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white dwarf
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{{short description|Type of stellar remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter}}{{Other uses}}{{redirect-distinguish|Degenerate dwarf|Degenerate star}}File:Sirius A and B Hubble photo.editted.PNG|thumb|Image of Sirius A and Sirius B taken by the Hubble Space TelescopeHubble Space Telescope{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2012}}(File:White Dwarf Ages.ogv|thumb|Artist's concept of white dwarf aging)A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter. A white dwarf is very dense: its mass is comparable to that of the Sun, while its volume is comparable to that of Earth. A white dwarf's faint luminosity comes from the emission of stored thermal energy; no fusion takes place in a white dwarf wherein mass is converted to energy. The nearest known white dwarf is Sirius B, at 8.6 light years, the smaller component of the Sirius binary star. There are currently thought to be eight white dwarfs among the hundred star systems nearest the Sun.WEB
, Henry, T. J.
, 1 January 2009
, The One Hundred Nearest Star Systems
,weblink
, Research Consortium On Nearby Stars
, 21 July 2010
, The unusual faintness of white dwarfs was first recognized in 1910. The name white dwarf was coined by Willem Luyten in 1922.White dwarfs are thought to be the final evolutionary state of stars whose mass is not high enough to become a neutron star, that of about 10 solar masses. This includes over 97% of the other stars in the Milky Way., § 1. After the hydrogen-fusing period of a main-sequence star of low or medium mass ends, such a star will expand to a red giant during which it fuses helium to carbon and oxygen in its core by the triple-alpha process. If a red giant has insufficient mass to generate the core temperatures required to fuse carbon (around 1 billion K), an inert mass of carbon and oxygen will build up at its center. After such a star sheds its outer layers and forms a planetary nebula, it will leave behind a core, which is the remnant white dwarf.WEB
, Richmond, M
, Late stages of evolution for low-mass stars
,weblink
, Lecture notes, Physics 230
, Rochester Institute of Technology
, 3 May 2007
, Usually, white dwarfs are composed of carbon and oxygen. If the mass of the progenitor is between 8 and 10.5 solar masses ({{solar mass|link=y}}), the core temperature will be sufficient to fuse carbon but not neon, in which case an oxygen–neon–magnesium white dwarf may form.JOURNAL
, Werner, K.
, Hammer, N. J.
, Nagel, T.
, Rauch, T.
, Dreizler, S.
, 2005
, On Possible Oxygen/Neon White Dwarfs: H1504+65 and the White Dwarf Donors in Ultracompact X-ray Binaries
, 14th European Workshop on White Dwarfs
, 334, 165
, astro-ph/0410690
, 2005ASPC..334..165W
, Stars of very low mass will not be able to fuse helium, hence, a helium white dwarfJOURNAL
, Liebert, J.
, Bergeron, P.
, Eisenstein, D.
, Harris, H. C.
, Kleinman, S. J.
, Nitta, A.
, Krzesinski, J.
, 2004
, A Helium White Dwarf of Extremely Low Mass
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 606, 2, L147
, astro-ph/0404291
, 2004ApJ...606L.147L
, 10.1086/421462
, PRESS
, 17 April 2007
, Cosmic weight loss: The lowest mass white dwarf
,weblink
, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
, may form by mass loss in binary systems.The material in a white dwarf no longer undergoes fusion reactions, so the star has no source of energy. As a result, it cannot support itself by the heat generated by fusion against gravitational collapse, but is supported only by electron degeneracy pressure, causing it to be extremely dense. The physics of degeneracy yields a maximum mass for a non-rotating white dwarf, the Chandrasekhar limit—approximately 1.44 times of {{solar mass}}—beyond which it cannot be supported by electron degeneracy pressure. A carbon-oxygen white dwarf that approaches this mass limit, typically by mass transfer from a companion star, may explode as a type Ia supernova via a process known as carbon detonation;WEB
, Johnson, J.
, 2007
,weblink
, Extreme Stars: White Dwarfs & Neutron Stars
, Lecture notes, Astronomy 162
, Ohio State University
, 17 October 2011
, SN 1006 is thought to be a famous example.A white dwarf is very hot when it forms, but because it has no source of energy, it will gradually radiate its energy and cool. This means that its radiation, which initially has a high color temperature, will lessen and redden with time. Over a very long time, a white dwarf will cool and its material will begin to crystallize, starting with the core. The star's low temperature means it will no longer emit significant heat or light, and it will become a cold black dwarf. Because the length of time it takes for a white dwarf to reach this state is calculated to be longer than the current age of the universe (approximately 13.8 billion years),JOURNAL
, Spergel, D. N.
, Bean, R.
, Doré, O.
, Nolta, M. R.
, Bennett, C. L.
, Dunkley, J.
, Hinshaw, G.
, Jarosik, N.
, Komatsu, E.
, Page
, L.
, Peiris
, H. V.
, Verde
, L.
, Halpern
, M.
, Hill
, R. S.
, Kogut
, A.
, Limon
, M.
, Meyer
, S. S.
, Odegard
, N.
, Tucker
, G. S.
, Weiland
, J. L.
, Wollack
, E.
, Wright
, E. L.
, 2007
, Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Three Year Results: Implications for Cosmology
, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
, 170, 2, 377–408
, astro-ph/0603449
, 2007ApJS..170..377S
, 10.1086/513700, 8
, it is thought that no black dwarfs yet exist.JOURNAL
, Fontaine, G.
, Brassard, P.
, Bergeron, P.
, 2001
, The Potential of White Dwarf Cosmochronology
, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
, 113, 782, 409–435
, 2001PASP..113..409F
, 10.1086/319535
, The oldest white dwarfs still radiate at temperatures of a few thousand kelvins.

Discovery

{{See also|List of white dwarfs}}The first white dwarf discovered was in the triple star system of 40 Eridani, which contains the relatively bright main sequence star 40 Eridani A, orbited at a distance by the closer binary system of the white dwarf 40 Eridani B and the main sequence red dwarf 40 Eridani C. The pair 40 Eridani B/C was discovered by William Herschel on 31 January 1783.JOURNAL, 106749, 40–126
, Herschel, W.
, Catalogue of Double Stars. By William Herschel, Esq. F. R. S
, 75
, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London
, 1785
, 1785RSPT...75...40H
, 10.1098/rstl.1785.0006
, In 1910, Henry Norris Russell, Edward Charles Pickering and Williamina Fleming discovered that, despite being a dim star, 40 Eridani B was of spectral type A, or white.JOURNAL
, 2005AAS...20720501H
, How Degenerate Stars Came to be Known as White Dwarfs
, Holberg, J. B.
, 207
, 2005, 1503
, American Astronomical Society Meeting 207
, In 1939, Russell looked back on the discovery:White Dwarfs, E. Schatzman, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1958., p. 1I was visiting my friend and generous benefactor, Prof. Edward C. Pickering. With characteristic kindness, he had volunteered to have the spectra observed for all the stars—including comparison stars—which had been observed in the observations for stellar parallax which Hinks and I made at Cambridge, and I discussed. This piece of apparently routine work proved very fruitful—it led to the discovery that all the stars of very faint absolute magnitude were of spectral class M. In conversation on this subject (as I recall it), I asked Pickering about certain other faint stars, not on my list, mentioning in particular 40 Eridani B. Characteristically, he sent a note to the Observatory office and before long the answer came (I think from Mrs Fleming) that the spectrum of this star was A. I knew enough about it, even in these paleozoic days, to realize at once that there was an extreme inconsistency between what we would then have called "possible" values of the surface brightness and density. I must have shown that I was not only puzzled but crestfallen, at this exception to what looked like a very pretty rule of stellar characteristics; but Pickering smiled upon me, and said: "It is just these exceptions that lead to an advance in our knowledge", and so the white dwarfs entered the realm of study!The spectral type of 40 Eridani B was officially described in 1914 by Walter Adams.JOURNAL
, 1914PASP...26..198A
, 10.1086/122337
, An A-Type Star of Very Low Luminosity
, 1914
, Adams, W. S.
, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
, 26, 198
, The white dwarf companion of Sirius, Sirius B, was next to be discovered. During the nineteenth century, positional measurements of some stars became precise enough to measure small changes in their location. Friedrich Bessel used position measurements to determine that the stars Sirius (α Canis Majoris) and Procyon (α Canis Minoris) were changing their positions periodically. In 1844 he predicted that both stars had unseen companions:JOURNAL
, 1844MNRAS...6R.136B
, On the variations of the proper motions of Procyon and Sirius
, 6
, 11
, 1844, 136–141
, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
, 10.1093/mnras/6.11.136a
, If we were to regard Sirius and Procyon as double stars, the change of their motions would not surprise us; we should acknowledge them as necessary, and have only to investigate their amount by observation. But light is no real property of mass. The existence of numberless visible stars can prove nothing against the existence of numberless invisible ones.Bessel roughly estimated the period of the companion of Sirius to be about half a century; C. A. F. Peters computed an orbit for it in 1851.JOURNAL
, 1877AReg...15..186F
, The Companion of Sirius
, Flammarion, Camille
, 15
, 1877, 186
, Astronomical Register
, It was not until 31 January 1862 that Alvan Graham Clark observed a previously unseen star close to Sirius, later identified as the predicted companion. Walter Adams announced in 1915 that he had found the spectrum of Sirius B to be similar to that of Sirius.JOURNAL
, 1915PASP...27..236A
, 10.1086/122440
, The Spectrum of the Companion of Sirius
, 1915
, Adams, W. S.
, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
, 27, 236
, In 1917, Adriaan van Maanen discovered Van Maanen's Star, an isolated white dwarf.JOURNAL
, 1917PASP...29..258V
, 10.1086/122654
, Two Faint Stars with Large Proper Motion
, 1917
, Van Maanen, A.
, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
, 29, 258
, These three white dwarfs, the first discovered, are the so-called classical white dwarfs., p. 2 Eventually, many faint white stars were found which had high proper motion, indicating that they could be suspected to be low-luminosity stars close to the Earth, and hence white dwarfs. Willem Luyten appears to have been the first to use the term white dwarf when he examined this class of stars in 1922;JOURNAL
, 1922PASP...34..156L
, 10.1086/123176
, The Mean Parallax of Early-Type Stars of Determined Proper Motion and Apparent Magnitude
, 1922
, Luyten, W. J.
, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
, 34, 156
, JOURNAL
, 1922PASP...34...54L
, 10.1086/123146
, Note on Some Faint Early Type Stars with Large Proper Motions
, 1922
, Luyten, W. J.
, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
, 34, 54
, JOURNAL
, 1922PASP...34..132L
, 10.1086/123168
, Additional Note on Faint Early-Type Stars with Large Proper-Motions
, 1922
, Luyten, W. J.
, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
, 34, 132
, JOURNAL
, 1922PASP...34..353A
, 10.1086/123244
, Comet c 1922 (Baade)
, 1922
, Aitken, R. G.
, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
, 34, 353
, the term was later popularized by Arthur Stanley Eddington. Despite these suspicions, the first non-classical white dwarf was not definitely identified until the 1930s. 18 white dwarfs had been discovered by 1939., p. 3 Luyten and others continued to search for white dwarfs in the 1940s. By 1950, over a hundred were known,JOURNAL
, 1950AJ.....55...86L
, 10.1086/106358
, The search for white dwarfs
, 1950
, Luyten, W. J.
, The Astronomical Journal
, 55, 86
, and by 1999, over 2,000 were known.JOURNAL
, 1999ApJS..121....1M
, 10.1086/313186
, A Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs
, 1999
, McCook, George P.
, Sion, Edward M.
, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
, 121, 1–130
, Since then the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has found over 9,000 white dwarfs, mostly new.JOURNAL
, 2006ApJS..167...40E
, astro-ph/0606700
, 10.1086/507110
, A Catalog of Spectroscopically Confirmed White Dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4
, 2006
, Eisenstein, Daniel J.
, Liebert, James
, Harris, Hugh C.
, Kleinman, S. J.
, Nitta, Atsuko
, Silvestri, Nicole
, Anderson, Scott A.
, Barentine, J. C.
, Brewington, Howard J.
, Brinkmann
, J.
, Harvanek
, Michael
, Krzesiński
, Jurek
, Neilsen, Jr.
, Eric H.
, Long
, Dan
, Schneider
, Donald P.
, Stephanie Snedden, Snedden
, Stephanie A.
, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
, 167, 40–58
,

