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wine
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{{about|the drink}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{For outline|Outline of wine}}









!1!2!3!4!5!6!7!8!9!10 style="background:whitesmoke;"!colspan=2|World* || style="text-align:center;"|30,806,000
factoids
name Wine| image = Red and white wine 12-2015.jpg



Wine glass>Glasses of red wine and white wine| abv = 5.5–15.5%| ingredients = Grapes
    | related =| website ={edih}File:Wine press from 16th century.jpg|thumb|upright|16th-century wine presswine pressWine is an alcoholic drink made from fermented grapes, the five countries with the largest wine-producing regions are in Italy, Spain, France, the United States, and China.BOOK, Vintage: The Story of Wine, Johnson, H., 1989, Simon & Schuster, 978-0-671-79182-7, 11–6, Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol, carbon dioxide, and heat. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine. These variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir, and the production process. Many countries enact legal appellations intended to define styles and qualities of wine. These typically restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production. Wines not made from grapes include rice wine and fruit wines such as plum, cherry, pomegranate, currant and elderberry.Wine has been produced for thousands of years. The earliest known winery is the 6,100-year-old Areni-1 winery in Armenia.WEB, National Geographic: Earliest Known Winery Found in Armenian Cave,weblink 12 January 2011, WEB,weblink UCLA Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, One of the earliest known traces of wine are from Georgia ({{circa|lk=no|6000}} BC),NEWS, David, Keys, Now that's what you call a real vintage: professor unearths 8,000-year-old wine,weblink The Independent, 28 December 2003, BOOK, Cultures of The World Georgia, Spilling, Michael, Wong, Winnie, 2008, 978-0-7614-3033-9, 128, NEWS, Evidence of ancient wine found in Georgia a vintage quaffed some 6,000 years BC,weblink 24 May 2015, Euronews, 21 May 2015, Georgia's Giant Clay Pots Hold An 8,000-Year-Old Secret To Great Wine, NPR. Iran ({{circa|lk=no|5000}} BC),NEWS, Amy, Ellsworth, 7,000 Year-old Wine Jar,weblink University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 18 July 2012, JOURNAL, Mark, Berkowitz, World's Earliest Wine,weblink Archaeological Institute of America, Archaeology (magazine), Archaeology, 49, 5, 1996, and Sicily ({{circa|lk=no|4000}} BC)NEWS, Lorenzo, Tondo, Traces of 6,000-year-old wine discovered in Sicilian cave,weblink The Guardian, 30 August 2017, although there is evidence of a similar alcoholic drink being consumed earlier in China ({{circa|7000|lk=no}} BC).BOOK,weblink Microbial Models: From Environmental to Industrial Sustainability, Castro-Sowinski, Susana, 17 November 2016, Springer, 9789811025556, 42, BOOK,weblink Alcohol in World History, Hames, Gina, 2010, Routledge, 978-1-317-54870-6, 17, weblink. Prehistoric China – The Wonders That Were Jiahu The World’s Earliest Fermented Beverage. Professor Patrick McGovern the Scientific Director of the Biomolecular Archaeology Project for Cuisine, Fermented Beverages, and Health at the University of Pennsylvania Museum in Philadelphia. Retrieved on 3 January 2017. Wine reached the Balkans by 4500 BC and was consumed and celebrated in ancient Greece, Thrace and Rome. Throughout history, wine has been consumed for its intoxicating effects.WEB, BAC per Drink tables,weblink WEB, Effects At Specific B.A.C. Levels,weblink WEB,weblink wine-serving-size, American Institute for Cancer Research, 2016-12-13, Wine has long played an important role in religion. Red wine was associated with blood by the ancient EgyptiansWEB,weblink Isis & Osiris, University of Chicago, and was used by both the Greek cult of Dionysus and the Romans in their Bacchanalia; Judaism also incorporates it in the Kiddush and Christianity in the Eucharist.

    History

    File:Areni-1 cave entrance.jpg|thumb|Entrance to the Areni-1 cave in southern Armenia near the town of Areni. The cave is the location of the world's oldest known winery and where the world's oldest known leather shoe has been found.]]The earliest archaeological and archaeobotanical evidence for grape wine and viniculture, dating to 6000–5800 BC was found on the territory of modern Georgia.NEWS, Georgia made 'world's oldest wine',weblink BBC News, 13 November 2017, JOURNAL, McGovern, Patrick, Jalabadze, Mindia, Batiuk, Stephen, Callahan, Michael P., Smith, Karen E., Hall, Gretchen R., Kvavadze, Eliso, Maghradze, David, Rusishvili, Nana, Bouby, Laurent, Failla, Osvaldo, Cola, Gabriele, Mariani, Luigi, Boaretto, Elisabetta, Bacilieri, Roberto, This, Patrice, Wales, Nathan, Lordkipanidze, David, Early Neolithic wine of Georgia in the South Caucasus, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 28 November 2017, 114, 48, E10309–E10318, 10.1073/pnas.1714728114, 29133421, 5715782, 2, Both archaeological and genetic evidence suggest that the earliest production of wine elsewhere was relatively later, likely having taken place in the Southern Caucasus (which encompasses Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan), or the West Asian region between Eastern Turkey, and northern Iran.WEB,weblink The Beer Archaeologist, Abigail Tucker, Smithsonian, WEB,weblink Grape Wine, The earliest evidence of a grape-based fermented drink was found in China ({{circa|lk=no|7000}} BC), and the earliest evidence of wine in Georgia from 6000 BC,BOOK, Cultures of The World Georgia, Spilling, Michael, Wong, Winnie, 2008, 978-0-7614-3033-9, 128, WEB,weblink Unearthing Georgia's wine heritage, WEB,weblink Georgian wines: older and wiser, Financial Times, Iran from 5000 BC, and Sicily from 4000 BC. The earliest evidence of a wine production facility is the Areni-1 winery in Armenia and is at least 6100 years old.WEB, Armenian find is 'world's oldest winery' – Decanter,weblink Decanter, 2 November 2015, |Booze Traveler Season 1 Episode 11 The Armenian Trail 02;| weblink.
    File:Hay pers.jpg|thumb|upright|Detail of a relief of the eastern stairs of the Apadana, Persepolis, depicting ArmeniansArmeniansA 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixed with rice to produce mixed fermented drinks in China in the early years of the seventh millennium BC. Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu, Henan, contained traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds commonly found in wine. However, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as hawthorn, cannot be ruled out.JOURNAL, Fermented beverages of pre- and proto-historic China, The National Academy of Sciences, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Patrick E. McGovern, 30 September 2003, etal, 10.1073/pnas.0407921102, 101, 51, 17593–17598, 15590771, 539767, NEWS,weblink ScienceDaily LLC, ScienceDaily, Penn Museum Archaeochemist And International Scholars Confirm 9,000-Year History Of Chinese Fermented Beverages, 24 December 2004, If these drinks, which seem to be the precursors of rice wine, included grapes rather than other fruits, they would have been any of the several dozen indigenous wild species in China, rather than Vitis vinifera, which was introduced there 6000 years later.The spread of wine culture westwards was most probably due to the Phoenicians who spread outward from a base of city-states along the Mediterranean coast of what are today Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Palestine.McGovern, Patrick E. 2003. Ancient wine: the search for the origins of viniculture. Princeton University Press The wines of Byblos were exported to Egypt during the Old Kingdom and then throughout the Mediterranean. Evidence includes two Phoenician shipwrecks from 750 BC discovered by Robert Ballard, whose cargo of wine was still intact.MIT technology helps map ancient Phoenician shipwrecks MIT press release. As the first great traders in wine (cherem), the Phoenicians seem to have protected it from oxidation with a layer of olive oil, followed by a seal of pinewood and resin, similar to retsina. Although the Nuragic culture in Sardinia already had a custom of consuming wine before the arrival of the PhoeniciansweblinkweblinkFile:Georgian „Kvevri“.jpg|thumb|Georgian KvevriKvevriThe earliest remains of Apadana Palace in Persepolis dating back to 515 BC include carvings depicting soldiers from Achaemenid Empire subject nations bringing gifts to the Achaemenid king, among them Armenians bringing their famous wine.Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer (8th century BC, but possibly relating earlier compositions), Alkman (7th century BC), and others. In ancient Egypt, six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y", a royal chief vintner. Five of these amphoras were designated as originating from the king's personal estate, with the sixth from the estate of the royal house of Aten.BOOK, Johnson, Hugh, Vintage: The Story of Wine, 32, Simon and Schuster, 1989, 978-0-671-68702-1,weblink Traces of wine have also been found in central Asian Xinjiang in modern-day China, dating from the second and first millennia BC.WEB,weblink Wine Production in China, 25 June 2008, Rong, Xu Gan, Bao Tong Fa, Grandiose Survey of Chinese Alcoholic Drinks and Beverages, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080828140517weblink">weblink 28 August 2008, dmy-all, File:Banquet Louvre Kylix G133 by Cage Painter.jpg|thumb|Wine boy at a symposiumsymposiumFile:29-autunno,Taccuino Sanitatis, Casanatense 4182..jpg|thumb|right|Pressing winePressing wineThe first known mention of grape-based wines in India is from the late 4th-century BC writings of Chanakya, the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. In his writings, Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of wine known as madhu.J. Robinson (ed) The Oxford Companion to Wine Third Edition, pp. 355–356 Oxford University Press 2006 {{ISBN|0-19-860990-6}}The ancient Romans planted vineyards near garrison towns so wine could be produced locally rather than shipped over long distances. Some of these areas are now world-renowned for wine production.H. Johnson Vintage: The Story of Wine pg 82–89 Simon and Schuster 1989 {{ISBN|0-671-68702-6}} The Romans discovered that burning sulfur candles inside empty wine vessels kept them fresh and free from a vinegar smell.WEB,weblink www.practicalwinery.com, 1 February 2009, Practical Winery & Vineyard Journal Jan/Feb 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130928111625weblink">weblink 28 September 2013, dmy-all, In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Church supported wine because the clergy required it for the Mass. Monks in France made wine for years, aging it in caves.BOOK, Phillips, Rod, A Short History of Wine, 12 November 2002, Harper Perennial, 978-0-06-093737-9, 62–63, An old English recipe that survived in various forms until the 19th century calls for refining white wine from bastard—bad or tainted bastardo wine.EPISODE, The Great Resource, Tales from the Palaces, Tales from the Palaces, 3 November 2006, 1, 9, Later, the descendants of the sacramental wine were refined for a more palatable taste. Which gave rise to modern viticulture in French wine, Italian wine, Spanish wine, and these wine grape traditions were brought into New World wine. For example, Mission grapes were brought by Franciscan monks to New Mexico in 1628 beginning the New Mexico wine heritage, these grapes were also brought to California which started the California wine industry. Both of these regions eventually evolved into American wine's oldest and largest wine producers respectively. United States Department of Agriculture "Global Wine Report August 2006 {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080408235146weblink |date=April 8, 2008 }}", pp. 7-9BOOK, Birchell, D.B., Steel, G., New Mexico Wine: An Enchanting History, American Palate, American Palate Series, 2013, 978-1-60949-643-2,weblink it, November 15, 2019, BOOK, New Mexico. Office of Cultural Affairs, Enchanted Lifeways: The History, Museums, Arts & Festivals of New Mexico, New Mexico Magazine, 1995, 978-0-937206-39-3,weblink November 15, 2019,

