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philosophy
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{{Short description|Study of general and fundamental questions}}{{Other uses}}{{Featured article}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move}}{{Use dmy dates|date=December 2023}}File:Le Penseur by Rodin (Kunsthalle Bielefeld) 2014-04-10.JPG|alt=Photo of Auguste Rodin's statue The Thinker|thumb|The statue The Thinker by (Auguste Rodin]] is a symbol of philosophical thought.{{multiref | {{harvnb|Pratt|2023|p=169}} | {{harvnb|Morujão|Dimas|Relvas|2021|p=105}} | {{harvnb|Mitias|2022|p=3}} }}|348x348px){{Philosophy sidebar}}Philosophy (, in Ancient Greek) is a systematic study of general and fundamental questions concerning topics like existence, reason, knowledge, value, mind, and language. It is a rational and critical inquiry that reflects on its own methods and assumptions.Historically, many of the individual sciences, such as physics and psychology, formed part of philosophy. However, they are considered separate academic disciplines in the modern sense of the term. Influential traditions in the history of philosophy include Western, Arabic–Persian, Indian, and Chinese philosophy. Western philosophy originated in Ancient Greece and covers a wide area of philosophical subfields. A central topic in Arabic–Persian philosophy is the relation between reason and revelation. Indian philosophy combines the spiritual problem of how to reach enlightenment with the exploration of the nature of reality and the ways of arriving at knowledge. Chinese philosophy focuses principally on practical issues in relation to right social conduct, government, and self-cultivation.Major branches of philosophy are epistemology, ethics, logic, and metaphysics. Epistemology studies what knowledge is and how to acquire it. Ethics investigates moral principles and what constitutes right conduct. Logic is the study of correct reasoning and explores how good arguments can be distinguished from bad ones. Metaphysics examines the most general features of reality, existence, objects, and properties. Other subfields are aesthetics, philosophy of language, philosophy of mind, philosophy of religion, philosophy of science, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of history, and political philosophy. Within each branch, there are competing schools of philosophy that promote different principles, theories, or methods.Philosophers use a great variety of methods to arrive at philosophical knowledge. They include conceptual analysis, reliance on common sense and intuitions, use of thought experiments, analysis of ordinary language, description of experience, and critical questioning. Philosophy is related to many other fields, including the sciences, mathematics, business, law, and journalism. It provides an interdisciplinary perspective and studies the scope and fundamental concepts of these fields. It also investigates their methods and ethical implications.{{toclimit|3}}

Etymology

The word philosophy comes from the Ancient Greek words ({{transl|grc|philos}}) {{gloss|love}} and ({{transl|grc|sophia}}) {{gloss|wisdom}}.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Hoad|1993|p=350}} |2={{harvnb|Simpson|2002|loc=Philosophy}} |3={{harvnb|Jacobs|2022|p=23}} }}{{efn|The Ancient Greek philosophos ('philosopher') was itself possibly borrowed from the Ancient Egyptian term mer-rekh (mr-rḫ) meaning 'lover of wisdom'.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Herbjørnsrud|2021|p=123}} |2={{harvnb|Herbjørnsrud|2023|p=X}} }}}} Some sources say that the term was coined by the pre-Socratic philosopher Pythagoras, but this is not certain.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Bottin|1993|p=151}} |2={{harvnb|Jaroszyński|2018|p=12}} }}File:Doctor Zirkel follows Newton's famous steps under the fabled Wellcome V0011942.jpg|alt=Wood engraving of Isaac Newton under an apple tree|thumb|left|upright=0.75|Physics was originally part of philosophy, like Isaac Newton's observation of how gravity affects falling apples.]]The word entered the English language primarily from Old French and Anglo-Norman starting around 1175 CE. The French is itself a borrowing from the Latin . The term philosophy acquired the meanings of "advanced study of the speculative subjects (logic, ethics, physics, and metaphysics)", "deep wisdom consisting of love of truth and virtuous living", "profound learning as transmitted by the ancient writers", and "the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence, and the basic limits of human understanding".{{multiref |1={{harvnb|OED staff|2022|loc=Philosophy, n.}} |2={{harvnb|Hoad|1993|p=350}} }}Before the modern age, the term philosophy was used in a wide sense. It included most forms of rational inquiry, such as the individual sciences, as its subdisciplines.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Ten|1999|p=9}} |2={{harvnb|Tuomela|1985|p=1}} |3={{harvnb|Grant|2007|p=303}} }} For instance, natural philosophy was a major branch of philosophy.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Kenny|2018|p=189}} |2={{harvnb|Grant|2007|p=163}} |3={{harvnb|Cotterell|2017|p=458}} |4={{harvnb|Maddy|2022|p=24}} }} This branch of philosophy encompassed a wide range of fields, including disciplines like physics, chemistry, and biology.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Grant|2007|p=318}} |2={{harvnb|Ten|1999|p=9}} }} An example of this usage is the 1687 book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica by Isaac Newton. This book referred to natural philosophy in its title, but it is today considered a book of physics.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Cotterell|2017|p=458}} |2={{harvnb|Maddy|2022|p=24}} |3={{harvnb|Regenbogen|2010|loc=Philosophiebegriffe}} }}The meaning of philosophy changed toward the end of the modern period when it acquired the more narrow meaning common today. In this new sense, the term is mainly associated with philosophical disciplines like metaphysics, epistemology, and ethics. Among other topics, it covers the rational study of reality, knowledge, and values. It is distinguished from other disciplines of rational inquiry such as the empirical sciences and mathematics.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Grayling|2019|loc=Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century}} |2={{harvnb|Regenbogen|2010}} |3={{harvnb|Ten|1999|p=9}} |4={{harvnb|AHD Staff|2022}} }}

Conceptions of philosophy

{{see also|Metaphilosophy}}

General conception

The practice of philosophy is characterized by several general features: it is a form of rational inquiry, it aims to be systematic, and it tends to critically reflect on its own methods and presuppositions.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Audi|2006|loc=Lead Section, § Conclusion}} |2={{harvnb|Quinton|2005|p=702}} |3={{harvnb|Regenbogen|2010|loc=Philosophiebegriffe}} |4={{harvnb|EB Staff|2023a}} |5={{harvnb|OUP Staff|2020}} |6={{harvnb|Adler|2000}} }} It requires attentively thinking long and carefully about the provocative, vexing, and enduring problems central to the human condition.{{sfn|Perry|Bratman|Fischer|2010|p=4}}The philosophical pursuit of wisdom involves asking general and fundamental questions. It often does not result in straightforward answers but may help a person to better understand the topic, examine their life, dispel confusion, and overcome prejudices and self-deceptive ideas associated with common sense.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Russell|1912|p=91}} |2={{harvnb|Blackwell|2013|p=148}} |3={{harvnb|Pojman|2009|page=2}} |4={{harvnb|Kenny|2004|p=xv}} |5={{harvnb|Vintiadis|2020|p=137}} }} For example, Socrates stated that "the unexamined life is not worth living" to highlight the role of philosophical inquiry in understanding one's own existence.{{sfn|Plato|2023|loc=Apology}}{{sfn|McCutcheon|2014|p=26}} And according to Bertrand Russell, "the man who has no tincture of philosophy goes through life imprisoned in the prejudices derived from common sense, from the habitual beliefs of his age or his nation, and from convictions which have grown up in his mind without the cooperation or consent of his deliberate reason."{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Russell|1912|p=91}} |2={{harvnb|Blackwell|2013|p=148}} }}

Academic definitions

Attempts to provide more precise definitions of philosophy are controversial{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Quinton|2005|p=702}} |2={{harvnb|Regenbogen|2010|loc=Philosophiebegriffe}} }} and are studied in metaphilosophy.{{sfn|Overgaard|Gilbert|Burwood|2013|pp=vii, 17}} Some approaches argue that there is a set of essential features shared by all parts of philosophy. Others see only weaker family resemblances or contend that it is merely an empty blanket term.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Overgaard|Gilbert|Burwood|2013|pp=20, 44|loc=What Is Philosophy?}} |2={{harvnb|Mittelstraß|2005|loc=Philosophie}} }} Precise definitions are often only accepted by theorists belonging to a certain philosophical movement and are revisionistic according to Søren Overgaard et al. in that many presumed parts of philosophy would not deserve the title "philosophy" if they were true.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Joll}} |2={{harvnb|Overgaard|Gilbert|Burwood|2013|pp=20–21, 25, 35, 39|loc=What Is Philosophy?}} }}Some definitions characterize philosophy in relation to its method, like pure reasoning. Others focus on its topic, for example, as the study of the biggest patterns of the world as a whole or as the attempt to answer the big questions.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Overgaard|Gilbert|Burwood|2013|pp=20–22|loc=What Is Philosophy?}} |2={{harvnb|Rescher|2013|loc=1. The Nature of Philosophy|pp=1–3}} |3={{harvnb|Nuttall|2013|loc=1. The Nature of Philosophy|pp=12–13}} }} Such an approach is pursued by Immanuel Kant, who holds that the task of philosophy is united by four questions: "What can I know?"; "What should I do?"; "What may I hope?"; and "What is the human being?"{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Guyer|2014|pp=7–8}} |2={{harvnb|Kant|1998|p=A805/B833}} |3={{harvnb|Kant|1992|p=9:25}} }} Both approaches have the problem that they are usually either too wide, by including non-philosophical disciplines, or too narrow, by excluding some philosophical sub-disciplines.{{sfn|Overgaard|Gilbert|Burwood|2013|pp=20–22|loc=What Is Philosophy?}}Many definitions of philosophy emphasize its intimate relation to science.{{sfn|Regenbogen|2010|loc=Philosophiebegriffe}} In this sense, philosophy is sometimes understood as a proper science in its own right. According to some naturalistic philosophers, such as W. V. O. Quine, philosophy is an empirical yet abstract science that is concerned with wide-ranging empirical patterns instead of particular observations.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Overgaard|Gilbert|Burwood|2013|pp=26–27|loc=What Is Philosophy?}} |2={{harvnb|Hylton|Kemp|2020}} }} Science-based definitions usually face the problem of explaining why philosophy in its long history has not progressed to the same extent or in the same way as the sciences.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Overgaard|Gilbert|Burwood|2013|pp=25–27|loc=What Is Philosophy?}} |2={{harvnb|Chalmers|2015|pp=3–4}} |3={{harvnb|Dellsén|Lawler|Norton|2021|pp=814–815}} }} This problem is avoided by seeing philosophy as an immature or provisional science whose subdisciplines cease to be philosophy once they have fully developed.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Regenbogen|2010|loc=Philosophiebegriffe}} |2={{harvnb|Mittelstraß|2005|loc=Philosophie}} |3={{harvnb|Overgaard|Gilbert|Burwood|2013|pp=27–30|loc=What Is Philosophy?}} }} In this sense, philosophy is sometimes described as "the midwife of the sciences".{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Hacker|2013|p=6}} |2={{harvnb|Regenbogen|2010|loc=Philosophiebegriffe}} }}Other definitions focus on the contrast between science and philosophy. A common theme among many such conceptions is that philosophy is concerned with meaning, understanding, or the clarification of language.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Overgaard|Gilbert|Burwood|2013|pp=34–36|loc=What Is Philosophy?}} |2={{harvnb|Rescher|2013|loc=1. The Nature of Philosophy|pp=1–2}} }} According to one view, philosophy is conceptual analysis, which involves finding the necessary and sufficient conditions for the application of concepts.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Overgaard|Gilbert|Burwood|2013|pp=20–21, 29|loc=What Is Philosophy?}} |2={{harvnb|Nuttall|2013|loc=1. The Nature of Philosophy|pp=12–13}} |3={{harvnb|Shaffer|2015|pp=555–556}} }} Another definition characterizes philosophy as thinking about thinking to emphasize its self-critical, reflective nature.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Overgaard|Gilbert|Burwood|2013|pp=36–37, 43|loc=What Is Philosophy?}} |2={{harvnb|Nuttall|2013|loc=1. The Nature of Philosophy|p=12}} }} A further approach presents philosophy as a linguistic therapy. According to Ludwig Wittgenstein, for instance, philosophy aims at dispelling misunderstandings to which humans are susceptible due to the confusing structure of ordinary language.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Regenbogen|2010|loc=Philosophiebegriffe}} |2={{harvnb|Joll|loc=Lead Section, § 2c. Ordinary Language Philosophy and the Later Wittgenstein}} |3={{harvnb|Biletzki|Matar|2021}} }}Phenomenologists, such as Edmund Husserl, characterize philosophy as a "rigorous science" investigating essences.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Joll|loc=§ 4.a.i}} |2={{harvnb|Gelan|2020|p=98|loc=Husserl's Idea of Rigorous Science and Its Relevance for the Human and Social Sciences}} |3={{harvnb|Ingarden|1975|pp=8–11|loc=The Concept of Philosophy as Rigorous Science}} |4={{harvnb|Tieszen|2005|p=100}} }} They practice a radical suspension of theoretical assumptions about reality to get back to the "things themselves", that is, as originally given in experience. They contend that this base-level of experience provides the foundation for higher-order theoretical knowledge, and that one needs to understand the former to understand the latter.{{sfn|Smith|loc=§ 2.b}}An early approach found in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy is that philosophy is the spiritual practice of developing one's rational capacities.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Banicki|2014|p=7}} |2={{harvnb|Hadot|1995|loc=11. Philosophy as a Way of Life}} }} This practice is an expression of the philosopher's love of wisdom and has the aim of improving one's well-being by leading a reflective life.{{sfn|Grimm|Cohoe|2021|pp=236–237}} For example, the Stoics saw philosophy as an exercise to train the mind and thereby achieve eudaimonia and flourish in life.{{sfn|Sharpe|Ure|2021|pp=76, 80}}

