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### Arabic numerals

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Arabic numerals
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{{Other uses}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2012}}{{CSS image crop|Image=Hindu-Arabic numerals.svg|bSize=300|oTop=52|oLeft=0|cWidth=300|cHeight=50|Description=Arabic numerals set in Source Sans}}{{numeral systems}}Arabic numerals, also called Hinduâ€“Arabic numerals,{{Citation|last1=Schipp|first1=Bernhard|title=Statistical Inference, Econometric Analysis and Matrix Algebra: Festschrift in Honour of GÃ¶tz Trenkler|url=https://books.google.com/?id=t6XfLJzqO_kC&pg=PA387|page=387|year=2008|publisher=Springer|isbn=9783790821208|last2=KrÃ¤mer|first2=Walter}}{{Citation|last1=Lumpkin|first1=Beatrice|title=Multicultural science and math connections: middle school projects and activities|url=https://books.google.com/?id=2LgG8lsJQmAC&pg=PA118|page=118|year=1995|publisher=Walch Publishing|isbn=9780825126598|last2=Strong|first2=Dorothy}} are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. The term often implies a decimal number written using these digits, which is the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today. However the term can mean the digits themselves, such as in the statement "octal numbers are written using Arabic numerals."The Hinduâ€“Arabic numeral system (i.e. decimal) was developed by Indian mathematicians around AD 500.BOOK, Richard, Bulliet, Pamela, Crossley, Daniel, Headrick,, Steven, Hirsch, Lyman, Johnson, The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History, Volume 1, 192, Indian mathematicians invented the concept of zero and developed the "Arabic" numerals and system of place-value notation used in most parts of the world today, Cengage Learning, 2010,weblink 1439084742, {{better source|date=January 2017}} From India, the system was adopted by Arabic mathematicians in Baghdad and passed on to the Arabs farther west. The Arabic numerals developed in North Africa. It was in the North African city of Bejaia that the Italian scholar Fibonacci first encountered the numerals; his work was crucial in making them known throughout Europe. European trade, books, and colonialism helped popularize the adoption of Arabic numerals around the world.The term Arabic numerals is ambiguous, it may also be intended to mean the numerals used by Arabs, in which case it generally refers to the Eastern Arabic numerals. Although the phrase "Arabic numeral" is frequently capitalized, it is sometimes written in lower case: for instance in its entry in the Oxford English Dictionary,"Arabic", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition which helps to distinguish it from "Arabic numerals" as the Eastern Arabic numerals.Other alternative names are Western Arabic numerals, Western numerals, Hindu numerals, and Unicode calls them digits.Official Unicode Consortium code chart

## History

### Origins

#### Origin of the Arabic numeral symbols

Cyrillic numerals were a numbering system derived from the Cyrillic alphabet, used by South and East Slavic peoples. The system was used in Russia as late as the early 18th century when Peter the Great replaced it with Arabic numerals.

File:Yuan dynasty iron magic square.jpg|thumb|right|Iron plate with an order 6 magic square in Persian/ Arabic numbers from China, dating to the Yuan DynastyYuan DynastyArabic numerals were introduced to China during the Yuan Dynasty (1271â€“1368) by the Muslim Hui people. In the early 17th century, European-style Arabic numerals were introduced by Spanish and Portuguese Jesuits.BOOK, Helaine Selin, Helaine Selin, Encyclopaedia of the history of science, technology, and medicine in non-western cultures,weblink 3 March 2012, 31 July 1997, Springer, 978-0-7923-4066-9, 198â€“, BOOK, Meuleman, Johan H., Islam in the era of globalization: Muslim attitudes towards modernity and identity,weblink 3 March 2012, 23 August 2002, Psychology Press, 978-0-7007-1691-3, 272, BOOK, Peng Yoke Ho, Li, Qi and Shu: An Introduction to Science and Civilization in China,weblink 3 March 2012, 16 October 2000, Courier Dover Publications, 978-0-486-41445-4, 106,

## Evolution of symbols

The numeral system employed, known as algorism, is positional decimal notation. Various symbol sets are used to represent numbers in the Hinduâ€“Arabic numeral system, potentially including both symbols that evolved from the Brahmi numerals, and symbols that developed independently. The symbols used to represent the system have split into various typographical variants since the Middle Ages:
• The widespread Western Arabic numerals used with the Latin script, in the table below labelled European, descended from the West Arabic numerals developed in al-Andalus (AndalucÃ­a, Spain) and the Maghreb. Spanish scholars, because of the geographic proximity, trade, and constant warfare with the Muslim kingdoms of Southern Spain, saw a potential in the simplicity of Arabic numbers, and decided to adopt those symbols, and later other Europeans followed suit. There are two typographic styles for rendering European numerals, known as lining figures and text figures.
• The Arabicâ€“Indic or Eastern Arabic numerals, used with the Arabic script, developed primarily in what is now Iraq. A variant of the Eastern Arabic numerals used in the Persian and Urdu languages is shown below as East Arabic-Indic.
• The Devanagari numerals used with Devanagari and related variants are grouped as Indian numerals.
The evolution of the numerals in early Europe is shown here in a table created by the French scholar Jean-Ã‰tienne Montucla in his Histoire de la Mathematique, which was published in 1757:(File:EuropeanFormOfArabianDigits.png|frameless|upright=2.25|Table of numerals)

### Encoding

The Arabic numerals 0â€“9 are encoded in ASCII at positions 0x30 to 0x39. Masking to the lower 4 binary bits (or taking the last hexadecimal digit) gives the value of the digit, a great help in converting text to numbers on early computers. These positions were inherited in Unicode]weblink and in virtually all other encodings based in any way on ASCII. EBCDIC used different values, but also had the lower 4 bits equal to the digit value.{| class="wikitable"!style="width: 5.5em"|Binary!style="width: 2.5em"|Octal!style="width: 2.5em"|Decimal!style="width: 2.5em"|Hex!Glyph!Unicode
|0011 0000|060|48|30
|U+0030 DIGIT ZERO
|0011 0001|061|49|31
|U+0031 DIGIT ONE
|0011 0010|062|50|32
|U+0032 DIGIT TWO
|0011 0011|063|51|33
|U+0033 DIGIT THREE
|0011 0100|064|52|34
|U+0034 DIGIT FOUR
|0011 0101|065|53|35
|U+0035 DIGIT FIVE
|0011 0110|066|54|36
|U+0036 DIGIT SIX
|0011 0111|067|55|37
|U+0037 DIGIT SEVEN
|0011 1000|070|56|38
|U+0038 DIGIT EIGHT
|0011 1001|071|57|39
|U+0039 DIGIT NINE

{hide}Columns-list|colwidth=30em| {edih}

{{Notelist}}

{{Reflist|30em}}

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{{Commons+cat|Arabic numerals}}
{{Arabic language}}

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