    Etymology

    (File:Word for Wine in European languages.svg|thumb|upright=1.4|Map showing the word for wine in European languages.)The English word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic *winam, an early borrowing from the Latin vinum, "wine" or "(grape) vine", itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o- (cf. , (wikt:գինի|gini); Ancient Greek: oinos; Aeolic Greek: woinos; Hittite: wiyana; Lycian: oino).{{OEtymD|wine}}ENCYCLOPEDIA, Whiter, Walter, Etymologicon Magnum, Or Universal Etymological Dictionary, on a New Plan, Wine,weblink 25 June 2008, 1800, Francis Hodson, 145, {{LSJ|oi){{=}}nos1|οἶνος|ref}}. The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek me-tu-wo ne-wo (*),Found on the PY Fr 1202 tablet.Cf. {{LSJ|me/qu^|μέθυ|shortref}}. meaning "in (the month)" or "(festival) of the new wine", and wo-no-wa-ti-si,Found on the PY Vn 48 and PY Xa 1419 tablets. meaning "wine garden", written in Linear B inscriptions.WEB,weblink Mycenaean and Late Cycladic Religion and Religious Architecture, Dartmouth College, T.G. Palaima, The Last days of Pylos Polity {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110516070021weblink |date=16 May 2011 }}, Université de LiègeJames C. Wright, The Mycenaean feast, American School of Classical Studies, 2004, on Google booksPalaeolexicon, Word study tool of ancient languages Linear B also includes, inter alia, an ideogram for wine, i.e. .The ultimate Indo-European origin of the word is the subject of continued debate. Some scholars have noted the similarities between the words for wine in Indo-European languages (e.g. Armenian (wikt:գինի|gini), Latin vinum, Ancient Greek οἶνος, Russian вино {{IPA-ru|vʲɪˈno|}}), Kartvelian (e.g. Georgian (wikt:ღვინო|ღვინო) {{IPA-ka|ɣvinɔ|}}), and Semitic (*wayn; Hebrew יין {{IPA-he|jaiin|}}), pointing to the possibility of a common origin of the word denoting "wine" in these language families.Benjamin W. Fortson IV Indo-European Language and Culture, an introduction, Blackwell Publishing 2010, p. 42, on Google books The Georgian word goes back to Proto-Kartvelian *ɣwino-,BOOK, Klimov, Georgij, 1998, Etymological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages,weblink Berlin, Walter de Gruyter, 227, 978-3-11-015658-4, 26 April 2015, which is either a borrowing from Proto-Indo-EuropeanGamkrelidze, Ivanov: Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans: A reconstruction and historical analysis of a proto-language and a proto-culture (vols. I-II). Berlin / New York, 1994–1995, p.The Sound of Indo-European: Phonetics, Phonemics, and Morphophonemics, p. 505+Asya Pereltsvaig, Martin W. Lewis (2015). The Indo-European Controversy, Cambridge University Press, p. 193-195Arbeitman, Yoël (2000), The Asia Minor Connexion: Studies on the Pre-Greek Languages in Memory of Charles Carter, Peeters Publishers.Siewierska, Anna (1998), Constituent Order in the Languages of Europe, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter or the lexeme was specifically borrowed from Proto-Armenian *ɣʷeinyo-, whence Armenian gini.BOOK, Martirosyan, Hrach, Hrach Martirosyan, Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon, 2010, Brill Academic Publishers, Leiden, Boston, 214, BOOK, Adjarian, Hrachia, Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Dictionary of Armenian Root Words], Yerevan State University, Yerevan, 559, I,weblink Armenian, WEB, Starostin, Sergei, Kartvelian Etymology database,weblink 6 April 2014, -BOOK, Robert S. P., Beekes, Robert S. P. Beekes, 2010, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Leiden, Boston, Brill, 1059, II, Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series, volume 10, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, An alternate hypothesis by Fähnrich supposes *ɣwino-, a native Kartvelian word derived from the verbal root *ɣun- ('to bend').BOOK, Fähnrich, Heinz, Kartwelisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, 2007, Brill, Leiden, Boston, 486, German, See (wikt:Appendix:Proto-Kartvelian/ɣwino-|*ɣwino-) for more. All these theories place the origin of the word in the same geographical location, Trans-Caucasia, that has been established based on archeological and biomolecular studies as the origin of viticulture.