History {{anchor|Historical overview}}

As a discipline, the history of philosophy aims to provide a systematic and chronological exposition of philosophical concepts and doctrines.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Copleston|2003|pp=4–6}} |2={{harvnb|Santinello|Piaia|2010|pp=487–488}} |3={{harvnb|Verene|2008|pp=6–8}} }} Some theorists see it as a part of intellectual history, but it also investigates questions not covered by intellectual history such as whether the theories of past philosophers are true and have remained philosophically relevant.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Laerke|Smith|Schliesser|2013|pp=115–118}} |2={{harvnb|Verene|2008|pp=6–8}} |3={{harvnb|Frede|2022|p=x}} |4={{harvnb|Beaney|2013|p=60}} }} The history of philosophy is primarily concerned with theories based on rational inquiry and argumentation; some historians understand it in a looser sense that includes myths, religious teachings, and proverbial lore.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Scharfstein|1998|pp=1–4}} |2={{harvnb|Perrett|2016|loc=Is There Indian Philosophy?}} |3={{harvnb|Smart|2008|pp=1–3}} |4={{harvnb|Rescher|2014|p=173}} |5={{harvnb|Parkinson|2005|pp=1–2}} }}Influential traditions in the history of philosophy include Western, Arabic–Persian, Indian, and Chinese philosophy. Other philosophical traditions are Japanese philosophy, Latin American philosophy, and African philosophy.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Smart|2008|pp=v, 1–12}} |2={{harvnb|Flavel|Robbiano|2023|p=279}} |3={{harvnb|Solomon|Higgins|2003|pp=xv–xvi}} |4={{harvnb|Grayling|2019|loc=Contents, Preface}} }}

Western

File:Aristotle Altemps Inv8575.jpg|thumb|alt=Bust of Aristotle|Shields|2022|loc=Lead Section}}Western philosophy originated in Ancient Greece in the 6th century BCE with the pre-Socratics. They attempted to provide rational explanations of the cosmos as a whole.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Blackson|2011|loc=Introduction}} |2={{harvnb|Graham|2023|loc=Lead Section, 1. Presocratic Thought}} |3={{harvnb|Duignan|2010|pp=9–11}} }} The philosophy following them was shaped by Socrates (469–399 BCE), Plato (427–347 BCE), and Aristotle (384–322 BCE). They expanded the range of topics to questions like how people should act, how to arrive at knowledge, and what the nature of reality and mind is.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Graham|2023|loc=Lead Section, 2. Socrates, 3. Plato, 4. Aristotle}} |2={{harvnb|Grayling|2019|loc=Socrates, Plato, Aristotle}} }} The later part of the ancient period was marked by the emergence of philosophical movements, for example, Epicureanism, Stoicism, Skepticism, and Neoplatonism.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Long|1986|p=1}} |2={{harvnb|Blackson|2011|loc=Chapter 10}} |3={{harvnb|Graham|2023|loc=6. Post-Hellenistic Thought}} }} The medieval period started in the 5th century CE. Its focus was on religious topics and many thinkers used ancient philosophy to explain and further elaborate Christian doctrines.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Duignan|2010|p=9}} |2={{harvnb|Lagerlund|2020|p=v}} |3={{harvnb|Marenbon|2023|loc=Lead Section}} |4={{harvnb|MacDonald|Kretzmann|1998|loc=Lead Section}} }}{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Grayling|2019|loc=Part II: Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy}} |2={{harvnb|Adamson|2019|pp=3–4}} }}The Renaissance period started in the 14th century and saw a renewed interest in schools of ancient philosophy, in particular Platonism. Humanism also emerged in this period.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Parkinson|2005|pp=1, 3}} |2={{harvnb|Adamson|2022|pp=155–157}} |3={{harvnb|Grayling|2019|loc=Philosophy in the Renaissance}} |4={{harvnb|Chambre|Maurer|Stroll|McLellan|2023|loc=Renaissance Philosophy}} }} The modern period started in the 17th century. One of its central concerns was how philosophical and scientific knowledge are created. Specific importance was given to the role of reason and sensory experience.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Grayling|2019|loc=The Rise of Modern Thought; The Eighteenth-century Enlightenment}} |2={{harvnb|Anstey|Vanzo|2023|pp=236–237}} }} Many of these innovations were used in the Enlightenment movement to challenge traditional authorities.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Grayling|2019|loc=The Eighteenth-Century Enlightenment}} |2={{harvnb|Kenny|2006|pp=90–92}} }} Several attempts to develop comprehensive systems of philosophy were made in the 19th century, for instance, by German idealism and Marxism.{{sfn|Grayling|2019|loc=Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century}} Influential developments in 20th-century philosophy were the emergence and application of formal logic, the focus on the role of language as well as pragmatism, and movements in continental philosophy like phenomenology, existentialism, and post-structuralism.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Grayling|2019|loc=Philosophy in the Twentieth Century}} |2={{harvnb|Livingston|2017|loc=6. 'Analytic' and 'Continental' Philosophy}} |3={{harvnb|Silverman|Welton|1988|pp=5–6}} }} The 20th century saw a rapid expansion of academic philosophy in terms of the number of philosophical publications and philosophers working at academic institutions.{{sfn|Grayling|2019|loc=Philosophy in the Twentieth Century}} There was also a noticeable growth in the number of female philosophers, but they still remained underrepresented.{{sfn|Waithe|1995|pp=xix–xxiii}}

Arabic–Persian

File:Avicenna_Portrait_on_Silver_Vase_-_Museum_at_BuAli_Sina_(Avicenna)_Mausoleum_-_Hamadan_-_Western_Iran_(7423560860).jpg|thumb|alt=Portrait of Avicenna on a Silver Vase|Portrait of Avicenna on a silver vase. He was one of the most influential philosophers of the Islamic Golden AgeIslamic Golden AgeArabic–Persian philosophy arose in the early 9th century CE as a response to discussions in the Islamic theological tradition. Its classical period lasted until the 12th century CE and was strongly influenced by ancient Greek philosophers. It employed their ideas to elaborate and interpret the teachings of the Quran.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Adamson|Taylor|2004|p=1}} |2={{harvnb|EB Staff|2020}} |3={{harvnb|Grayling|2019|loc=Arabic–Persian Philosophy}} |4={{harvnb|Adamson|2016|pp=5–6}} }}Al-Kindi (801–873 CE) is usually regarded as the first philosopher of this tradition. He translated and interpreted many works of Aristotle and Neoplatonists in his attempt to show that there is a harmony between reason and faith.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Esposito|2003|p=246}} |2={{harvnb|Nasr|Leaman|2013|loc=11. Al-Kindi}} |3={{harvnb|Nasr|2006|pp=109–110}} |4={{harvnb|Adamson|2020|loc=Lead Section}} }} Avicenna (980–1037 CE) also followed this goal and developed a comprehensive philosophical system to provide a rational understanding of reality encompassing science, religion, and mysticism.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Gutas|2016}} |2={{harvnb|Grayling|2019|loc=Ibn Sina (Avicenna)}} }} Al-Ghazali (1058–1111 CE) was a strong critic of the idea that reason can arrive at a true understanding of reality and God. He formulated a detailed critique of philosophy and tried to assign philosophy a more limited place besides the teachings of the Quran and mystical insight.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Adamson|2016|pp=140–146}} |2={{harvnb|Dehsen|2013|p=75}} |3={{harvnb|Griffel|2020|loc=Lead Section, 3. Al-Ghazâlî's "Refutations" of Falsafa and Ismâ’îlism, 4. The Place of Falsafa in Islam}} }} Following Al-Ghazali and the end of the classical period, the influence of philosophical inquiry waned.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Grayling|2019|loc=Ibn Rushd (Averroes)}} |2={{harvnb|Kaminski|2017|p=32}} }} Mulla Sadra (1571–1636 CE) is often regarded as one of the most influential philosophers of the subsequent period.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Rizvi|2021|loc=Lead Section, 3. Metaphysics, 4. Noetics — Epistemology and Psychology}} |2={{harvnb|Chamankhah|2019|p=73}} }} The increasing influence of Western thought and institutions in the 19th and 20th centuries gave rise to the intellectual movement of Islamic modernism, which aims to understand the relation between traditional Islamic beliefs and modernity.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Moaddel|2005|pp=1–2}} |2={{harvnb|Masud|2009|pp=237–238}} |3={{harvnb|Safi|2005|loc=Lead Section}} }}

Indian

One of the distinguishing features of Indian philosophy is that it integrates the exploration of the nature of reality, the ways of arriving at knowledge, and the spiritual question of how to reach enlightenment.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Smart|2008|p=3}} |2={{harvnb|Grayling|2019|loc=Indian Philosophy}} }} It started around 900 BCE when the Vedas were written. They are the foundational scriptures of Hinduism and contemplate issues concerning the relation between the self and ultimate reality as well as the question of how souls are reborn based on their past actions.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Perrett|2016|loc=Indian philosophy: A Brief Historical Overview, the Ancient Period of Indian Philosophy}} |2={{harvnb|Grayling|2019|loc=Indian Philosophy}} |3={{harvnb|Pooley|Rothenbuhler|2016|p=1468}} |4={{harvnb|Andrea|Overfield|2015|pp=71}} }} This period also saw the emergence of non-Vedic teachings, like Buddhism and Jainism.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Perrett|2016|loc=The Ancient Period of Indian Philosophy}} |2={{harvnb|Ruether|2004|p=57}} }} Buddhism was founded by Gautama Siddhartha (563–483 BCE), who challenged the Vedic idea of a permanent self and proposed a path to liberate oneself from suffering. Jainism was founded by Mahavira (599–527 BCE), who emphasized non-violence as well as respect toward all forms of life.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Perrett|2016|loc=The Ancient Period of Indian Philosophy}} |2={{harvnb|Vallely|2012|pp=609–610}} |3={{harvnb|Gorisse|2023|loc=Lead Section}} }}The subsequent classical period started roughly 200 BCE{{efn|The exact periodization is disputed with some sources suggesting it started as early as 500 BCE, while others argue it began as late as 200 CE.{{multiref | {{harvnb|Phillips|1998|p=324}} | {{harvnb|Perrett|2016|loc=Indian Philosophy: A Brief Historical Overview}} | {{harvnb|Glenney|Silva|2019|p=77}} }}}} and was characterized by the emergence of the six orthodox schools of Hinduism: Nyāyá, Vaiśeṣika, Sāṃkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā, and Vedanta.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Perrett|2016|loc=Indian Philosophy: A Brief Historical Overview, The Classical Period of Indian Philosophy, The Medieval Period of Indian Philosophy}} |2={{harvnb|Glenney|Silva|2019|p=77}} |3={{harvnb|Adamson|Ganeri|2020|pp=101–102}} }} The school of Advaita Vedanta developed later in this period. It was systematized by Adi Shankara ({{circa|700}}–750 CE), who held that everything is one and that the impression of a universe consisting of many distinct entities is an illusion.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Perrett|2016|loc=The Medieval Period of Indian Philosophy}} |2={{harvnb|Dalal|2021|loc=Lead Section, 2. Metaphysics}} |3={{harvnb|Menon|loc=Lead Section}} }} A slightly different perspective was defended by Ramanuja (1017–1137 CE),{{efn|These dates are traditionally cited but some recent scholars suggest that his life ran from 1077 to 1157.{{sfn|Ranganathan|loc=1. Rāmānuja's Life and Works}}}} who founded the school of Vishishtadvaita Vedanta and argued that individual entities are real as aspects or parts of the underlying unity.{{sfn|Ranganathan|loc=Lead Section, 2c. Substantive Theses}} He also helped to popularize the Bhakti movement, which taught devotion toward the divine as a spiritual path and lasted until the 17th to 18th centuries CE.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Ranganathan|loc=4. Rāmānuja's Soteriology}} |2={{harvnb|Kulke|Rothermund|1998|p=139}} |3={{harvnb|Seshadri|1996|p=297}} |4={{harvnb|Jha|2022|p=217}} }} The modern period began roughly 1800 CE and was shaped by encounters with Western thought.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Perrett|2016|loc=Indian Philosophy: A Brief Historical Overview, the Modern Period of Indian Philosophy}} |2={{harvnb|EB Staff|2023}} }} Philosophers tried to formulate comprehensive systems to harmonize diverse philosophical and religious teachings. For example, Swami Vivekananda (1863–1902 CE) used the teachings of Advaita Vedanta to argue that all the different religions are valid paths toward the one divine.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Banhatti|1995|pp=151–154}} |2={{harvnb|Bilimoria|2018|pp=529–531}} |3={{harvnb|Rambachan|1994|pp=91–92}} }}

Chinese

File:Half Portraits of the Great Sage and Virtuous Men of Old - Confucius.jpg|thumb|alt=Painting of Confucius|The teachings of ConfuciusConfuciusChinese philosophy is particularly interested in practical questions associated with right social conduct, government, and self-cultivation.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Smart|2008|pp=3, 70–71}} |2={{harvnb|EB Staff|2017|loc=Lead Section, § Periods of Development of Chinese Philosophy}} |3={{harvnb|Littlejohn|2023}} |4={{harvnb|Grayling|2019|loc=Chinese Philosophy}} |5={{harvnb|Cua|2009|pp=43–45}} |6={{harvnb|Wei-Ming|loc=Lead Section}} }} Many schools of thought emerged in the 6th century BCE in competing attempts to resolve the political turbulence of that period. The most prominent among them were Confucianism and Daoism.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Perkins|2013|pp=486–487}} |2={{harvnb|Ma|2015|p=xiv}} |3={{harvnb|Botz-Bornstein|2023|p=61}} }} Confucianism was founded by Confucius (551–479 BCE). It focused on different forms of moral virtues and explored how they lead to harmony in society.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|EB Staff|2017|loc=Lead Section, § Periods of Development of Chinese Philosophy}} |2={{harvnb|Smart|2008|pp=70–76}} |3={{harvnb|Littlejohn|2023|loc=1b. Confucius (551-479 B.C.E.) of the Analects}} |4={{harvnb|Boyd|Timpe|2021|pp=64–66}} |5={{harvnb|Marshev|2021|pp=100–101}} }} Daoism was founded by Laozi (6th century BCE) and examined how humans can live in harmony with nature by following the Dao or the natural order of the universe.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|EB Staff|2017|loc=Lead Section, § Periods of Development of Chinese Philosophy}} |2={{harvnb|Slingerland|2007|pp=77–78}} |3={{harvnb|Grayling|2019|loc=Chinese Philosophy}} }} Other influential early schools of thought were Mohism, which developed an early form of altruistic consequentialism,{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Grayling|2019|loc=Chinese Philosophy}} |2={{harvnb|Littlejohn|2023|loc=1c. Mozi (c. 470–391 B.C.E.) and Mohism}} |3={{harvnb|Defoort|Standaert|2013|p=35}} }} and Legalism, which emphasized the importance of a strong state and strict laws.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Grayling|2019|loc=Chinese Philosophy}} |2={{harvnb|Kim|2019|p=161}} |3={{harvnb|Littlejohn|2023|loc=2a. Syncretic Philosophies in the Qin and Han Periods}} }}Buddhism was introduced to China in the 1st century CE and diversified into new forms of Buddhism.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Littlejohn|2023|loc=§ Early Buddhism in China}} |2={{harvnb|EB Staff|2017|loc=§ Periods of Development of Chinese Philosophy}} }} Starting in the 3rd century CE, the school of Xuanxue emerged. It interpreted earlier Daoist works with a specific emphasis on metaphysical explanations. Neo-Confucianism developed in the 11th century CE. It systematized previous Confucian teachings and sought a metaphysical foundation of ethics.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Littlejohn|2023|loc=4b. Neo-Confucianism: The Original Way of Confucius for a New Era}} |2={{harvnb|EB Staff|2017|loc=§ Periods of Development of Chinese Philosophy}} }} The modern period in Chinese philosophy began in the early 20th century and was shaped by the influence of and reactions to Western philosophy. The emergence of Chinese Marxism—which focused on class struggle, socialism, and communism—resulted in a significant transformation of the political landscape.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Littlejohn|2023|loc=5. The Chinese and Western Encounter in Philosophy}} |2={{harvnb|Jiang|2009|pp=473–480}} |3={{harvnb|Qi|2014|pp=99–100}} |4={{harvnb|Tian|2009|pp=512–513}} }} Another development was the emergence of New Confucianism, which aims to modernize and rethink Confucian teachings to explore their compatibility with democratic ideals and modern science.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Van Norden|2022|loc=§ 6. Influence}} |2={{harvnb|Redse|2015|pp=21–22}} |3={{harvnb|Makeham|2003|pp=94–95}} }}

