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Margrethe II of Denmark

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Margrethe II of Denmark
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{{other people||Margaret of Denmark (disambiguation)}}
{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2018}}







factoids
{{List collapsed|title=Faroe Islands|1=Atli DamJógvan SundsteinMarita PetersenEdmund JoensenAnfinn KallsbergJóannes EidesgaardKaj Leo JohannesenAksel V. Johannesen}}{{List collapsed|title=Greenland|1=Jonathan MotzfeldtLars Emil JohansenHans EnoksenKuupik KleistAleqa HammondKim Kielsen}}}}Prime Ministers}}| birth_name = 194016|df=y}}| birth_place = Amalienborg, Copenhagen, DenmarkHenri de Laborde de Monpezat13 February 2018|end=d.}}| spouse-type = Spouse {edih}| issue-link = #Family| full name = Margrethe Alexandrine Þórhildur IngridHouse of Glücksburg>Glücksburg150 YEARS OF THE HOUSE OF GLüCKSBORG> URL=HTTP://KONGEHUSET.DK/ENGLISH/MENU/NEWS/150-YEARS-OF-THE-HOUSE-OF-GLCKSBORG, 25 October 2014, | father = Frederick IX of Denmark| mother = Ingrid of Sweden| signature = Margrethe II - signature.svg|religion = Church of Denmark}}{{Danish Royal Family}}Margrethe II (, {{IPA-da|maˈkʁæːˀtə|pron}}; ; ; full name: Margrethe Alexandrine Þórhildur Ingrid; born 16 April 1940) is the Queen of Denmark, as well as the supreme authority of the Church of Denmark and Commander-in-Chief of the Danish Defence. Born into the House of Glücksburg, a royal house with origins in Northern Germany, she was the eldest child of Frederick IX of Denmark and Ingrid of Sweden. She became heir presumptive to her father in 1953, when a constitutional amendment allowed women to inherit the throne.Margrethe succeeded her father upon his death on 14 January 1972. On her accession, she became the first female monarch of Denmark since Margrethe I, ruler of the Scandinavian kingdoms in 1375–1412 during the Kalmar Union. In 1967, she married Henri de Laborde de Monpezat, with whom she has two sons: Crown Prince Frederik and Prince Joachim. She has been on the Danish throne for {{age|1972|1|14}} years, becoming the second-longest-reigning Danish monarch after her ancestor Christian IV.

Early life

File:Amalienborg cph.jpg|thumb|left|Princess Margrethe's birthplace: Frederik VIII's Palace at AmalienborgAmalienborgPrincess Margrethe was born 16 April 1940 at Amalienborg in Copenhagen as the first child of the Crown Prince and Crown Princess (later King Frederick IX and Queen Ingrid). Her father was the eldest son of the then-reigning King Christian X, while her mother was the only daughter of the Crown Prince of Sweden (later King Gustaf VI Adolf). Her birth took place just one week after Nazi Germany's invasion of Denmark on 9 April 1940.She was baptised on 14 May in the Church of Holmen in Copenhagen. The Princess's godparents were: King Christian X (paternal grandfather); Hereditary Prince Knud (paternal uncle); Prince Axel (her paternal grandfather's first cousin); King Gustaf V of Sweden (maternal great-grandfather); Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden (maternal grandfather); Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten (her maternal uncle); Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (maternal grandmother's father).She was named Margrethe after her late maternal grandmother, Crown Princess Margaret of Sweden, Alexandrine after her paternal grandmother, Queen Alexandrine, and Ingrid after her mother. Since her paternal grandfather was also the King of Iceland, she was given the Icelandic name Þórhildur.WEB, Navnet til den ny prinsesse..., nfi.ku.dk, Nordisk Forskningsinstitut, University of Copenhagen, 18 May 2012,weblink 23 January 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170202083411weblink">weblink 2 February 2017, dead, dmy-all, When Margrethe was four years old, in 1944, her younger sister Princess Benedikte was born. Princess Benedikte later married Prince Richard of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg and lives some of the time in Germany. Her second sister, Princess Anne-Marie, was born in 1946. Anne-Marie later married Constantine II of the Hellenes and currently lives in Greece.Margrethe and her sisters grew up in apartments at Frederick VIII's Palace at Amalienborg in Copenhagen and in Fredensborg Palace in North Zealand. She spent summer holidays with the royal family in her parent's summer residence at Gråsten Palace in Southern Jutland. On 20 April 1947, King Christian X died and Margrethe's father ascended the throne as King Frederick IX.