    Variants

    Red wine

    The red-wine production process involves extraction of color and flavor components from the grape skin. Red wine is made from dark-colored grape varieties. The actual color of the wine can range from violet, typical of young wines, through red for mature wines, to brown for older red wines. The juice from most purple grapes is actually greenish-white; the red color comes from anthocyan pigments (also called anthocyanins) present in the skin of the grape; exceptions are the relatively uncommon teinturier varieties, which actually have red flesh and produce red juice.

    White wine

    Fermentation of the non-colored grape pulp produces white wine. The grapes from which white wine is produced are typically green or yellow. Some varieties are well-known, such as the Chardonnay, Sauvignon, and Riesling. Other white wines are blended from multiple varieties; Tokay, Sherry, and Sauternes are examples of these. Dark-skinned grapes may be used to produce white wine if the wine-maker is careful not to let the skin stain the wort during the separation of the pulp-juice. Pinot noir, for example, is commonly used to produce champagne.Dry (non-sweet) white wine is the most common, derived from the complete fermentation of the wort. Sweet wines are produced when the fermentation is interrupted before all the grape sugars are converted into alcohol. Sparkling wines, which are mostly white wines, are produced by not allowing carbon dioxide from the fermentation to escape during fermentation, which takes place in the bottle rather than in the barrel.

    Rosé wine

    A rosé wine incorporates some of the color from the grape skins, but not enough to qualify it as a red wine. It may be the oldest known type of wine, as it is the most straightforward to make with the skin contact method. The pink color can range from a pale orange to a vivid near-purple, depending on the varietals used and wine-making techniques. There are three primary ways to produce rosé wine: skin contact (allowing dark grape skins to stain the wort), saignée (removing juice from the must early in fermentation and continuing fermentation of the juice separately), and blending (uncommon and discouraged in most wine growing regions). Rosé wines can be made still, semi-sparkling, or sparkling, with a wide range of sweetness levels from dry Provençal rosé to sweet White Zinfandels and blushes. Rosé wines are made from a wide variety of grapes all over the world.J. Robinson (ed) "The Oxford Companion to Wine" Third Edition pg 593 Oxford University Press 2006 {{ISBN|0-19-860990-6}}O. Clarke Oz Clarke's Encyclopedia of Wine pgs 15, 225, 320, 360 Time Warner Books, London 2003 {{ISBN|0-316-72654-0}}

    Fruit wines

    Wines from other fruits, such as apples and berries, are usually named after the fruit from which they are produced combined with the word "wine" (for example, apple wine and elderberry wine) and are generically called fruit wine or country wine (not to be confused with the French term vin de pays). Other than the grape varieties traditionally used for wine-making, most fruits naturally lack either sufficient fermentable sugars, relatively low acidity, yeast nutrients needed to promote or maintain fermentation, or a combination of these three characteristics. This is probably one of the main reasons why wine derived from grapes has historically been more prevalent by far than other types, and why specific types of fruit wine have generally been confined to regions in which the fruits were native or introduced for other reasons.

    Mead (honey wine)

    Mead, also called honey wine, is created by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, spices, grains, or hops. As long as the primary substance fermented is honey, the drink is considered mead.BOOK, Rites of Odin, Edward, Fitch, Llewellyn Worldwide, 1990,weblink 978-0-87542-224-4, 290, St. Paul, Minnesota, Mead was produced in ancient history throughout Europe, Africa and Asia,Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat (Anthea Bell, tr.) The History of Food, 2nd ed. 2009:30. and was known in Europe before grape wine.BOOK, Hornsey, Ian, A History of Beer and Brewing, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2003, 7,weblink 978-0-85404-630-0, ...mead was known in Europe long before wine, although archaeological evidence of it is rather ambiguous. This is principally because the confirmed presence of beeswax or certain types of pollen ... is only indicative of the presence of honey (which could have been used for sweetening some other drink) – not necessarily of the production of mead.,

    Starch-based "wine" and wine-based products

    Other drinks called "wine", such as barley wine and rice wine (e.g. sake), are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer more than traditional wine, while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. In these latter cases, the term "wine" refers to the similarity in alcohol content rather than to the production process.WEB,weblink Barley Wine, 25 June 2008, Allen, Fal, Anderson Valley Brewing Company,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080227015623weblink">weblink 27 February 2008, The commercial use of the English word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions.BOOK, George, Rosemary, The Simon & Schuster Pocket Wine Label Decoder, 1991, Fireside, 978-0-671-72897-7, Some UK supermarkets have been criticised for selling “wine based” drinks, which only contain 75% wine, but which are still marketed as wine. The International Organisation of Vine and Wine requires that a "wine based drink" must contain a minimum of 75% wine, but producers do not have to divulge the nature of the remaining 25%.WEB,weblink Consumers 'misled' by wine-based drinks, 2 March 2015,

    Grape varieties

    (File:Grape Vineyard.jpg|thumb|right|Grape vineyard)Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species Vitis vinifera, such as Pinot noir, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay and Merlot. When one of these varieties is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as minimums of 75% to 85%), the result is a "varietal" as opposed to a "blended" wine. Blended wines are not necessarily inferior to varietal wines, rather they are a different style of wine-making.NEWS,weblink Don't Judge a Wine by the Grape on Its Label, 2018-02-01, The New York Times, 2018-04-09, en-US, 0362-4331, Wine can also be made from other species of grape or from hybrids, created by the genetic crossing of two species. V. labrusca (of which the Concord grape is a cultivar), V. aestivalis, V. rupestris, V. rotundifolia and V. riparia are native North American grapes usually grown to eat fresh or for grape juice, jam, or jelly, and only occasionally made into wine.Hybridization is different from grafting. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European V. vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American species' rootstock, a common practice due to their resistance to phylloxera, a root louse that eventually kills the vine. In the late 19th century, most of Europe's vineyards (excluding some of the driest in the south) were devastated by the infestation, leading to widespread vine deaths and eventual replanting. Grafting is done in every wine-producing region in the world except in Argentina, the Canary Islands and Chile—the only places not yet exposed to the insect.BOOK, Robinson, Jancis, Jancis Robinson's Wine Course: A Guide to the World of Wine, 28 April 2006, Abbeville Press, 978-0-7892-0883-5, 97, In the context of wine production, terroir is a concept that encompasses the varieties of grapes used, elevation and shape of the vineyard, type and chemistry of soil, climate and seasonal conditions, and the local yeast cultures.JOURNAL, Fraga, Helder, Malheiro, Aureliano C., Moutinho-Pereira, José, Cardoso, Rita M., Soares, Pedro M. M., Cancela, Javier J., Pinto, Joaquim G., Santos, João A., Álvarez, Inés, 8, Integrated Analysis of Climate, Soil, Topography and Vegetative Growth in Iberian Viticultural Regions, PLoS ONE, 24 September 2014, 9, 9, e108078, 10.1371/journal.pone.0108078, 25251495, 4176712, The range of possible combinations of these factors can result in great differences among wines, influencing the fermentation, finishing, and aging processes as well. Many wineries use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir.BOOK, Johnson, Hugh, Jancis Robinson, The World Atlas of Wine, 13 September 2001, Mitchell Beazley, 978-1-84000-332-1, 22–23, However, flavor differences are less desirable for producers of mass-market table wine or other cheaper wines, where consistency takes precedence. Such producers try to minimize differences in sources of grapes through production techniques such as micro-oxygenation, tannin filtration, cross-flow filtration, thin-film evaporation,and spinning cones.WEB,weblink High Alcohol is a Wine Fault... Not a Badge of Honor, 25 June 2008, Citriglia, Matthew, 14 May 2006, GeekSpeak, LLC,

    Classification

    (File:Wine grapes03.jpg|thumb|upright|Wine grapes on a vine)Regulations govern the classification and sale of wine in many regions of the world. European wines tend to be classified by region (e.g. Bordeaux, Rioja and Chianti), while non-European wines are most often classified by grape (e.g. Pinot noir and Merlot). Market recognition of particular regions has recently been leading to their increased prominence on non-European wine labels. Examples of recognized non-European locales include Napa Valley, Santa Clara Valley, Sonoma Valley, Anderson Valley, and Mendocino County in California; Willamette Valley and Rogue Valley in Oregon; Columbia Valley in Washington; Barossa Valley in South Australia; Hunter Valley in New South Wales; Luján de Cuyo in Argentina; Central Valley in Chile; Vale dos Vinhedos in Brazil; Hawke's Bay and Marlborough in New Zealand; and in Canada, the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia, and the Niagara Peninsula and Essex County regions of Ontario are the three largest producers.Some blended wine names are marketing terms whose use is governed by trademark law rather than by specific wine laws. For example, Meritage (sounds like "heritage") is generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, but may also include Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, and Malbec. Commercial use of the term Meritage is allowed only via licensing agreements with the Meritage Association.

