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{{distinguish|Zagat}}{{Other uses|Zakat (disambiguation)}}{{Use dmy dates|date=April 2018}}{{Islam|practices}}{{Aqidah|Five Pillars}}File:Dinar Dirham Web.jpg|thumb|Silver or goldgoldZakat ( {{transl|ar|DIN|zakāh}} {{IPA-ar|zaˈkaːh|}}, "that which purifies", also Zakat al-mal {{IPA-ar|zaˈkaːt alˈmaːl|}} , "zakat on wealth",WEB,weblink Zakat Al-Maal (Tithing), Life USA,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161006205721weblink">weblink 6 October 2016, 11 August 2016, or Zakah)WEB,weblink Zakah, www.islam101.com, 20 April 2017, is a form of alms-giving treated in Islam as a religious obligation or tax,JOURNAL, Salehi, M, 2014, A Study on the Influences of Islamic Values on Iranian Accounting Practice and Development, Journal of Islamic Economics, Banking and Finance, 10, 2, 154–182, Zakat is a religious tax that every Muslim has to pay., 10.12816/0025175, JOURNAL, Lessy, Z, 2009, Zakat (alms-giving) management in Indonesia: Whose job should it be?, La Riba Journal Ekonomi Islam, 3, 1, zakat is alms-giving and religiously obligatory tax., which, by Quranic ranking, is next after prayer (salat) in importance.BOOK, Hallaq, Wael, Wael B. Hallaq, The impossible state: Islam, politics, and modernity's moral predicament, Columbia University Press, New York City, New York, 2013, 9780231162562, 123, As one of the Five Pillars of Islam, zakat is a religious obligation for all Muslims who meet the necessary criteria of wealth. It is a mandatory charitable contribution, often considered to be a tax.Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan Ṭūsī (2010), Concise Description of Islamic Law and Legal Opinions, {{ISBN|978-1904063292}}, pp. 131–135JOURNAL, Hefner R.W., 2006, Islamic economics and global capitalism, Society, 44, 1, 16–22, Zakat is a tax levied on income and wealth for the purpose of their purification., 10.1007/bf02690463, The payment and disputes on zakat have played a major role in the history of Islam, notably during the Ridda wars.Shoufani, Elias (1973), Al-Riddah and the Muslim Conquest of Arabia, University of Toronto Press, {{ISBN|978-0802019158}}{{page needed|date=April 2016}}Zakat is based on income and the value of all of one's possessions.Décobert, C. (1991), Le mendiant et le combattant, L’institution de l’islam, Paris: Editions du Seuil, pp. 238–240Medani Ahmed and Sebastian Gianci, Zakat, Encyclopedia of Taxation and Tax Policy, p. 479, quote: "As one of the Islam's five pillars, zakat becomes an obligation due when, over a lunar year, one controls a combination of income and wealth equal to or above Nisaab." It is customarily 2.5% (or 1/40)BOOK, Sarwar, Muhammad, al-Kafi Volume 1 of 8, 2015, The Islamic Seminary Inc., New York, 978-0-9914308-6-4, 345, Second, H 918, of a Muslim's total savings and wealth above a minimum amount known as nisab, but Islamic scholars differ on how much nisab is and other aspects of zakat. According to Islamic doctrine, the collected amount should be paid to the poor and the needy, Zakat collectors, those recently converted to Islam, those to be freed from slavery, those in debt, in the cause of Allah and to benefit the stranded traveller.Today, in most Muslim-majority countries, zakat contributions are voluntary, while in Libya, Malaysia, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Yemen, zakat is mandated and collected by the state (as of 2015).Shias, unlike Sunnis, traditionally regarded zakat as a private and voluntary decision, and they give zakat to imam-sponsored rather than state-sponsored collectors.BOOK, Jones, Owen Bennett, Pakistan: Eye of the Storm, 2003, Yale University Press, 978-0300101478, 21–23, illustrated, BOOK, John, Wilson, John, Wilson, Pakistan: The Struggle Within, 2009, Pearson Education India, 978-8131725047, 105, BOOK, Kumaraswamy, P. R., Copland, Ian, Kumaraswamy, P.R., Copland, Ian, South Asia: The Spectre of Terrorism, 18 October 2013, Routledge, 978-1317967736, 132,