Composition and structure

{{star nav}}Although white dwarfs are known with estimated masses as low as 0.17 {{solar mass}}JOURNAL
, Kilic, M.
, Allende Prieto, C.
, Brown, Warren R.
, Koester, D.
, 2007
, The Lowest Mass White Dwarf
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 660, 2, 1451–1461
, astro-ph/0611498
, 2007ApJ...660.1451K
, 10.1086/514327
, and as high as 1.33 {{solar mass}},JOURNAL
, Kepler, S. O., Kepler de Souza Oliveira
, Kleinman, S. J.
, Nitta, A.
, Koester, D.
, Castanheira, B. G.
, Giovannini, O.
, Costa, A. F. M.
, Althaus, L.
, 2007
, White dwarf mass distribution in the SDSS
, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
, 375, 4, 1315–1324
, astro-ph/0612277
, 2007MNRAS.375.1315K
, 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.11388.x
, the mass distribution is strongly peaked at 0.6 {{solar mass}}, and the majority lie between 0.5 and 0.7 {{solar mass}}. The estimated radii of observed white dwarfs are typically 0.8–2 % the radius of the Sun;JOURNAL
, Shipman, H. L.
, 1979
, Masses and radii of white-dwarf stars. III – Results for 110 hydrogen-rich and 28 helium-rich stars
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 228, 240
, 1979ApJ...228..240S
, 10.1086/156841
, this is comparable to the Earth's radius of approximately 0.9% solar radius. A white dwarf, then, packs mass comparable to the Sun's into a volume that is typically a million times smaller than the Sun's; the average density of matter in a white dwarf must therefore be, very roughly, 1,000,000 times greater than the average density of the Sun, or approximately 106 g/cm3, or 1 tonne per cubic centimetre. A typical white dwarf has a density of between 104 and 107 g/cm3. White dwarfs are composed of one of the densest forms of matter known, surpassed only by other compact stars such as neutron stars, black holes and, hypothetically, quark stars.WEB
, Sandin, F.
, 2005
,weblink
, Exotic Phases of Matter in Compact Stars
, Licentiate thesis
, Luleå University of Technology
, 20 August 2011
, White dwarfs were found to be extremely dense soon after their discovery. If a star is in a binary system, as is the case for Sirius B or 40 Eridani B, it is possible to estimate its mass from observations of the binary orbit. This was done for Sirius B by 1910,BOOK
, Boss, L.
, 1910
, Preliminary General Catalogue of 6188 stars for the epoch 1900
, Carnegie Institution of Washington
, 1910pgcs.book.....B
, 10009645
, yielding a mass estimate of {{solar mass|0.94}}, which compares well with a more modern estimate of {{solar mass|1.00}}.JOURNAL
, Liebert, J.
, Young, P. A.
, Arnett, D.
, Holberg, J. B.
, Williams, K. A.
, 2005
, The Age and Progenitor Mass of Sirius B
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 630, L69
, astro-ph/0507523
, 2005ApJ...630L..69L
, 10.1086/462419
, Since hotter bodies radiate more energy than colder ones, a star's surface brightness can be estimated from its effective surface temperature, and that from its spectrum. If the star's distance is known, its absolute luminosity can also be estimated. From the absolute luminosity and distance, the star's surface area and its radius can be calculated. Reasoning of this sort led to the realization, puzzling to astronomers at the time, that Sirius B and 40 Eridani B must be very dense. When Ernst Öpik estimated the density of a number of visual binary stars in 1916, he found that 40 Eridani B had a density of over 25,000 times the Sun's, which was so high that he called it "impossible".JOURNAL
, Öpik, E.
, 1916
, The Densities of Visual Binary Stars
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 44, 292
, 1916ApJ....44..292O
, 10.1086/142296
, As Arthur Stanley Eddington put it later in 1927:BOOK
, Eddington, A. S.
, 1927
, Stars and Atoms
, Clarendon Press
, 27015694
, , p. 50
We learn about the stars by receiving and interpreting the messages which their light brings to us. The message of the Companion of Sirius when it was decoded ran: "I am composed of material 3,000 times denser than anything you have ever come across; a ton of my material would be a little nugget that you could put in a matchbox." What reply can one make to such a message? The reply which most of us made in 1914 was—"Shut up. Don't talk nonsense."As Eddington pointed out in 1924, densities of this order implied that, according to the theory of general relativity, the light from Sirius B should be gravitationally redshifted.JOURNAL
, Eddington, A. S.
, 1924
, On the relation between the masses and luminosities of the stars
, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
, 84, 5
, 308–333
, 1924MNRAS..84..308E
, 10.1093/mnras/84.5.308
, This was confirmed when Adams measured this redshift in 1925.JOURNAL
, Adams, W. S.
, 1925
, The Relativity Displacement of the Spectral Lines in the Companion of Sirius
, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
, 11, 7, 382–387
, 1925PNAS...11..382A
, 10.1073/pnas.11.7.382, 1086032,
{| class="wikitable sortable" style="width:50%; text-align:left; float:right; margin-left:1em;"! Material !! Density in kg/m3 !! Notes
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure>STP
Osmium >| Near room temperature
Sun >|
1 × 109}}
Atomic nuclei >2.3 × 1017}}WEB
, Nave, C. R.
,weblink
, Nuclear Size and Density
, HyperPhysics
, Georgia State University
, 26 June 2009
, || Does not depend strongly on size of nucleus
8.4 × 1016}} â€“ {{math|
2 × 1030}}BOOK
, Steve, Adams
, 1997
, Relativity: an introduction to space-time physics
, 240
, CRC Press
, 0-7484-0621-2
, || Critical density of an Earth-mass black hole
Such densities are possible because white dwarf material is not composed of atoms joined by chemical bonds, but rather consists of a plasma of unbound nuclei and electrons. There is therefore no obstacle to placing nuclei closer than normally allowed by electron orbitals limited by normal matter. Eddington wondered what would happen when this plasma cooled and the energy to keep the atoms ionized was no longer sufficient.JOURNAL
, Fowler, R. H.
, 1926
, On dense matter
, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
, 87, 2
, 114–122
, 1926MNRAS..87..114F
, 10.1093/mnras/87.2.114
, This paradox was resolved by R. H. Fowler in 1926 by an application of the newly devised quantum mechanics. Since electrons obey the Pauli exclusion principle, no two electrons can occupy the same state, and they must obey Fermi–Dirac statistics, also introduced in 1926 to determine the statistical distribution of particles which satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle.JOURNAL
, Hoddeson, L. H.
, Baym, G.
, 1980
, The Development of the Quantum Mechanical Electron Theory of Metals: 1900–28
, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London
, 371, 1744, 8–23
, 10.1098/rspa.1980.0051
, 2990270ground state>ground, state; some of them would have to occupy higher-energy states, forming a band of lowest-available energy states, the Fermi sea. This state of the electrons, called degenerate, meant that a white dwarf could cool to zero temperature and still possess high energy.
Compression of a white dwarf will increase the number of electrons in a given volume. Applying the Pauli exclusion principle, this will increase the kinetic energy of the electrons, thereby increasing the pressure.WEB
, Bean, R.
, Lecture 12 – Degeneracy pressure
,weblink
, Lecture notes, Astronomy 211
, Cornell University
, 21 September 2007
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070925204454weblink">weblink 2007-09-25, This electron degeneracy pressure supports a white dwarf against gravitational collapse. The pressure depends only on density and not on temperature. Degenerate matter is relatively compressible; this means that the density of a high-mass white dwarf is much greater than that of a low-mass white dwarf and that the radius of a white dwarf decreases as its mass increases.
The existence of a limiting mass that no white dwarf can exceed without collapsing to a neutron star is another consequence of being supported by electron degeneracy pressure. These masses were first published in 1929 by Wilhelm AndersonJOURNAL
, Anderson, W.
, 1929
, Ãœber die Grenzdichte der Materie und der Energie
, Zeitschrift für Physik
, 56, 11–12, 851–856
, 1929ZPhy...56..851A
, 10.1007/BF01340146
, and in 1930 by Edmund C. Stoner.JOURNAL
, Stoner, C.
, 1930
, The Equilibrium of Dense Stars
, Philosophical Magazine
, 9, 944
, The modern value of the limit was first published in 1931 by Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar in his paper "The Maximum Mass of Ideal White Dwarfs".JOURNAL
, Chandrasekhar, S.
, 1931
, The Maximum Mass of Ideal White Dwarfs
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 74, 81
, 1931ApJ....74...81C
, 10.1086/143324
, For a non-rotating white dwarf, it is equal to approximately {{math|5.7{{solar mass}}/μe2}}, where {{math|μe}} is the average molecular weight per electron of the star.JOURNAL
, Chandrasekhar, S.
, 1935
, The highly collapsed configurations of a stellar mass (Second paper)
, 95, 3
, 207–225
, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
, 1935MNRAS..95..207C
, 10.1093/mnras/95.3.207
, , eq. (63) As the carbon-12 and oxygen-16 which predominantly compose a carbon-oxygen white dwarf both have atomic number equal to half their atomic weight, one should take {{math|μe}} equal to 2 for such a star, leading to the commonly quoted value of 1.4 {{solar mass}}. (Near the beginning of the 20th century, there was reason to believe that stars were composed chiefly of heavy elements,, p. 955 so, in his 1931 paper, Chandrasekhar set the average molecular weight per electron, {{math|μe}}, equal to 2.5, giving a limit of 0.91 {{solar mass}}.) Together with William Alfred Fowler, Chandrasekhar received the Nobel prize for this and other work in 1983.WEB
, The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983
,weblink
, The Nobel Foundation
, 4 May 2007
, The limiting mass is now called the Chandrasekhar limit.If a white dwarf were to exceed the Chandrasekhar limit, and nuclear reactions did not take place, the pressure exerted by electrons would no longer be able to balance the force of gravity, and it would collapse into a denser object called a neutron star.JOURNAL
, Canal, R.
, Gutierrez, J.
, 1997
, The Possible White Dwarf-Neutron Star Connection
, astro-ph/9701225
, 10.1007/978-94-011-5542-7_7
, Astrophysics and Space Science Library
, 214
, 49–55, Astrophysics and Space Science Library
, 978-94-010-6334-0
, Carbon-oxygen white dwarfs accreting mass from a neighboring star undergo a runaway nuclear fusion reaction, which leads to a Type Ia supernova explosion in which the white dwarf may be destroyed, before it reaches the limiting mass.JOURNAL
, Type IA supernova explosion models
, Hillebrandt, W.
, Niemeyer, J. C.
, 2000
, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics
, 38, 191–230
, astro-ph/0006305
, 2000ARA&A..38..191H
, 10.1146/annurev.astro.38.1.191
, New research indicates that many white dwarfs—at least in certain types of galaxies—may not approach that limit by way of accretion. It has been postulated that at least some of the white dwarfs that become supernovae attain the necessary mass by colliding with one another. It may be that in elliptical galaxies such collisions are the major source of supernovae. This hypothesis is based on the fact that the X-rays produced by those galaxies are 30 to 50 times less than what is expected to be produced by type Ia supernovas of that galaxy as matter accretes on the white dwarf from its encircling companion. It has been concluded that no more than 5 percent of the supernovae in such galaxies could be created by the process of accretion onto white dwarfs. The significance of this finding is that there could be two types of supernovae, which could mean that the Chandrasekhar limit might not always apply in determining when a white dwarf goes supernova, given that two colliding white dwarfs could have a range of masses. This in turn would confuse efforts to use exploding white dwarfs as standard candles in determining distances.NEWS
, Overbye, D.
, 22 February 2010
,weblink
, From the Clash of White Dwarfs, the Birth of a Supernova
, New York Times
, 22 February 2010
, White dwarfs have low luminosity and therefore occupy a strip at the bottom of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, a graph of stellar luminosity versus color or temperature. They should not be confused with low-luminosity objects at the low-mass end of the main sequence, such as the hydrogen-fusing red dwarfs, whose cores are supported in part by thermal pressure,JOURNAL
, Chabrier, G.
, Baraffe, I.
, 2000
, Theory of low-Mass stars and substellar objects
, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics
, 38, 337–377
, astro-ph/0006383
, 2000ARA&A..38..337C
, 10.1146/annurev.astro.38.1.337
, or the even lower-temperature brown dwarfs.WEB
, Kaler, J.
, The Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram
,weblink
, 5 May 2007
,