    European classifications

    File:Moscato d'Asti.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Italian Moscato d'Asti, a DOCG wine]]France has various appellation systems based on the concept of terroir, with classifications ranging from Vin de Table ("table wine") at the bottom, through Vin de Pays and Appellation d'Origine Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (AOVDQS), up to Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) or similar, depending on the region.WEB,weblink Wine classification, 22 June 2007, French Wine Guide, WEB,weblink Terroir revisited: towards a working definition, 22 June 2007, Goode, Jamie, Portugal has developed a system resembling that of France and, in fact, pioneered this concept in 1756 with a royal charter creating the Demarcated Douro Region and regulating the production and trade of wine.WEB,weblink The Spirit of the Commemorations, 25 June 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080523163736weblink">weblink 23 May 2008, dmy-all, Germany created a similar scheme in 2002, although it has not yet achieved the authority of the other countries' classification systems.WEB,weblink About German Wine, 22 June 2007, German wine society, WEB,weblink German Wine Guide: Wine Laws and Classifications, 22 June 2007, The Winedoctor, Spain, Greece and Italy have classifications based on a dual system of region of origin and product quality.WEB,weblink Land of wines, 17 July 2007, Wines from Spain, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070831222708weblink">weblink 31 August 2007, dmy-all,

    Beyond Europe

    New World wines—those made outside the traditional wine regions of Europe—are usually classified by grape rather than by terroir or region of origin, although there have been unofficial attempts to classify them by quality.WEB,weblink Towards an Australian Wine Classification, Chlebnikowski, Simon, Alex Chlebnikowski, 26 June 2008, Nicks Wine Merchants, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080504155940weblink">weblink 4 May 2008, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Langton's Australian Wine Classification IV, 26 June 2008, 27 July 2007, According to Canadian Food and Drug Regulations, wine in Canada is an alcoholic drink that is produced by the complete or partial alcoholic fermentation of fresh grapes, grape must, products derived solely from fresh grapes, or any combination of them. There are many materials added during the course of the manufacture, such as yeast, concentrated grape juice, dextrose, fructose, glucose or glucose solids, invert sugar, sugar, or aqueous solutions. Calcium sulphate in such quantity that the content of soluble sulphates in the finished wine shall not exceed 0.2 per cent weight by volume calculated as potassium sulphate. Calcium carbonate in such quantity that the content of tartaric acid in the finished wine shall not be less than 0.15 per cent weight by volume. Also, sulphurous acid, including salts thereof, in such quantity that its content in the finished wine shall not exceed 70 parts per million in the free state, or 350 parts per million in the combined state, calculated as sulphur dioxide. Caramel, amylase and pectinase at a maximum level of use consistent with good manufacturing practice. Brandy, fruit spirit or alcohol derived from the alcoholic fermentation of a food source distilled to not less than 94 per cent alcohol by volume.{{clarify|seems not to be a complete sentence|date=May 2019}} Prior to final filtration may be treated with a strongly acid cation exchange resin in the sodium ion form, or a weakly basic anion exchange resin in the hydroxyl ion form.WEB,weblink Consolidated federal laws of canada, Food and Drug Regulations, Branch, Legislative Services, laws.justice.gc.ca, en, 2017-07-19,

    Vintages

    (File:Champagne millésimé 1995.JPG|right|thumb|upright=0.9|Vintage French Champagne)In the United States, for a wine to be vintage-dated and labeled with a country of origin or American Viticultural Area (AVA; e.g., Sonoma Valley), 95% of its volume must be from grapes harvested in that year.Title 27 of the United States Code, Code of Federal Regulations § 4.27 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070217043053weblink |date=17 February 2007 }} If a wine is not labeled with a country of origin or AVA the percentage requirement is lowered to 85%.Vintage wines are generally bottled in a single batch so that each bottle will have a similar taste. Climate's impact on the character of a wine can be significant enough to cause different vintages from the same vineyard to vary dramatically in flavor and quality.WEB,weblink Wine vintages, vintage charts, 26 June 2008, Breton, Félicien, French Scout, Thus, vintage wines are produced to be individually characteristic of the particular vintage and to serve as the flagship wines of the producer. Superior vintages from reputable producers and regions will often command much higher prices than their average ones. Some vintage wines (e.g. Brunello), are only made in better-than-average years.For consistency, non-vintage wines can be blended from more than one vintage, which helps wine-makers sustain a reliable market image and maintain sales even in bad years.NEWS, Clive, Platman, Wine: Lovely bubbly, 2 October 2002,weblink Birmingham Post, 26 June 2008, JOURNAL, May 2006, Change to Vintage Date Requirements (2005R-212P), Federal Register, 71, 84,weblink 26 June 2008, 25748, Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, One recent study suggests that for the average wine drinker, the vintage year may not be as significant for perceived quality as had been thought, although wine connoisseurs continue to place great importance on it.WEB,weblink Parker v. Prial: The Death of the Vintage Chart, 26 June 2008, Weil, Roman L., Roman L. Weil, 25 May 2001,