Etymology

Zakat literally means "that which purifies".BOOK, Benda-Beckmann, Franz von, Social security between past and future: Ambonese networks of care and support, LIT Verlag, Münster, 2007, 978-3-8258-0718-4, 167,weblink Zakat literally means 'that which purifies'. It is a form of sacrifice which purifies worldly goods from their worldly and sometimes impure means of acquisition, and which, according to God's wish, must be channeled towards the community., Zakat is considered a way to purify one's income and wealth from sometimes worldly, impure ways of acquisition.Ridgeon, Lloyd (2003), Major World Religions: From Their Origins to the Present, Routledge, {{ISBN|978-0415297967}}, pp. 258: "The Quranic term zakat came to signify a form of obligatory charity or alms tax that was seen as a means of purifying the believer's wealth."JOURNAL, Dean, H., Khan, Z., yes, 1998, Islam: A challenge to welfare professionalism, Journal of Interprofessional Care, 12, 4, 399–405, Zakat purifies the wealth of the individual, 10.3109/13561829809024947, QURAN, 9, 103, nosup, According to Sachiko Murata and William Chittick, "Just as ablutions purify the body and salat purifies the soul (in Islam), so zakat purifies possessions and makes them pleasing to God."Murata, S. and Chittick, W. C. (1994), The vision of Islam, IB Tauris, London, {{ISBN|978-1557785169}}, p. 16

Doctrine

Quran

The Quran discusses charity in many verses, some of which relate to zakat. The word zakat, with the meaning used in Islam now, is found, for example, in suras: 7:156, 19:31, 19:55, 21:73, 23:4, 27:3, 30:39, 31:4 and 41:7.Yusuf al-Qaradawi (1999), Monzer Kahf (transl.), Fiqh az-Zakat, Dar al Taqwa, London, Volume 1, {{ISBN|978-967-5062-766}}, p. XL, "Qur'an used the word zakah, in the meaning known to Muslims now, as early as the beginning of the Makkan period. This is found in Suras: 7:156, 19:31 and 55, 21:72, 23:4, 27:7, 30:39, 31:3 and 41:7."The English translation of these verses can be read here WEB,weblink Archived copy, 20 August 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160810145129weblink">weblink 10 August 2016, dmy-all, , University of Southern CaliforniaZakat is found in the early Medinan suras and described as obligatory for Muslims.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Heck, Paul L., Jane Dammen, McAuliffe, Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an, Taxation, 2006, Brill Publishers, vol. 5, Leiden, 978-90-04-14743-0, It is given for the sake of salvation. Muslims believe those who give zakat can expect reward from God in the afterlife, while neglecting to give zakat can result in damnation. Zakat is considered part of the covenant between God and a Muslim.Verse 2.177 (Picktall translation) sums up the Quranic view of charity and alms giving (Another name for Zakat is the "Poor Due"):According to Yusuf al-Qaradawi, verse 9.5 of the QuranQURAN, 9, 5, nosup, makes zakat one of three prerequisites for pagans to become Muslims: "but if they repent, establish prayers, and practice zakat they are your brethren in faith".Yusuf al-Qaradawi (1999), Monzer Kahf (transl.), Fiqh az-Zakat, Dar al Taqwa, London, Volume 1, {{ISBN|978-967-5062-766}}, p. XIXThe Quran also lists who should receive the benefits of zakat, discussed in more detail below.

Hadith

Each of the most trusted hadith collections in Islam have a book dedicated to zakat. Sahih Bukhari's Book 24,Obligatory Charity Tax (Zakat) {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141204164402weblink |date=4 December 2014 }}, Sahih Bukhari, University of Southern California Sahih Muslim's Book 5,The Book of Zakat (Kitab Al-Zakat) {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141204164518weblink |date=4 December 2014 }}, Sahih Muslim, University of Southern California and Sunan Abu-Dawud's Book 9Zakat (Kitab Al-Zakat) {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141204164401weblink |date=4 December 2014 }}, Sunan Abu-Dawood, University of Southern California discuss various aspects of zakat, including who must pay, how much, when and what. The 2.5% rate is also mentioned in the hadiths.{{hadith-usc|usc=yes|abudawud|9|1568}}The hadiths admonish those who do not give the zakat. According to the hadith, refusal to pay or mockery of those who pay zakat is a sign of hypocrisy, and God will not accept the prayers of such people.{{hadith-usc|usc=yes|muslim|5|2161}}, {{hadith-usc|usc=no|muslim|5|2223}} The sunna also describes God's punishment for those who refuse or fail to pay zakat.{{hadith-usc|usc=yes|Bukhari|2|24|486}} On the day of Judgment, those who did not give the zakat will be held accountable and punished.A. Zysow, "Zakāt." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition.The hadith contain advice on the state-authorized collection of the zakat. The collectors are required not to take more than what is due, and those who are paying the zakat are asked not to evade payment. The hadith also warn of punishment for those who take zakat when they are not eligible to receive it (see Distribution below).