Other traditions

Traditional Japanese philosophy assimilated and synthesized ideas from different traditions, including the indigenous Shinto religion and Chinese and Indian thought in the forms of Confucianism and Buddhism, both of which entered Japan in the 6th and 7th centuries. Its practice is characterized by active interaction with reality rather than disengaged examination.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Kasulis|2022|loc=Lead Section, § 3.2 Confucianism, § 3.3 Buddhism}} |2={{harvnb|Kasulis|1998|loc=Lead Section}} }} Neo-Confucianism became an influential school of thought in the 16th century and the following Edo period and prompted a greater focus on language and the natural world.{{multiref|{{harvnb|Kasulis|2022|loc=§ 4.3 Edo-period Philosophy (1600–1868)}}|{{harvnb|Kasulis|1998|loc=Lead Section}} }} The Kyoto School emerged in the 20th century and integrated Eastern spirituality with Western philosophy in its exploration of concepts like absolute nothingness (zettai-mu), place (basho), and the self.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Davis|2022|loc=Lead Section, § 3. Absolute Nothingness: Giving Philosophical Form to the Formless}} |2={{harvnb|Kasulis|2022|loc=§ 4.4.2 Modern Academic Philosophies}} }}Latin American philosophy in the pre-colonial period was practiced by indigenous civilizations and explored questions concerning the nature of reality and the role of humans.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Gracia|Vargas|2018|loc=Lead Section, § 1. History}} |2={{harvnb|Stehn|loc=Lead Section, § 1. Indigenous Period}} |3={{harvnb|Maffie}}}} It has similarities to indigenous North American philosophy, which covered themes such as the interconnectedness of all things.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Arola|2011|pp=562–563}} |2={{harvnb|Rivera Berruz|2019|p=72}} }} Latin American philosophy during the colonial period, starting around 1550, was dominated by religious philosophy in the form of scholasticism. Influential topics in the post-colonial period were positivism, the philosophy of liberation, and the exploration of identity and culture.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Gracia|Vargas|2018|loc=Lead Section, § 1. History}} |2={{harvnb|Stehn|loc=Lead Section, § 4. Twentieth Century}} }}Early African philosophy, like Ubuntu philosophy, was focused on community, morality, and ancestral ideas.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Grayling|2019|loc=African Philosophy}} |2={{harvnb|Chimakonam|2023|loc=Lead Section, 6. Epochs in African Philosophy}} |3={{harvnb|Mangena|loc=Lead Section}} }} Systematic African philosophy emerged at the beginning of the 20th century. It discusses topics such as ethnophilosophy, négritude, pan-Africanism, Marxism, postcolonialism, the role of cultural identity, and the critique of Eurocentrism.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Chimakonam|2023|loc=Lead Section, 1. Introduction, 5. The Movements in African Philosophy, 6. Epochs in African Philosophy}} |2={{harvnb|Bell|Fernback|2015|p=44}} |3={{harvnb|Coetzee|Roux|1998|pp=88}} }}

Core branches

{{See also|Outline of philosophy#Branches of philosophy|Outline of philosophy#Philosophical schools of thought}}Philosophical questions can be grouped into several branches. These groupings allow philosophers to focus on a set of similar topics and interact with other thinkers who are interested in the same questions. Epistemology, ethics, logic, and metaphysics are sometimes listed as the main branches.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Brenner|1993|p=16}} |2={{harvnb|Palmquist|2010|p=800}} |3={{harvnb|Jenicek|2018|p=31}} }} There are many other subfields besides them and the different divisions are neither exhaustive nor mutually exclusive. For example, political philosophy, ethics, and aesthetics are sometimes linked under the general heading of value theory as they investigate normative or evaluative aspects.{{sfn|Schroeder|2021|loc=Lead Section: "In its broadest sense, 'value theory' is a catch-all label used to encompass all branches of moral philosophy, social and political philosophy, aesthetics, and sometimes feminist philosophy and the philosophy of religion – whatever areas of philosophy are deemed to encompass some 'evaluative' aspect."}} Furthermore, philosophical inquiry sometimes overlaps with other disciplines in the natural and social sciences, religion, and mathematics.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Kenny|2018|p=20}} |2={{harvnb|Lazerowitz|Ambrose|2012|pp=9}} }}

Epistemology

Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that studies knowledge. It is also known as theory of knowledge and aims to understand what knowledge is, how it arises, what its limits are, and what value it has. It further examines the nature of truth, belief, justification, and rationality.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Martinich|Stroll|2023|loc=Lead Section, The Nature of Epistemology}} |2={{harvnb|Steup|Neta|2020|loc=Lead Section}} |3={{harvnb|Truncellito|loc=Lead Section}} |4={{harvnb|Greco|2021|loc=Article Summary}} }} Some of the questions addressed by epistemologists include "By what method(s) can one acquire knowledge?"; "How is truth established?"; and "Can we prove causal relations?"{{sfn|Mulvaney|2009|p=ix}}Epistemology is primarily interested in declarative knowledge or knowledge of facts, like knowing that Princess Diana died in 1997. But it also investigates practical knowledge, such as knowing how to ride a bicycle, and knowledge by acquaintance, for example, knowing a celebrity personally.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Steup|Neta|2020|loc=Lead Section, 2. What Is Knowledge?}} |2={{harvnb|Truncellito|loc=Lead Section, 1. Kinds of Knowledge}} |3={{harvnb|Colman|2009a|loc=Declarative Knowledge}} }}One area in epistemology is the analysis of knowledge. It assumes that declarative knowledge is a combination of different parts and attempts to identify what those parts are. An influential theory in this area claims that knowledge has three components: it is a belief that is justified and true. This theory is controversial and the difficulties associated with it are known as the Gettier problem.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Martinich|Stroll|2023|loc=The Nature of Knowledge}} |2={{harvnb|Truncellito|loc=Lead Section, 2. The Nature of Propositional Knowledge}} }} Alternative views state that knowledge requires additional components, like the absence of luck; different components, like the manifestation of cognitive virtues instead of justification; or they deny that knowledge can be analyzed in terms of other phenomena.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Ichikawa|Steup|2018|loc=§ 3. The Gettier Problem, § 11. Knowledge First}} |2={{harvnb|Truncellito|loc=§ 2d. The Gettier Problem}} }}Another area in epistemology asks how people acquire knowledge. Often-discussed sources of knowledge are perception, introspection, memory, inference, and testimony.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Steup|Neta|2020|loc=5. Sources of Knowledge and Justification}} |2={{harvnb|Truncellito|loc=Lead Section, 4a. Sources of Knowledge}} }} According to empiricists, all knowledge is based on some form of experience. Rationalists reject this view and hold that some forms of knowledge, like innate knowledge, are not acquired through experience.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Hetherington|loc=§ 3c. Knowing Purely by Thinking}} |2={{harvnb|Blackburn|2008|loc=Empiricism}} |3={{harvnb|Blackburn|2008|loc=Rationalism}} }} The regress problem is a common issue in relation to the sources of knowledge and the justification they offer. It is based on the idea that beliefs require some kind of reason or evidence to be justified. The problem is that the source of justification may itself be in need of another source of justification. This leads to an infinite regress or circular reasoning. Foundationalists avoid this conclusion by arguing that some sources can provide justification without requiring justification themselves.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Steup|Neta|2020|loc=4. The Structure of Knowledge and Justification}} |2={{harvnb|Truncellito|loc=3. The Nature of Justification}} }} Another solution is presented by coherentists, who state that a belief is justified if it coheres with other beliefs of the person.{{sfn|Olsson|2021|loc=Lead Section, § 1. Coherentism Versus Foundationalism}}Many discussions in epistemology touch on the topic of philosophical skepticism, which raises doubts about some or all claims to knowledge. These doubts are often based on the idea that knowledge requires absolute certainty and that humans are unable to acquire it.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Steup|Neta|2020|loc=6. The Limits of Cognitive Success}} |2={{harvnb|Truncellito|loc=4. The Extent of Human Knowledge}} |3={{harvnb|Johnstone|1991|p=52}} }}

Ethics

File:JohnStuartMill.jpg|thumb|alt=Drawing of John Stuart Mill|"The utilitarian doctrine is, that happiness is desirable, and the only thing desirable, as an end; all other things being only desirable as means to that end." — John Stuart Mill, (Utilitarianism (book)|Utilitarianism]] (1863){{sfn|Mill|1863|p=51}})Ethics, also known as moral philosophy, studies what constitutes right conduct. It is also concerned with the moral evaluation of character traits and institutions. It explores what the standards of morality are and how to live a good life.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Audi|2006|pp=325–326}} |2={{harvnb|Nagel|2006|pp=379–380}} |3={{harvnb|Lambert|2023|p=26}} }} Philosophical ethics addresses such basic questions as "Are moral obligations relative?"; "Which has priority: well-being or obligation?"; and "What gives life meaning?"{{sfn|Mulvaney|2009|pp=vii–xi}}The main branches of ethics are meta-ethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Dittmer|loc=1. Applied Ethics as Distinct from Normative Ethics and Metaethics}} |2={{harvnb|Jeanes|2019|p=66}} |3={{harvnb|Nagel|2006|pp=379–380}} }} Meta-ethics asks abstract questions about the nature and sources of morality. It analyzes the meaning of ethical concepts, like right action and obligation. It also investigates whether ethical theories can be true in an absolute sense and how to acquire knowledge of them.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Dittmer|loc=1. Applied Ethics as Distinct from Normative Ethics and Metaethics}} |2={{harvnb|Jeanes|2019|p=66}} |3={{harvnb|Nagel|2006|pp=390–391}} |4={{harvnb|Sayre-McCord|2023|loc=Lead Section}} }} Normative ethics encompasses general theories of how to distinguish between right and wrong conduct. It helps guide moral decisions by examining what moral obligations and rights people have. Applied ethics studies the consequences of the general theories developed by normative ethics in specific situations, for example, in the workplace or for medical treatments.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Dittmer|loc=1. Applied Ethics as Distinct from Normative Ethics and Metaethics}} |2={{harvnb|Barsky|2009|p=3}} |3={{harvnb|Jeanes|2019|p=66}} |4={{harvnb|Nagel|2006|pp=379–380, 390–391}} }}Within contemporary normative ethics, consequentialism, deontology, and virtue ethics are influential schools of thought.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Dittmer|loc=1. Applied Ethics as Distinct from Normative Ethics and Metaethics}} |2={{harvnb|Nagel|2006|pp=382, 386–388}} }} Consequentialists judge actions based on their consequences. One such view is utilitarianism, which argues that actions should increase overall happiness while minimizing suffering. Deontologists judge actions based on whether they follow moral duties, such as abstaining from lying or killing. According to them, what matters is that actions are in tune with those duties and not what consequences they have. Virtue theorists judge actions based on how the moral character of the agent is expressed. According to this view, actions should conform to what an ideally virtuous agent would do by manifesting virtues like generosity and honesty.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Dittmer|loc=1. Applied Ethics as Distinct from Normative Ethics and Metaethics}} |2={{harvnb|Nagel|2006|pp=382, 386–388}} |3={{harvnb|Hursthouse|Pettigrove|2022|loc=1.2 Practical Wisdom}} }}

Logic

Logic is the study of correct reasoning. It aims to understand how to distinguish good from bad arguments.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Hintikka|2019}} |2={{harvnb|Haack|1978|loc=Philosophy of Logics}} }} It is usually divided into formal and informal logic. Formal logic uses artificial languages with a precise symbolic representation to investigate arguments. In its search for exact criteria, it examines the structure of arguments to determine whether they are correct or incorrect. Informal logic uses non-formal criteria and standards to assess the correctness of arguments. It relies on additional factors such as content and context.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Blair|Johnson|2000|pp=94–96}} |2={{harvnb|Walton|1996}} |3={{harvnb|Tully|2005|p=532}} |4={{harvnb|Johnson|1999|pp=265–267}} |5={{harvnb|Groarke|2021}} }}Logic examines a variety of arguments. Deductive arguments are mainly studied by formal logic. An argument is deductively valid if the truth of its premises ensures the truth of its conclusion. Deductively valid arguments follow a rule of inference, like modus ponens, which has the following logical form: "p; if p then q; therefore q". An example is the argument "today is Sunday; if today is Sunday then I don't have to go to work today; therefore I don't have to go to work today".{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Velleman|2006|pp=8, 103}} |2={{harvnb|Johnson-Laird|2009|pp=8–10}} |3={{harvnb|Dowden|2020|pp=334–336, 432}} }}The premises of non-deductive arguments also support their conclusion, although this support does not guarantee that the conclusion is true.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Dowden|2020|pp=432, 470}} |2={{harvnb|Anshakov|Gergely|2010|p=128}} }} One form is inductive reasoning. It starts from a set of individual cases and uses generalization to arrive at a universal law governing all cases. An example is the inference that "all ravens are black" based on observations of many individual black ravens.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Vickers|2022}} |2={{harvnb|Nunes|2011|pp=2066–2069|loc=Logical Reasoning and Learning}} |3={{harvnb|Dowden|2020|pp=432–449, 470}} }} Another form is abductive reasoning. It starts from an observation and concludes that the best explanation of this observation must be true. This happens, for example, when a doctor diagnoses a disease based on the observed symptoms.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Douven|2022}} |2={{harvnb|Koslowski|2017|pp=366–368|loc=Abductive Reasoning and Explanation}} |3={{harvnb|Nunes|2011|pp=2066–2069|loc=Logical Reasoning and Learning}} }}Logic also investigates incorrect forms of reasoning. They are called fallacies and are divided into formal and informal fallacies based on whether the source of the error lies only in the form of the argument or also in its content and context.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Hansen|2020}} |2={{harvnb|Dowden|2023}} |3={{harvnb|Dowden|2020|p=290}} |4={{harvnb|Vleet|2011|p=ix}} }}