    Tasting

    File:Tempranillowine.jpg|thumb|Judging color is the first step in tasting a wine.]]{{See also|Wine tasting descriptors}}Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. Wines contain many chemical compounds similar or identical to those in fruits, vegetables, and spices. The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation, relative to the acidity present in the wine. Dry wine, for example, has only a small amount of residual sugar. Some wine labels suggest opening the bottle and letting the wine "breathe" for a couple of hours before serving, while others recommend drinking it immediately. Decanting (the act of pouring a wine into a special container just for breathing) is a controversial subject among wine enthusiasts. In addition to aeration, decanting with a filter allows the removal of bitter sediments that may have formed in the wine. Sediment is more common in older bottles, but aeration may benefit younger wines.BOOK, Johnson, Hugh, Jancis Robinson, The World Atlas of Wine, 13 September 2001, Mitchell Beazley, 978-1-84000-332-1, 46, During aeration, a younger wine's exposure to air often "relaxes" the drink, making it smoother and better integrated in aroma, texture, and flavor. Older wines generally fade (lose their character and flavor intensity) with extended aeration.NEWS, Fruity character and breathing times, 18 September 2005,weblink New Straits Times, 24 October 2007, Despite these general rules, breathing does not necessarily benefit all wines. Wine may be tasted as soon as the bottle is opened to determine how long it should be aerated, if at all.WEB,weblink Decanting wine, Williamson's Wines, As a general rule wine should be tasted as soon as it is opened to determine how long it might be aerated, 10 April 2018, {{better source|we don't generaly link to commercial sites if we can avoid it|date=April 2018}} When tasting wine, individual flavors may also be detected, due to the complex mix of organic molecules (e.g. esters and terpenes) that grape juice and wine can contain. Experienced tasters can distinguish between flavors characteristic of a specific grape and flavors that result from other factors in wine-making. Typical intentional flavor elements in wine—chocolate, vanilla, or coffee—are those imparted by aging in oak casks rather than the grape itself.WEB,weblink Types of wine, 26 June 2008, Breton, Félicien, French Scout, Vertical and horizontal tasting involves a range of vintages within the same grape and vineyard, or the latter in which there is one vintage from multiple vineyards. "Banana" flavors (isoamyl acetate) are the product of yeast metabolism, as are spoilage aromas such as "medicinal" or "Band-Aid" (4-ethylphenol), "spicy" or "smoky" (4-ethylguaiacol),WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080219204946weblink">weblink 19 February 2008,weblink Brettanomyces Monitoring by Analysis of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol, 26 June 2008, ETS Laboratories, 15 March 2001, and rotten egg (hydrogen sulfide).WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080219205658weblink">weblink 19 February 2008,weblink Sulfides in Wine, ETS Laboratories, 15 May 2002, Some varieties can also exhibit a mineral flavor due to the presence of water-soluble salts as a result of limestone's presence in the vineyard's soil. Wine aroma comes from volatile compounds released into the air.JOURNAL, Gómez-Míguez, M. José, Manuela Gómez-Mígueza, Isabel M. Vicarioa, Francisco J. Heredia, April 2007, Assessment of colour and aroma in white wines vinifications: Effects of grape maturity and soil type, Journal of Food Engineering, 79, 3, 758–764, 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.02.038, Vaporization of these compounds can be accelerated by twirling the wine glass or serving at room temperature. Many drinkers prefer to chill red wines that are already highly aromatic, like Chinon and Beaujolais.BOOK, Johnson, Hugh, Jancis Robinson, The World Atlas of Wine, 13 September 2001, Mitchell Beazley, 978-1-84000-332-1, 44–45, The ideal temperature for serving a particular wine is a matter of debate by wine enthusiasts and sommeliers, but some broad guidelines have emerged that will generally enhance the experience of tasting certain common wines. A white wine should foster a sense of coolness, achieved by serving at "cellar temperature" ({{convert|13|C|F}}). Light red wines drunk young should also be brought to the table at this temperature, where they will quickly rise a few degrees. Red wines are generally perceived best when served chambré ("at room temperature"). However, this does not mean the temperature of the dining room—often around {{convert|21|C|F}}—but rather the coolest room in the house and, therefore, always slightly cooler than the dining room itself. Pinot noir should be brought to the table for serving at {{convert|16|C|F}} and will reach its full bouquet at {{convert|18|C|F}}. Cabernet Sauvignon, zinfandel, and Rhone varieties should be served at {{convert|18|C|F}} and allowed to warm on the table to {{convert|21|C|F}} for best aroma.BOOK, The great book of French cuisine, Pellaprat, Henri-Paul, 2003, Vendome, New York,weblink 978-0-86565-231-6,

    Collecting

    {{See also|Aging of wine|Investment wine|Storage of wine}}File:Margaux94 1.jpg|thumb|upright|Château Margaux, a First GrowthFirst GrowthOutstanding vintages from the best vineyards may sell for thousands of dollars per bottle, though the broader term "fine wine" covers those typically retailing in excess of US$30–50.For example, Berry Brothers & Rudd, one of the world's largest dealers, start "fine wine" prices at about £25—in March 2009 with a wine from Au Bon Climat website "Fine wine offers" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120120114418weblink |date=20 January 2012 }}. "Investment wines" are considered by some to be Veblen goods: those for which demand increases rather than decreases as their prices rise.Particular selections have higher value, such as "Verticals", in which a range of vintages of a specific grape and vineyard, are offered. The most notable was a Château d'Yquem 135 year vertical containing every vintage from 1860 to 2003 sold for $1.5 million.The most common wines purchased for investment include those from Bordeaux and Burgundy; cult wines from Europe and elsewhere; and vintage port. Characteristics of highly collectible wines include:
    1. A proven track record of holding well over time
    2. A drinking-window plateau (i.e., the period for maturity and approachability) that is many years long
    3. A consensus among experts as to the quality of the wines
    4. Rigorous production methods at every stage, including grape selection and appropriate barrel aging
    Investment in fine wine has attracted those who take advantage of their victims' relative ignorance of this wine market sector.economist.com Fine-wine fraud. Such wine fraudsters often profit by charging excessively high prices for off-vintage or lower-status wines from well-known wine regions, while claiming that they are offering a sound investment unaffected by economic cycles. As with any investment, thorough research is essential to making an informed decision.

    Production

    {{See also|List of wine-producing countries|List of wine-producing regions}}(File:Grapes Fermenting - John Kosovich Wines.jpg|thumb|Grapes fermenting to make wine in Western Australia){| class="wikitable"|+2014 wine production estimatesCrops processed at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) website! Rank !! Country(with link to wine article) !! Production(tonnes)
    ITA}} Italian wine >4,796,600
    ESP}} Spanish wine >4,607,850
    FRA}} French wine >4,293,466
    US}} American wine >3,300,000
    PRC}} Wine in China >1,700,000
    ARG}} Argentine wine >1,498,380
    CHI}} Chilean wine >1,214,000
    AUS}} Australian wine >1,186,343
    RSA}} South African wine >1,146,006
    GER}} German wine >920,200
    • May include official, semi-official or estimated data.
    Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between 30 and 50 degrees latitude north and south of the equator. The world's southernmost vineyards are in the Central Otago region of New Zealand's South Island near the 45th parallel south,WEB,weblink New Zealand Wine Regions – Central Otago, 26 June 2008, Courtney, Sue, 16 April 2005, and the northernmost are in Flen, Sweden, just north of the 59th parallel north.WEB,weblink Wine History, 26 June 2008,

    Exporting countries

    {{Col-begin|width=80%}}{{Col-3}}{| class="wikitable"|+Top ten wine exporting countries in 2013Crops and livestock products at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) website! Rank! style="width:140px;"|Country! style="width:100px;"|1000 tonnes!1ITA}} Italian wine >2,016!2ESP}} Spanish wine >1,831!3FRA}} French wine >1,515!4CHI}} Chilean wine >879!5AUS}} Australian wine >711!6RSA}} South African wine >605!7USA}} American wine >414!8GER}} German wine >400!9ARG}} Argentine wine >322!10POR}} Portuguese wine >306 style="background:whitesmoke;"!colspan=2|World* || style="text-align:center;"|10,319
    • May include official, semi-official or estimated data.
    {{Col-3}}{| class="wikitable"|+ 2013 export market shares! Rank! style="width:140px;"|Country! style="width:110px;"|Market share(% of value in US$)!1FRA}}
    French wine >30%!2ITA}} Italian wine >19%!3ESP}} Spanish wine >10%!4CHI}} Chilean wine >6%!5AUS}} Australian wine >5%!6USA}} American wine >4%!7GER}} German wine >4%!8NZ}} New Zealand wine >3%!9POR}} Portuguese wine >3%!10ARG}} Argentina wine >3%{{Col-3}}(File:2014 Wine Countries Export Treemap.png|thumb|upright=1.35|Wine Exports by Country (2014) from Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity){{Col-end}}The UK was the world's largest importer of wine in 2007.NEWS,weblink UK tops world wine imports table, 14 January 2009, BBC,

    Consumption

    Wine-consumption data from a list of countries by alcohol consumption measured in liters of pure ethyl alcohol consumed per capita in a given year, according to the most recent data from the World Health Organization. The methodology includes persons 15 years of age or olderweblink{{Col-begin}}{{Col-2}}{| class="wikitable"|+Wine consumption! style="width:140px;"|Country! style="width:100px;"|Liters per capita| 8.14| 6.65| 6.38| 5.80| 5.69| 5.10| 5.10| 4.94| 4.67| 4.62{{Col-2}}{| class="wikitable"|+Wine vs. beer consumption per capita! style="width:140px;"|Country! style="width:100px;"|Wine (l)! style="width:100px;"|Beer (l)! style="width:100px;"|Wine/beer ratio9.293.693.523.503.042.972.572.051.861.77{{Col-end}}

