelines, of which three were direct pipelines (to Finland, Estonia and Latvia), four through Belarus (to Lithuania and Poland) and five through Ukraine (to Slovakia, Romania, Hungary and Poland).JOURNAL
,weblink
, Commission staff working document–Accompanying document to the Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning measures to safeguard security of gas supply and repealing Directive 2004/67/EC. Assessment report of directive 2004/67/EC on security of gas supply {COM(2009) 363}
, European Commission
, 33; 56; 63–76
, PDF
, 16 July 2009
, 30 January 2010,
In 2011, an additional pipeline, Nord Stream (directly to Germany through the Baltic Sea), opened.WEB,weblink Merkel, Medvedev inaugurate new gas pipeline, 8 November 2011, Juergen Baetz, Associated Press, 15 November 2011
, The largest importers of Russian gas in the European Union are Germany and Italy, accounting together for almost half of the EU's gas imports from Russia. Other larger Russian gas importers (over 5 billion cubic meter per year) in the European Union are France, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Poland, Austria and Slovakia.JOURNAL
,weblink
, Country analysis briefs: Russia
, Energy Information Administration
, 11
, May 2008
, 30 January 2010
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100607120415weblink">weblink
, 7 June 2010
, dmy-all,
JOURNAL
,weblink
, A Market Between Us: Reducing the Political Cost of Europe's Dependence on Russian Gas
, University of Cambridge, University of Cambridge Electricity Policy Research Group
, Noël, Pierre
, 2; 38
, EPRG Working Paper Series
, May 2009
, 30 January 2010
, EPRG0916,
The largest non-EU importers of Russian natural gas are Ukraine, Turkey and Belarus.
In 2013 the shares of Russian natural gas in the domestic gas consumption in EU countries were:WEB
,weblink
, Europe's Declining Gas Demand: Trends and Facts about European Gas Consumption
, Dave, Jones
, Manon, Dufour
, Jonathan, Gaventa
, E3G
, 9
, June 2015
, 11 August 2018
, live
, dmy-all,
{{colbegin}}
  • {{Flagu|Estonia}} 100%
  • {{Flagu|Finland}} 100%
  • {{Flagu|Latvia}} 100%
  • {{Flagu|Lithuania}} 100%
  • {{Flagu|Slovakia}} 100%
  • {{Flagu|Bulgaria}} 97%
  • {{Flagu|Hungary}} 83%
  • {{Flagu|Slovenia}} 72%
  • {{Flagu|Greece}} 66%
  • {{Flagu|Czech Republic}} 63%
  • {{Flagu|Austria}} 62%
  • {{Flagu|Poland}} 57%
  • {{Flagu|Germany}} 46%
  • {{Flagu|Italy}} 34%
  • {{Flagu|France}} 18%
  • {{Flagu|Netherlands}} 5%
  • {{Flagu|Belgium}} 1.1%
{{colend}}

Disputes and diversification efforts

{{Seealso|Liquefied natural gas|Nord Stream 2}}File:Vladimir Putin and Angela Merkel in Meseberg, Germany August 2018.jpg|thumb|Angela Merkel criticized the United States's sanctions against Russia that target EU–Russia energy projects."Germany's Angela Merkel slams planned US sanctions on Russia". Deutsche WelleDeutsche WelleOn the eve of the Riga Summit, Senator Richard Lugar, head of the U.S. Senate's Foreign Relations Committee, declared that "the most likely source of armed conflict in the European theatre and the surrounding regions will be energy scarcity and manipulation."BOOK, Energy security challenges for the 21st century : a reference handbook, 2009, Praeger Security International, Luft, Gal., Korin, Anne., 9780275999988, Santa Barbara, Calif., 522747390, Since then, the variety of national policies and stances of larger exporters versus larger dependents of Russian gas, together with the segmentation of the European gas market, has become a prominent issue in European politics toward Russia, with significant geopolitical implications for economic and political ties between the EU and Russia. These ties have occasionally led to calls for greater European energy diversity, although such efforts are complicated by the fact that many European customers have long term legal contracts for gas deliveries despite the disputes, most of which stretch beyond 2025–2030.BOOK, Simon Pirani, Jonathan Stern, Katja Yafimava, The Russo-Ukrainian gas dispute of January 2009: a comprehensive assessment,weblink NG 27, February 2009, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 978-1-901795-85-1, 59, 13 October 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091116184545weblink">weblink 16 November 2009, dmy-all, The EU’s failure to successfully advance a common energy policy can be further exemplified by the building of the Nord Stream pipeline, which embodies the divisions between the center and the periphery of the EU—between Old and New Europe.(File:NDU awards diplomas to inaugural class of ARSOF master's degree candidates 110602-A-GV060-112.jpg|thumb|Natural gas presented as an instrument of Russian state power)A number of disputes over the natural gas prices in which Russia was using pipeline shutdowns in what was described as "tool for intimidation and blackmail"NEWS,weblink Lithuania suspects Russian oil grab, International Herald Tribune, March 17, 2016, The New York Times, 27 October 2006, Kramer, Andrew E., caused the European Union to significantly increase efforts to diversify its energy sources.WEB,weblink Europe's alternatives to Russian gas, European Council of Foreign Relations, March 17, 2016, Some have even argued that Russia has developed "the capacity to use unilateral economic sanctions in the form of gas pricing and gas disruptions against many European North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) member states". During an anti-trust investigation initiated in 2011 against Gazprom, a number of internal company documents were seized that documented a number of "abusive practices" in an attempt to "segment the internal [EU] market along national borders" and impose "unfair pricing".NEWS,weblink EU documents lay bare Russian energy abuse, 2018-04-16, en, The planned Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline from Russia to Germany was opposed by Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko, Polish Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki, U.S. President Donald Trump and British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson.NEWS, Germany and Russia gas links: Trump is not only one to ask questions,weblink The Guardian, July 11, 2018, NEWS, Trump barrels into Europe’s pipeline politics,weblink Politico, July 11, 2018, In 2017, Germany, France, Austria and European Commission criticized the United States over new sanctions against Russia that target Nord Stream 2."Germany threatens retaliation if U.S. sanctions harm its firms". Reuters. June 16, 2017."The U.S. Sanctions Russia, Europe Says 'Ouch!'". Bloomberg. June 16, 2017.NEWS, France says U.S. sanctions on Iran, Russia look illegal,weblink Reuters, July 26, 2017, The United States has been encouraging European countries to diversify Russian-dominated energy supplies, with Qatar as possible alternative supplier.NEWS, U.S. wants Qatar to challenge Russian gas in Europe -U.S. official,weblink Reuters, January 14, 2019, {{see also|2004 Russia–Belarus gas dispute|Russia–Ukraine gas disputes|ORLEN Lietuva|Trans-Caspian Gas Pipeline|Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act}}

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}{{Vladimir Putin}}

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