Heir presumptive

(File:Margrethe II of Denmark 1966.jpg|thumb|right|Princess Margrethe in 1966)At the time of her birth, only males could ascend the throne of Denmark, owing to the changes in succession laws enacted in the 1850s when the Glücksburg branch was chosen to succeed. As she had no brothers, it was assumed that her uncle Prince Knud would one day assume the throne.The process of changing the constitution started in 1947, not long after her father ascended the throne and it became clear that Queen Ingrid would have no more children. The popularity of Frederick and his daughters and the more prominent role of women in Danish life started the complicated process of altering the constitution. The law required that the proposal be passed by two successive Parliaments and then by a referendum, which occurred 27 March 1953. The new Act of Succession permitted female succession to the throne of Denmark, according to male-preference cognatic primogeniture, where a female can ascend to the throne only if she does not have a brother. Princess Margrethe therefore became heir presumptive.On her eighteenth birthday, 16 April 1958, Margrethe was given a seat in the Council of State. She subsequently chaired the meetings of the Council in the absence of the King.In 1960, together with the princesses of Sweden and Norway, she travelled to the United States, which included a visit to Los Angeles, and to the Paramount Studios, where they met several celebrities, including Dean Martin, Jerry Lewis and Elvis Presley.WEB, Elvis Presley with Princesses Margrethe of Denmark, Astrid of Norway, and Margaretha of Sweden,weblink Elvispresleymusic.com.au, 7 June 1960, 11 December 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150909182159weblink">weblink 9 September 2015, dmy-all,

Education

Margrethe was educated at the private school N. Zahle's School in Copenhagen from which she graduated in 1959. She spent a year at North Foreland Lodge, a boarding school for girls in Hampshire, England,NEWS, The Illustrated London News, 227, 2, 1955, 552, Princess Margrethe, who is fifteen and is heir presumptive to the Danish throne, is to study for a year in England at North Foreland Lodge, a girls' boarding school near Basingstoke, in Hampshire..., and later studied prehistoric archaeology at Girton College, Cambridge, during 1960–1961, political science at Aarhus University between 1961 and 1962, attended the Sorbonne in 1963, and was at the London School of Economics in 1965. She is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London.Queen Margrethe is fluent in Danish, French, English, Swedish and German, and has a limited knowledge of Faroese.

Marriage and children

(File:Royal Wedding Stockholm 2010-Konserthuset-421.jpg|left|thumb|Queen Margrethe II and her consort, Prince Henrik, in 2010.)Princess Margrethe married a French diplomat, Count Henri de Laborde de Monpezat, 10 June 1967, at the Church of Holmen in Copenhagen. Laborde de Monpezat received the style and title of "His Royal Highness Prince Henrik of Denmark" because of his new position as the spouse of the heir presumptive to the Danish throne. They were married for over fifty years, until his death on 13 February 2018.Margrethe gave birth to her first child 26 May 1968. By tradition, Danish kings were alternately named either Frederick or Christian. She chose to maintain this by assuming the position of a Christian, and thus named her eldest son Frederik. A second child, named Joachim, was born 7 June 1969.

Reign

File:Faroe stamp 302 Queen Margrethe.jpg|thumb|200px|Margrethe II of Denmark in a costume of the Faroese people. Stamp FR 302 of Postverk Føroya, Faroe IslandsFaroe Islands

Succession

Shortly after King Frederick IX delivered his New Year's Address to the Nation at the 1971/72 turn of the year, he fell ill. At his death 14 days later, 14 January 1972, Margrethe succeeded to the throne at the age of 31, becoming the first female Danish sovereign under the new Act of Succession. She was proclaimed Queen from the balcony of Christiansborg Palace 15 January 1972, by Prime Minister Jens Otto Krag. Queen Margrethe II relinquished all the monarch's former titles except the title to Denmark, hence her style "By the Grace of God, Queen of Denmark" (). The Queen chose the motto: God's help, the love of The People, Denmark's strength.In her first address to the people, Queen Margrethe II said: }}