Amount

The amount of zakat to be paid by an individual depends on the amount of money and the type of assets the individual possesses. The Quran does not provide specific guidelines on which types of wealth are taxable under the zakat, nor does it specify percentages to be given. But the customary practice is that the amount of zakat paid on capital assets (e.g. money) is 2.5% (1/40).Medani Ahmed and Sebastian Gianci, Zakat, Encyclopedia of Taxation and Tax Policy, p. 479-481 Zakat is additionally payable on agricultural goods, precious metals, minerals, and livestock at a rate varying between 2.5% and 20% (1/5), depending on the type of goods.BOOK, Kuran, Timur, The Economic Impact of Islamic Fundamentalism, Marty, Martin E., Appleby, R. Scott, Fundamentalisms and the state: remaking polities, economies, and militance, University of Chicago Press, 1996, 978-0-226-50884-9, 318,weblink BOOK, Kuran, Timur, Islam and Mammon: The Economic Predicaments of Islamism, Princeton University Press, 2010, 978-1-4008-3735-9, 19,weblink Zakat is usually payable on assets continuously owned over one lunar year that are in excess of the nisab, a minimum monetary value.Scott, J. C. (1987), Resistance without protest and without organization: peasant opposition to the Islamic Zakat and the Christian Tithe, Comparative studies in society and history, 29(03), 417–452 However, Islamic scholars have disagreed on this issue. For example, Abu Hanifa did not regard the nisab limit to be a pre-requisite for zakat, in the case of land crops, fruits and minerals.Yusuf al-Qaradawi (1999), Monzer Kahf (transl.), Fiqh az-Zakat, Dar al Taqwa, London, Volume 1 and Volume 2 Other differences between Islamic scholars on zakat and nisab are acknowledged as follows by Yusuf al-Qaradawi,Unlike prayers, we observe that even the ratio, the exemption, the kinds of wealth that are zakatable are subject to differences among scholars. Such differences have serious implications for Muslims at large when it comes to their application of the Islamic obligation of zakat. For example, some scholars consider the wealth of children and insane individuals zakatable, others don't. Some scholars consider all agricultural products zakatable, others restrict zakat to specific kinds only. Some consider debts zakatable, others don't. Similar differences exist for business assets and women's jewelry. Some require certain minimum (nisab) for zakatability, some don't. etc. The same kind of differences also exist about the disbursement of zakat. â€“ Shiekh Mahmud ShaltutYusuf al-Qaradawi (1999), Monzer Kahf (transl.) King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia, Fiqh az-Zakat, Volume 1, Dar al Taqwa, London, {{ISBN|978-967-5062-766}}, pp. xxi–xxii

Failure to pay

File:Slot at the Zaouia Moulay Idriss II 1.jpg|thumb|A slot for giving zakat at the Zaouia Moulay Idriss II in (Fez, Morocco]]BOOK,weblink Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God, 2014, 94, 978-1-61069-177-2, Fitzpatrick, Coeli, Walker, Adam Hani, )The consequence of failure to pay zakat has been a subject of extensive legal debate in traditional Islamic jurisprudence, particularly when a Muslim is willing to pay zakat but refuses to pay it to a certain group or the state.BOOK, Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Fiqh Al-Zakāh: A Comprehensive Study of Zakah Regulations and Philosophy in the Light of the Qurʼan and Sunna,weblink 4 February 2016, 2011, Islamic Book Trust in affiliation with The Other Press, 978-967-5062-76-6, 40–41, According to classical jurists, if the collector is unjust in the collection of zakat but just in its distribution, the concealment of property from him is allowed. If, on the other hand, the collector is just in the collection but unjust in the distribution, the concealment of property from him is an obligation (wajib). Furthermore, if the zakat is concealed from a just collector because the property owner wanted to pay his zakat to the poor himself, they held that he should not be punished for it. If collection of zakat by force was not possible, use of military force to extract it was seen as justified, as was done by Abu Bakr during the Ridda Wars, on the argument that refusing to submit to just orders is a form of treason. However, Abu Hanifa, the founder of the Hanafi school, disapproved of fighting when the property owners undertake to distribute the zakat to the poor themselves.Some classical jurists held the view that any Muslim who consciously refuses to pay zakat is an apostate, since the failure to believe that it is a religious duty (fard) is a form of unbelief (kufr), and should be killed.Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im Na (2010), Islam and the Secular State: Negotiating the Future of Shari'a, Harvard University Press, {{ISBN|978-0674034563}}, pp. 58–63Koylu, Mustafa (2003), Islam and its Quest for Peace: Jihad, Justice and Education, {{ISBN|978-1565181809}}, pp. 88–89BOOK, Nicolas Prodromou Aghnides, Mohammedan Theories of Finance, Volume 70, 1916, Columbia university,weblink 205, However, prevailing opinion among classical jurists prescribed sanctions such as fines, imprisonment or corporal punishment.BOOK, Nicolas Prodromou Aghnides, Mohammedan Theories of Finance, Volume 70, 1916, Columbia university,weblink 302–304, Some classical and contemporary scholars such as Ishaq Ibn Rahwayh and Yusuf al-Qaradawi have stated that the person who fails to pay Zakat should have the payment taken from them, along with half of his wealth.WEB, Ruling on one who does not pay zakaah - islamqa.info,weblink islamqa.info, 29 September 2015, BOOK, Fiquh of Zakat Volume 1, Yusuf, Al Qardawi, King Abdul Aziz University Center for Research in Islamic Economics, 1984, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 19, Additionally, those who failed to pay the zakat would face God's punishment in the afterlife on the day of Judgment.In modern states where zakat payment is compulsory, failure to pay is regulated by state law similarly to tax evasion.{{Citation needed|date=January 2017}}