Metaphysics

File:Aristotle, Metaphysics, Incunabulum.jpg|upright=0.9|thumb|left|alt=Incunabulum showing the beginning of Aristotle's Metaphysics|The beginning of Aristotle's Metaphysics in an incunabulumincunabulumMetaphysics is the study of the most general features of reality, such as existence, objects and their properties, wholes and their parts, space and time, events, and causation.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|van Inwagen|Sullivan|Bernstein|2023}} |2={{harvnb|Craig|1998}} |3={{harvnb|Audi|2006|loc=§ Metaphysics}} }} There are disagreements about the precise definition of the term and its meaning has changed throughout the ages.{{sfn|van Inwagen|Sullivan|Bernstein|2023|loc=Lead Section}} Metaphysicians attempt to answer basic questions including "Why is there something rather than nothing?"; "Of what does reality ultimately consist?"; and "Are humans free?"{{sfn|Mulvaney|2009|pp=ix–x}}Metaphysics is sometimes divided into general metaphysics and specific or special metaphysics. General metaphysics investigates being as such. It examines the features that all entities have in common. Specific metaphysics is interested in different kinds of being, the features they have, and how they differ from one another.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|van Inwagen|Sullivan|Bernstein|2023}} |2={{harvnb|Craig|1998}} |3={{harvnb|Gracia|1999|p=149}} }}An important area in metaphysics is ontology. Some theorists identify it with general metaphysics. Ontology investigates concepts like being, becoming, and reality. It studies the categories of being and asks what exists on the most fundamental level.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Haaparanta|Koskinen|2012|p=454}} |2={{harvnb|Fiet|2022|p=133}} |3={{harvnb|Audi|2006|loc=§ Metaphysics}} |4={{harvnb|van Inwagen|Sullivan|Bernstein|2023|loc=1. The Word 'Metaphysics' and the Concept of Metaphysics}} }} Another subfield of metaphysics is philosophical cosmology. It is interested in the essence of the world as a whole. It asks questions including whether the universe has a beginning and an end and whether it was created by something else.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Audi|2006|loc=§ Metaphysics}} |2={{harvnb|Coughlin|2012|p=15}} }}A key topic in metaphysics concerns the question of whether reality only consists of physical things like matter and energy. Alternative suggestions are that mental entities (such as souls and experiences) and abstract entities (such as numbers) exist apart from physical things. Another topic in metaphysics concerns the problem of identity. One question is how much an entity can change while still remaining the same entity.{{sfn|Audi|2006|loc=§ Metaphysics}} According to one view, entities have essential and accidental features. They can change their accidental features but they cease to be the same entity if they lose an essential feature.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Robertson Ishii|Atkins|2023|loc=Lead Section}} |2={{harvnb|Espín|Nickoloff|2007|p=8}} }} A central distinction in metaphysics is between particulars and universals. Universals, like the color red, can exist at different locations at the same time. This is not the case for particulars including individual persons or specific objects.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Lowe|2005|p=683}} |2={{harvnb|Kuhlmann|2010|loc=Ontologie: 4.2.1 Einzeldinge und Universalien}} }} Other metaphysical questions are whether the past fully determines the present and what implications this would have for the existence of free will.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Kane|2009|pp=22–23}} |2={{harvnb|Kane|2013|p=258}} }}

Other major branches

{{See also|List of philosophies}}There are many other subfields of philosophy besides its core branches. Some of the most prominent are aesthetics, philosophy of language, philosophy of mind, philosophy of religion, philosophy of science, and political philosophy.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Stambaugh|1987|loc=Philosophy: An Overview}} |2={{harvnb|Phillips|2010|p=16}} |3={{harvnb|Ramos|2004|p=4}} |4={{harvnb|Shand|2004|pp=9–10}} }}Aesthetics in the philosophical sense is the field that studies the nature and appreciation of beauty and other aesthetic properties, like the sublime.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Smith|Brown|Duncan|2019|p=174}} |2={{harvnb|McQuillan|2015|pp=122–123}} |3={{harvnb|Janaway|2005|p=9|loc=Aesthetics, History Of}} }} Although it is often treated together with the philosophy of art, aesthetics is a broader category that encompasses other aspects of experience, such as natural beauty.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Nanay|2019|p=4}} |2={{harvnb|McQuillan|2015|pp=122–123}} }} In a more general sense, aesthetics is "critical reflection on art, culture, and nature".{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Kelly|1998|p=ix}} |2={{harvnb|Riedel|1999}} }} A key question in aesthetics is whether beauty is an objective feature of entities or a subjective aspect of experience.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|McQuillan|2015|pp=122–123}} |2={{harvnb|Sartwell|2022|loc=Lead Section, 1. Objectivity and Subjectivity}} }} Aesthetic philosophers also investigate the nature of aesthetic experiences and judgments. Further topics include the essence of works of art and the processes involved in creating them.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Smith|Brown|Duncan|2019|p=174}} |2={{harvnb|McQuillan|2015|pp=122–123}} }}The philosophy of language studies the nature and function of language. It examines the concepts of meaning, reference, and truth. It aims to answer questions such as how words are related to things and how language affects human thought and understanding. It is closely related to the disciplines of logic and linguistics.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Audi|2006|loc=§ Philosophy of Language}} |2={{harvnb|Russell|Fara|2013|pp=ii, 1–2}} |3={{harvnb|Blackburn|2022|loc=Lead Section}} }} The philosophy of language rose to particular prominence in the early 20th century in analytic philosophy due to the works of Frege and Russell. One of its central topics is to understand how sentences get their meaning. There are two broad theoretical camps: those emphasizing the formal truth conditions of sentences{{efn|The truth conditions of a sentence are the circumstances or states of affairs under which the sentence would be true.{{sfn|Birner|2012|p=33}}}} and those investigating circumstances that determine when it is suitable to use a sentence, the latter of which is associated with speech act theory.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Wolf|2023|loc=§§ 1.a-b, 3–4}} |2={{harvnb|Ifantidou|2014|p=12}} }}The philosophy of mind studies the nature of mental phenomena and how they are related to the physical world.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Lowe|2000|pp=1–2}} |2={{harvnb|Crumley|2006|pp=2–3}} }} It aims to understand different types of conscious and unconscious mental states, like beliefs, desires, intentions, feelings, sensations, and free will.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Audi|2006|loc=§ Philosophy of Mind}} |2={{harvnb|Heidemann|2014|p=140}} }} An influential intuition in the philosophy of mind is that there is a distinction between the inner experience of objects and their existence in the external world. The mind-body problem is the problem of explaining how these two types of thing—mind and matter—are related. The main traditional responses are materialism, which assumes that matter is more fundamental; idealism, which assumes that mind is more fundamental; and dualism, which assumes that mind and matter are distinct types of entities. In contemporary philosophy, another common view is functionalism, which understands mental states in terms of the functional or causal roles they play.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Heil|2013|pp=1–3, 9, 12–13}} |2={{harvnb|Weir|2023|pp=10–11}} |3={{harvnb|Shiraev|2010|pp=83–84}} |4={{harvnb|Polger|loc=Lead Section}} }} The mind-body problem is closely related to the hard problem of consciousness, which asks how the physical brain can produce qualitatively subjective experiences.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Heil|2013|pp=1–3, 12–13}} |2={{harvnb|Weisberg|loc=Lead Section, 1. Stating the Problem}} }}The philosophy of religion investigates the basic concepts, assumptions, and arguments associated with religion. It critically reflects on what religion is, how to define the divine, and whether one or more gods exist. It also includes the discussion of worldviews that reject religious doctrines.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Taliaferro|2023|loc=Lead Section, § 5.2}} |2={{harvnb|Burns|2017|pp=i, 1–3}} |3={{harvnb|Audi|2006|loc=§ Philosophy of Religion}} |4={{harvnb|Meister|loc=Lead Section}} }} Further questions addressed by the philosophy of religion are: "How are we to interpret religious language, if not literally?";{{sfn|Taliaferro|2023|loc=§ 1}} "Is divine omniscience compatible with free will?";{{sfn|Taliaferro|2023|loc=§ 5.1.1}} and, "Are the great variety of world religions in some way compatible in spite of their apparently contradictory theological claims?"{{sfn|Taliaferro|2023|loc=§ 6}} It includes topics from nearly all branches of philosophy.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Taliaferro|2023|loc=Introduction}} |2={{harvnb|Audi|2006|loc=§ Philosophy of Religion}} }} It differs from theology since theological debates typically take place within one religious tradition, whereas debates in the philosophy of religion transcend any particular set of theological assumptions.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Bayne|2018|pp=1–2}} |2={{harvnb|Louth|Thielicke|2014}} }}The philosophy of science examines the fundamental concepts, assumptions, and problems associated with science. It reflects on what science is and how to distinguish it from pseudoscience. It investigates the methods employed by scientists, how their application can result in knowledge, and on what assumptions they are based. It also studies the purpose and implications of science.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Audi|2006|loc=§ Philosophy of Science}} |2={{harvnb|Kitcher|2023}} |3={{harvnb|Losee|2001|pp=1–3}} |4={{harvnb|Wei|2020|p=127}} |5={{harvnb|Newton-Smith|2000|pp=2–3}}}} Some of its questions are "What counts as an adequate explanation?";{{sfn|Newton-Smith|2000|pp=7}} "Is a scientific law anything more than a description of a regularity?";{{sfn|Newton-Smith|2000|pp=5}} and "Can some special sciences be explained entirely in the terms of a more general science?"{{sfn|Papineau|2005|pp=855–856}} It is a vast field that is commonly divided into the philosophy of the natural sciences and the philosophy of the social sciences, with further subdivisions for each of the individual sciences under these headings. How these branches are related to one another is also a question in the philosophy of science. Many of its philosophical issues overlap with the fields of metaphysics or epistemology.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Papineau|2005|p=852}} |2={{harvnb|Audi|2006|loc=§ Philosophy of Science}} }}Political philosophy is the philosophical inquiry into the fundamental principles and ideas governing political systems and societies. It examines the basic concepts, assumptions, and arguments in the field of politics. It investigates the nature and purpose of government and compares its different forms.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Molefe|Allsobrook|2021|pp=8–9}} |2={{harvnb|Moseley|loc=Lead Section}} |3={{harvnb|Duignan|2012|pp=5–6}} |4={{harvnb|Bowle|Arneson|2023|loc=Lead Section}} |5={{harvnb|McQueen|2010|p=162}} }} It further asks under what circumstances the use of political power is legitimate, rather than a form of simple violence.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Molefe|Allsobrook|2021|pp=8–9}} |2={{harvnb|Howard|2010|p=4}} }} In this regard, it is concerned with the distribution of political power, social and material goods, and legal rights.{{sfn|Wolff|2006|pp=1–2}} Other topics are justice, liberty, equality, sovereignty, and nationalism.{{sfn|Molefe|Allsobrook|2021|pp=8–9}} Political philosophy involves a general inquiry into normative matters and differs in this respect from political science, which aims to provide empirical descriptions of actually existing states.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Moseley|loc=Lead Section}} |2={{harvnb|Molefe|Allsobrook|2021|pp=8–9}} }} Political philosophy is often treated as a subfield of ethics.{{sfn|Audi|2006|loc=§ Subfields of Ethics}} Influential schools of thought in political philosophy are liberalism, conservativism, socialism, and anarchism.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Moseley|loc=Lead Section, § 3. Political Schools of Thought}} |2={{harvnb|McQueen|2010|p=162}} }}