Constitutional role

The Queen's main tasks are to represent the Kingdom abroad and to be a unifying figure at home. She receives foreign ambassadors and awards honours and medals. The Queen performs the latter task by accepting invitations to open exhibitions, attending anniversaries, inaugurating bridges, etc.As an unelected public official, the Queen takes no part in party politics and does not express any political opinions. Although she has the right to vote, she opts not to do so to avoid even the appearance of partisanship.After an election where the incumbent Prime Minister does not have a majority behind him or her, the Queen holds a “Dronningerunde” (Queen's meeting) in which she meets the chairmen of each of the Danish political parties.WEB,weblink The Monarchy today, Kongehuset.dk, 11 December 2014, Each party has the choice of selecting a Royal Investigator to lead these negotiations or alternatively, give the incumbent Prime Minister the mandate to continue his government as is. In theory each party could choose its own leader as Royal Investigator, the social liberal Det Radikale Venstre did so in 2006, but often only one Royal Investigator is chosen plus the Prime Minister, before each election. The leader who, at that meeting succeeds in securing a majority of the seats in the Folketing, is by royal decree charged with the task of forming a new government. (It has never happened in more modern history that any party has held a majority on its own.)Once the government has been formed, it is formally appointed by the Queen. Officially, it is the Queen who is the head of government, and she therefore presides over the Council of State (privy council), where the acts of legislation which have been passed by the parliament are signed into law. In practice, however, nearly all of the Queen's formal powers are exercised by the Cabinet of Denmark.In addition to her roles in her own country, the Queen is also the Colonel-in-Chief of the Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment (Queen's and Royal Hampshires), an infantry regiment of the British Army, following a tradition in her family.

Ruby Jubilee

Queen Margrethe II celebrated her Ruby Jubilee, the 40th year on the throne, on 14 January 2012.NEWS, Queen Margrethe II of Denmark marks 40 years on the throne,weblink BBC News, 12 January 2012, This was marked by a carriage procession, a gala banquet at Christiansborg Palace and numerous TV interviews.

Immigration debate

In an interview within the 2016 book De dybeste rødder (The Deepest Roots), according to historians at the Saxo Institute of the University of Copenhagen she showed a change in attitude to immigration towards a more restrictive stance. She stated that the Danish people should have more explicitly clarified the rules and values of Danish culture in order to be able to teach them to new arrivals. She further stated that the Danes in general have underestimated the difficulties involved in successful integration of immigrants, exemplified with the rules of a democracy not being clarified to Muslim immigrants and a lack of readiness to enforce those rules. This was received as a change in line with the attitude of the Danish people.NEWS, Historiker om Margrethes danskheds-udtalelse: - Hun har fulgt folkesjælens bekymringer,weblink 25 October 2016, TV2 (Denmark), 23 October 2016, NEWS, Dronning Margrethe om integration: »Det er ikke en naturlov, at man bliver dansker af at bo i Danmark«,weblink 25 October 2016, Berlingske Tidende, 22 October 2016,