Mass–radius relationship and mass limit

The relationship between the mass and radius of white dwarfs can be derived using an energy minimization argument. The energy of the white dwarf can be approximated by taking it to be the sum of its gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy. The gravitational potential energy of a unit mass piece of white dwarf, {{math|Eg}}, will be on the order of {{math|−G M ∕ R}}, where {{mvar|G}} is the gravitational constant, M is the mass of the white dwarf, and {{mvar|R}} is its radius.{{block indent|E_g approx frac{-G M}{R} .}}The kinetic energy of the unit mass, {{math|Ek}}, will primarily come from the motion of electrons, so it will be approximately {{math|N p2 ∕ 2m}}, where {{mvar|p}} is the average electron momentum, {{mvar|m}} is the electron mass, and {{mvar|N}} is the number of electrons per unit mass. Since the electrons are degenerate, we can estimate {{mvar|p}} to be on the order of the uncertainty in momentum, {{math|Δp}}, given by the uncertainty principle, which says that {{math|Δp Δx}} is on the order of the reduced Planck constant, ħ. {{math|Δx}} will be on the order of the average distance between electrons, which will be approximately {{math|n−1/3}}, i.e., the reciprocal of the cube root of the number density, {{mvar|n}}, of electrons per unit volume. Since there are {{math|N · M}} electrons in the white dwarf, where {{math|M}} is the star's mass and its volume is on the order of {{math|R3}}, {{mvar|n}} will be on the order of {{math|N M ∕ R3}}.WEB
, Estimating Stellar Parameters from Energy Equipartition
,weblink
, ScienceBits
, 9 May 2007
, Solving for the kinetic energy per unit mass, Ek, we find that{{block indent|E_k approx frac{N (Delta p)^2}{2m} approx frac{N hbar^2 n^{2/3}}{2m} approx frac{M^{2/3} N^{5/3} hbar^2}{2m R^2}.}}The white dwarf will be at equilibrium when its total energy, {{math|Eg + Ek}}, is minimized. At this point, the kinetic and gravitational potential energies should be comparable, so we may derive a rough mass-radius relationship by equating their magnitudes:{{block indent|1=|E_g|approxfrac{GM}{R} = E_kapproxfrac{M^{2/3} N^{5/3} hbar^2}{2m R^2}.}}Solving this for the radius, {{mvar|R}}, gives{{block indent| R approx frac{N^{5/3} hbar^2}{2m GM^{1/3}}.}}Dropping {{mvar|N}}, which depends only on the composition of the white dwarf, and the universal constants leaves us with a relationship between mass and radius:{{block indent|R sim M^{-1/3}}}i.e., the radius of a white dwarf is inversely proportional to the cube root of its mass.Since this analysis uses the non-relativistic formula {{math|p2 ∕ 2m}} for the kinetic energy, it is non-relativistic. If we wish to analyze the situation where the electron velocity in a white dwarf is close to the speed of light, {{mvar|c}}, we should replace {{math|p2 ∕ 2m}} by the extreme relativistic approximation {{math|p c}} for the kinetic energy. With this substitution, we find{{block indent|E_{k {rm relativistic}} approx frac{M^{1/3} N^{4/3} hbar c}{R}.}}If we equate this to the magnitude of {{math|Eg}}, we find that {{mvar|R}} drops out and the mass, {{mvar|M}}, is forced to be{{block indent|M_{rm limit} approx N^2 left(frac{hbar c}{G}right)^{3/2}.}}(File:ChandrasekharLimitGraph.svg|thumb|350px|right|Radius–mass relations for a model white dwarf. {{math|Mlimit}} is denoted as MCh)To interpret this result, observe that as we add mass to a white dwarf, its radius will decrease, so, by the uncertainty principle, the momentum, and hence the velocity, of its electrons will increase. As this velocity approaches {{mvar|c}}, the extreme relativistic analysis becomes more exact, meaning that the mass {{mvar|M}} of the white dwarf must approach a limiting mass of {{math|Mlimit}}. Therefore, no white dwarf can be heavier than the limiting mass {{math|Mlimit}}, or 1.4 {{solar mass}}.For a more accurate computation of the mass-radius relationship and limiting mass of a white dwarf, one must compute the equation of state which describes the relationship between density and pressure in the white dwarf material. If the density and pressure are both set equal to functions of the radius from the center of the star, the system of equations consisting of the hydrostatic equation together with the equation of state can then be solved to find the structure of the white dwarf at equilibrium. In the non-relativistic case, we will still find that the radius is inversely proportional to the cube root of the mass., eq. (80) Relativistic corrections will alter the result so that the radius becomes zero at a finite value of the mass. This is the limiting value of the mass—called the Chandrasekhar limit—at which the white dwarf can no longer be supported by electron degeneracy pressure. The graph on the right shows the result of such a computation. It shows how radius varies with mass for non-relativistic (blue curve) and relativistic (green curve) models of a white dwarf. Both models treat the white dwarf as a cold Fermi gas in hydrostatic equilibrium. The average molecular weight per electron, {{math|μe}}, has been set equal to 2. Radius is measured in standard solar radii and mass in standard solar masses.WEB
, Basic symbols
,weblink
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, VizieR
, These computations all assume that the white dwarf is non-rotating. If the white dwarf is rotating, the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium must be modified to take into account the centrifugal pseudo-force arising from working in a rotating frame.WEB
, Tohline, J. E.
,weblink
, The Structure, Stability, and Dynamics of Self-Gravitating Systems
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, For a uniformly rotating white dwarf, the limiting mass increases only slightly. If the star is allowed to rotate nonuniformly, and viscosity is neglected, then, as was pointed out by Fred Hoyle in 1947,JOURNAL
, Hoyle, F.
, 1947
, Stars, Distribution and Motions of, Note on equilibrium configurations for rotating white dwarfs
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, 231–236
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, 1947MNRAS.107..231H
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, there is no limit to the mass for which it is possible for a model white dwarf to be in static equilibrium. Not all of these model stars will be dynamically stable.JOURNAL
, Ostriker, J. P.
, Bodenheimer, P.
, 1968
, Rapidly Rotating Stars. II. Massive White Dwarfs
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 151, 1089
, 1968ApJ...151.1089O
, 10.1086/149507
,