Distribution

(File:Waiting For Zakat (2393257046).jpg|thumb|Recipients waiting to receive zakat in India.)According to the Quran's Surah Al-Tawba, there are eight categories of people (asnaf) who qualify to benefit from zakat funds.BOOK, Ariff, Mohamed, The Islamic voluntary sector in Southeast Asia: Islam and the economic development of Southeast Asia, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1991, 978-981-3016-07-1,weblink 38, {{quotation|"Alms are for the poor and the needy, and those employed to administer the (funds); for those whose hearts have been (recently) reconciled (to Truth); for those in bondage and in debt; in the cause of Allah; and for the wayfarer: (thus is it) ordained by Allah, and Allah is full of knowledge and wisdom."| Qur'an, Sura 9 (Al-Tawba), ayat 60QURAN, 9, 60, ns, }}Islamic scholars have traditionally interpreted this verse as identifying the following eight categories of Muslim causes to be the proper recipients of zakat:BOOK, Benda-Beckmann, Franz von, Social security between past and future: Ambonese networks of care and support, LIT Verlag, Münster, 2007, 978-3-8258-0718-4, 167,
  1. Those living without means of livelihood (Al-Fuqarā'),BOOK, M.A. Mohamed Salih (Editor: Alexander De Waal), Islamism and its enemies in the Horn of Africa, Indiana University Press, 2004, 978-0-253-34403-8, 148–149,weblink the poor
  2. Those who cannot meet their basic needs (Al-Masākīn), the needy
  3. To zakat collectors (Al-Āmilīyn 'Alihā)
  4. To persuade those sympathetic to or expected to convert to Islam (Al-Mu'allafatu Qulūbuhum), recent converts to Islam,BOOK, Weiss, Anita M., Islamic reassertion in Pakistan: the application of Islamic laws in a modern state, Syracuse University Press, 1986, 978-0-8156-2375-5, 80,weblink and potential allies in the cause of Islam
  5. To free from slavery or servitude (Fir-Riqāb), slaves of Muslims who have or intend to free from their master {{clarify|date=July 2017}} by means of a kitabah contract
  6. Those who have incurred overwhelming debts while attempting to satisfy their basic needs (Al-Ghārimīn), debtors who in pursuit of a worthy goal incurred a debt
  7. Those fighting for a religious cause or a cause of God (Fī Sabīlillāh), or for Jihad in the way of Allah by means of pen, word, or sword,BOOK, Jonsson, David, Islamic Economics and the Final Jihad,weblink May 2006, Xulon Press, 978-1-59781-980-0, 245, or for Islamic warriors who fight against the unbelievers but are not salaried soldiers.Juynboll, T.W. Handleiding tot de Kennis van de Mohaamedaansche Wet volgens de Leer der Sjafiitische School, 3rd Edition, Brill Academic, pp. 85–88WEB,weblink Reliance of the Traveller, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130317053833weblink">weblink 17 March 2013, {{rp|h8.17}}
  8. Wayfarers, stranded travellers (Ibnu Al-Sabīl), travellers who are traveling with a worthy goal but cannot reach their destination without financial assistance
Zakat should not be given to one's own parents, grandparents, children, grandchildren, spouses or the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad.Neither the Quran nor the Hadiths specify the relative division of zakat into the above eight categories.Masahiko Aoki, Timur Kuran and Gérard Roland (2012), Political consequences of the Middle East's Islamic economic legacy, in Institutions and Comparative Economic Development, Palgrave Macmillan, {{ISBN|978-1137034038}}, Chapter 5, pp. 124–148 According to the Reliance of the Traveller, the Shafi'i school requires zakat is to be distributed equally among the eight categories of recipients, while the Hanafi school permits zakat to be distributed to all the categories, some of them, or just one of them.{{rp|h8.7}} Classical schools of Islamic law, including Shafi'i, are unanimous that collectors of zakat are to be paid first, with the balance to be distributed equally amongst the remaining seven categories of recipients, even in cases where one group's need is more demanding.WEB,weblink Classical Jurists' View on the Allocation of Zakat: Is Zakat Investment Allowed?, Mohamad, Shamsiah, 197, 2012, Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 1990-9233, 25 February 2015, Muslim scholars disagree whether zakat recipients can include non-Muslims. Islamic scholarship, historically, has taught that only Muslims can be recipients of zakat.JOURNAL, Benthal, Jonathan,weblink The Qur'an's Call to Alms Zakat, the Muslim Tradition of Alms-giving, ISIM Newsletter, 98, 1, 13, In recent times, some state that zakat may be paid to non-Muslims after the needs of Muslims have been met, finding nothing in the Quran or sunna to indicate that zakat should be paid to Muslims only.BOOK, Visse, Hans, Visser, Herschel, Islamic finance: principles and practice, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2009, 978-1-84542-525-8, 29,weblink Additionally, the zakat funds may be spent on the administration of a centralized zakat collection system. Representatives of the Salafi movement include propagation of Islam and any struggle in righteous cause among permissible ways of spending, while others argue that zakat funds should be spent on social welfare and economic development projects, or science and technology education. Some hold spending them for defense to be permissible if a Muslim country is under attack. Also, it is forbidden to disburse zakat funds into investments instead of being given to one of the above eight categories of recipients.{{citation needed|date=December 2015}}