Personal life and interests

The official residences of the Queen are Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen and Fredensborg Palace. Her summer residence is Gråsten Palace near Sønderborg, the former home of her mother, Queen Ingrid, who died in 2000.Margrethe is an accomplished painter, and has held many art shows over the years. Her illustrations—under the pseudonym Ingahild Grathmer—were used for Danish editions of The Lord of the Rings, which she was encouraged to illustrate in the early 1970s. She sent them to J. R. R. Tolkien who was struck by the similarity of her drawings to his own style. Margrethe's drawings were redrawn by the British artist Eric Fraser in the translation published in 1977 and re-issued in 2002. In 2000, she illustrated Henrik, the Prince Consort's poetry collection Cantabile. She is also an accomplished translator and is said to have participated in the Danish translation of The Lord of the Rings.WEB,weblink Margrethe and Henrik Biography, Royalinsight.net, 16 April 1940, 3 February 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111030181923weblink">weblink 30 October 2011, Another skill she possesses is costume designing, having designed the costumes for the Royal Danish Ballet's production of A Folk Tale and for the 2009 Peter Flinth film, De vilde svaner (The Wild Swans).WEB,weblink Kongehuset.dk, Her Majesty Queen Margrethe II, 11 December 2014, WEB,weblink De vilde svaner (2009), Internet Movie Database, 11 December 2014, She also designs her own clothes and is known for her colourful and sometimes eccentric clothing choices. Margrethe also wears designs by former Pierre Balmain designer Erik Mortensen, Jørgen Bender, and Birgitte Taulow.JOURNAL,weblink The Royal Order of Sartorial Splendor, Flashback Friday: Queen Margrethe's Styl, 13 January 2012, 3 February 2012, The Guardian in March 2013 listed her as one of the fifty best-dressed over 50s.NEWS, The 50 best-dressed over 50s,weblink The Guardian, Manchester, Jess, Cartner-Morley, Helen, Mirren, Arianna, Huffington, Valerie, Amos, 28 March 2013, Margrethe is a chain smoker, and she is famous for her tobacco habit.NEWS,weblink Danish royals angry at cancer accusation, BBC News, 23 March 2001, Julian, Isherwood, 11 December 2014, However, on 23 November 2006, the Danish newspaper B.T. reported an announcement from the Royal Court stating that in the future the Queen would smoke only in private.WEB,weblink Margrethe skruer ned for røgen, 7 May 2014, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071016113125weblink">weblink 16 October 2007, . bt.dk. 26 November 2006A statement in a 2005 authorized biography about the Queen (entitled Margrethe) focused on her views of Islam: "We are being challenged by Islam these years. Globally as well as locally. There is something impressive about people for whom religion imbues their existence, from dusk to dawn, from cradle to grave. There are also Christians who feel this way. There is something endearing about people who give themselves up completely to their faith. But there is likewise something frightening about such a totality, which also is a feature of Islam. A counterbalance has to be found, and one has to, at times, run the risk of having unflattering labels placed on you. For there are some things for which one should display no tolerance. And when we are tolerant, we must know whether it is because of convenience or conviction."NEWS, We need a counter-balance to Islam, says Danish queen,weblink London, The Daily Telegraph, Hannah, Cleaver, 15 April 2005, 11 December 2014,

Family

File:Monarchy Of Denmark April 2010.jpg|thumb|The Queen surrounded by her family waving to crowds on her 70th birthday in April 2010. From left to right: the Crown Princess, Prince Felix, the Crown Prince, Prince Christian, the Queen, Prince Nikolai, Prince Consort Henrik, Prince Joachim and Princess Isabella ]]The Queen has two sons and eight grandchildren, all born at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen: In 2008, the Queen announced that her male-line descendants would bear the additional title of Count or Countess of Monpezat, in recognition of her husband's ancestry.WEB, Monpezat til Frederik og Joachim, Monpezat for Frederik and Joachim, Berlingske, Berlingske Tidende, 30 April 2008,weblink 11 December 2014, File:Queen Margrethe 21-06-2005 Vágur.jpg|thumb|right|Queen Margrethe II in Vágur, Faroe IslandsFaroe IslandsFile:Queen Margrethe II and Prince Henrik of Denmark welcome George W. Bush and Laura Bush.jpg|thumb|Queen Margrethe II and her husband the Prince Consort welcome President George W. Bush and his wife Laura Bush at Fredensborg PalaceFredensborg PalaceFile:Margrethe II Brazilian President.jpg|thumb|Margrethe II with Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da SilvaLuiz Inácio Lula da Silva

Honours

She is the 1,188th knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Spain, and only the 7th Lady of the Order of the Garter since 1901, when King Edward VII appointed his consort a member. She is also Colonel-in-Chief of The Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment (Queen's and Royal Hampshires) in the United Kingdom.{{London Gazette|issue=54745 |date=21 April 1997|page=4766 |supp=y}}Queen Margrethe II Land in Northeast Greenland was named in her honour on 16 April 1990 on the occasion of her 50th birthday.WEB, Catalogue of place names in northern East Greenland, Exploration history and place names of northern East Greenland, Higgins, Anthony K., 2010, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland,weblink 22 August 2019, 158, {{See also|List of honours of the Danish Royal Family by country}}