Methods

Methods of philosophy are ways of conducting philosophical inquiry. They include techniques for arriving at philosophical knowledge and justifying philosophical claims as well as principles used for choosing between competing theories.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|McKeon|2002|loc=Lead Section, § Summation }} |2={{harvnb|Overgaard|D'Oro|2017|pp=1, 4–5|loc=Introduction}} |3={{harvnb|Mehrtens|2010|loc=Methode/Methodologie}} }} A great variety of methods have been employed throughout the history of philosophy. Many of them differ significantly from the methods used in the natural sciences in that they do not use experimental data obtained through measuring equipment.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Daly|2010|loc=Introduction|p=9}} |2={{harvnb|Williamson|2020}} |3={{harvnb|Ichikawa|2011}} }} The choice of one's method usually has important implications both for how philosophical theories are constructed and for the arguments cited for or against them.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Overgaard|D'Oro|2017|pp=1, 3–5|loc=Introduction}} |2={{harvnb|Nado|2017|pp=447–449, 461–462}} |3={{harvnb|Dever|2016|loc=3–6}} }} This choice is often guided by epistemological considerations about what constitutes philosophical evidence.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Daly|2010|loc=Introduction|pp=9–11}} |2={{harvnb|Overgaard|D'Oro|2017|pp=3|loc=Introduction}} |3={{harvnb|Dever|2016|pp=3–4|loc=What Is Philosophical Methodology?}} }}Methodological disagreements can cause conflicts among philosophical theories or about the answers to philosophical questions. The discovery of new methods has often had important consequences both for how philosophers conduct their research and for what claims they defend.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Daly|2015|pp=1–2, 5|loc=Introduction and Historical Overview}} |2={{harvnb|Mehrtens|2010|loc=Methode/Methodologie}} |3={{harvnb|Overgaard|D'Oro|2017|pp=1, 3–5|loc=Introduction}} }} Some philosophers engage in most of their theorizing using one particular method while others employ a wider range of methods based on which one fits the specific problem investigated best.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Williamson|2020}} |2={{harvnb|Singer|1974|pp=420–421}} |3={{harvnb|Venturinha|2013|p=76}} |4={{harvnb|Walsh|Teo|Baydala|2014|p=68}} }}Conceptual analysis is a common method in analytic philosophy. It aims to clarify the meaning of concepts by analyzing them into their component parts.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Eder|Lawler|van Riel|2020|pp=915}} |2={{harvnb|Shaffer|2015|pp=555–556}} |3={{harvnb|Audi|2006|loc=§ Philosophical Methods}} }} Another method often employed in analytic philosophy is based on common sense. It starts with commonly accepted beliefs and tries to draw unexpected conclusions from them, which it often employs in a negative sense to criticize philosophical theories that are too far removed from how the average person sees the issue.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Ichikawa|2011}} |2={{harvnb|Reynolds|2010|pp=231–232}} |3={{harvnb|EB Staff|2007}} }} It is similar to how ordinary language philosophy approaches philosophical questions by investigating how ordinary language is used.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Mehrtens|2010|loc=Methode/Methodologie}} |2={{harvnb|Parker-Ryan|loc=Lead Section, § 1. Introduction}} |3={{harvnb|EB Staff|2022}} }}File:Trolley Problem.svg|thumb|upright=1.25|alt=Diagram depicting a trolley that is headed towards a group of people. There is an alternate track with only one person and a switch to change tracks.|The 1={{harvnb|Woollard|Howard-Snyder|2022|loc=§ 3. The Trolley Problem and the Doing/Allowing Distinction}} |2={{harvnb|Rini|loc=§ 8. Moral Cognition and Moral Epistemology}} }}Various methods in philosophy give particular importance to intuitions, that is, non-inferential impressions about the correctness of specific claims or general principles.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Daly|2015|pp=11–12|loc=Introduction and Historical Overview}} |2={{harvnb|Duignan|2009}} }} For example, they play an important role in thought experiments, which employ counterfactual thinking to evaluate the possible consequences of an imagined situation. These anticipated consequences can then be used to confirm or refute philosophical theories.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Brown|Fehige|2019|loc=Lead Section}} |2={{harvnb|Goffi|Roux|2011|pp=165, 168–169}} |3={{harvnb|Eder|Lawler|van Riel|2020|pp=915–916}} }} The method of reflective equilibrium also employs intuitions. It seeks to form a coherent position on a certain issue by examining all the relevant beliefs and intuitions, some of which often have to be deemphasized or reformulated to arrive at a coherent perspective.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Daly|2015|pp=12–13|loc=Introduction and Historical Overview}} |2={{harvnb|Daniels|2020|loc=Lead Section, § 1. The Method of Reflective Equilibrium}} |3={{harvnb|Little|1984|pp=373–375}} }}Pragmatists stress the significance of concrete practical consequences for assessing whether a philosophical theory is true.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|McDermid|loc=Lead Section}} |2={{harvnb|Legg|Hookway|2021|loc=Lead Section}} }} According to the pragmatic maxim as formulated by Charles Sanders Peirce, the idea a person has of an object is nothing more than the totality of practical consequences they associate with this object. Pragmatists have also used this method to expose disagreements as merely verbal, that is, to show they make no genuine difference on the level of consequences.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|McDermid|loc=Lead Section, § 2a. A Method and A Maxim}} |2={{harvnb|Legg|Hookway|2021|loc=Lead Section, § 2. The Pragmatic Maxim: Peirce}} }}Phenomenologists seek knowledge of the realm of appearance and the structure of human experience. They insist upon the first-personal character of all experience and proceed by suspending theoretical judgments about the external world. This technique of phenomenological reduction is known as "bracketing" or epoché. The goal is to give an unbiased description of the appearances of things.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Cogan|loc=Lead Section, § 5. The Structure, Nature and Performance of the Phenomenological Reduction}} |2={{harvnb|Mehrtens|2010|loc=Methode/Methodologie}} |3={{harvnb|Smith|2018|loc=Lead Section, § 1. What Is Phenomenology?}} |4={{harvnb|Smith|loc=Lead Section, § 2.Phenomenological Method}} }}Methodological naturalism places great emphasis on the empirical approach and the resulting theories found in the natural sciences. In this way, it contrasts with methodologies that give more weight to pure reasoning and introspection.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Fischer|Collins|2015|p=4}} |2={{harvnb|Fisher|Sytsma|2023|loc=Projects and Methods of Experimental Philosophy}} |3={{harvnb|Papineau|2023|loc=§ 2. Methodological Naturalism}} }}

Relation to other fields

Philosophy is closely related to many other fields. It is sometimes understood as a metadiscipline that clarifies their nature and limits. It does this by critically examining their basic concepts, background assumptions, and methods. In this regard, it plays a key role in providing an interdisciplinary perspective. It bridges the gap between different disciplines by analyzing which concepts and problems they have in common. It shows how they overlap while also delimiting their scope.{{sfn|Audi|2006|pp=332–337}} Historically, most of the individual sciences originated from philosophy.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Tuomela|1985|p=1}} |2={{harvnb|Grant|2007|p=303}} }}The influence of philosophy is felt in several fields that require difficult practical decisions. In medicine, philosophical considerations related to bioethics affect issues like whether an embryo is already a person and under what conditions abortion is morally permissible. A closely related philosophical problem is how humans should treat other animals, for instance, whether it is acceptable to use non-human animals as food or for research experiments.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Dittmer|loc=Lead Section, § 3. Bioethics}} |2={{harvnb|Lippert-Rasmussen|2017|pp=4–5}} |3={{harvnb|Uniacke|2017|pp=34–35}} |4={{harvnb|Crary|2013|pp=321–322}} }} In relation to business and professional life, philosophy has contributed by providing ethical frameworks. They contain guidelines on which business practices are morally acceptable and cover the issue of corporate social responsibility.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Dittmer|loc=Lead Section, § 2. Business Ethics, § 5. Professional Ethics}} |2={{harvnb|Lippert-Rasmussen|2017|pp=4–5}} |3={{harvnb|Uniacke|2017|pp=34–35}} }}Philosophical inquiry is relevant to many fields that are concerned with what to believe and how to arrive at evidence for one's beliefs.{{sfn|Lippert-Rasmussen|2017|pp=51–53}} This is a key issue for the sciences, which have as one of their prime objectives the creation of scientific knowledge. Scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence but it is often not clear whether empirical observations are neutral or already include theoretical assumptions. A closely connected problem is whether the available evidence is sufficient to decide between competing theories.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Bird|2010|pp=5–6, 8–9}} |2={{harvnb|Rosenberg|2013|pp=129, 155}} }} Epistemological problems in relation to the law include what counts as evidence and how much evidence is required to find a person guilty of a crime. A related issue in journalism is how to ensure truth and objectivity when reporting on events.{{sfn|Audi|2006|pp=332–337}}In the fields of theology and religion, there are many doctrines associated with the existence and nature of God as well as rules governing correct behavior. A key issue is whether a rational person should believe these doctrines, for example, whether revelation in the form of holy books and religious experiences of the divine are sufficient evidence for these beliefs.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Clark|2022|loc=Lead Section, § 1. Reason/Rationality}} |2={{harvnb|Forrest|2021|loc=Lead Section}} |3={{harvnb|Dougherty|2014|pp=97–98}} }}File:JudithButler2013_(cropped).jpg|thumb|upright|alt=Photo of Judith Butler|Judith ButlerJudith ButlerPhilosophy in the form of logic has been influential in the fields of mathematics and computer science.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Kakas|Sadri|2003|p=588}} |2={{harvnb|Li|2014|pp=ix–x}} |3={{harvnb|Nievergelt|2015|pp=v–vi}} }} Further fields influenced by philosophy include psychology, sociology, linguistics, education, and the arts.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Audi|2006|pp=332–37}} |2={{harvnb|Murphy|2018|p=138}} |3={{harvnb|Dittmer|loc=Lead Section, Table of Contents}} |4={{harvnb|Frankena|Raybeck|Burbules|2002|loc=§ Definition}} }} The close relation between philosophy and other fields in the contemporary period is reflected in the fact that many philosophy graduates go on to work in related fields rather than in philosophy itself.{{sfn|Cropper|1997}}In the field of politics, philosophy addresses issues such as how to assess whether a government policy is just.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Dittmer|loc=Lead Section, § 6. Social Ethics, Distributive Justice, and Environmental Ethics}} |2={{harvnb|Lippert-Rasmussen|2017|pp=4–5}} }} Philosophical ideas have prepared and shaped various political developments. For example, ideals formulated in Enlightenment philosophy laid the foundation for constitutional democracy and played a role in the American Revolution and the French Revolution.{{sfn|Bristow|2023|loc=Lead Section, § 2.1 Political Theory}} Marxist philosophy and its exposition of communism was one of the factors in the Russian Revolution and the Chinese Communist Revolution.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Pipes|2020|p=29}} |2={{harvnb|Wolff|Leopold|2021|loc=§ 9. Marx's Legacy}} |3={{harvnb|Shaw|2019|p=124}} }} In India, Mahatma Gandhi's philosophy of non-violence shaped the Indian independence movement.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Singh|2014|p=83}} |2={{harvnb|Bondurant|1988|pp=23–24}} }}An example of the cultural and critical role of philosophy is found in its influence on the feminist movement through philosophers such as Mary Wollstonecraft, Simone de Beauvoir, and Judith Butler. It has shaped the understanding of key concepts in feminism, for instance, the meaning of gender, how it differs from biological sex, and what role it plays in the formation of personal identity. Philosophers have also investigated the concepts of justice and equality and their implications with respect to the prejudicial treatment of women in male-dominated societies.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|McAfee|2018|loc=Lead Section, 2.1 Feminist Beliefs and Feminist Movements}} |2={{harvnb|Ainley|2005|pp=294–296}} |3={{harvnb|Hirschmann|2008|pp=148–151}} |4={{harvnb|McAfee|Garry|Superson|Grasswick|2023|loc=Lead Section, 1. What Is Feminism?}}}}The idea that philosophy is useful for many aspects of life and society is sometimes rejected. According to one such view, philosophy is mainly undertaken for its own sake and does not make significant contributions to existing practices or external goals.{{multiref |1={{harvnb|Jones|Bos|2007|p=56}} |2={{harvnb|Rickles|2020|p=9}} |3={{harvnb|Lockie|2015|pp=24–28}} }}