Role in society

The zakat is considered by Muslims to be an act of piety through which one expresses concern for the well-being of fellow Muslims, as well as preserving social harmony between the wealthy and the poor.BOOK, Scott, James C., Weapons of the weak: everyday forms of peasant resistance, Yale University Press, 1985, 978-0-300-03641-1, 171,weblink Zakat promotes a more equitable redistribution of wealth and fosters a sense of solidarity amongst members of the Ummah.BOOK, Jawad, Rana, Social welfare and religion in the Middle East: a Lebanese perspective, The Policy Press, 2009, 978-1-86134-953-8, 60,weblink

Historical practice

{{Taxation in the Ottoman Empire sidebar}}Zakat, an Islamic practice initiated by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, was first collected on the first day of Muharram.WEB, Neyshabouri, Abd al-Husayn, Shia Calendar,weblink Washington Islamic Education Center, 16 December 2017, It has played an important role throughout its history.BOOK, Weiss, Anita M., Islamic reassertion in Pakistan: the application of Islamic laws in a modern state, Syracuse University Press, 1986, 978-0-8156-2375-5, 81,weblink Schact suggests that the idea of zakat may have entered Islam from Judaism, with roots in the Hebrew and Aramaic word zakut. However, some Islamic scholarsYusuf al-Qaradawi (1999), Monzer Kahf (transl.), Fiqh az-Zakat, Dar al Taqwa, London, Volume 1, {{ISBN|978-967-5062-766}}, pp. XXXIX–XL disagree that the Qur'anic verses on zakat (or zakah) have roots in Judaism.See the discussion about Children of Israel in verses QURAN, 9, 60, 66, nosup, The caliph Abu Bakr, believed by Sunni Muslims to be Muhammad's successor, was the first to institute a statutory zakat system.BOOK, Hawting, Gerald R., The development of Islamic ritual, Ashgate Publishing, 2006, 978-0-86078-712-9, 301,weblink Abu Bakr established the principle that the zakat must be paid to the legitimate representative of the Prophet's authority (i.e. himself). Other Muslims disagreed and refused to pay zakat to Abu Bakr, leading to accusations of apostasy and, ultimately, the Ridda wars.Bonner, Michael (2003), Poverty and Charity in Middle Eastern Contexts, State University of New York Press, {{ISBN|978-0791457382}}, p. 15: "In the old Arabic narratives about the early Muslim community and its conquests and quarrels, zakat and sadaqa loom large at several moments of crisis. These include the beginning of Muhammad's prophetic career in Mecca, when what appear to be the earliest pieces of scripture insist on almsgiving more than any other human activity. These moments of crisis also include the wars of the ridda or apostasy in C.E. 632–634, just after Muhammad's death. At that time most of the Arabs throughout the peninsula refused to continue paying zakat (now a kind of tax) to the central authority in Medina; Abu Bakr, upon assuming the leadership, swore he would force them all to pay this zakat, "even if they refuse me only a [camel's] hobble of it," and sent armies that subdued these rebels or "apostates" in large-scale battles that were soon followed by the great Islamic conquests beyond the Arabian peninsula itself."JOURNAL, Turner, Bryan, 2007, Religious authority and the new media, Theory, Culture & Society, 24, 2, 117–134, 10.1177/0263276407075001, The second and third caliphs, Umar bin Al-Khattab and Usman ibn Affan, continued Abu Bakr's codification of the zakat. Uthman also modified the zakat collection protocol by decreeing that only "apparent" wealth was taxable, which had the effect of limiting zakat to mostly being paid on agricultural land and produce.BOOK, Hashmi, Sohail H., The Problem of Poverty in Islamic Ethics, Galston, William A., Hoffenberg, Peter H., Poverty and Morality: Religious and Secular Perspectives, Cambridge University Press, 2010, 978-0-521-12734-9, 202,weblink During the reign of Ali ibn Abu Talib, the issue of zakat was tied to legitimacy of his government. After Ali, his supporters refused to pay zakat to Muawiyah I, as they did not recognize his legitimacy.The practice of Islamic state-administered zakat was short-lived in Medina. During the reign of Umar bin Abdul Aziz (717–720 A.D.), it is reported that no one in Medina needed the zakat. After him, zakat came more to be considered as an individual responsibility. This view changed over Islamic history. Sunni Muslims and rulers, for example, considered collection and disbursement of zakat as one of the functions of an Islamic state; this view has continued in modern Islamic countries.Faiz Mohammad (1991), Prospects of Poverty Eradication Through the Existing "Zakat" System in Pakistan, The Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 30, No. 4, 1119–1129Zakat is one of the five pillars of Islam, and in various Islamic polities of the past was expected to be paid by all practising Muslims who have the financial means (nisab).BOOK, Tamimi, Azzam, Rachid Ghannouchi: a democrat within Islamism, Oxford University Press, 2001, 978-0-19-514000-2, 140,weblink In addition to their zakat obligations, Muslims were encouraged to make voluntary contributions (sadaqat).BOOK, Bogle, Emory C., Islam: origin and belief, University of Texas Press, 1998, 978-0-292-70862-4, 31,weblink The zakat was not collected from non-Muslims, although they were required to pay the jizyah tax.BOOK, Khatab, Sayed, The power of sovereignty: the political and ideological philosophy of Sayyid Qutb, Taylor & Francis, 2006, 978-0-415-37250-3, 62,weblink BOOK, Zaman, M. Raquibuz, Islamic Perspectives on Territorial Boundaries and Autonomy, Miller, David, Hashmi, Sohail H., Boundaries and justice: diverse ethical perspectives, Princeton University Press, 2001, 978-0-691-08800-6, 189,weblink Depending on the region, the dominant portion of zakat went typically to Amil (the zakat collectors) or Sabīlillāh (those fighting for religious cause, the caretaker of local mosque, or those working in the cause of God such as proselytizing non-Muslims to convert to Islam).