National

Foreign

File:Royal_coat_of_arms_of_Denmark.svg|Royal coat of armsFile:Royal Standard of Denmark.svg|Royal standardFile:Royal Monogram of Queen Margrethe II of Denmark.svg|Royal monogram of Margrethe IIFile:Private Monogram of Queen Margrethe of Denmark.svg|Personal monogram of Margrethe IIFile:Dual Cypher of Margrethe and Henrik of Denmark.svg|Dual monogram of Margrethe II and husband Henrik, Prince Consort

Ancestry

{{BLP unsourced section|date=April 2018}}{{see also|Family tree of the Danish royal family}}{{ahnentafelalign=center|boxstyle_1=background-color: #fcc;|boxstyle_2=background-color: #fb9;|boxstyle_3=background-color: #ffc;|boxstyle_4=background-color: #bfc;|1= 1. Margrethe II of Denmark|2= 2. Frederik IX of Denmark|3= 3. Ingrid of Sweden|4= 4. Christian X of Denmark|5= 5. Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin|6= 6. Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden|7= 7. Princess Margaret of Connaught|8= 8. Frederik VIII of DenmarkLouise of Sweden>Princess Louise of SwedenFrederick Francis III, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg>Frederick Francis III, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin|11= 11. Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna of Russia|12= 12. Gustav V of Sweden|13= 13. Victoria of Baden|14= 14. Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn|15= 15. Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia}}

Patrilineal descent

{{chart top|text-align=left|Patrilineal descent}}
  1. Egilmar I of Lerigau, dates unknown
  2. Egilmar II of Lerigau, d. 1142
  3. Christian I, Count of Oldenburg, d. 1167
  4. Moritz of Oldenburg, d. 1209
  5. Christian II, Count of Oldenburg, d. 1233
  6. John I, Count of Oldenburg, d. 1275
  7. Christian III, Count of Oldenburg, d. 1285
  8. John II, Count of Oldenburg, d. 1314
  9. Conrad I, Count of Oldenburg, 1300–1347
  10. Christian V, Count of Oldenburg, 1340–1423
  11. Dietrich, Count of Oldenburg, 1398–1440
  12. Christian I of Denmark, 1426–1481
  13. Frederik I of Denmark, 1471–1533
  14. Christian III of Denmark, 1503–1559
  15. John II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, 1545–1622
  16. Alexander, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, 1573–1627
  17. August Philipp, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, 1612–1675
  18. Frederick Louis, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, 1653–1728
  19. Peter August, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, 1696–1775
  20. Prince Karl Anton August of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, 1727–1759
  21. Friedrich Karl Ludwig, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, 1757–1816
  22. Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, 1785–1831
  23. Christian IX of Denmark, 1818–1906
  24. Frederik VIII of Denmark, 1843–1912
  25. Christian X of Denmark, 1870–1947
  26. Frederik IX of Denmark, 1899–1972
  27. Margrethe II of Denmark, b. 1940
{{chart bottom}}

See also

References

{{Reflist|35em}}

Bibliography

  • BOOK, Anderse, Jens, Nørholm, Elise H., 2011, M, 40 Ã¥r pÃ¥ tronen, 1st, Danish, Copenhagen, Lindhardt og Ringhof, 9788711419694,
  • BOOK, Dehn-Nielsen, Henning, 2005, Margrethe 2., Danmarks dronning, 3rd, Danish, Copenhagen, Aschehoug, 8711222832,
  • BOOK, Lyding, Henrik, 2009, Dronningens teater, Danish, Copenhagen, Gyldendal, 9788702078787,
  • BOOK, Margrethe II, Andersen, Jens, 2012, Om man sÃ¥ mÃ¥ sige, 350 Dronning Margrethe-citater, Danish, Copenhagen, Lindhardt og Ringhof, 9788711394168,
  • BOOK, Rubinstein, Mogens, 1996, Dronning Margrethe II, 25 Ã¥r som regent, Danish, Copenhagen, MøntergÃ¥rden, 8775535521,
  • BOOK, Skipper, Jon Bloch, 2008, Tre søstre, samtaler mellem dronning Margrethe, prinsesse Benedikte og dronning Anne-Marie, Danish, Copenhagen, Lindhardt og Ringhof, 9788711300602,

External links

{{Commons category|Margrethe II of Denmark}} {{Monarchs of Denmark}}{{Danish princesses}}{{Current sovereigns}}{{Heads of state of the European Union Member states}}{{Members of the Order of the Garter}}{{Authority control}}

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