See also

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References

Notes

{{notelist}}

Citations

{{reflist|22em}}

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  • BOOK, Chamankhah, Leila, The Conceptualization of Guardianship in Iranian Intellectual History (1800–1989): Reading Ibn Ê¿ArabÄ«'s Theory of Wilāya in the ShÄ«Ê¿a World, 2019, Springer Nature, 978-3-030-22692-3,weblink en, 9 June 2023, 22 June 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Chambre, Henri, Maurer, Armand, Stroll, Avrum, McLellan, David T., Levi, Albert William, Wolin, Richard, Fritz, Kurt von, Western Philosophy,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, 30 May 2023, en, 2023, 13 May 2021,weblink live,
  • WEB, Chimakonam, Jonathan O., History of African Philosophy,weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 14 June 2023, 2023, 5 June 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Clark, Kelly James, Religious Epistemology,weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 21 September 2022, 2022, 21 September 2022,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Coetzee, Pieter Hendrik, Roux, A. P. J., The African Philosophy Reader, 1998, Psychology Press, 978-0-415-18905-7,weblink en, 10 November 2023, 16 November 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Cogan, John, Phenomenological Reduction, The,weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 27 February 2022, 4 April 2020,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Colman, Andrew M., A Dictionary of Psychology, 2009a, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-953406-7,weblink en, Declarative Knowledge, 16 April 2023, 30 March 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Copleston, Frederick, History of Philosophy Volume 1: Greece and Rome, 2003, Continuum, 978-0-8264-6895-6,weblink en, 25 May 2023, 25 May 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Cotterell, Brian, Physics and Culture, 2017, World Scientific, 978-1-78634-378-9,weblink en, 25 August 2023, 25 August 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Coughlin, John J., Law, Person, and Community: Philosophical, Theological, and Comparative Perspectives on Canon Law, 2012, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-987718-8,weblink en, 16 July 2023, 16 July 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Craig, Edward, Metaphysics,weblink Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge, 15 July 2023, en, 1998, 1 August 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Crary, Alice, Petrus, Klaus, Wild, Markus, Animal Minds & Animal Ethics, 2013, transcript Verlag, 978-3-8394-2462-9,weblink 13. Eating and Experimenting on Animals, 10.1515/transcript.9783839424629.321, 31 January 2024, 10 November 2023,
  • NEWS,weblink Philosophers Find the Degree Pays Off in Life and in Work, Cropper, Carol Marie, 1997, The New York Times, 0362-4331, 2 May 2016, 28 January 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170128202946weblink">weblink live,
  • BOOK, Crumley, Jack S, A Brief Introduction to the Philosophy of Mind, 2006, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 978-0-7425-7212-6,weblink en, 19 July 2023, 19 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Cua, Antonio S., The Emergence of the History of Chinese Philosophy, Mou, Bo, History of Chinese Philosophy, 2009, Routledge, 978-0-203-00286-5,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Dalal, Neil, Åšaá¹…kara,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 19 June 2023, 2021, 27 January 2022,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Daly, Christopher, The Palgrave Handbook of Philosophical Methods, 2015, Palgrave Macmillan UK, 978-1-137-34455-7,weblink en, Introduction and Historical Overview, 1–30, 10.1057/9781137344557_1, 18 April 2022, 1 May 2022,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Daly, Christopher, An Introduction to Philosophical Methods, 2010, Broadview Press, 978-1-55111-934-2,weblink en, Introduction, 7 June 2022, 3 July 2023,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Daniels, Norman, Reflective Equilibrium,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 28 February 2022, 2020, 22 February 2022,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Davis, Bret W., The Kyoto School,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 7 November 2023, 2022, 28 September 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Defoort, Carine, Standaert, Nicolas, The Mozi as an Evolving Text: Different Voices in Early Chinese Thought, 2013, Brill, 978-90-04-23434-5,weblink en, 21 June 2023, 22 June 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Dehsen, Christian von, Philosophers and Religious Leaders, 2013, Routledge, 978-1-135-95102-3,weblink en, 28 May 2023, 28 May 2023,weblink live,
  • JOURNAL, Dellsén, Finnur, Lawler, Insa, Norton, James, Thinking about Progress: From Science to Philosophy, Noûs, 2021, 56, 4, 814–840, 10.1111/nous.12383, 235967433, free, 11250/2836808, free,
  • BOOK, Dever, Josh, Herman, Tamar Szabó, John, Cappelen, Gendler, Hawthorne, What Is Philosophical Methodology?, The Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Methodology, 2016, 3–24, 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199668779.013.34, 978-0-19-966877-9,weblink en, 18 April 2022, 5 December 2020,weblink live, Oxford University Press,
  • WEB, Dittmer, Joel, Ethics, Applied,weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2 July 2023, 1 June 2023,weblink live,
  • JOURNAL, Dougherty, Trent, Faith, Trust, and Testimony, Religious Faith and Intellectual Virtue, 2014, 97–123, 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199672158.003.0005, 978-0-19-967215-8,
  • WEB, Douven, Igor, Abduction and Explanatory Reasoning,weblink Oxford Bibliographies, Oxford University Press, 18 January 2023, en, 2022, 10 February 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Dowden, Bradley H., Fallacies,weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 22 January 2023, 2023, 3 June 2019,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Dowden, Bradley H., Logical Reasoning, 2020,weblink 17 July 2023, 2 June 2023,weblink live, (for an earlier version, see: BOOK, Dowden, Bradley H., Logical Reasoning, 1993, Wadsworth Publishing Company, 978-0-534-17688-4,weblink en, 17 July 2023, none, 10 February 2023,weblink live, )
  • WEB, Intuitionism (Ethics),weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, 28 February 2022, en, 7 March 2022,weblink live, Duignan, Brian, 2009,
  • BOOK, Duignan, Brian, Ancient Philosophy: From 600 BCE to 500 CE, 2010, The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc, 978-1-61530-141-6,weblink en, 30 June 2023, 28 May 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Duignan, Brian, The Science and Philosophy of Politics, 2012, Britannica Educational Publishing, 978-1-61530-748-7,weblink en, 21 July 2023, 21 July 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, EB Staff, Chinese Philosophy,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, 12 June 2023, en, 2017, 2 May 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150502233005weblink">weblink live,
  • WEB, EB Staff, History and Periods of Indian Philosophy,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, 10 June 2023, en, 2023, 11 June 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, EB Staff, Islamic Philosophy,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, en, 2020, 7 June 2023, 7 June 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Philosophy,weblink 29 May 2022, Encyclopædia Britannica, en, 23 February 2021,weblink live, EB Staff, 2023a,
  • WEB, Philosophy of Common Sense,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, 27 February 2022, en, 7 March 2022,weblink live, EB Staff, 2007,
  • WEB, Ordinary Language Analysis,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, 28 February 2022, en, 7 March 2022,weblink live, EB Staff, 2022,
  • JOURNAL, Eder, Anna-Maria A., Lawler, Insa, van Riel, Raphael, Philosophical Methods Under Scrutiny: Introduction to the Special Issue Philosophical Methods, Synthese, 2020, 197, 3, 915–923, 10.1007/s11229-018-02051-2, 54631297, en, 1573-0964, free,
  • BOOK, Espín, Orlando O., Nickoloff, James B., An Introductory Dictionary of Theology and Religious Studies, 2007, Liturgical Press, 978-0-8146-5856-7,weblink en, 16 July 2023, 16 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Esposito, John L., The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-512559-7,weblink en, 2003, 10 November 2023,
  • BOOK, Fischer, Eugen, Collins, John, Experimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and Naturalism: Rethinking Philosophical Method, 2015, Routledge, 978-1-317-50027-8,weblink en, 10 November 2023, 4 November 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Fisher, Eugen, Sytsma, Justin, Bauer, Alexander Max, Kornmesser, Stephan, The Compact Compendium of Experimental Philosophy, 2023, Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 978-3-11-071702-0,weblink en, Projects and Methods of Experimental Philosophy, 10 November 2023, 4 November 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Fiet, James O., The Theoretical World of Entrepreneurship, 2022, Edward Elgar Publishing, 978-1-80037-147-7,weblink en, 16 July 2023, 16 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Flavel, Sarah, Robbiano, Chiara, Key Concepts in World Philosophies: A Toolkit for Philosophers, 2023, Bloomsbury Publishing, 978-1-350-16814-5,weblink en, 19 August 2023, 19 August 2023,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Forrest, Peter, The Epistemology of Religion,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 21 September 2022, 2021, 10 July 2022,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Frankena, William K., Raybeck, Nathan, Burbules, Nicholas, Philosophy of Education, 2002, Encyclopedia of Education, 2nd, Guthrie, James W., Macmillan Reference, 978-0-02-865594-9,
  • BOOK, Frede, Michael, The Historiography of Philosophy, 2022, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-884072-5,weblink en, 24 May 2023, 24 May 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Gelan, Victor Eugen, Husserl's Idea of Rigorous Science and its Relevance for the Human and Social Sciences, The Subject(s) of Phenomenology, 2020, Springer International Publishing, 978-3-030-29357-4,weblink en, Contributions to Phenomenology, 108, 97–105, 10.1007/978-3-030-29357-4_6, 213082313, 27 February 2022, 2 March 2022,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20220302082534weblink">weblink live,
  • BOOK, Glenney, Brian, Silva, José Filipe, The Senses and the History of Philosophy, 2019, Routledge, 978-1-351-73106-5,weblink en, 16 June 2023, 22 June 2023,weblink live,
  • JOURNAL, Goffi, Jean-Yves, Roux, Sophie, Sophie Roux, On the Very Idea of a Thought Experiment, Thought Experiments in Methodological and Historical Contexts, 2011, 165–191,weblink Brill, 10.1163/ej.9789004201767.i-233.35, 978-90-04-20177-4, 260640180, 18 April 2022, 30 October 2021,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Gorisse, Marie-Hélène, Jaina Philosophy,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 19 November 2023, 2023, 17 February 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Gracia, Jorge J. E., Metaphysics and Its Task: The Search for the Categorial Foundation of Knowledge, 1999, State University of New York Press, 978-0-7914-4214-2,weblink en, 16 July 2023, 3 September 2023,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Gracia, Jorge J. E., Vargas, Manuel, Latin American Philosophy,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 7 November 2023, 2018, 11 June 2018,weblink live,
  • WEB, Graham, Jacob N., Ancient Greek Philosophy,weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 25 May 2023, 2023, 25 August 2022,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Grant, Edward, A History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century, 2007, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-86931-7,weblink en, 7 July 2023, 7 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Grayling, A. C., The History of Philosophy, 2019, Penguin UK, 978-0-241-98086-6,weblink en, 30 June 2023, 3 July 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Greco, John, Epistemology,weblink Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge, 14 July 2023, en, 2021, 14 July 2023,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Griffel, Frank, Al-Ghazali,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 19 June 2023, 2020, 28 May 2023,weblink live,
  • JOURNAL, Grimm, Stephen R., Cohoe, Caleb, What Is Philosophy as a Way of Life? Why Philosophy as a Way of Life?, European Journal of Philosophy, 2021, 29, 1, 236–251, 10.1111/ejop.12562, 225504495,weblink en, 1468-0378, 15 February 2022, 13 February 2022,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Groarke, Leo, Informal Logic,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 31 December 2021, 2021, 12 January 2022,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Gutas, Dimitri, Ibn Sina [Avicenna],weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 7 June 2023, 2016, 27 April 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Guyer, Paul, Kant, 2014, Routledge, 978-1-135-01563-3,weblink en, 9 July 2023, 9 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Haack, Susan, Susan Haack, Philosophy of Logics, 1978, Cambridge University Press,weblink 1. 'Philosophy of Logics', 29 December 2021, 7 December 2021,weblink live, 978-0-521-29329-7,
  • BOOK, Haaparanta, Leila, Koskinen, Heikki J., Categories of Being: Essays on Metaphysics and Logic, 2012, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-989057-6,weblink en, 16 July 2023, 16 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Hacker, P. M. S., Wittgenstein: Comparisons and Context, 2013, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-967482-4,weblink en, 10 July 2023, 10 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Hadot, Pierre, Philosophy as a Way of Life: Spiritual Exercises From Socrates to Foucault, 1995, Blackwell,weblink 11. Philosophy as a Way of Life, 15 February 2022, 14 February 2022,weblink live, 978-0-631-18033-3,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Hansen, Hans, Fallacies,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 18 March 2021, 2020, 29 March 2021,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Heidemann, Dietmar H., Kant and Non-conceptual Content, 2014, Routledge, 978-1-317-98155-8,weblink en, 19 July 2023, 3 September 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Heil, John Fergusson, Philosophy of Mind: A Contemporary Introduction, 2013, Routledge, 978-0-415-89175-2, 3rd,
  • JOURNAL, Herbjørnsrud, Dag, 2021, The Quest for a Global Age of Reason, Dialogue and Universalism, 31, 3, 113–131, 10.5840/du202131348, 1234-5792,
  • BOOK, Herbjørnsrud, Dag, Preface, 2023, The Hatata Inquiries, IX–XIV, Lee, Ralph, De Gruyter, 10.1515/9783110781922-203, 978-3-11-078192-2, Worku, Mehari, Belcher, Wendy Laura,
  • WEB, Hetherington, Stephen, Knowledge,weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, § 3c. Knowing Purely by Thinking, 22 July 2023, 2 June 2022,weblink live,
  • WEB, Hintikka, Jaakko J., Jaakko Hintikka, Philosophy of Logic,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, 21 November 2021, en, 28 April 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150428101732weblink">weblink live, 2019,
  • BOOK, Hirschmann, Nancy, 8. Feminist Political Philosophy, Kittay, Eva Feder, Alcoff, Linda Martín, The Blackwell Guide to Feminist Philosophy, 2008, John Wiley & Sons, 978-0-470-69538-8,weblink en, 8 July 2023, Nancy Hirschmann, Eva Kittay, Linda Martín Alcoff, 8 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Hoad, T. F., The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, 1993, Oxford University Press, 0-19-283098-8,
  • BOOK, Howard, Dick, 2010, The Primacy of the Political: A History of Political Thought From the Greeks to the French and American Revolutions, Columbia University Press, 978-0-231-13595-5,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Hursthouse, Rosalind, Pettigrove, Glen, Virtue Ethics,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 20 August 2023, 2022, 25 June 2023,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Hylton, Peter, Kemp, Gary, Willard Van Orman Quine: 3. The Analytic-Synthetic Distinction and the Argument Against Logical Empiricism,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 2020, 27 February 2022, 25 February 2021,weblink live,
  • JOURNAL, Ichikawa, Jonathan, Chris Daly: An Introduction to Philosophical Methods,weblink Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews, 2011, 22 February 2022, en, 7 March 2022,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Ichikawa, Jonathan Jenkins, Steup, Matthias, The Analysis of Knowledge,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 15 November 2023, 2018, 2 May 2022,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Ifantidou, Elly, Pragmatic Competence and Relevance, 2014, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 978-90-272-7037-5,weblink en, 21 August 2023, 3 September 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Ingarden, Roman, On the Motives which led Husserl to Transcendental Idealism, 1975, Springer Netherlands, 978-94-010-1689-6,weblink en, The Concept of Philosophy as Rigorous Science, Phaenomenologica, 64, 8–11, 10.1007/978-94-010-1689-6_3, 27 February 2022, 13 February 2022,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Jacobs, James M., Seat of Wisdom: An Introduction to Philosophy in the Catholic Tradition, 2022, Catholic University of America Press, 978-0-8132-3465-6,weblink en, 7 July 2023, 3 September 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Janaway, C., Aesthetics, History of, Honderich, Ted, The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, 2005, Oxford University Press,weblink 2 January 2022, 29 January 2021,weblink live, 978-0-19-926479-7,