Contemporary practice

According to the researcher Russell Powell in 2010, zakat was mandatory by state law in Libya, Malaysia, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Yemen. There were government-run voluntary zakat contribution programs in Bahrain, Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Maldives and the United Arab Emirates.JOURNAL, Powell, Russell, Zakat: Drawing Insights for Legal Theory and Economic Policy from Islamic Jurisprudence, University of Pittsburgh Tax Review, 2009, 7, 43, 1351024,weblink ">

Zakat status in Muslim countries {| class"wikitable sortable"

! Country !!Status
Afghanistan}} No government system
Algeria}} No government system
Azerbaijan}} No government system
Bahrain}} Voluntary
Bangladesh}} Voluntary
Burkina Faso}} No government system
Chad}} No government system
Egypt}} Voluntary
Guinea}} No government system
Indonesia}} Voluntary
Iran}} Voluntary
Iraq}} No government system
Jordan}} Voluntary
Kazakhstan}} No government system
Kuwait}} Voluntary
Lebanon}} Voluntary
Libya}} Mandatory
Malaysia}} Mandatory
Maldives}} Voluntary
Mali}} No government system
Mauritania}} No government system
Morocco}} No government system
Niger}} No government system
Nigeria}} No government system
Oman}}No government system
Pakistan}} Mandatory
Qatar}} No government system
Saudi Arabia}} Mandatory
Senegal}} No government system
Sierra Leone}} No government system
Somalia}} No government system
Sudan}} Mandatory
Syria}} No government system
Tajikistan}} No government system
Gambia}} No government system
Tunisia}} No government system
Turkey}} No government system
Turkmenistan}} No government system
United Arab Emirates}} Voluntary
Uzbekistan}} No government system
Yemen}} Mandatory

