Nobel Prize in Physics

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Nobel Prize in Physics
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{{Short description|One of the five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel}}{{For|a list of laureates|List of Nobel laureates in Physics}}{{good article}}

| year = 1901| holder = Jim Peebles, Michel Mayor, Didier Queloz (2019)| most_awards = John Bardeen (2)| website = nobelprize.orgWilhelm RöntgenWilhelm RöntgenThe Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the others being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.The first Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to physicist Wilhelm Röntgen in recognition of the extraordinary services he rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays (or X-rays). This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and is widely regarded as the most prestigious award that a scientist can receive in physics. It is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. Through 2019, a total of 212 individuals have been awarded the prize.WEB, All Nobel Prizes in Physics,, Nobel Media AB,weblink 2016-01-19,


Alfred Nobel, in his last will and testament, stated that his wealth should be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in the fields of physics, chemistry, peace, physiology or medicine, and literature.WEB,weblink History – Historic Figures: Alfred Nobel (1833–1896), BBC, 2015-05-03, Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last one was written a year before he died and was signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895.Ragnar Sohlman: 1983, Page 7NEWS,weblink The Nobel Foundation and its Role for Modern Day Science, Springer-Verlag, Die Naturwissenschaften, 6 June 1981, 4 May 2015, von Euler, U.S., PDF, Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million Swedish kronor (US$198 million, Euro€176 million in 2016), to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes.WEB,weblink Nobel's will,, May 4, 2015, Due to the level of skepticism surrounding the will, it was not until April 26, 1897 that it was approved by the Storting (Norwegian Parliament).WEB,weblink The Nobel Foundation – History,, 2015-05-03, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 9, 2010, Agneta Wallin Levinovitz: 2001, Page 13 The executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organise the prizes.The members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee who were to award the Peace Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved. The prize-awarding organisations followed: the Karolinska Institutet on June 7, the Swedish Academy on June 9, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on June 11.WEB,weblink Nobel Prize History –,, 1999-10-13, 2015-05-03, ENCYCLOPEDIA, Encyclopædia Britannica,weblink Nobel Foundation (Scandinavian organisation) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia,, 2015-05-03, The Nobel Foundation then reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II."Nobel Prize" (2007), in Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed 15 January 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: According to Nobel's will, The Royal Swedish Academy of sciences were to award the Prize in Physics.

Nomination and selection

File:Portrait of Albert Einstein and Others (1879-1955), Physicist.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Three Nobel Laureates in Physics. Front row L-R: Albert A. Michelson (1907 prizewinner), Albert Einstein (1921 prizewinner) and Robert A. Millikan (1923 prizewinner).]]A maximum of three Nobel laureates and two different works may be selected for the Nobel Prize in Physics.WEB,weblink Facts and figures, May 4, 2015,, WEB,weblink GJSFR, May 4, 2015, Compared with other Nobel Prizes, the nomination and selection process for the prize in Physics is long and rigorous. This is a key reason why it has grown in importance over the years to become the most important prize in Physics.WEB,weblink The Nobel Prize Selection Process, Britannica Encyclopaedia, May 4, 2015, The Nobel laureates are selected by the Nobel Committee for Physics, a Nobel Committee that consists of five members elected by The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In the first stage that begins in September, around 3,000 people – selected university professors, Nobel Laureates in Physics and Chemistry, etc. – are sent confidential forms to nominate candidates. The completed nomination forms arrive at the Nobel Committee no later than 31 January of the following year. These nominees are scrutinized and discussed by experts who narrow it to approximately fifteen names. The committee submits a report with recommendations on the final candidates into the Academy, where, in the Physics Class, it is further discussed. The Academy then makes the final selection of the Laureates in Physics through a majority vote.WEB, Nomination and Selection of Physics Laureates,weblink, Nobel Media AB 2016, 6 October 2016, The names of the nominees are never publicly announced, and neither are they told that they have been considered for the prize. Nomination records are sealed for fifty years.WEB,weblink 50 year secrecy rule, May 6, 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 1, 2015, While posthumous nominations are not permitted, awards can be made if the individual died in the months between the decision of the prize committee (typically in October) and the ceremony in December. Prior to 1974, posthumous awards were permitted if the recipient had died after being nominated.WEB,weblink About posthumous awards, May 4, 2015, The rules for the Nobel Prize in Physics require that the significance of achievements being recognized has been "tested by time". In practice, it means that the lag between the discovery and the award is typically on the order of 20 years and can be much longer. For example, half of the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar for his work on stellar structure and evolution that was done during the 1930s. As a downside of this tested-by-time rule, not all scientists live long enough for their work to be recognized. Some important scientific discoveries are never considered for a prize, as the discoverers die by the time the impact of their work is appreciated.JOURNAL, 10.1007/s11192-009-0035-9, Why it has become more difficult to predict Nobel Prize winners: A bibliometric analysis of nominees and winners of the chemistry and physics prizes (1901–2007), 2009, Gingras, Yves, Wallace, Matthew L., Scientometrics, 82, 2, 401, 0808.2517, JOURNAL, Nature Chemistry, 10.1038/nchem.372, 2009NatCh...1..509., A noble prize, 2009, 1, 7, 509, 21378920,