    Culinary uses

    File:Réduction du vin rouge.jpg|thumb|Reduction of red wine for a sauce by cooking it on a stovetop. It is called a reduction because the heat boils off some of the water, leaving a more concentrated, wine-flavoured sauce.]]Wine is a popular and important drink that accompanies and enhances a wide range of cuisines, from the simple and traditional stews to the most sophisticated and complex haute cuisines. Wine is often served with dinner. Sweet dessert wines may be served with the dessert course. In fine restaurants in Western countries, wine typically accompanies dinner. At a restaurant, patrons are helped to make good food-wine pairings by the restaurant's sommelier or wine waiter. Individuals dining at home may use wine guides to help make food–wine pairings. Wine is also drunk without the accompaniment of a meal in wine bars or with a selection of cheeses (at a wine and cheese party).Wine is important in cuisine not just for its value as a drink, but as a flavor agent, primarily in stocks and braising, since its acidity lends balance to rich savory or sweet dishes.WEB,weblink 6 Secrets of Cooking With Wine, Wine sauce is an example of a culinary sauce that uses wine as a primary ingredient.BOOK,weblink Parker's Wine Buyer's Guide, 7th Edition, Simon and Schuster, Parker, Robert M., 2008, 15, 978-1-4391-3997-4, Natural wines may exhibit a broad range of alcohol content, from below 9% to above 16% ABV, with most wines being in the 12.5–14.5% range.BOOK, Jancis Robinson, The Oxford Companion to Wine,weblink registration, 3rd, 2006, Oxford University Press, See alcoholic strength at p. 10. Fortified wines (usually with brandy) may contain 20% alcohol or more.

    Religious significance

    {{See also|Religion and alcohol}}

    Ancient religions

    The use of wine in ancient Near Eastern and Ancient Egyptian religious ceremonies was common. Libations often included wine, and the religious mysteries of Dionysus used wine as a sacramental entheogen to induce a mind-altering state.

    Judaism

    {{rquote|right|Baruch atah Hashem (Ado-nai) Eloheinu melech ha-olam, boray p'ree hagafen – Praised be the Lord, our God, King of the universe, Creator of the fruit of the vine.|The blessing over wine said before consuming the drink.}}Wine is an integral part of Jewish laws and traditions. The Kiddush is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat. On Pesach (Passover) during the Seder, it is a Rabbinic obligation of adults to drink four cups of wine.WEB,weblink Pesach: Passover, Rich, Tracey R, Judaism 101, In the Tabernacle and in the Temple in Jerusalem, the libation of wine was part of the sacrificial service.BOOK, Neusner, Jacob, The Halakhah: An Encyclopaedia of the Law of Judaism, BRILL, 2000, Boston, Massachusetts, 82,weblink 978-90-04-11617-7, Note that this does not mean that wine is a symbol of blood, a common misconception that contributes to the Christian beliefs of the blood libel."It has been one of history's cruel ironies that the blood libel—accusations against Jews using the blood of murdered gentile children for the making of wine and matzot—became the false pretext for numerous pogroms. And due to the danger, those who live in a place where blood libels occur are halachically exempted from using red wine, lest it be seized as "evidence" against them."WEB, Rutman, Rabbi Yisrael, Pesach: What We Eat and Why We Eat It,weblink Project Genesis Inc., 14 April 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130509103442weblink">weblink 9 May 2013,

    Christianity

    File:The Marriage at Cana - Decani.jpg|thumb|upright|Jesus making wine from water in The Marriage at Cana, a 14th-century fresco from the Visoki Dečani monasteryVisoki Dečani monasteryIn Christianity, wine is used in a sacred rite called the Eucharist, which originates in the Gospel account of the Last Supper (Gospel of Luke 22:19) describing Jesus sharing bread and wine with his disciples and commanding them to "do this in remembrance of me." Beliefs about the nature of the Eucharist vary among denominations (see Eucharistic theologies contrasted).While some Christians consider the use of wine from the grape as essential for the validity of the sacrament, many Protestants also allow (or require) pasteurized grape juice as a substitute. Wine was used in Eucharistic rites by all Protestant groups until an alternative arose in the late 19th century. Methodist dentist and prohibitionist Thomas Bramwell Welch applied new pasteurization techniques to stop the natural fermentation process of grape juice. Some Christians who were part of the growing temperance movement pressed for a switch from wine to grape juice, and the substitution spread quickly over much of the United States, as well as to other countries to a lesser degree.NEWS, Almost Like Wine, 3 September 1956,weblink Time Magazine, 26 June 2008, There remains an ongoing debate between some American Protestant denominations as to whether wine can and should be used for the Eucharist or allowed as an ordinary drink, with Catholics and some mainline Protestants allowing wine drinking in moderation, and some conservative Protestant groups opposing consumption of alcohol altogether.{{citation needed|date=May 2019}}

    Islam

    File:Mei.jpg|thumb|upright|All alcohol is prohibited under Islamic law, although there has been a long tradition of drinking wine in some Islamic areas, especially in IranIranAlcoholic drinks, including wine, are forbidden under most interpretations of Islamic law.NEWS, Frances, Harrison, Alcohol fatwa sparks controversy,weblink BBC News, 11 April 2008, 31 July 2010, In many Muslim countries, possession or consumption of alcoholic drinks carry legal penalties. Iran had previously had a thriving wine industry that disappeared after the Islamic Revolution in 1979.NEWS, Robert, Tait, End of the vine,weblink Guardian News and Media Limited, 12 October 2005, 26 June 2008, London, In Greater Persia, mey (Persian wine) was a central theme of poetry for more than a thousand years, long before the advent of Islam. Some Alevi sects – one of the two main branches of Islam in Turkey (the other being Sunni Islam) – use wine in their religious services.{{citation needed|date=May 2019}}Certain exceptions to the ban on alcohol apply. Alcohol derived from a source other than the grape (or its byproducts) and the dateSahih Muslim Book 043, Hadith Number 7186. is allowed in "very small quantities" (loosely defined as a quantity that does not cause intoxication) under the Sunni Hanafi madhab, for specific purposes (such as medicines), where the goal is not intoxication. However, modern Hanafi scholars regard alcohol consumption as totally forbidden.WEB,weblink Alcohol based Perfumes, Deodrants and Creams, Mufti Muhammad ibn Adam, Darul Iftaa, Leicester, Central-mosque.com, 17 May 2014,

    Health effects

    {{See also|Health effects of wine}}{{Further|Red wine headache}}{{nutritionalvalue | name=Red table wine | kJ=355 | fat=0.0 g | protein=0.1 g | carbs=2.6 g | sugars=0.6 g | alcohol=10.6 g | source_usda=1 | noRDA=1 | right=1 | note=10.6 g alcohol is 13%vol.100 g wine is approximately 100 ml (3.4 fl oz.)Sugar and alcohol content can vary.}}

    Short-term effects

    Wine contains ethyl alcohol, the same chemical that is present in beer and distilled spirits and as such, wine consumption has short-term psychological and physiological effects on the user. Different concentrations of alcohol in the human body have different effects on a person. The effects of alcohol depend on the amount an individual has drunk, the percentage of alcohol in the wine and the timespan that the consumption took place, the amount of food eaten and whether an individual has taken other prescription, over-the-counter or street drugs, among other factors. Drinking enough to cause a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.03%-0.12% typically causes an overall improvement in mood and possible euphoria, increased self-confidence and sociability, decreased anxiety, a flushed, red appearance in the face and impaired judgment and fine muscle coordination. A BAC of 0.09% to 0.25% causes lethargy, sedation, balance problems and blurred vision. A BAC from 0.18% to 0.30% causes profound confusion, impaired speech (e.g. slurred speech), staggering, dizziness and vomiting. A BAC from 0.25% to 0.40% causes stupor, unconsciousness, anterograde amnesia, vomiting, and death may occur due to inhalation of vomit (pulmonary aspiration) while unconscious and respiratory depression (potentially life-threatening). A BAC from 0.35% to 0.80% causes a coma (unconsciousness), life-threatening respiratory depression and possibly fatal alcohol poisoning. As with all alcoholic drinks, drinking while driving, operating an aircraft or heavy machinery increases the risk of an accident; many countries have penalties against drunk driving.Wines can trigger positive emotions in a short period of time, such as feelings of relaxation and comfort. The context and quality of wine can affect the mood and emotions, too.JOURNAL, Danner, Lukas, Ristic, Renata, Johnson, Trent E, Meiselman, Herbert L, Hoek, Annet C, Context and wine quality effects on consumers' mood, emotions, liking and willingness to pay for Australian Shiraz wines, Food Research International, Nov 2016, 89, Pt 1, 254–265, 10.1016/j.foodres.2016.08.006, 28460912,