Collection

File:Zakat Donation Box in Taipei Mosque 20190519.jpg|thumb|Zakat donation box at Taipei Grand Mosque in Taipei, TaiwanTaiwanToday, in most Muslim countries, zakat is at the discretion of Muslims over how and whether to pay, typically enforced by peer pressure, fear of God, and an individual's personal feelings. Among the Sunni Muslims, The Zakat committees are established, linked to a religious cause or local mosque, which collect zakat.BOOK, Clark, Janine A., Islam, charity, and activism: middle-class networks and social welfare in Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen, Indiana University Press, 2004, 978-0-253-34306-2, 153,weblink Among the Shia Muslims, deputies on behalf of Imams collect the zakat.In six of the 47 Muslim-majority countries—Libya, Malaysia, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Yemen—zakat is obligatory and collected by the state.BOOK, Marty, Martin E., Appleby, R. Scott, yes, Fundamentalisms and the state: remaking polities, economies, and militance, University of Chicago Press, 1996, 978-0-226-50884-9, 320,weblink BOOK, Samiul Hasan, Human Security and Philanthropy: Islamic Perspectives and Muslim Majority Country Practices, Springer, 2015, 130,weblink 9781493925254, BOOK, Sohrab Behdad, Farhad Nomani, Islam and the moral economy: the challenge of capitalism, Routledge, 2006, 268,weblink 9781134206742, BOOK, Tripp, Charles, Islam and the Everyday World: Public Policy Dilemmas, Cambridge University Press, 2006, 978-0-521-86377-3, 125,weblink In Jordan, Bahrain, Kuwait, Lebanon, and Bangladesh, the zakat is regulated by the state, but contributions are voluntary.BOOK, Kogelmann, Franz, Sidi Fredj: A Case Study of a Religious Endowment in Morocco under the French Protectorate, Weiss, Holger, Social welfare in Muslim societies in Africa, Nordic Africa Institute, 2002, 978-91-7106-481-3, 68,weblink The states where zakat is compulsory differ in their definition of the base for zakat computation. Zakat is generally levied on livestock (except in Pakistan) and agricultural produce, although the types of taxable livestock and produce differ from country to country. Zakat is imposed on cash and precious metals in four countries with different methods of assessment. Income is subject to zakat in Saudi Arabia and Malaysia, while only Sudan imposes zakat on "wealth that yields income". In Pakistan, property is exempt from the zakat calculation basis, and the compulsory zakat is primarily collected from the agriculture sector.BOOK, Marty, Martin E., Appleby, R. Scott, yes, Fundamentalisms and the state: remaking polities, economies, and militance, University of Chicago Press, 1996, 978-0-226-50884-9, 320–321,weblink Under compulsory systems of zakat tax collection, such as Malaysia and Pakistan, evasion is very common and the alms tax is regressive. A considerable number of Muslims accept their duty to pay zakat, but deny that the state has a right to levy it, and they may pay zakat voluntarily while evading official collection. In discretion-based systems of collection, studies suggest zakat is collected from and paid only by a fraction of Muslim population who can pay.In the United Kingdom, which has a Muslim minority, more than three out of ten Muslims gave to charity (Zakat being described as "the Muslim practice of charitable donations"), according to a 2013 poll of 4000 people.NEWS,weblink Muslims give more to charity than others, UK poll says, nbcnews.com, 22 July 2013, 29 July 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130726022928weblink">weblink 26 July 2013, dmy-all, According to the self-reported poll, British Muslims, on average, gave US$567 to charity in 2013, compared to $412 for Jews, $308 for Protestants, $272 for Catholics and $177 for atheists.

Distribution

The primary sources of sharia also do not specify to whom the zakat should be paid{{snd}} to zakat collectors claiming to represent one class of zakat beneficiary (for example, poor), collectors who were representing religious bodies, or collectors representing the Islamic state.Lessy, Z. (2009), Zakat (Alms-Giving) Management In Indonesia: Whose Job Should It Be?, La Riba Journal of Islamic Economy, 3(1), pp. 155–175 This has caused significant conflicts and allegations of zakat abuse within the Islamic community, both historically and in modern times.A.H. bin Mohd Noor (2011), Non recipients of zakat funds (NRZF) and its impact on the performance of zakat institution: A conceptual model, in Humanities, Science and Engineering (CHUSER), 2011 IEEE Colloquium, {{ISBN|978-1-4673-0021-6}}, pp. 568–573Fi Sabillillah is the most prominent asnaf in Southeast Asian Muslim societies, where it broadly construed to include funding missionary work, Quranic schools and anything else that serves the Islamic community (ummah) in general.BOOK, Ariff, Mohamed, The Islamic voluntary sector in Southeast Asia: Islam and the economic development of Southeast Asia, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1991, 978-981-3016-07-1,weblink 39,

Role in society

In 2012, Islamic financial analysts estimated annual zakat spending exceeded US$200 billion per year, which they estimated at 15 times global humanitarian aid contributions.WEB,weblink Analysis: A faith-based aid revolution in the Muslim world?, irinnews.org, 2 December 2012, 1 June 2012, However that same year the National Center for Charitable Statistics reported that "individual" charitable giving in one non-Muslim country amounted to $228.93 billion (source: WEB,weblink Charitable Giving in America: Some Facts and Figures, 2012, 8 April 2015, ) Islamic scholars and development workers state that much of this zakat practice is mismanaged, wasted or ineffective. About a quarter of the Muslim worldabout 400 million people continues to live on $1.25 a day or less, according to the 2012 report.A 1999 study of Sudan and Pakistan, where zakat is mandated by the state, estimated that zakat proceeds ranged between 0.3 and 0.5 percent of GDP, while a more recent report put zakat proceeds in Malaysia at 0.1% of GDP. These numbers are far below what was expected when the governments of these countries tried to Islamize their economies, and the collected amount is too small to have a sizeable macroeconomic effect.In a 2014 study, Nasim Shirazi states widespread poverty persists in Islamic world despite zakat collections every year. Over 70% of the Muslim population in most Muslim countries is impoverished and lives on less than US$2 per day. In over 10 Muslim-majority countries, over 50% of the population lived on less than $1.25 per day income, states Shiraz. Zakat has so far failed to relieve large scale absolute poverty among Muslims in most Muslim countries.JOURNAL, Shirazi, Nasim, May 2014, Integrating Zakāt and Waqf into the Poverty Reduction Strategy of the IDB Member Countries, Islamic Economic Studies, 22, 1, 79–108, 10.12816/0004131,