A Physics Nobel Prize laureate earns a gold medal, a diploma bearing a citation, and a sum of money.WEB, Tom Rivers, 2009-12-10,weblink 2009 Nobel Laureates Receive Their Honors | Europe| English,, 2015-05-03,


The Nobel Prize medals, minted by MyntverketWEB, Medalj – ett traditionellt hantverk, Myntverket,weblink Swedish, 2007-12-15,weblink" title="">weblink 2007-12-18, in Sweden and the Mint of Norway since 1902, are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation. Each medal has an image of Alfred Nobel in left profile on the obverse. The Nobel Prize medals for Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature have identical obverses, showing the image of Alfred Nobel and the years of his birth and death (1833–1896). Nobel's portrait also appears on the obverse of the Nobel Peace Prize medal and the Medal for the Prize in Economics, but with a slightly different design."The Nobel Prize for Peace" {{webarchive|url= |date=2009-09-16 }}, "Linus Pauling: Awards, Honors, and Medals", Linus Pauling and The Nature of the Chemical Bond: A Documentary History, the Valley Library, Oregon State University. Retrieved 7 December 2007.WEB,weblink The Medals, May 4, 2015, The image on the reverse of a medal varies according to the institution awarding the prize. The reverse sides of the Nobel Prize medals for Chemistry and Physics share the same design of Nature, as a Goddess, whose veil is held up by the Genius of Science. These medals, along with those for Physiology/Medicine and Literature, were designed by Erik Lindberg in 1902.WEB,weblink The Nobel Prize for Physics and Chemistry, 2 October 2018,


File:Nobel Pierre et Marie Curie 1.jpg|thumb|right|300px|1903 Nobel Prize diploma, awarded to Marie Curie and Pierre CuriePierre CurieNobel laureates receive a diploma directly from the hands of the King of Sweden. Each diploma is uniquely designed by the prize-awarding institutions for the laureate who receives it.WEB,weblink The Nobel Prize Diplomas,, 2015-05-03, The diploma contains a picture and text which states the name of the laureate and normally a citation of why they received the prize.

Award money

At the awards ceremony, the laureate is given a document indicating the award sum. The amount of the cash award may differ from year to year, based on the funding available from the Nobel Foundation. For example, in 2009 the total cash awarded was 10 million SEK (US$1.4 million),WEB,weblink The Nobel Prize Amounts,, 2014-08-24, but in 2012, the amount was 8 million Swedish Kronor, or US$1.1 million.WEB,weblink Nobel prize amounts to be cut 20% in 2012, CNN, 2012-06-11, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-07-09, If there are two laureates in a particular category, the award grant is divided equally between the recipients, but if there are three, the awarding committee may opt to divide the grant equally, or award half to one recipient and a quarter to each of the two others.NEWS,weblink Nobel prize for medicine shared by scientists for work on ageing and cancer | Science |, Guardian, 2009-10-05, 2010-01-15, London, Ian, Sample, NEWS, Ian Sample, Science correspondent,weblink Three share Nobel prize for physics | Science |, Guardian, 2008-10-07, 2010-02-10, London, WEB, David Landes,weblink Americans claim Nobel economics prize – The Local,, 2010-01-15, WEB,weblink The 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics – Press Release,, 2009-10-06, 2010-02-10,


The committee and institution serving as the selection board for the prize typically announce the names of the laureates in October. The prize is then awarded at formal ceremonies held annually in Stockholm Concert Hall on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. The laureates receive a diploma, a medal and a document confirming the prize amount.WEB,weblink Nobel prize award ceremony, May 4, 2015,

See also





External links

{{Spoken Wikipedia|Nobel_Prize_in_Physics_Recorded_by_Dimitri_O_Ledenyov_and_Viktor_O_Ledenyov.ogg|2016-02-16}}{{Commons category|Nobel Prize in Physics}} {{Nobel Prize in Physics}}{{Nobel Prizes}}

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