Radiation and cooling

The degenerate matter that makes up the bulk of a white dwarf has a very low opacity, because any absorption of a photon requires that an electron must transition to a higher empty state, which may not be possible as the energy of the photon may not be a match for the possible quantum states available to that electron, hence radiative heat transfer within a white dwarf is low; it does, however, have a high thermal conductivity. As a result, the interior of the white dwarf maintains a uniform temperature, approximately 107 K. An outer shell of non-degenerate matter cools from approximately 107 K to 104 K. This matter radiates roughly as a black body. A white dwarf remains visible for a long time, as its tenuous outer atmosphere of normal matter begins to radiate at about 107 K, upon formation, while its greater interior mass is at 107  K but cannot radiate through its normal matter shell.BOOK
, Kutner, M. L.
, 2003
, Astronomy: A physical perspective
,weblink
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, The visible radiation emitted by white dwarfs varies over a wide color range, from the blue-white color of an O-type main sequence star to the red of an M-type red dwarf.JOURNAL
, Sion, E. M.
, Greenstein, J. L.
, Landstreet, J. D.
, Liebert, J.
, Shipman, H. L.
, Wegner, G. A.
, 1983
, A proposed new white dwarf spectral classification system
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 269, 253
, 1983ApJ...269..253S
, 10.1086/161036
, White dwarf effective surface temperatures extend from over 150,000 K to barely under 4,000 K.BOOK
, Fontaine, G.
, Wesemael, F.
, White dwarfs
, Murdin, P.
, 2001
, Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics
, IOP Publishing/Nature Publishing Group
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, In accordance with the Stefan–Boltzmann law, luminosity increases with increasing surface temperature; this surface temperature range corresponds to a luminosity from over 100 times the Sun's to under 1/10,000 that of the Sun's. Hot white dwarfs, with surface temperatures in excess of 30,000 K, have been observed to be sources of soft (i.e., lower-energy) X-rays. This enables the composition and structure of their atmospheres to be studied by soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet observations.JOURNAL
, Heise, J.
, 1985
, X-ray emission from isolated hot white dwarfs
, Space Science Reviews
, 40, 79–90
, 1985SSRv...40...79H
, 10.1007/BF00212870
, White dwarfs also radiate neutrinos through the Urca process.File:Size IK Peg.png|left|320px|thumb|A comparison between the white dwarf IK PegasiIK PegasiAs was explained by Leon Mestel in 1952, unless the white dwarf accretes matter from a companion star or other source, its radiation comes from its stored heat, which is not replenished.JOURNAL
, Mestel, L.
, 1952
, On the theory of white dwarf stars. I. The energy sources of white dwarfs
, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
, 112, 6
, 583–597
, 1952MNRAS.112..583M
, 10.1093/mnras/112.6.583
, BOOK
, Kawaler, S. D.
, 1998
, White Dwarf Stars and the Hubble Deep Field
, The Hubble Deep Field : Proceedings of the Space Telescope Science Institute Symposium
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, astro-ph/9802217
, 1998hdf..symp..252K
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, , Â§ 2.1. White dwarfs have an extremely small surface area to radiate this heat from, so they cool gradually, remaining hot for a long time. As a white dwarf cools, its surface temperature decreases, the radiation which it emits reddens, and its luminosity decreases. Since the white dwarf has no energy sink other than radiation, it follows that its cooling slows with time. The rate of cooling has been estimated for a carbon white dwarf of 0.59 {{solar mass}} with a hydrogen atmosphere. After initially taking approximately 1.5 billion years to cool to a surface temperature of 7,140 K, cooling approximately 500 more kelvins to 6,590 K takes around 0.3 billion years, but the next two steps of around 500 kelvins (to 6,030 K and 5,550 K) take first 0.4 and then 1.1 billion years.JOURNAL
, Bergeron, P.
, Ruiz, M. T.
, Leggett, S. K.
, 1997
, The Chemical Evolution of Cool White Dwarfs and the Age of the Local Galactic Disk
, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
, 108, 339–387
, 1997ApJS..108..339B
, 10.1086/312955
, , Table 2.Most observed white dwarfs have relatively high surface temperatures, between 8,000 K and 40,000 K.JOURNAL
, A Catalogue of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs
, McCook, G. P.
, Sion, E. M.
, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
, 121
, 1
, 1–130
, 10.1086/313186
, 1999ApJS..121....1M, 1999, A white dwarf, though, spends more of its lifetime at cooler temperatures than at hotter temperatures, so we should expect that there are more cool white dwarfs than hot white dwarfs. Once we adjust for the selection effect that hotter, more luminous white dwarfs are easier to observe, we do find that decreasing the temperature range examined results in finding more white dwarfs.JOURNAL
, Leggett, S. K.
, Ruiz, M. T.
, Bergeron, P.
, 1998
, The Cool White Dwarf Luminosity Function and the Age of the Galactic Disk
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 497, 294–302
, 1998ApJ...497..294L
, 10.1086/305463
, This trend stops when we reach extremely cool white dwarfs; few white dwarfs are observed with surface temperatures below 4,000 K,JOURNAL
, Gates, E.
, Gyuk, G.
, Harris, H. C.
, Subbarao, M.
, Anderson, S.
, Kleinman, S. J.
, Liebert, J.
, Brewington, H.
, Brinkmann, J., 8
, 2004
, Discovery of New Ultracool White Dwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 612, 2, L129
, astro-ph/0405566
, 2004ApJ...612L.129G
, 10.1086/424568
, and one of the coolest so far observed, WD 0346+246, has a surface temperature of approximately 3,900 K.JOURNAL
, Hambly, N. C.
, Smartt, S. J.
, Hodgkin, S. T.
, 1997
, WD 0346+246: A Very Low Luminosity, Cool Degenerate in Taurus
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 489, 2, L157
, 1997ApJ...489L.157H
, 10.1086/316797
, The reason for this is that the Universe's age is finite;JOURNAL
, Winget, D. E.
, Hansen, C. J.
, Liebert, J.
, Van Horn, H. M.
, Fontaine, G.
, Nather, R. E.
, Kepler, S. O.
, Lamb, D. Q.
, 1987
, An independent method for determining the age of the universe
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 315, L77
, 1987ApJ...315L..77W
, 10.1086/184864
, BOOK
, Trefil, J. S.
, 2004
, The Moment of Creation: Big Bang Physics from Before the First Millisecond to the Present Universe
, Dover Publications
, 0-486-43813-9
, there has not been enough time for white dwarfs to cool below this temperature. The white dwarf luminosity function can therefore be used to find the time when stars started to form in a region; an estimate for the age of our Galactic disk found in this way is 8 billion years. A white dwarf will eventually, in many trillions of years, cool and become a non-radiating black dwarf in approximate thermal equilibrium with its surroundings and with the cosmic background radiation. No black dwarfs are thought to exist yet.Although white dwarf material is initially plasma—a fluid composed of nuclei and electrons—it was theoretically predicted in the 1960s that at a late stage of cooling, it should crystallize, starting at its center.JOURNAL
, Metcalfe, T. S.
, Montgomery, M. H.
, Kanaan, A.
, 2004
, Testing White Dwarf Crystallization Theory with Asteroseismology of the Massive Pulsating DA Star BPM 37093
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 605, 2, L133
, astro-ph/0402046
, 2004ApJ...605L.133M
, 10.1086/420884
, The crystal structure is thought to be a body-centered cubic lattice.JOURNAL
, Barrat, J. L.
, Hansen, J. P.
, Mochkovitch, R.
, 1988
, Crystallization of carbon-oxygen mixtures in white dwarfs
, Astronomy and Astrophysics
, 199, L15
, 1988A&A...199L..15B
, In 1995 it was suggested that asteroseismological observations of pulsating white dwarfs yielded a potential test of the crystallization theory,JOURNAL
, Winget, D. E.
, 1995
, The Status of White Dwarf Asteroseismology and a Glimpse of the Road Ahead
, 4, 2
, 129
, Baltic Astronomy
, 1995BaltA...4..129W, 10.1515/astro-1995-0209, and in 2004, observations were made that suggested approximately 90% of the mass of BPM 37093 had crystallized.Diamond star thrills astronomers, David Whitehouse, BBC News, 16 February 2004. Accessed on line 6 January 2007.JOURNAL
, Kanaan, A.
, Nitta, A.
, Winget, D. E.
, Kepler, S. O.
, Montgomery, M. H.
, Metcalfe, T. S.
, Oliveira, H.
, Fraga, L.
, Da Costa, A. F. M., 8
, 2005
, Whole Earth Telescope observations of BPM 37093: A seismological test of crystallization theory in white dwarfs
, Astronomy and Astrophysics
, 432, 219–224
, astro-ph/0411199
, 2005A&A...432..219K
, 10.1051/0004-6361:20041125
, Other work gives a crystallized mass fraction of between 32% and 82%.JOURNAL
, Brassard, P.
, Fontaine, G.
, 2005
, Asteroseismology of the Crystallized ZZ Ceti Star BPM 37093: A Different View
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 622, 572–576
, 2005ApJ...622..572B
, 10.1086/428116
, As a white dwarf core undergoes crystallization into a solid phase, latent heat is released which provides a source of thermal energy that delays its cooling.B.M.S. Hansen, J. Liebert: Cool White Dwarfs, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 41, 465 (2003)Low-mass helium white dwarfs (mass {{solar mass|< 0.20}}), often referred to as "extremely low-mass white dwarfs, ELM WDs" are formed in binary systems. As a result of their hydrogen-rich envelopes, residual hydrogen burning via the CNO cycle may keep these white dwarfs hot on a long timescale. In addition, they remain in a bloated proto-white dwarf stage for up to 2 Gyr before they reach the cooling track.Istrate et al. (2014), "The timescale of low-mass proto-helium white dwarf evolution" A&A Letter 571, L3