Related terms

Zakat is required of Muslims only. For non-Muslims living in an Islamic state, sharia was historically seen as mandating jizya (poll tax).Böwering, Gerhard, ed. (2013), The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought, Princeton University Press. p. 545 Other forms of taxation on Muslims or non-Muslims, that have been used in Islamic history, include kharaj (land tax),Lewis, Bernard (2002), The Arabs in History, Oxford: Oxford University Press, {{ISBN|0-19-280310-7}}, page 70-74 khums (tax on booty and loot seized from non-Muslims, sudden wealth),Iqbal, Zafar and Lewis, Mervyn (2009) An Islamic Perspective on Governance, {{ISBN|978-1847201386}}, pp. 99–115 ushur (tax at state border, sea port, and each city border on goods movement, customs),Nienhaus, Volker (2006), Zakat, taxes and public finance in Islam, in Islam and the Everyday World: Public Policy Dilemmas. Sohrab Behdad, Farhad Nomani (eds.), {{ISBN|978-0415368230}}, pp. 176–189 kari (house tax)JOURNAL, Lambton, K.S., An Account of the Tārīkhi Qumm, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 12, 3–4, October 1948, 586–596, 10.1017/s0041977x00083154, and chari (sometimes called maara, pasture tax).JOURNAL, Hamid, S., 1995, Bookkeeping and accounting control systems in a tenth-century Muslim administrative office, Accounting, Business & Financial History, 5, 3, 321–333, 10.1080/09585209500000049, Kulke, H. and Rothermund, D. (1998), A History of India, 3rd Edition, Routledge, {{ISBN|0-415-15482-0}}, pp. 158–163There are differences in the interpretation and scope of zakat and other related taxes in various sects of Islam. For example, khums is interpreted differently by Sunnis and Shi'ites, with Shia expected to pay one fifth of their excess income after expenses as khums, and Sunni don't.BOOK, Momen, Moojan, An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism, Yale University Press, 1987, 978-0-300-03531-5, 179,weblink At least a tenth part of zakat and khums every year, among Shi'ites, after its collection by Imam and his religious deputies under its doctrine of niyaba, goes as income for its hierarchical system of Shia clergy.Ghobadzadeh, Naser (2014), Religious Secularity: A Theological Challenge to the Islamic State, Oxford University Press, {{ISBN|978-0199391172}}, pp. 193–195Martin, Richard (2003) Encyclopedia of Islam & the Muslim World, Macmillan Reference, {{ISBN|978-0028656038}}, pp. 274, 350–351 Among Ismaili sub-sect of Shias, the mandatory taxes which includes zakat, is called dasond, and 20% of the collected amount is set aside as income for the Imams.BOOK, Rose, Ebaugh and Cherry, Global Religious Movements Across Borders: Sacred Service, 2014, Ashgate, 978-1409456872, 149–150, Some branches of Shia Islam treat the right to lead as Imam and right to receive 20% of collected zakat and other alms as a hereditary right of its clergy.Sadaqah is another related term for charity, usually construed as a discretionary counterpart to zakat.BOOK, Meri, Josef W., Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, Psychology Press., 145,weblink 9780415966900, 2005-10-31,

Zakat al-Fitr

{{further|Zakat al-Fitr}}Zakat al-Fitr or Sadaqat al-FitrWEB, Sadaqat-ul-Fitr,weblink Hidaya Foundation, 8 April 2015, is another, smaller charitable obligation, mandatory for all Muslims â€” male or female, minor or adult as long as he/she has the means to do so â€” that is traditionally paid at the end of the fasting in the Islamic holy month of Ramadan.JOURNAL, Kasule, O. H., 1986, Muslims in Trinidad and Tobago, Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, 7, 1, 195–213, 10.1080/13602008608715974, The collected amount is used to pay the zakat collectors and to the poor Muslims so that they may be provided with a means to celebrate 'Eid al-Fitr (the festival of breaking the fast) following Ramadan, along with the rest of the Muslims.Al-Hamar, M., Dawson, R., & Guan, L. (2010), A culture of trust threatens security and privacy in Qatar, IEEE 10th International Conference, {{ISBN|978-1-4244-7547-6}}, pp. 991–995Zakat al-Fitr is a fixed amount assessed per person, while Zakat al mal is based on personal income and property.JOURNAL, Buehler, M., 2008, The rise of shari'a by-laws in Indonesian districts: An indication for changing patterns of power accumulation and political corruption, South East Asia Research, 16, 2, 255–285, 10.5367/000000008785260473,weblink According to one source, the Hidaya Foundation, the suggested Zakat al Fitr donation is based on the price of 1 Saa (approx. 3 kg) of rice or wheat at local costs, (as of 2015, approximately $7.00 in the U.S.).

See also

Charity practices in other religions:

References

Citations

{{Reflist|30em}}

Books and articles

Further reading

External links

{{commons category|Zakah}} {{Charity}}{{Islam topics}}{{Authority control}}

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