    Long-term effects

    {{See also|Long-term effects of alcohol consumption}}File:Possible long-term effects of ethanol.svg|thumb|Most significant of the possible long-term effects of ethanol, one of the constituents of wine. Consumption of alcohol by pregnant mothers may result in fetal alcohol spectrum disorderfetal alcohol spectrum disorderThe main active ingredient of wine is alcohol, and therefore, the health effects of alcohol apply to wine. A 2016 systematic review and meta-analysis found that moderate ethanol consumption brought no mortality benefit compared with lifetime abstention from ethanol consumption.JOURNAL, Stockwell T, Zhao J, Panwar S, Roemer A, Naimi T, Chikritzhs T, Do "Moderate" Drinkers Have Reduced Mortality Risk? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Alcohol Consumption and All-Cause Mortality, J Stud Alcohol Drugs, 77, 2, 185–98, March 2016, 26997174, 4803651, 10.15288/jsad.2016.77.185, A systematic analysis of data from the Global Burden of Disease study found that consumption of ethanol increases the risk of cancer and increases the risk of all-cause mortality, and that the level of ethanol consumption that minimizes disease is zero consumption.JOURNAL, Alcohol use and burden for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016, Lancet, 392, 10152, 1015–1035, August 2018, 30146330, 6148333, 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31310-2, Griswold, Max G., Fullman, Nancy, Hawley, Caitlin, Arian, Nicholas, Zimsen, Stephanie R M., Tymeson, Hayley D., Venkateswaran, Vidhya, Tapp, Austin Douglas, Forouzanfar, Mohammad H., Salama, Joseph S., Abate, Kalkidan Hassen, Abate, Degu, Abay, Solomon M., Abbafati, Cristiana, Abdulkader, Rizwan Suliankatchi, Abebe, Zegeye, Aboyans, Victor, Abrar, Mohammed Mehdi, Acharya, Pawan, Adetokunboh, Olatunji O., Adhikari, Tara Ballav, Adsuar, Jose C., Afarideh, Mohsen, Agardh, Emilie Elisabet, Agarwal, Gina, Aghayan, Sargis Aghasi, Agrawal, Sutapa, Ahmed, Muktar Beshir, Akibu, Mohammed, Akinyemiju, Tomi, 29, Some studies have concluded that drinking small quantities of alcohol (less than one drink in women and two in men){{How often|date=November 2019}} is associated with a decreased risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and early death.JOURNAL, O'Keefe, JH, Bhatti, SK, Bajwa, A, DiNicolantonio, JJ, Lavie, CJ, Alcohol and cardiovascular health: the dose makes the poison...or the remedy., Mayo Clinic Proceedings, March 2014, 89, 3, 382–93, 24582196, 10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.11.005, Drinking more than this amount actually increases the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, and stroke. Some of these studies lumped former ethanol drinkers and life-long abstainers into a single group of nondrinkers, hiding the health benefits of life-long abstention from ethanol. Risk is greater in younger people due to binge drinking which may result in violence or accidents. About 3.3 million deaths (5.9% of all deaths) are believed to be due to alcohol each year.WEB, Alcohol Facts and Statistics,weblink 9 May 2015, Alcoholism is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in problems.BOOK, Jill Littrell, Understanding and Treating Alcoholism Volume I: An Empirically Based Clinician's Handbook for the Treatment of Alcoholism:volume Ii: Biological, Psychological, and Social Aspects of Alcohol Consumption and Abuse., 2014, Taylor and Francis, Hoboken, 978-1-317-78314-5, 55,weblink The World Health Organization defines alcoholism as any drinking which results in problems, It was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence.WEB, Hasin, Deborah, Classification of Alcohol Use Disorders,weblink niaaa.nih.gov, 28 February 2015, December 2003, WEB, Alcohol Use Disorder: A Comparison Between DSM–IV and DSM–5,weblink 9 May 2015, November 2013, In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use. Alcoholism reduces a person's life expectancy by around ten yearsJOURNAL, Schuckit, MA, Recognition and management of withdrawal delirium (delirium tremens)., The New England Journal of Medicine, 27 November 2014, 371, 22, 2109–13, 25427113, 10.1056/NEJMra1407298,weblink and alcohol use is the third leading cause of early death in the United States. No professional medical association recommends that people who are nondrinkers should start drinking wine.Alcohol and Heart Health American Heart AssociationExcessive consumption of alcohol can cause liver cirrhosis and alcoholism.WEB,weblink General Information on Alcohol Use and Health, 26 June 2008, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, The American Heart Association "cautions people NOT to start drinking ... if they do not already drink alcohol. Consult your doctor on the benefits and risks of consuming alcohol in moderation."WEB,weblink Alcohol, Wine and Cardiovascular Disease, 26 June 2008, American Heart Association, Population studies exhibit a J-curve correlation between wine consumption and rates of heart disease: heavy drinkers have an elevated rate, while people who drink small amount (up to 20 g of alcohol per day, approximately {{convert|200|ml|0|abbr=on}} of 12.7% ABV wine) have a lower rate than non-drinkers. Studies have also found that moderate consumption of other alcoholic drinks is correlated with decreased mortality from cardiovascular causes,JOURNAL, Streppel, M. T., Ocke, M. C., Boshuizen, H. C., Kok, F. J., Kromhout, D., Long-term wine consumption is related to cardiovascular mortality and life expectancy independently of moderate alcohol intake: the Zutphen Study, Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 63, 7, 534–540, 2009, 19406740, 10.1136/jech.2008.082198,weblink although the association is stronger for wine. Additionally, some studies have found a greater correlation of health benefits with red than white wine, though other studies have found no difference. Red wine contains more polyphenols than white wine, and these could be protective against cardiovascular disease.JOURNAL, Lindberg, Matthew L., Ezra A. Amsterdam, Alcohol, wine, and cardiovascular health, Clinical Cardiology, 31, 8, 347–51, 2008, 18727003, 10.1002/clc.20263, 6653665, Although red wine contains the chemical resveratrol and there is tentative evidence it may improve heart health, the evidence is unclear for those at high risk {{As of|2013|lc=y}}.JOURNAL, Tomé-Carneiro, J, Gonzálvez, M, Larrosa, M, Yáñez-Gascón, MJ, García-Almagro, FJ, Ruiz-Ros, JA, Tomás-Barberán, FA, García-Conesa, MT, Espín, JC, Resveratrol in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a dietary and clinical perspective., Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, July 2013, 1290, 37–51, 23855464, 10.1111/nyas.12150, Grape skins naturally produce resveratrol in response to fungal infection, including exposure to yeast during fermentation. White wine generally contains lower levels of the chemical as it has minimal contact with grape skins during this process.JOURNAL, Frémont, Lucie, January 2000, Biological effects of resveratrol, Life Sciences, 66, 8, 663–673, 10.1016/S0024-3205(99)00410-5, 10680575,

    Forgery and manipulation

    File:Brooklyn Museum - All These Grapes Seem to Have Fallen Ill... (Tous ces raisins me font l'effet d'avoir la maladie...) - Honoré Daumier.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|(Honoré Daumier]]: All These Grapes Seem to Have Fallen Ill... (Tous ces raisins me font l'effet d'avoir la maladie...)){{See also|List of food contamination incidents}}Incidents of fraud, such as mislabeling the origin or quality of wines, have resulted in regulations on labeling. "Wine scandals" that have received media attention include:

    Packaging

    {{See also|Cork (material)|Closure (bottle)|Alternative wine closure|Wine bottle|Box wine|Screw cap (wine)}}File:Corks019.jpg|thumb|upright|Assorted wine corkwine corkMost wines are sold in glass bottles and sealed with corks (50% of which come from Portugal).J. L. CALHEIROS E MENESES, President, Junta Nacional da Cortiça, Portugal. "The cork industry in Portugal" An increasing number of wine producers have been using alternative closures such as screwcaps and synthetic plastic "corks". Although alternative closures are less expensive and prevent cork taint, they have been blamed for such problems as excessive reduction.Impact of post-bottling oxygen exposure on the sensory characteristics and phenolic composition of Grenache rosé wines. J. Wirth, S. Caillé, J.M. Souquet, A. Samson, J.B. Dieval, S. Vidal, H. Fulcrand and V. Cheynier, Food Chemistry, 15 June 2012, Volume 132, Issue 4, Pages 1861–1871, 6th International Conference on Water in Food.Some wines are packaged in thick plastic bags within corrugated fiberboard boxes, and are called "box wines", or "cask wine". Tucked inside the package is a tap affixed to the bag in box, or bladder, that is later extended by the consumer for serving the contents. Box wine can stay acceptably fresh for up to a month after opening because the bladder collapses as wine is dispensed, limiting contact with air and, thus, slowing the rate of oxidation. In contrast, bottled wine oxidizes more rapidly after opening because of the increasing ratio of air to wine as the contents are dispensed; it can degrade considerably in a few days. Cans are one of the fastest-growing forms of alternative wine packaging on the market.WEB, Canned Wine Comes of Age, en, Wine Spectator, 22 May 2019, Augustus Weed,weblink Environmental considerations of wine packaging reveal benefits and drawbacks of both bottled and box wines. The glass used to make bottles is a nontoxic, naturally occurring substance that is completely recyclable, whereas the plastics used for box-wine containers are typically much less environmentally friendly. However, wine-bottle manufacturers have been cited for Clean Air Act violations. A New York Times editorial suggested that box wine, being lighter in package weight, has a reduced carbon footprint from its distribution; however, box-wine plastics, even though possibly recyclable, can be more labor-intensive (and therefore expensive) to process than glass bottles. In addition, while a wine box is recyclable, its plastic bladder most likely is not.Muzaurieta, Annie Bell, thedailygreen.com (1 October 2008). Holy Hangover! Wine Bottles Cause Air Pollution Some people are drawn to canned wine due to its portability and recyclable packaging.Some wine is sold in stainless steel kegs and is referred to as wine on tap.

    Storage

    File:Wine Barrels.jpg|thumb|upright|Oak wine barrelwine barrelWine cellars, or wine rooms, if they are above-ground, are places designed specifically for the storage and aging of wine. Fine restaurants and some private homes have wine cellars. In an active wine cellar, temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate-control system. Passive wine cellars are not climate-controlled, and so must be carefully located. Because wine is a natural, perishable food product, all types—including red, white, sparkling, and fortified—can spoil when exposed to heat, light, vibration or fluctuations in temperature and humidity. When properly stored, wines can maintain their quality and in some cases improve in aroma, flavor, and complexity as they age. Some wine experts contend that the optimal temperature for aging wine is {{convert|13|C|F}},fineliving.com Storing Wine {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100111025534weblink |date=11 January 2010 }} others {{convert|15|C|F}}.maridajesgourmet.com Storing Wine Temperature {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090708100910weblink |date=8 July 2009 }}Wine refrigerators offer a smaller alternative to wine cellars and are available in capacities ranging from small, 16-bottle units to furniture-quality pieces that can contain 400 bottles. Wine refrigerators are not ideal for aging, but rather serve to chill wine to the proper temperature for drinking. These refrigerators keep the humidity low (usually under 50%), below the optimal humidity of 50% to 70%. Lower humidity levels can dry out corks over time, allowing oxygen to enter the bottle, which reduces the wine's quality through oxidation.WEB,weblink Wine Fridges and Wine Cabinets, While some types of alcohol are sometimes stored in freezer, such as vodka, it is not possible to safely freeze wine in the bottle, as there is insufficient room for it to expand as it freezes and the bottle will usually crack. Certain shapes of bottle may allow the cork to be pushed out by the ice, but if the bottle is frozen on its side, the wine in the narrower neck will invariably freeze first, preventing this.

    Professions

    There are a large number of occupations and professions that are part of the wine industry, ranging from the individuals who grow the grapes, prepare the wine, bottle it, sell it, assess it, market it and finally make recommendations to clients and serve the wine.{| class="wikitable"|+Related professions!Name!Description|Cellar master|A person in charge of a wine cellarCooper (profession)>CooperCooper (profession)>cooperage is a facility that produces such casks|Négociant|A wine merchant who purchases the product of smaller growers or wine-makers to sell them under its own name|OenologistWine chemistry>wine chemist; a student of oenology. In the 2000s, B.Sc. degrees in oenology and viticulture are available. A wine-maker may be trained as an oenologist, but often hires one as a consultant|Sommelier|Also called a "wine steward", this is a specialist wine expert in charge of developing a restaurant's wine list, educating the staff about wine, and assisting customers with their selections (especially food–wine pairings)|Vintner, Winemaker|A wine producer; a person who makes wine|Viticulturistirrigation (wine)>irrigation, and pest control|Wine critic|A wine expert and journalist who tastes and reviews wines for books and magazines|Wine taster|A wine expert who tastes wines to ascertain their quality and flavour|Wine waiterwine bar waiting staff>server with a basic- to mid-level knowledge of wine and food–wine pairings

    See also

    {hide}columns-list|colwidth=30em| {edih}

    References

    {{Reflist|30em}}

    Further reading

    • BOOK, Colman, Tyler, Wine Politics: How Governments, Environmentalists, Mobsters, and Critics Influence the Wines We Drink,weblink 2008, University of California Press, 978-0-520-25521-0,
    • BOOK, Foulkes, Christopher, 2001, Larousse Encyclopedia of Wine, Larousse, 978-2-03-585013-3,
    • BOOK, Hugh Johnson's Wine Companion, Hugh Johnson (wine writer), Johnson, Hugh, Mitchell Beazley, 5th, 2003, 978-1-84000-704-6,
    • BOOK, Wine for Dummies, McCarthy, Ed, Mary Ewing-Mulligan, Piero Antinori, HarperCollins, 978-0-470-04579-4, 2006,weblink
    • BOOK, The Wine Bible, MacNeil, Karen, Workman, 978-1-56305-434-1, 2001,weblink
    • BOOK, Oldman's Guide to Outsmarting Wine, Mark Oldman, Mark, Oldman, Penguin, 978-0-14-200492-0, 2004,
    • BOOK, Parker's Wine Buyer's Guide, Robert M. Parker, Robert, Parker, Simon and Schuster, 978-0-7432-7198-1, 2008,
    • BOOK, Planet Wine: A Grape by Grape Visual Guide to the Contemporary Wine World, Stuart, Pigott, Mitchell Beazley, 978-1-84000-776-3, 2004,
    • BOOK, The Oxford Companion to Wine, 3rd, Jancis Robinson, Robinson, Jancis, Oxford, OUP, 978-0-19-860990-2, 2006,weblink
    • BOOK, Simpson, James, Creating Wine: The Emergence of a World Industry, 1840–1914,weblink 2011, Princeton University Press, 978-1-4008-3888-2, weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120402080332weblink">online review
    • BOOK, Windows on the World Complete Wine Course, Zraly, Kevin, Sterling, 978-1-4027-3928-6, 2006,

    External links

    {{Sister project links}} {{Wines}}{{Wine by country}}{{winemaking}}{{viticulture}}{{Alcoholic beverages}}{{Authority control}}{{Use dmy dates|date=May 2016}}

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