Atmosphere and spectra

Although most white dwarfs are thought to be composed of carbon and oxygen, spectroscopy typically shows that their emitted light comes from an atmosphere which is observed to be either hydrogen or helium dominated. The dominant element is usually at least 1,000 times more abundant than all other elements. As explained by Schatzman in the 1940s, the high surface gravity is thought to cause this purity by gravitationally separating the atmosphere so that heavy elements are below and the lighter above.JOURNAL
, Schatzman, E.
, 1945
, Théorie du débit d'énergie des naines blanches
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, 1945AnAp....8..143S
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, Koester, D.
, Chanmugam, G.
, 1990
, Physics of white dwarf stars
, Reports on Progress in Physics
, 53, 7, 837–915
, 1990RPPh...53..837K
, 10.1088/0034-4885/53/7/001
, , § 5–6 This atmosphere, the only part of the white dwarf visible to us, is thought to be the top of an envelope which is a residue of the star's envelope in the AGB phase and may also contain material accreted from the interstellar medium. The envelope is believed to consist of a helium-rich layer with mass no more than 1/100 of the star's total mass, which, if the atmosphere is hydrogen-dominated, is overlain by a hydrogen-rich layer with mass approximately 1/10,000 of the stars total mass.BOOK
, Kawaler, S. D.
, White Dwarf Stars
, Kawaler, S. D.
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, Stellar remnants
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, , § 4–5.Although thin, these outer layers determine the thermal evolution of the white dwarf. The degenerate electrons in the bulk of a white dwarf conduct heat well. Most of a white dwarf's mass is therefore at almost the same temperature (isothermal), and it is also hot: a white dwarf with surface temperature between 8,000 K and 16,000 K will have a core temperature between approximately 5,000,000 K and 20,000,000 K. The white dwarf is kept from cooling very quickly only by its outer layers' opacity to radiation.{| class="wikitable" style="float: right"|+ White dwarf spectral types! colspan="2" | Primary and secondary features
| A| H lines present
| B| He I lines
| C| Continuous spectrum; no lines
| O| He II lines, accompanied by He I or H lines
| Z| Metal lines
| Q| Carbon lines present
| X| Unclear or unclassifiable spectrum
! colspan="2" | Secondary features only
| P| Magnetic white dwarf with detectable polarization
| H| Magnetic white dwarf without detectable polarization
| E| Emission lines present
| V| Variable
The first attempt to classify white dwarf spectra appears to have been by G. P. Kuiper in 1941,JOURNAL
, Kuiper, G. P.
, 1941
, List of Known White Dwarfs
, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
, 53, 248
, 1941PASP...53..248K
, 10.1086/125335
, and various classification schemes have been proposed and used since then.JOURNAL
, Luyten, W. J.
, 1952
, The Spectra and Luminosities of White Dwarfs
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 116, 283
, 1952ApJ...116..283L
, 10.1086/145612
, BOOK
, Greenstein, J. L.
, 1960
, Stellar atmospheres
, University of Chicago Press
, 1960stat.book.....G
, 61-9138
, The system currently in use was introduced by Edward M. Sion, Jesse L. Greenstein and their coauthors in 1983 and has been subsequently revised several times. It classifies a spectrum by a symbol which consists of an initial D, a letter describing the primary feature of the spectrum followed by an optional sequence of letters describing secondary features of the spectrum (as shown in the adjacent table), and a temperature index number, computed by dividing 50,400 K by the effective temperature. For example:
  • A white dwarf with only He I lines in its spectrum and an effective temperature of 15,000 K could be given the classification of DB3, or, if warranted by the precision of the temperature measurement, DB3.5.
  • A white dwarf with a polarized magnetic field, an effective temperature of 17,000 K, and a spectrum dominated by He I lines which also had hydrogen features could be given the classification of DBAP3.
The symbols ? and : may also be used if the correct classification is uncertain.White dwarfs whose primary spectral classification is DA have hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. They make up the majority, approximately 80%, of all observed white dwarfs. The next class in number is of DBs, approximately 16%.JOURNAL
, Kepler, S. O.
, Kleinman, S. J.
, Nitta, A.
, Koester, D.
, Castanheira, B. G.
, Giovannini, O.
, Costa, A. F. M.
, Althaus, L.
, White dwarf mass distribution in the SDSS
, 2007
, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
, 375, 4, 1315–1324
, 2007MNRAS.375.1315K
, 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2006.11388.x, astro-ph/0612277, The hot, above 15,000 K, DQ class (roughly 0.1%) have carbon-dominated atmospheres.JOURNAL
, Dufour, P.
, Liebert, J.
, Fontaine, G.
, Behara, N.
, 2007
, White dwarf stars with carbon atmospheres
, Nature
, 450, 7169, 522–4, 18033290
, 2007Natur.450..522D
, 10.1038/nature06318, 0711.3227, Those classified as DB, DC, DO, DZ, and cool DQ have helium-dominated atmospheres. Assuming that carbon and metals are not present, which spectral classification is seen depends on the effective temperature. Between approximately 100,000 K to 45,000 K, the spectrum will be classified DO, dominated by singly ionized helium. From 30,000 K to 12,000 K, the spectrum will be DB, showing neutral helium lines, and below about 12,000 K, the spectrum will be featureless and classified DC.,§ 2.4.
Molecular hydrogen (H2) has been detected in spectra of the atmospheres of some white dwarfs.Discovery of Molecular Hydrogen in White Dwarf Atmospheres – IOPscience

Metal-rich white dwarfs

Around 25–33% of white dwarfs have metal lines in their spectra, which is notable because any heavy elements in a white dwarf should sink into the star's interior in just a small fraction of the star's lifetime.JOURNAL, Extrasolar Cosmochemistry,weblink Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 2014-01-01, 45–67, 42, 1, 10.1146/annurev-earth-060313-054740, M., Jura, E. D., Young, 2014AREPS..42...45J, The prevailing explanation for metal-rich white dwarfs is that they have recently accreted rocky planetesimals. The bulk composition of the accreted object can be measured from the strengths of the metal lines. For example, a 2015 study of the white dwarf Ton 345 concluded that its metal abundances were consistent with those of a differentiated, rocky planet whose mantle had been eroded by the host star's wind during its asymptotic giant branch phase.JOURNAL, The composition of a disrupted extrasolar planetesimal at SDSS J0845+2257 (Ton 345),weblink Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 2015-08-11, 3237–3248, 451, 3, 10.1093/mnras/stv1201, en, D. J., Wilson, B. T., Gänsicke, D., Koester, O., Toloza, A. F., Pala, E., Breedt, S. G., Parsons, 1505.07466, 2015MNRAS.451.3237W,

Magnetic field

Magnetic fields in white dwarfs with a strength at the surface of c. 1 million gauss (100 teslas) were predicted by P. M. S. Blackett in 1947 as a consequence of a physical law he had proposed which stated that an uncharged, rotating body should generate a magnetic field proportional to its angular momentum.JOURNAL
, Blackett, P. M. S.
, 1947
, The Magnetic Field of Massive Rotating Bodies
, Nature
, 159, 4046, 658–66
, 1947Natur.159..658B
, 10.1038/159658a0
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, This putative law, sometimes called the Blackett effect, was never generally accepted, and by the 1950s even Blackett felt it had been refuted.JOURNAL
, Lovell, B.
, 1975
, Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett, Baron Blackett, of Chelsea. 18 November 1897 – 13 July 1974
, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society
, 21, 1–115
, 10.1098/rsbm.1975.0001
, 769678
, , pp. 39–43 In the 1960s, it was proposed that white dwarfs might have magnetic fields due to conservation of total surface magnetic flux that existed in its progenitor star phase.JOURNAL
, Landstreet, John D.
, 1967
, Synchrotron radiation of neutrinos and its astrophysical significance
, Physical Review
, 153, 5, 1372–1377
, 1967PhRv..153.1372L
, 10.1103/PhysRev.153.1372
, A surface magnetic field of c. 100 gauss (0.01 T) in the progenitor star would thus become a surface magnetic field of c. 100·1002 = 1 million gauss (100 T) once the star's radius had shrunk by a factor of 100., § 8;JOURNAL
, Ginzburg, V. L.
, Zheleznyakov, V. V.
, Zaitsev, V. V.
, 1969
, Coherent mechanisms of radio emission and magnetic models of pulsars
, Astrophysics and Space Science
, 4, 4, 464–504
, 1969Ap&SS...4..464G
, 10.1007/BF00651351
, , p. 484 The first magnetic white dwarf to be discovered was GJ 742 (also known as Grw +70 8247) which was identified by James Kemp, John Swedlund, John Landstreet and Roger Angel in 1970 to host a magnetic field by its emission of circularly polarized light.JOURNAL
, Kemp, J. C.
, Swedlund, J. B.
, Landstreet, J. D.
, Angel, J. R. P.
, 1970
, Discovery of Circularly Polarized Light from a White Dwarf
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 161, L77
, 1970ApJ...161L..77K
, 10.1086/180574
, It is thought to have a surface field of approximately 300 million gauss (30 kT)., § 8Since 1970 magnetic fields have been discovered in well over 200 white dwarfs, ranging from {{math|2 × 103}} to 109 gauss (0.2 T to 100 kT).JOURNAL
, Ferrario, Lilia
, de Martino, Domtilla
, Gaensicke, Boris
, 2015
, Magnetic white dwarfs
, Space Science Reviews
, 191, 1–4, 111–169
, 2015SSRv..191..111F
, 10.1007/s11214-015-0152-0, 1504.08072, The large number of presently known magnetic white dwarfs is due to the fact that most white dwarfs are identified by low-resolution spectroscopy, which is able to reveal the presence of a magnetic field of 1 megagauss or more. Thus the basic identification process also sometimes results in discovery of magnetic fields.JOURNAL
, Kepler, S.O.
, Pelisoli, I.
, Jordan, S.
, Kleinman, S.J.
, Koester, D.
, Kuelebi, B.
, Pecanha, V.
, Castanhiera, B.G.
, Nitta, A.
, Costa, J.E.S.
, Winget, D.E.
, Kanaan, A.
, Fraga, L.
, 2013
, Magnetic white dwarf stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
, 429, 4, 2934–2944
, 2013MNRAS.429.2934K
, 10.1093/mnras/sts522, 1211.5709, It has been estimated that at least 10% of white dwarfs have fields in excess of 1 million gauss (100 T).JOURNAL
, Landstreet, J.D.
, Bagnulo, S.
, Valyavin, G.G.
, Fossati, L.
, Jordan, S.
, Monin, D.
, Wade, G.A.
, 2012
, On the incidence of weak magnetic fields in DA white dwarfs
, Astronomy and Astrophysics
, 545, A30, 9pp.
, 2012A&A...545A..30L
, 10.1051/0004-6361/201219829, 1208.3650, JOURNAL
, Liebert, James
, Bergeron, P.
, Holberg, J. B.
, The True Incidence of Magnetism Among Field White Dwarfs
, 2003
, The Astronomical Journal
, 125, 348–353
, astro-ph/0210319
, 2003AJ....125..348L
, 10.1086/345573
, The highly magnetized white dwarf in the binary system AR Scorpii was identified in 2016 as the first pulsar in which the compact object is a white dwarf instead of a neutron star.JOURNAL, Buckley, D. A. H., Meintjes, P. J., Potter, S. B., Marsh, T. R., Gänsicke, B. T., 2017-01-23, Polarimetric evidence of a white dwarf pulsar in the binary system AR Scorpii,weblink Nature Astronomy, en, 1, 2, 10.1038/s41550-016-0029, 0029, 1612.03185, 2017NatAs...1E..29B,