  • BOOK, JaroszyÅ„ski, Piotr, Metaphysics or Ontology?, 2018, Brill, 978-90-04-35987-1,weblink en, 7 July 2023, 7 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Jeanes, Emma, A Dictionary of Organizational Behaviour, 2019, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-252756-1,weblink en, 6 July 2023, 7 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Jenicek, Milos, How to Think in Medicine: Reasoning, Decision Making, and Communication in Health Sciences and Professions, 2018, CRC Press, 978-1-351-68402-6,weblink en, 5 July 2023, 5 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Jha, Meenakshi, Subaltern Saints in India: Women and Sudras in Bhakti Movement, 2022, Motilal Banarsidass, 978-81-208-4299-1,weblink en, 10 November 2023, 21 October 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Jiang, Xinyan, Enlightenment Movement, Mou, Bo, History of Chinese Philosophy, 2009, Routledge, 978-0-203-00286-5,
  • JOURNAL, Johnson, Ralph H., The Relation Between Formal and Informal Logic, Argumentation, 1999, 13, 3, 265–274, 10.1023/A:1007789101256, 141283158,weblink 2 January 2022, 7 December 2021,weblink live,
  • JOURNAL, Johnson-Laird, Phil, Deductive Reasoning, WIREs Cognitive Science, 2009, 1, 1, 8–17, 10.1002/wcs.20, 26272833,weblink 1939-5078, 17 July 2023, 24 January 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Johnstone, Albert A., Rationalized Epistemology: Taking Solipsism Seriously, 1991, State University of New York Press, 978-0-7914-0787-5,weblink en, 14 July 2023, 14 July 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Joll, Nicholas, Metaphilosophy,weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 1 February 2022, 15 May 2019,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Jones, Campbell, Bos, René ten, Philosophy and Organization, 2007, Routledge, 978-1-134-19659-3,weblink en, 6 July 2023, 4 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Kakas, Antonis C., Sadri, Fariba, Computational Logic: Logic Programming and Beyond: Essays in Honour of Robert A. Kowalski, Part II, 2003, Springer, 978-3-540-45632-2,weblink en, 6 July 2023, 4 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Kaminski, Joseph J., The Contemporary Islamic Governed State: A Reconceptualization, 2017, Springer, 978-3-319-57012-9,weblink en, 30 June 2023, 29 June 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Kane, Robert, Free Will, Kim, Jaekwon, Sosa, Ernest, Rosenkrantz, Gary S., A Companion to Metaphysics, 2009, John Wiley & Sons, 978-1-4443-0853-2,weblink en, 10 November 2023, 22 October 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Kant, Immanuel, Lectures on Logic, 1992, 1800, J. Michael Young, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-36013-5,
  • BOOK, Kant, Immanuel, 1998, Critique of Pure Reason, Paul Guyer and Allen W. Wood, Paul Guyer and Allen W. Wood, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-35402-8,
  • WEB, Kasulis, Thomas P., Japanese philosophy,weblink Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge, 7 November 2023, en, 1998, 7 November 2023,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Kasulis, Thomas P., Japanese Philosophy,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 7 November 2023, 2022, 8 August 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Kelly, Michael, Encyclopedia of Aesthetics, 1998, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-511307-5, 1.,
  • BOOK, Kenny, Anthony, 2004, A New History of Western Philosophy, vol.1: Ancient Philosophy, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-875272-1,
  • BOOK, Kenny, Anthony, The Rise of Modern Philosophy, 2006, Clarendon Press, 978-0-19-875277-6, 1, A new history of Western philosophy,
  • BOOK, Kenny, Anthony, An Illustrated Brief History of Western Philosophy, 20th Anniversary Edition, 2018, John Wiley & Sons, 978-1-119-45279-9,weblink en, 5 July 2023, 5 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Kim, Sungmoon, Theorizing Confucian Virtue Politics: The Political Philosophy of Mencius and Xunzi, 2019, Cambridge University Press, 978-1-108-57739-7,weblink en, 14 June 2023, 22 June 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Kitcher, Philip S., Philosophy of Science,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, 21 July 2023, en, 2023, 29 June 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Koslowski, Barbara, International Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning, 2017, Routledge, 978-1-315-72569-7,weblink en, Abductive Reasoning and Explanation, 10.4324/9781315725697, 17 July 2023, 8 January 2022,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Kuhlmann, Meinard, Sandkühler, Hans Jörg, Enzyklopädie Philosophie, 2010, Meiner, 978-3-7873-3545-9, Ontologie: 4.2.1 Einzeldinge und Universalien, de,
  • BOOK, Kulke, Hermann, Rothermund, Dietmar, A History of India, 1998, Psychology Press, 978-0-415-15482-6,weblink en, 10 November 2023, 21 October 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Laerke, Mogens, Smith, Justin E. H., Schliesser, Eric, Philosophy and Its History: Aims and Methods in the Study of Early Modern Philosophy, 2013, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-985716-6, en,
  • BOOK, Lagerlund, Henrik, Encyclopedia of Medieval Philosophy: Philosophy Between 500 and 1500, 2020, Springer, 978-94-024-1663-3, Second,
  • BOOK, Lambert, Joseph, Translation Ethics, 2023, Taylor & Francis, 978-1-000-84163-3,weblink en, 6 July 2023, 7 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Lazerowitz, Morris, Ambrose, Alice, Philosophical Theories, 2012, Walter de Gruyter, 978-3-11-080708-0,weblink en, 5 July 2023, 5 July 2023,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Legg, Catherine, Hookway, Christopher, Pragmatism,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 22 February 2022, 2021, 8 October 2020,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Li, Wei, Mathematical Logic: Foundations for Information Science, 2014, Springer, 978-3-0348-0862-0,weblink en, 6 July 2023, 4 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper, The Nature of Applied Philosophy, Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper, Brownlee, Kimberley, Coady, David, A Companion to Applied Philosophy, 2017, John Wiley & Sons, 978-1-118-86911-6,
  • JOURNAL, Little, Daniel, Reflective Equilibrium and Justification, Southern Journal of Philosophy, 1984, 22, 3, 373–387, 10.1111/j.2041-6962.1984.tb00354.x,weblink 18 April 2022, 1 May 2022,weblink live,
  • WEB, Littlejohn, Ronnie, Chinese Philosophy: Overview of History,weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 12 June 2023, 2023, 1 June 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Livingston, Paul M., Twentieth-century philosophy,weblink Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge, en, 2017, 14 November 2023, 14 November 2023,weblink live,
  • JOURNAL, Lockie, Robert, Is Philosophy Useless?, The Philosophers' Magazine, 2015, 71, 24–28, 10.5840/tpm20157197,weblink 11 July 2023, 11 August 2023,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20230811114800weblink">weblink live,
  • BOOK, Long, A. A., Hellenistic Philosophy: Stoics, Epicureans, Sceptics, 1986, University of California Press, 978-0-520-05808-8,weblink en, 28 May 2023, 28 May 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Losee, John, A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Science, 2001, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-870055-5,weblink en, 21 July 2023, 21 July 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Louth, Andrew, Andrew Louth, Thielicke, Helmut, Helmut Thielicke, 2014, Encyclopædia Britannica,weblink Relationship to Philosophy Theology,weblink 6 August 2020, live, 10 November 2023,
  • BOOK, Lowe, E. Jonathan, An Introduction to the Philosophy of Mind, 2000, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-65428-9,weblink en, 19 July 2023, 19 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Lowe, E. Jonathan, Particulars and Non-particulars, Honderich, Ted, The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, 2005, Oxford University Press,weblink 2 January 2022, 29 January 2021,weblink live, 978-0-19-926479-7,
  • BOOK, Ma, Licheng, Leading Schools of Thought in Contemporary China, 2015, World Scientific, 978-981-4656-40-5,weblink en, 23 August 2023, 3 September 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, MacDonald, Scott, Kretzmann, Norman, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 1998, Routledge,weblink en, Medieval philosophy, 28 May 2023, 9 May 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Maddy, Penelope, A Plea for Natural Philosophy: And Other Essays, 2022, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-750885-5,weblink en, 25 August 2023, Penelope Maddy, 25 August 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Maffie, James, Aztec Philosophy,weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 14 November 2023, 12 January 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Makeham, J., New Confucianism: A Critical Examination, 2003, Springer, 978-1-4039-8241-4,weblink en, 10 November 2023,
  • WEB, Mangena, Fainos, Hunhu/Ubuntu in Traditional Southern African Thought,weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 7 November 2023, 7 November 2023,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Marenbon, John, Medieval Philosophy,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 27 May 2023, 2023, 26 March 2023,weblink
  • BOOK, Marshev, Vadim I., History of Management Thought: Genesis and Development From Ancient Origins to the Present Day, 2021, Springer Nature, 978-3-030-62337-1,weblink en, 21 June 2023, 24 June 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Epistemology,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, 22 June 2020, 10 July 2019,weblink live, Martinich, A.P., Stroll, Avrum, 2023,
  • BOOK, Masud, Muhammad Khalid, Islam and Modernity: Key Issues and Debates, 2009, Edinburgh University Press, 978-0-7486-3794-2,weblink en, 10 November 2023, 23 November 2023,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, McAfee, Noëlle, Feminist Philosophy,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 8 July 2023, 2018, 22 June 2023,weblink live, Noëlle McAfee,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, McAfee, Noëlle, Garry, Ann, Superson, Anita, Grasswick, Heidi, Khader, Serene, Feminist Philosophy,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 6 November 2023, 2023, Noëlle McAfee, Ann Garry, Anita Superson, Serene Khader, 22 June 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, McCutcheon, Russell T., Studying Religion: An Introduction, 2014, Routledge, 978-1-317-49166-8,weblink en, 10 November 2023, 5 November 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, McDermid, Douglas, Pragmatism,weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 22 February 2022, 23 May 2019,weblink live,
  • BOOK, McKeon, R., New Catholic Encyclopedia, Gale Research Inc,weblink Methodology (Philosophy), 18 April 2022, 30 April 2022,weblink live, 2002, 978-0-7876-4004-0,
  • BOOK, McQueen, Paddy, Key Concepts in Philosophy, 2010, Bloomsbury Publishing, 978-1-137-09339-4,weblink en, 21 July 2023, 21 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, McQuillan, J. Colin, Early Modern Aesthetics, 2015, Rowman & Littlefield, 978-1-78348-213-9,weblink en, 21 July 2023, 21 July 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Meister, Chad, Philosophy of Religion,weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 21 July 2023, 6 August 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Menon, Sangeetha, Vedanta, Advaita,weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 16 June 2023, 1 June 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Mehrtens, Arnd, Sandkühler, Hans Jörg, Enzyklopädie Philosophie, 2010, Meiner,weblink Methode/Methodologie, 15 February 2022, 20 March 2022,weblink live, 978-3-7873-3545-9, de,
  • BOOK, Mill, John Stuart, Utilitarianism,weblink 1863, Parker, Son, and Bourn, 78070085, 5 November 2022, 5 November 2022,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Mitias, Michael H., The Philosophical Novel as a Literary Genre, 11 March 2022, Springer Nature, 978-3-030-97385-8,weblink en, 4 December 2023, 4 December 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Mittelstraß, Jürgen, Enzyklopädie Philosophie und Wissenschaftstheorie, 2005, Metzler,weblink Philosophie, 27 February 2022, 20 October 2021,weblink live, 978-3-476-02107-6, de,
  • BOOK, Moaddel, Mansoor, Islamic Modernism, Nationalism, and Fundamentalism: Episode and Discourse, 2005, University of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-53333-9,weblink en, 23 August 2023, 23 August 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Molefe, Motsamai, Allsobrook, Christopher, Towards an African Political Philosophy of Needs, 2021, Springer Nature, 978-3-030-64496-3,weblink en, 21 July 2023, 21 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Morujão, Carlos, Dimas, Samuel, Relvas, Susana, The Philosophy of Ortega y Gasset Reevaluated, 7 September 2021, Springer Nature, 978-3-030-79249-7,weblink en, 4 December 2023, 4 December 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Moseley, Alexander, Political Philosophy: Methodology,weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 21 July 2023, 2 April 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090402104628weblink">weblink live,
  • BOOK, Mulvaney, Robert J., 2009, Classical Philosophical Questions, Prentice Hall, 978-0-13-600652-7, 13,
  • BOOK, Murphy, P. Karen, Rediscovering the Philosophical Roots of Educational Psychology: A Special Issue of educational Psychologist, 2018, Routledge, 978-1-135-06617-8,weblink en, 14 November 2023, 14 November 2023,weblink live,
  • JOURNAL, Nado, Jennifer, How to Think About Philosophical Methodology, Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research, 2017, 34, 3, 447–463, 10.1007/s40961-017-0116-8, 171569977,weblink en, 2363-9962, 18 April 2022, 7 March 2022,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Nagel, Thomas, Borchert, Donald M., Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 3: Determinables–Fuzzy Logic, 2006, Thomson Gale, Macmillan Reference, 978-0-02-866072-1, 2., Ethics,
  • BOOK, Nanay, Bence, 2019, Aesthetics: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-882661-3,
  • BOOK, Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, Leaman, Oliver, History of Islamic Philosophy, 2013, Routledge, 978-1-136-78043-1,weblink en, 7 June 2023, 7 June 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, Islamic Philosophy From Its Origin to the Present: Philosophy in the Land of Prophecy, 2006, State University of New York Press, 978-0-7914-6800-5,weblink en, 7 June 2023, 7 June 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Newton-Smith, W. H., W. H. Newton-Smith, 2000, Introduction, A Companion to the Philosophy of Science, Blackwell, 978-0-631-23020-5,
  • BOOK, Nievergelt, Yves, Logic, Mathematics, and Computer Science: Modern Foundations With Practical Applications, 2015, Springer, 978-1-4939-3222-1, 2.,
  • BOOK, Nunes, Terezinha, Seel, Norbert M., Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning, 2011, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-1-4419-1427-9,weblink en, Logical Reasoning and Learning, 17 July 2023, 10 February 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Nuttall, Jon, An Introduction to Philosophy, 2013, John Wiley & Sons, 978-0-7456-6807-9,weblink en, 1. The Nature of Philosophy, 15 February 2022, 3 July 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, OED staff,weblink Oxford English Dictionary, 2022, Oxford University Press, 3rd, Philosophy, n., 10 November 2023, 23 November 2023,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Olsson, Erik, Coherentist Theories of Epistemic Justification,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 5 September 2023, 2021, 13 February 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Philosophy,weblink 2020, Lexico, University of Oxford Press, 28 March 2019, 28 March 2019,weblink dead, OUP Staff,
  • BOOK, Overgaard, Søren, D'Oro, Giuseppina, The Cambridge Companion to Philosophical Methodology, 2017, Cambridge University Press, 978-1-107-54736-0,weblink Introduction, 18 April 2022, 1 May 2022,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Overgaard, Søren, Gilbert, Paul, Burwood, Stephen, An Introduction to Metaphilosophy, 2013, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-19341-2,weblink What Is Philosophy?, 15 February 2022, 14 February 2022,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Palmquist, Stephen, Cultivating Personhood: Kant and Asian Philosophy, 2010, Walter de Gruyter, 978-3-11-022623-2,weblink en, 5 July 2023, 5 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Papineau, David, Ted, Honderich, 2005, Science, Problems of the Philosophy of, The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, 2nd, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-926479-7, 13 July 2023,weblink 23 November 2023,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Papineau, David, Naturalism,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 5 November 2023, 2023, 26 April 2018,weblink live,
  • WEB, Parker-Ryan, Sally, Ordinary Language Philosophy,weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 28 February 2022, 7 March 2022,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Parkinson, G. H. R., IV. The Renaissance and Seventeenth-Century Rationalism, 2005, Routledge, 978-0-203-02914-5, Routledge History of Philosophy,
