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Attic numerals

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Attic numerals
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{{pp|small=yes}} {{SpecialChars }}{{Table_Numeral Systems}}Attic numerals were used by the ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd-century manuscript by Herodian. They are also known as acrophonic numerals because the symbols derive from the first letters of the words that the symbols represent: five, ten, hundred, thousand and ten thousand. See Greek numerals and acrophony.{|class="wikitable"!Decimal!Symbol!Greek numeral!IPA
1 (number)>1|Ι| –| –
5 (number)>5|Π[pɛntɛ]}}
10 (number)>10|Δ[deka]}}
100 (number)>100|Η[hɛkaton]}}
1000 (number)>1000|Χ[kʰilioi / kʰilias]}}
10000 (number)>10000|Μ[myrion]}}
The use of Η for 100 reflects the early date of this numbering system: Η (Eta) in the early Attic alphabet represented the sound /h/. In later, "classical" Greek, with the adoption of the Ionic alphabet throughout the majority of Greece, the letter eta had come to represent the long e sound while the rough aspiration was no longer marked.Woodhead, A. G. (1981). The Study of Greek Inscriptions. Second Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 18. {{ISBN|0-521-23188-4}}.Smyth, Herbert Weir; Messing, Gordon M. (2002) [1920]. Greek Grammar. Revised Edition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p. 10 (§14). {{ISBN|0-674-36250-0}}. It was not until Aristophanes of Byzantium introduced the various accent markings during the Hellenistic period that the spiritus asper began to represent /h/. Thus the word for a hundred would originally have been written ΗΕΚΑΤΟΝ, as compared to the now more familiar spelling . In modern Greek, the /h/ phoneme has disappeared altogether, but this has had no effect on the basic spelling.Unlike the more familiar Modern Roman numeral system, the Attic system contains only additive forms. Thus, the number 4 is written ΙΙΙΙ, not ΙΠ.The numerals representing 50, 500, and 5,000 were composites of pi (often in an old form, with a short right leg) and a tiny version of the applicable power of ten. For example, 𐅆 is five times one thousand.{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; margin-left:10px; border: 1px #999 solid;" width=480px;|+ The acrophonic numerals in comparison to the Roman numeral system.! height=50px | Ι! Π ! Δ ! 𐅄! Η! 𐅅! Χ! 𐅆! Μ
1 5 10| 5 × 10 100| 5 × 100 1000| 5 × 1000| 10000
| 50| 500| 1000 × 5| 1000 × 10
! width=10% height=50px | I! width=10% | V! width=10% | X! width=10% | L! width=10% | C! width=10% | D! width=10% | M! width=10% |V! width=10% |X
Example:   1982   =   Χ𐅆ΗΗΗΗ . ð…„ΔΔΔΙΙ   =   MCM . LXXXII.
Specific numeral symbols were used to represent one drachma,Unicode character U+10142: 𐅂 to represent talentsUnicode characters U+10148 to U+1014E and staters,Unicode characters U+1014F to U+10156 to represent ten minasUnicode character U+10157: 𐅗 and to represent one halfUnicode character U+10141: 𐅁 and one quarter.Unicode character U+10140: 𐅀

See also

Notes and references

{{reflist}}{{list of writing systems}}

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