Chemical bonds

The magnetic fields in a white dwarf may allow for the existence of a new type of chemical bond, perpendicular paramagnetic bonding, in addition to ionic and covalent bonds, resulting in what has been initially described as "magnetized matter" in research published in 2012.Stars draw atoms closer together : Nature News & Comment

Variability

{{See also|#Cataclysmic variables|l1=Cataclysmic variables}}{| class="wikitable" style="float: right"|+ Types of pulsating white dwarfZZ Ceti variables, Association Française des Observateurs d'Etoiles Variables, web page at the Centre deDonnées astronomiques de Strasbourg. Accessed on line 6 June 2007., § 1.1, 1.2.
DAV (General Catalog of Variable Stars>GCVS: ZZA) DA spectral type, having only hydrogen absorption lines in its spectrum
DBV (GCVS: ZZB) >| DB spectral type, having only helium absorption lines in its spectrum
GW Vir (GCVS: ZZO) >| Atmosphere mostly C, He and O; may be divided into DOV and PNNV stars
Early calculations suggested that there might be white dwarfs whose luminosity varied with a period of around 10 seconds, but searches in the 1960s failed to observe this., § 7.1.1;JOURNAL
, Lawrence, G. M.
, Ostriker, J. P.
, Hesser, J. E.
, 1967
, Ultrashort-Period Stellar Oscillations. I. Results from White Dwarfs, Old Novae, Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae, 3c 273, and Scorpius XR-1
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 148, L161
, 1967ApJ...148L.161L
, 10.1086/180037
, The first variable white dwarf found was HL Tau 76; in 1965 and 1966, and was observed to vary with a period of approximately 12.5 minutes.JOURNAL
, Landolt, A. U.
, 1968
, A New Short-Period Blue Variable
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 153, 151
, 1968ApJ...153..151L
, 10.1086/149645
, The reason for this period being longer than predicted is that the variability of HL Tau 76, like that of the other pulsating variable white dwarfs known, arises from non-radial gravity wave pulsations., § 7. Known types of pulsating white dwarf include the DAV, or ZZ Ceti, stars, including HL Tau 76, with hydrogen-dominated atmospheres and the spectral type DA;, pp. 891, 895 DBV, or V777 Her, stars, with helium-dominated atmospheres and the spectral type DB;, p. 3525 and GW Vir stars, sometimes subdivided into DOV and PNNV stars, with atmospheres dominated by helium, carbon, and oxygen.JOURNAL
, Quirion, P.‐O.
, Fontaine, G.
, Brassard, P.
, 2007
, Mapping the Instability Domains of GW Vir Stars in the Effective Temperature–Surface Gravity Diagram
, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
, 171, 219–248
, 2007ApJS..171..219Q
, 10.1086/513870
, JOURNAL
, Nagel, T.
, Werner, K.
, 2004
, Detection of non-radial g-mode pulsations in the newly discovered PG 1159 star HE 1429-1209
, Astronomy and Astrophysics
, 426, 2, L45
, astro-ph/0409243
, 10.1051/0004-6361:200400079
, 2004A&A...426L..45N
, GW Vir stars are not, strictly speaking, white dwarfs, but are stars which are in a position on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram between the asymptotic giant branch and the white dwarf region. They may be called pre-white dwarfs.JOURNAL
, O'Brien, M. S.
, 2000
, The Extent and Cause of the Pre–White Dwarf Instability Strip
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 532, 2, 1078–1088
, astro-ph/9910495
, 2000ApJ...532.1078O
, 10.1086/308613
, These variables all exhibit small (1%–30%) variations in light output, arising from a superposition of vibrational modes with periods of hundreds to thousands of seconds. Observation of these variations gives asteroseismological evidence about the interiors of white dwarfs.JOURNAL
, Winget, D. E.
, Asteroseismology of white dwarf stars
, 1998
, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter
, 10, 49, 11247–11261
, 1998JPCM...1011247W
, 10.1088/0953-8984/10/49/014
,

Formation

White dwarfs are thought to represent the end point of stellar evolution for main-sequence stars with masses from about 0.07 to 10 {{solar mass}}.JOURNAL
, Heger, A.
, Fryer, C. L.
, Woosley, S. E.
, Langer, N.
, Hartmann, D. H.
, 2003
, How Massive Single Stars End Their Life
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 591, 288–300
, astro-ph/0212469
, 2003ApJ...591..288H
, 10.1086/375341
, The composition of the white dwarf produced will depend on the initial mass of the star. Current galactic models suggest the Milky Way galaxy currently contains about ten billion white dwarfs.JOURNAL, 10.1088/1742-6596/172/1/012004, The galactic population of white dwarfs, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 172, 012004, 2009, Napiwotzki, Ralf, 1, 2009JPhCS.172a2004N, 0903.2159,

Stars with very low mass

If the mass of a main-sequence star is lower than approximately half a solar mass, it will never become hot enough to fuse helium in its core. It is thought that, over a lifespan that considerably exceeds the age of the Universe (c. 13.8 billion years), such a star will eventually burn all its hydrogen, for a while becoming a blue dwarf, and end its evolution as a helium white dwarf composed chiefly of helium-4 nuclei.JOURNAL
, Laughlin, G.
, Bodenheimer, P.
, Adams, Fred C.
, 1997
, The End of the Main Sequence
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 482, 420–432
, 1997ApJ...482..420L
, 10.1086/304125
, Due to the very long time this process takes, it is not thought to be the origin of the observed helium white dwarfs. Rather, they are thought to be the product of mass loss in binary systemsStars Beyond Maturity {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150404004046weblink |date=4 April 2015 }}, Simon Jeffery, online article. Accessed on line 3 May 2007.JOURNAL
, Sarna, M. J.
, Ergma, E.
, Gerškevitš, J.
, Astronomische Nachrichten
, 2001
, Helium core white dwarf evolution – including white dwarf companions to neutron stars
, 322, 5–6, 405–410
, 2001AN....322..405S
, 10.1002/1521-3994(200112)322:5/63.0.CO;2-6
, JOURNAL
, Benvenuto, O. G.
, De Vito, M. A.
, 2005
, The formation of helium white dwarfs in close binary systems – II
, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
, 362, 3, 891–905
, 2005MNRAS.362..891B
, 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.09315.x
, or mass loss due to a large planetary companion.JOURNAL
, Nelemans, G.
, Tauris, T. M.
, Formation of undermassive single white dwarfs and the influence of planets on late stellar evolution
, 1998
, Astronomy and Astrophysics
, 335, L85
, astro-ph/9806011
, 1998A&A...335L..85N
, NEWS
, 18 January 2008
, Planet diet helps white dwarfs stay young and trim
,weblink
, New Scientist
, 2639
,

Stars with low to medium mass

If the mass of a main-sequence star is between 0.5 and 8 {{solar mass}} like our sun, its core will become sufficiently hot to fuse helium into carbon and oxygen via the triple-alpha process, but it will never become sufficiently hot to fuse carbon into neon. Near the end of the period in which it undergoes fusion reactions, such a star will have a carbon–oxygen core which does not undergo fusion reactions, surrounded by an inner helium-burning shell and an outer hydrogen-burning shell. On the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, it will be found on the asymptotic giant branch. It will then expel most of its outer material, creating a planetary nebula, until only the carbon–oxygen core is left. This process is responsible for the carbon–oxygen white dwarfs which form the vast majority of observed white dwarfs.the evolution of low-mass stars, Vik Dhillon, lecture notes, Physics 213, University of Sheffield. Accessed on line 3 May 2007.the evolution of high-mass stars, Vik Dhillon, lecture notes, Physics 213, University of Sheffield. Accessed on line 3 May 2007.

Stars with medium to high mass

If a star is massive enough, its core will eventually become sufficiently hot to fuse carbon to neon, and then to fuse neon to iron. Such a star will not become a white dwarf, because the mass of its central, non-fusing core, initially supported by electron degeneracy pressure, will eventually exceed the largest possible mass supportable by degeneracy pressure. At this point the core of the star will collapse and it will explode in a core-collapse supernova which will leave behind a remnant neutron star, black hole, or possibly a more exotic form of compact star.JOURNAL
, 2005JPhG...31S.651S
, astro-ph/0412215
, 10.1088/0954-3899/31/6/004
, Strange quark matter in stars: A general overview
, 2005
, Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen
, Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics
, 31, 6, S651
, Some main-sequence stars, of perhaps 8 to 10 {{solar mass}}, although sufficiently massive to fuse carbon to neon and magnesium, may be insufficiently massive to fuse neon. Such a star may leave a remnant white dwarf composed chiefly of oxygen, neon, and magnesium, provided that its core does not collapse, and provided that fusion does not proceed so violently as to blow apart the star in a supernova.JOURNAL
, 1984ApJ...277..791N
, 10.1086/161749
, Evolution of 8–10 solar mass stars toward electron capture supernovae. I – Formation of electron-degenerate O + NE + MG cores
, 1984
, Nomoto, K.
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 277, 791
, JOURNAL
, 2002RvMP...74.1015W
, 10.1103/RevModPhys.74.1015
, The evolution and explosion of massive stars
, 2002
, Woosley, S. E.
, Heger, A.
, Weaver
, T. A.
, Reviews of Modern Physics
, 74, 4, 1015–1071
, Although a few white dwarfs have been identified which may be of this type, most evidence for the existence of such comes from the novae called ONeMg or neon novae. The spectra of these novae exhibit abundances of neon, magnesium, and other intermediate-mass elements which appear to be only explicable by the accretion of material onto an oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarf.JOURNAL
, 2004A&A...421.1169W
, astro-ph/0404325
, 10.1051/0004-6361:20047154
, Chandra and FUSE spectroscopy of the hot bare stellar core H?1504+65
, 2004
, Werner, K.
, Rauch, T.
, Barstow, M. A.
, Kruk, J. W.
, Astronomy and Astrophysics
, 421, 3, 1169–1183
, JOURNAL
, 1994ApJ...425..797L
, 10.1086/174024
, On the interpretation and implications of nova abundances: An abundance of riches or an overabundance of enrichments
, 1994
, Livio, Mario
, Truran, James W.
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 425, 797
,