  • BOOK, Perkins, Dorothy, Encyclopedia of China: History and Culture, 2013, Routledge, 978-1-135-93562-7,weblink en, 10 November 2023, 23 November 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Perrett, Roy W., An Introduction to Indian Philosophy, 2016, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-85356-9,weblink en, 9 June 2023, 22 June 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Perry, John, Bratman, Michael, Fischer, John Martin, Introduction to Philosophy: Classical and Contemporary Readings, 2010, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-539036-0,weblink en, 5th, 9 July 2023, 9 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Phillips, D. C., What Is Philosophy of Education?, Bailey, Richard, Barrow, Robin, Carr, David, McCarthy, Christine, The SAGE Handbook of Philosophy of Education, 2010, SAGE, 978-1-4462-0697-3,weblink en, 21 August 2023, 3 September 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Phillips, Stephen H., Classical Indian Metaphysics: Refutations of Realism and the Emergence of New Logic, Motilal Banarsidass, 978-81-208-1488-2,weblink en, 1998, 29 March 2024, 29 March 2024,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Pipes, Richard, Reflections on the Russian Revolution, Stockdale, Melissa K., Readings on the Russian Revolution, 2020, Bloomsbury Publishing, 978-1-350-03743-4,weblink 10 November 2023, 21 October 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Plato, Jowett, Benjamin, Dialogues, Standard Ebooks, Apology, 2023, 1871,weblink 14 November 2023, 14 November 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Pojman, Louis P., Pojman, Louis P., Vaughn, Lewis, Philosophy: The Quest for Truth, 7th, 2009, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-998108-3, I. What Is Philosophy?,
  • WEB, Polger, Thomas W., Functionalism,weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 19 July 2023, 19 May 2019,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Pooley, Jefferson D., Rothenbuhler, Eric W., The International Encyclopedia of Communication Theory and Philosophy, 4 Volume Set, 2016, John Wiley & Sons, 978-1-118-29073-6,weblink en, 16 June 2023, 22 June 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Pratt, Menah, Grant, Alec, Writing Philosophical Autoethnography, 15 September 2023, Taylor & Francis, 978-1-000-95761-7,weblink en, The Personal Evolution of a Critical Black Girl Feminist Identity: A Philosophical Autoethnographic Journey, 4 December 2023, 4 December 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Qi, Xiaoying, Globalized Knowledge Flows and Chinese Social Theory, 2014, Routledge, 978-1-134-69162-3,weblink en, 14 June 2023, 22 June 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Quinton, Anthony Meredith, Philosophy, Honderich, Ted, The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, 2005, Oxford University Press,weblink 2 January 2022, 29 January 2021,weblink live, 978-0-19-926479-7,
  • BOOK, Rambachan, Anantanand, The Limits of Scripture: Vivekananda's Reinterpretation of the Vedas, 1994, University of Hawaii Press, 978-0-8248-1542-4,weblink en, 16 June 2023, 22 June 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Ramos, Christine Carmela R., Introduction to Philosophy, Rex Bookstore, Inc., 2004, 978-971-23-3955-4,weblink en, 21 August 2023, 30 June 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Ranganathan, Shyam, Ramanuja,weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 7 September 2023, 12 February 2020,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Redse, Arne, 'Justification by Grace Alone' Facing Confucian Self-Cultivation: The Christian Doctrine of Justification Contextualized to New Confucianism, 2015, Brill, 978-90-04-30258-7,weblink en, 10 November 2023, 18 November 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Regenbogen, Arnim, Sandkühler, Hans Jörg, Enzyklopädie Philosophie, 2010, Meiner,weblink Philosophiebegriffe, 15 February 2022, 20 March 2022,weblink live, de,
  • BOOK, Rescher, Nicholas, Metaphilosophy: Philosophy in Philosophical Perspective, 2014, Lexington Books, 978-0-7391-9978-7,weblink en, 15 June 2023, 22 June 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Rescher, Nicholas, On the Nature of Philosophy and Other Philosophical Essays, 2013, Walter de Gruyter, 978-3-11-032020-6,weblink en, 1. The Nature of Philosophy, 15 February 2022, 3 July 2023,weblink live,
  • JOURNAL, Reynolds, Jack, Common Sense and Philosophical Methodology: Some Metaphilosophical Reflections on Analytic Philosophy and Deleuze, The Philosophical Forum, 2010, 41, 3, 231–258, 10.1111/j.1467-9191.2010.00361.x, 10536/DRO/DU:30061043,weblink 0031-806X, 18 April 2022, 7 March 2022,weblink live, free,
  • BOOK, Rickles, Dean, What Is Philosophy of Science?, 2020, John Wiley & Sons, 978-1-5095-3418-0,weblink en, 10 November 2023, 23 November 2023,weblink live,
  • JOURNAL, Riedel, Tom,weblink [Review:] Encyclopedia of Aesthetics,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060213170636weblink">weblink 13 February 2006, Art Documentation, 18, 2, 1999, 10.1086/adx.18.2.27949030, 10 November 2023,
  • WEB, Rini, Regina A., Morality and Cognitive Science,weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 7 September 2023, 7 September 2023,weblink live,
  • JOURNAL, Rivera Berruz, Stephanie, The Quest for Recognition: the Case of Latin American Philosophy, Comparative Philosophy, 2019, 10, 2, 10.31979/2151-6014(2019).100206, free,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Rizvi, Sajjad, Mulla Sadra,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 8 June 2023, 2021, 27 May 2023,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Robertson Ishii, Teresa, Atkins, Philip, Essential vs. Accidental Properties,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 16 July 2023, 2023, Lead Section, 10 July 2022,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Rosenberg, Alex, Philosophy of Science: A Contemporary Introduction, 2013, Routledge, 978-1-134-74350-6,weblink en, 10 November 2023, 23 November 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Ruether, Rosemary Radford, Integrating Ecofeminism, Globalization, and World Religions, 2004, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 978-1-4616-3822-3,weblink en, 10 June 2023, 22 June 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Russell, Bertrand, The Problems of Philosophy, 1912, 542749, H. Holt and Company,
  • BOOK, Russell, Gillian, Fara, Delia Graff, Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Language, 2013, Routledge, 978-1-136-59407-6,weblink en, 10 November 2023, 23 November 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Safi, Omid, Encyclopedia of Religion, 2005, Macmillan Reference USA, 978-0-02-865733-2,weblink en, Modernism: Islamic Modernism, 10 November 2023, 23 November 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Santinello, Giovanni, Piaia, Gregorio, Models of the History of Philosophy: Volume II: From Cartesian Age to Brucker, 2010, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-90-481-9507-7,weblink en, 30 June 2023, 3 July 2023,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Sartwell, Crispin, Beauty,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 21 July 2023, 2022, Lead Section, 1. Objectivity and Subjectivity, 26 February 2022,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Sayre-McCord, Geoff, Metaethics,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 1 November 2023, 2023, 12 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Scharfstein, Ben-Ami, A Comparative History of World Philosophy: From the Upanishads to Kant, 1998, State University of New York Press, 978-0-7914-3683-7,weblink en, 30 June 2023, 3 July 2023,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Schroeder, Mark, Value Theory, 2021,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Spring 2021, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 27 March 2021, 31 March 2021,weblink live,
  • JOURNAL, Seshadri, Kandadai, Ramanuja: Social Influence of His Life and Teaching, Economic and Political Weekly, 1996, 31, 5, 292–298, 4403749,weblink 0012-9976, 10 November 2023, 21 October 2023,weblink live,
  • JOURNAL, Shaffer, Michael J., The Problem of Necessary and Sufficient Conditions and Conceptual Analysis, Metaphilosophy, 2015, 46, 4/5, 555–563, 10.1111/meta.12158, 26602327, 148551744,weblink 0026-1068, 15 February 2022, 13 February 2022,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Shand, John, Fundamentals of Philosophy, 2004, Routledge, 978-1-134-58831-2,weblink en, 21 August 2023, 21 August 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Sharpe, Matthew, Ure, Michael, Philosophy as a Way of Life: History, Dimensions, Directions, 2021, Bloomsbury Publishing, 978-1-350-10216-3,weblink en, 15 November 2023, 15 November 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Shaw, Yu-ming, Changes and Continuities in Chinese Communism: Volume I: Ideology, Politics, and Foreign Policy, 2019, Routledge, 978-0-429-71285-2,weblink en, 10 November 2023, 21 October 2023,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Shields, Christopher, Aristotle,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 6 November 2023, 2022, 26 December 2021,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Shiraev, Eric, A History of Psychology: A Global Perspective: A Global Perspective, 2010, SAGE, 978-1-4129-7383-0,weblink en, 19 July 2023, 19 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Kane, Robert, 7.1 Incompatibilism, Sider, Theodore, Hawthorne, John, Zimmerman, Dean W., Contemporary Debates in Metaphysics, 2013, John Wiley & Sons, 978-1-118-71232-0,weblink en, 10 November 2023, 21 October 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Silverman, Hugh J., Welton, Donn, Postmodernism and Continental Philosophy, 1988, State University of New York Press, 978-0-88706-521-7,weblink en, 15 November 2023, 15 November 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Simpson, John A., Oxford English Dictionary: Version 3.0 : Upgrade Version, 2002, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-521889-3, en, Philosophy,
  • JOURNAL, Singer, Marcus G., The Many Methods of Sidgwick's Ethics, Monist, 1974, 58, 3, 420–448, 10.5840/monist197458326,
  • BOOK, Singh, Rana P. B., 3. Rethinking Development in India, Simon, David, Narman, Anders, Development as Theory and Practice: Current Perspectives on Development and Development Co-operation, 2014, Routledge, 978-1-317-87658-8,weblink en, 14 November 2023, 14 November 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Slingerland, Edward, Effortless Action: Wu-wei As Conceptual Metaphor and Spiritual Ideal in Early China, 2007, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-987457-6,weblink en, 30 June 2023, 3 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Smart, Ninian, World Philosophies, 2008, Routledge, 978-0-415-41188-2, Rev. 2nd,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Smith, David Woodruff, Phenomenology: 1. What Is Phenomenology?,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 20 September 2021, 2018, 23 June 2020,weblink live,
  • WEB, Smith, Joel, Phenomenology,weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 10 October 2021, 25 May 2020,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Smith, Matthew J., Brown, Matthew, Duncan, Randy, More Critical Approaches to Comics: Theories and Methods, 2019, Routledge, 978-0-429-78275-6,weblink en, 21 July 2023, 21 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Solomon, Robert C., Higgins, Kathleen M., From Africa to Zen: An Invitation to World Philosophy, 2003, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 978-0-7425-8086-2,weblink en, 19 August 2023, 19 August 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Stambaugh, Joan, Eliade, Mircea, Adams, Charles J., The Encyclopedia of Religion, 1987, Macmillan, 978-0-02-909480-8,weblink en, Philosophy: An Overview, 5 July 2023, 30 June 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Stehn, Alexander V., Latin American Philosophy,weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 7 November 2023, 1 June 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Epistemology,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 30 June 2020, 21 July 2020,weblink live, Steup, Matthias, Neta, Ram, 2020,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Taliaferro, Charles, Philosophy of Religion,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 6 September 2023, 2023, 23 November 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Ten, C. L., Routledge History of Philosophy: The nineteenth century, 1999, Psychology Press, 978-0-415-05604-5,weblink en, 10 November 2023, 6 November 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Tian, Chenshan, Development of Dialectical Materialism in China, Mou, Bo, History of Chinese Philosophy, 2009, Routledge, 978-0-203-00286-5,
  • BOOK, Tieszen, Richard L., Phenomenology, Logic, and the Philosophy of Mathematics, 2005, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-83782-8,weblink en, 10 November 2023, 10 July 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Truncellito, David A., Epistemology,weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 14 July 2023, 13 January 2022,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Tully, Robert, Logic, Informal, Honderich, Ted, The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, 2005, Oxford University Press,weblink 2 January 2022, 29 January 2021,weblink live, 978-0-19-926479-7,
  • BOOK, Tuomela, Raimo, Science, Action, and Reality, 1985, Springer Science & Business Media, 978-90-277-2098-6,weblink en, 6 July 2023, 4 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Uniacke, Suzanne, The Value of Applied Philosophy, Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper, Brownlee, Kimberley, Coady, David, A Companion to Applied Philosophy, 2017, John Wiley & Sons, 978-1-118-86911-6,
  • BOOK, Vallely, Anne, Jainism, Juergensmeyer, Mark, Roof, Wade Clark, Encyclopedia of Global Religion, 2012, SAGE, 978-0-7619-2729-7,weblink en, 10 June 2023, 11 July 2023,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, van Inwagen, Peter, Sullivan, Meghan, Bernstein, Sara, Metaphysics,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 6 September 2023, 2023, 16 September 2018,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Van Norden, Bryan, Wang Yangming,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 23 August 2023, 2022, 1 May 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Velleman, Daniel J., How to Prove It: A Structured Approach, 2006, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-67599-4,weblink en, 17 July 2023, 10 February 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Venturinha, Nuno, The Textual Genesis of Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations, 2013, Routledge, 978-1-136-17998-3,weblink en, 10 November 2023, 22 October 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Verene, Donald Phillip, The History of Philosophy: A Reader's Guide, 2008, Northwestern University Press, 978-0-8101-5197-0,weblink en, 25 May 2023, 25 May 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Vickers, John M., Inductive Reasoning,weblink Oxford Bibliographies, Oxford University Press, 18 January 2023, en, 2022, 29 March 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Vintiadis, Elly, Philosophy by Women: 22 Philosophers Reflect on Philosophy and Its Value, 2020, Routledge, 978-1-000-20324-0,weblink en, 10 November 2023, 4 November 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Vleet, Jacob E. Van, Informal Logical Fallacies: A Brief Guide, 2011, University Press of America, 978-0-7618-5433-3,weblink en, 17 July 2023, 10 February 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Waithe, Mary Ellen, A History of Women Philosophers. 4: Contemporary Women Philosophers 1900 - today, 1995, Nijhoff, 978-0-7923-2808-7,
  • BOOK, Walsh, Richard T. G., Teo, Thomas, Baydala, Angelina, A Critical History and Philosophy of Psychology: Diversity of Context, Thought, and Practice, 2014, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-87076-4,weblink en, 10 November 2023, 21 October 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Walton, Douglas, Formal and Informal Logic, Craig, Edward, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 1996, Routledge,weblink 29 December 2021, 16 January 2021,weblink live, 978-0-415-07310-3,
  • BOOK, Wei, Wang, Philosophy of Science: An Introduction to the Central Issues, 2020, Routledge, 978-1-317-54231-5,weblink en, 21 July 2023, 21 July 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Wei-Ming, Tu, Self-cultivation in Chinese Philosophy,weblink Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge, 20 August 2023, en, 20 August 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Weir, Ralph Stefan, The Mind-Body Problem and Metaphysics: An Argument From Consciousness to Mental Substance, 2023, Taylor & Francis, 978-1-000-91432-0,weblink en, 19 July 2023, 19 July 2023,weblink live,
  • WEB, Weisberg, Josh, Hard Problem of Consciousness,weblink Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 19 July 2023, 19 July 2023,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Williamson, Timothy, Philosophical Method: A Very Short Introduction, 1. Introduction, 2020, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-184724-0,weblink 18 April 2022, 7 March 2022,weblink live,
  • WEB, Wolf, Michael P., 2023, Philosophy of Language, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy,weblink 13 July 2023, 15 June 2023,weblink live,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Wolff, Jonathan, Leopold, David, Karl Marx,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 4 September 2023, 2021, 16 January 2020,weblink live,
  • BOOK, Wolff, Jonathan, 2006, An Introduction to Political Philosophy, revised, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-965801-5,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Woollard, Fiona, Howard-Snyder, Frances, Doing vs. Allowing Harm,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, 7 September 2023, 2022, 5 October 2023,weblink live,

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