Type Iax supernovae

Type Iax supernova, that involve helium accretion by a white dwarf, have been proposed to be a channel for transformation of this type of stellar remnant. In this scenario, the carbon detonation produced in a Type Ia supernova is too weak to destroy the white dwarf, expelling just a small part of its mass as ejecta, but produces an asymmetric explosion that kicks the star, often known as a zombie star, to high speeds of a hypervelocity star. The matter processed in the failed detonation is re-accreted by the white dwarf with the heaviest elements such as iron falling to its core where it accumulates.JOURNAL
, 2012ApJ...761L..23J
, 10.1088/2041-8205/761/2/L23
, Failed-detonation Supernovae: Subluminous Low-velocity Ia Supernovae and their Kicked Remnant White Dwarfs with Iron-rich Cores
, 2012
, Jordan, George C. IV.
, Perets, Hagai B.
, Fisher, Robert T.
, van Rossum, Daniel R.
, The Astrophysical Journal Letters
, 761, 2, L23
, 1208.5069, These iron-core white dwarfs would be smaller than the carbon-oxygen kind of similar mass and would cool and crystallize faster than those.JOURNAL
, 2000MNRAS.312..531P
, 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2000.03236.x
, The evolution of iron-core white dwarfs
, 2000
, Panei, J. A.
, Althaus, L. G.
, Benvenuto, O. G.
, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
, 312, 3, 531–539
, astro-ph/9911371,

Fate

(File:Artist’s impression of debris around a white dwarf star.jpg|thumb|Artist's impression of debris around a white dwarfNEWS, Hubble finds dead stars "polluted" with planetary debris,weblink 10 May 2013, ESA/Hubble Press Release, )A white dwarf is stable once formed and will continue to cool almost indefinitely, eventually to become a black dwarf. Assuming that the Universe continues to expand, it is thought that in 1019 to 1020 years, the galaxies will evaporate as their stars escape into intergalactic space.JOURNAL
, 1997RvMP...69..337A
, astro-ph/9701131
, 10.1103/RevModPhys.69.337
, A dying universe: The long-term fate and evolutionof astrophysical objects
, 1997
, Adams, Fred C.
, Laughlin, Gregory
, Reviews of Modern Physics
, 69, 2, 337–372
, , Â§IIIA. White dwarfs should generally survive galactic dispersion, although an occasional collision between white dwarfs may produce a new fusing star or a super-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf which will explode in a Type Ia supernova., Â§IIIC, IV. The subsequent lifetime of white dwarfs is thought to be on the order of the lifetime of the proton, known to be at least 1034–1035 years. Some grand unified theories predict a proton lifetime between 1030 and 1036 years. If these theories are not valid, the proton may decay by complicated nuclear reactions or through quantum gravitational processes involving a virtual black hole; in these cases, the lifetime is estimated to be no more than 10200 years. If protons do decay, the mass of a white dwarf will decrease very slowly with time as its nuclei decay, until it loses enough mass to become a nondegenerate lump of matter, and finally disappears completely., Â§IV.A white dwarf can also be cannibalized or evaporated by a companion star, causing the white dwarf to lose so much mass that it becomes a planetary mass object. The resultant object, orbiting the former companion, now host star, could be a helium planet or diamond planet.JOURNAL, Mass-Radius Relationships for Solid Exoplanets, S. Seager, M. Kuchner, C. Hier-Majumder, B. Militzer, The Astrophysical Journal, 669, 2, 1279–1297, November 2007, 10.1086/521346, 0707.2895, 2007ApJ...669.1279S, 19 July 2007, WEB, Time (magazine), Time Magazine,weblink Scientists Discover a Diamond as Big as a Planet, Michael Lemonick, 26 August 2011,

Debris disks and planets

(File:Comet falling into white dwarf (artist's impression).jpg|left|thumb|Comet falling into white dwarf (artist's impression)WEB, Comet falling into white dwarf (artist's impression),weblink www.spacetelescope.org, 14 February 2017, )File:White dwarfs circling each other and then colliding.gif|right|thumb|The merger process of two co-orbiting white dwarfs produces gravitational wavegravitational waveA white dwarf's stellar and planetary system is inherited from its progenitor star and may interact with the white dwarf in various ways. Infrared spectroscopic observations made by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope of the central star of the Helix Nebula suggest the presence of a dust cloud, which may be caused by cometary collisions. It is possible that infalling material from this may cause X-ray emission from the central star.Comet clash kicks up dusty haze, BBC News, 13 February 2007. Accessed on line 20 September 2007.JOURNAL
, 2007ApJ...657L..41S
, astro-ph/0702296
, 10.1086/513018
, A Debris Disk around the Central Star of the Helix Nebula?
, 2007
, Su, K. Y. L.
, Chu, Y.-H.
, Rieke, G. H.
, Huggins, P. J.
, Gruendl, R.
, Napiwotzki, R.
, Rauch, T.
, Latter, W. B.
, Volk, K.
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 657, L41
, Similarly, observations made in 2004 indicated the presence of a dust cloud around the young (estimated to have formed from its AGB progenitor about 500 million years ago) white dwarf G29-38, which may have been created by tidal disruption of a comet passing close to the white dwarf.JOURNAL
, 2005ApJ...635L.161R
, astro-ph/0511358
, 10.1086/499561
, The Dust Cloud around the White Dwarf G29-38
, 2005
, Reach, William T.
, Kuchner, Marc J.
, Von Hippel, Ted
, Burrows, Adam
, Mullally, Fergal
, Kilic, Mukremin
, Winget, D. E.
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 635, 2, L161
, Some estimations based on the metal content of the atmospheres of the white dwarfs consider that at least a 15% of them may be orbited by planets and/or asteroids, or at least their debris.JOURNAL, Sion, Edward M., Holberg, J. B., Oswalt, Terry D., McCook, George P., Wasatonic, Richard, The White Dwarfs Within 20 Parsecs of the Sun: Kinematics and Statistics, 2009, The Astronomical Journal, 138, 6, 1681–1689, 2009AJ....138.1681S, 10.1088/0004-6256/138/6/1681, 0910.1288, Another suggested idea is that white dwarfs could be orbited by the stripped cores of rocky planets, that would have survived the red giant phase of their star but losing their outer layers and, given those planetary remnants would likely be made of metals, to attempt to detect them looking for the signatures of their interaction with the white dwarf's magnetic field.JOURNAL, Li, Jianke, Ferrario, Lilia, Wickramasinghe, Dayal, Planets around White Dwarfs, 1998, Astrophysical Journal Letters, 503, L151, 1, p. L51, 1998ApJ...503L.151L, 10.1086/311546, There is a planet in the white dwarf–pulsar binary system PSR B1620-26.There are two circumbinary planets around the white dwarf–red dwarf binary NN Serpentis.The metal-rich white dwarf WD 1145+017 is the first white dwarf observed with a disintegrating minor planet which transits the star.WEB, Zombie Star Caught Feasting On Asteroids,weblink National Geographic News, 2015-10-22, Michael D., Lemonick, National Geographic PUBLISHED October, 21, JOURNAL, A disintegrating minor planet transiting a white dwarf,weblink Nature, 2015-10-22, 546–549, 526, 7574, 10.1038/nature15527, en, Andrew, Vanderburg, John Asher, Johnson, Saul, Rappaport, Allyson, Bieryla, Jonathan, Irwin, John Arban, Lewis, David, Kipping, Warren R., Brown, Patrick, Dufour, 1510.06387, 2015Natur.526..546V, 26490620, The disintegration of the planetesimal generates a debris cloud which passes in front of the star every 4.5 hours, causing a 5-minute-long fade in the star's optical brightness. The depth of the transit is highly variable.

Habitability

It has been proposed that white dwarfs with surface temperatures of less than 10,000 kelvins could harbor a habitable zone at a distance of c. 0.005 to 0.02 AU that would last upwards of 3 billion years. This is so close that any habitable planets would be tidally locked. The goal is to search for transits of hypothetical Earth-like planets that could have migrated inward and/or formed there. As a white dwarf has a size similar to that of a planet, these kinds of transits would produce strong eclipses.JOURNAL
, 2011ApJ...731L..31A
, 1103.2791
, 10.1088/2041-8205/731/2/L31
, Transit Surveys for Earths in the Habitable Zones of White Dwarfs
, 2011
, Agol, Eric
, The Astrophysical Journal Letters
, 635, 2, L31
, Newer research casts some doubts on this idea, given that the close orbits of those hypothetical planets around their parent stars would subject them to strong tidal forces that could render them uninhabitable by triggering a greenhouse effect.JOURNAL
, 2013AsBio..13..279B
, 1211.6467
, 10.1089/ast.2012.0867
, Habitable Planets Around White and Brown Dwarfs: The Perils of a Cooling Primary
, 2011
, Barnes, Rory, Heller, René
, Astrobiology
, 13, 3, 279–291, 23537137, 3612282
, Another suggested constraint to this idea is the origin of those planets. Leaving aside formation from the accretion disk surrounding the white dwarf, there are two ways a planet could end in a close orbit around stars of this kind: by surviving being engulfed by the star during its red giant phase, and then spiralling inward, or inward migration after the white dwarf has formed. The former case is implausible for low-mass bodies, as they are unlikely to survive being absorbed by their stars. In the latter case, the planets would have to expel so much orbital energy as heat, through tidal interactions with the white dwarf, that they would likely end as uninhabitable embers.JOURNAL
, 2013MNRAS.432..500N
, 1211.1013
, 10.1093/mnras/stt569
, On the orbits of low-mass companions to white dwarfs and the fates of the known exoplanets
, 2013
, Nordhaus, J., Spiegel, D.S.
, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
, 432, 1, 500–505
,

Binary stars and novae

If a white dwarf is in a binary star system and is accreting matter from its companion, a variety of phenomena may occur, including novae and Type Ia supernovae. It may also be a super-soft x-ray source if it is able to take material from its companion fast enough to sustain fusion on its surface.BOOK
, Di Stefano, R.
, Nelson, L. A.
, Lee, W.
, Wood, T. H.
, Rappaport, S.
, Luminous Supersoft X-ray Sources as Type Ia Progenitors, 148–149, Thermonuclear supernovae, 486, NATO ASI series: Mathematical and physical sciences, P. Ruiz-Lapuente, R. Canal, J. Isern, Springer
, 1997
, 0-7923-4359-X
, A close binary system of two white dwarfs can radiate energy in the form of gravitational waves, causing their mutual orbit to steadily shrink until the stars merge.NEWS
, Aguilar, David A.
, Pulliam, Christine
, Astronomers Discover Merging Star Systems that Might Explode
, 16 November 2010, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics,weblink
, 16 February 2011
, NEWS
, Aguilar, David A.
, Pulliam, Christine
, Evolved Stars Locked in Fatalistic Dance
, 13 July 2011, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics,weblink
, 17 July 2011
,

Type Ia supernovae

The mass of an isolated, nonrotating white dwarf cannot exceed the Chandrasekhar limit of ~1.4 {{solar mass}}. This limit may increase if the white dwarf is rotating rapidly and nonuniformly.JOURNAL
, 2004A&A...419..623Y
, astro-ph/0402287
, 10.1051/0004-6361:20035822
, Presupernova evolution of accreting white dwarfs with rotation
, 2004
, Yoon, S.-C.
, Langer, N.
, Astronomy and Astrophysics
, 419, 2, 623–644
, White dwarfs in binary systems can accrete material from a companion star, increasing both their mass and their density. As their mass approaches the Chandrasekhar limit, this could theoretically lead to either the explosive ignition of fusion in the white dwarf or its collapse into a neutron star.Accretion provides the currently favored mechanism called the single-degenerate model for Type Ia supernovae. In this model, a carbon–oxygen white dwarf accretes mass and compresses its core by pulling mass from a companion star., p. 14. It is believed that compressional heating of the core leads to ignition of carbon fusion as the mass approaches the Chandrasekhar limit. Because the white dwarf is supported against gravity by quantum degeneracy pressure instead of by thermal pressure, adding heat to the star's interior increases its temperature but not its pressure, so the white dwarf does not expand and cool in response. Rather, the increased temperature accelerates the rate of the fusion reaction, in a runaway process that feeds on itself. The thermonuclear flame consumes much of the white dwarf in a few seconds, causing a Type Ia supernova explosion that obliterates the star.JOURNAL
, 2006A&A...453..229B
, astro-ph/0603036
, 10.1051/0004-6361:20054594
, Theoretical light curves for deflagration models of type Ia supernova
, 2006
, Blinnikov, S. I.
, Röpke, F. K.
, Sorokina, E. I.
, Gieseler, M.
, Reinecke, M.
, Travaglio, C.
, Hillebrandt, W.
, Stritzinger, M.
, Astronomy and Astrophysics
, 453, 229–240
, In another possible mechanism for Type Ia supernovae, the double-degenerate model, two carbon-oxygen white dwarfs in a binary system merge, creating an object with mass greater than the Chandrasekhar limit in which carbon fusion is then ignited., p. 14.Observations have failed to note signs of accretion leading up to Type Ia supernovae, and this is now thought to be because the star is first loaded up to above the Chandrasekhar limit while also being spun up to a very high rate by the same process. Once the accretion stops the star gradually slows until the spin is no longer enough to prevent the explosion.O'Neill, Ian. "Don't Slow Down White Dwarf, You Might Explode." Discovery Communications, LLC 6 September 2011.

Cataclysmic variables

Before accretion of material pushes a white dwarf close to the Chandrasekhar limit, accreted hydrogen-rich material on the surface may ignite in a less destructive type of thermonuclear explosion powered by hydrogen fusion. These surface explosions can be repeated as long as the white dwarf's core remains intact. This weaker kind of repetitive cataclysmic phenomenon is called a (classical) nova. Astronomers have also observed dwarf novae, which have smaller, more frequent luminosity peaks than the classical novae. These are thought to be caused by the release of gravitational potential energy when part of the accretion disc collapses onto the star, rather than through a release of energy due to fusion. In general, binary systems with a white dwarf accreting matter from a stellar companion are called cataclysmic variables. As well as novae and dwarf novae, several other classes of these variables are known, including polars and intermediate polars, both of which feature highly magnetic white dwarfs.Imagine the Universe! Cataclysmic Variables, fact sheet at NASA Goddard. Accessed on line 4 May 2007.Introduction to Cataclysmic Variables (CVs), fact sheet at NASA Goddard. Accessed on line 4 May 2007. Both fusion- and accretion-powered cataclysmic variables have been observed to be X-ray sources.

Nearest {| class"wikitable" style"text-align: center;"|+White Dwarfs within 25 Light Years{{citation

| last1=Giammichele, N.
| last2=Bergeron, P.
| last3=Dufour, P.
| title=Know Your Neighborhood: A Detailed Model Atmosphere Analysis of Nearby White Dwarfs
| journal=The Astrophysical Journal Supplement
| volume=199 | issue=2 | id=29 | pages=35
| date=April 2012
| doi=10.1088/0067-0049/199/2/29
| bibcode=2012ApJS..199...29G
| postscript=.|arxiv = 1202.5581 }}
! class="unsortable" | Identifier! WD Number! Distance (ly)! Type! Absolutemagnitude! Mass({{solar mass|link=yes}})! Luminosity({{Solar luminosity|link=yes}})! Age (Gyr)! Objects in system
Sirius B| 0642–166| 8.66| DA| 11.18| 0.98| 0.0295| 0.10| 2
Procyon B| 0736+053| 11.46| DQZ| 13.20| 0.63| 0.00049| 1.37| 2
Van Maanen 2| 0046+051| 14.07| DZ| 14.09| 0.68| 0.00017| 3.30| 1
LP 145-141| 1142–645| 15.12| DQ| 12.77| 0.61| 0.00054| 1.29| 1
40 Eridani B| 0413-077| 16.39| DA| 11.27| 0.59| 0.0141| 0.12| 3
Stein 2051 B| 0426+588| 17.99| DC| 13.43| 0.69| 0.00030| 2.02| 2
G 240-72| 1748+708| 20.26| DQ| 15.23| 0.81| 0.000085| 5.69| 1
Gliese 223.2| 0552–041| 21.01| DZ| 15.29| 0.82| 0.000062| 7.89| 1
Gliese 3991 B| 1708+437| 24.23| D??| >15| 0.5| 6| 2

See also

{{Colbegin}}
  • {{annotated link|List of white dwarfs}}
  • {{annotated link|Planetary nebula}}
  • {{annotated link|PG 1159 star}}
  • {{annotated link|Stellar classification}}
  • {{annotated link|Chandrasekhar's white dwarf equation}}
  • {{annotated link|Timeline of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and supernovae}}
  • {{annotated link|Degenerate matter}}
  • {{annotated link|Black dwarf}}
  • {{annotated link|Robust associations of massive baryonic objects}}
  • {{annotated link|Neutron star}}
{{Colend}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

External links and further reading

{{Commons category}}

General

  • BOOK


, Kawaler, S. D.
, White Dwarf Stars
, Kawaler, S. D.
, Novikov, I.
, Srinivasan, G.
, 1997
, Stellar remnants
, 1997
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Physics

  • Black holes, white dwarfs, and neutron stars: the physics of compact objects, Stuart L. Shapiro and Saul A. Teukolsky, New York: Wiley, 1983. {{ISBN|0-471-87317-9}}.
  • JOURNAL


, 1990RPPh...53..837K
, 10.1088/0034-4885/53/7/001
, Physics of white dwarf stars
, 1990
, Koester, D
, Chanmugam, G
, Reports on Progress in Physics
, 53, 7, 837–915,

Variability

  • JOURNAL


, 10.1088/0953-8984/10/49/014
, 1998JPCM...1011247W
, Asteroseismology of white dwarf stars
, 1998
, Winget, D E
, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter
, 10, 49, 11247–11261,

Magnetic field

  • JOURNAL


, 2000PASP..112..873W
, 10.1086/316593
, Magnetism in Isolated and Binary White Dwarfs
, 2000
, Wickramasinghe, D. T.
, Ferrario, Lilia
, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
, 112, 773, 873–924,

Frequency

  • JOURNAL


, 10.1126/science.292.5525.2211a, 11423620
, White Dwarfs and Dark Matter
, 2001
, Gibson, B. K.
, Science
, 292, 5525, 2211a
, Flynn, C, astro-ph/0104255,

Observational

  • JOURNAL


, 1998ApJ...494..759P
, 10.1086/305238
, Testing the White Dwarf Mass‐Radius Relation withHipparcos
, 1998
, Provencal, J. L.
, Shipman, H. L.
, Hog, Erik
, Thejll, P.
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 494, 2, 759–767,
  • JOURNAL


, 2004ApJ...612L.129G
, astro-ph/0405566
, 10.1086/424568
, Discovery of New Ultracool White Dwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
, 2004
, Gates, Evalyn
, Gyuk, Geza
, Harris, Hugh C.
, Subbarao, Mark
, Anderson, Scott
, Kleinman, S. J.
, Liebert, James
, Brewington, Howard
, Brinkmann, J.
, Harvanek
, Michael
, Krzesinski
, Jurek
, Lamb
, Don Q.
, Long
, Dan
, Neilsen, Jr.
, Eric H.
, Newman
, Peter R.
, Nitta
, Atsuko
, Snedden
, Stephanie A.
, The Astrophysical Journal
, 612, 2, L129, 8
,


, 2007Natur.450..522D
, 10.1038/nature06318
, 0711.3227
, White dwarf stars with carbon atmospheres
, 2007
, Dufour, P.
, Liebert, J.
, Fontaine, G.
, Behara, N.
, Nature
, 450, 7169, 522–4, 18033290,

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