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tyrosine hydroxylase

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tyrosine hydroxylase
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factoids
Tyrosine hydroxylase or tyrosine 3-monooxygenase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA).JOURNAL, Kaufman S, Tyrosine hydroxylase, Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, 70, 103–220, 1995, 8638482, 10.1002/9780470123164.ch3, 978-0-470-12316-4, Advances in Enzymology - and Related Areas of Molecular Biology, JOURNAL, Nagatsu T, Tyrosine hydroxylase: human isoforms, structure and regulation in physiology and pathology, Essays in Biochemistry, 30, 15–35, 1995, 8822146, It does so using molecular oxygen (O2), as well as iron (Fe2+) and tetrahydrobiopterin as cofactors. L-DOPA is a precursor for dopamine, which, in turn, is a precursor for the important neurotransmitters norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline). Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the rate limiting step in this synthesis of catecholamines. In humans, tyrosine hydroxylase is encoded by the TH gene, and the enzyme is present in the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral sympathetic neurons and the adrenal medulla. Tyrosine hydroxylase, phenylalanine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase together make up the family of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (AAAHs).

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factoids
Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the reaction in which L-tyrosine is hydroxylated in the meta position to obtain L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA). The enzyme is an oxygenase which means it uses molecular oxygen to hydroxylate its substrates. One of the oxygen atoms in O2 is used to hydroxylate the tyrosine molecule to obtain L-DOPA and the other one is used to hydroxylate the cofactor. Like the other aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (AAAHs), tyrosine hydroxylase use the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) under normal conditions, although other similar molecules may also work as a cofactor for tyrosine hydroxylase.JOURNAL, Haavik J, Toska K, Tyrosine hydroxylase and Parkinson's disease, Molecular Neurobiology, 16, 3, 285–309, Jun 1998, 9626667, 10.1007/BF02741387, The AAAHs converts the cofactor 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) into tetrahydrobiopterin-4a-carbinolamine (4a-BH4). Under physiological conditions, 4a-BH4 is dehydrated to quinonoid-dihydrobiopterin (q-BH2) by the enzyme pterin-4a-carbinolamine dehydrase (PCD) and a water molecule is released in this reaction.JOURNAL, Teigen K, McKinney JA, Haavik J, Martínez A, Selectivity and affinity determinants for ligand binding to the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, Current Medicinal Chemistry, 14, 4, 455–67, 2007, 17305546, 10.2174/092986707779941023, JOURNAL, Thöny B, Auerbach G, Blau N, Tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis, regeneration and functions, The Biochemical Journal, 347 Pt 1, 1, 1–16, Apr 2000, 10727395, 1220924, 10.1042/0264-6021:3470001, Then, the NAD(P)H dependent enzyme dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR) converts q-BH2 back to BH4. Each of the four subunits in tyrosine hydroxylase is coordinated with an iron(II) atom presented in the active site. The oxidation state of this iron atom is important for the catalytic turnover in the enzymatic reaction. If the iron is oxidized to Fe(III), the enzyme is inactivated.JOURNAL, Ramsey AJ, Hillas PJ, Fitzpatrick PF, Characterization of the active site iron in tyrosine hydroxylase. Redox states of the iron, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271, 40, 24395–400, Oct 1996, 8798695, 10.1074/jbc.271.40.24395, The product of the enzymatic reaction, L-DOPA, can be transformed to dopamine by the enzyme DOPA decarboxylase. Dopamine may be converted into norepinephrine by the enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase, which can be further modified by the enzyme phenylethanol N-methyltransferase to obtain epinephrine.JOURNAL, Nagatsu T, Levitt M, Udenfriend S, Tyrosine Hydroxylase. The Initial Step in Norepinephrine Biosynthesis, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 239, 2910–7, Sep 1964, 14216443, Since L-DOPA is the precursor for the neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline, tyrosine hydroxylase is therefore found in the cytosol of all cells containing these catecholamines. This initial reaction catalyzed by tyrosine hydroxylase has been shown to be the rate limiting step in the production of catecholamines.The enzyme is highly specific, not accepting indole derivatives - which is unusual as many other enzymes involved in the production of catecholamines do. Tryptophan is a poor substrate for tyrosine hydroxylase, however it can hydroxylate L-phenylalanine to form L-tyrosine and small amounts of 3-hydroxyphenylalanine.JOURNAL, Fitzpatrick PF, Tetrahydropterin-dependent amino acid hydroxylases, Annual Review of Biochemistry, 68, 355–81, 1999, 10872454, 10.1146/annurev.biochem.68.1.355, JOURNAL, Fitzpatrick PF, Kinetic Isotope Effects on Hydroxylation of Ring-Deuterated Phenylalanines by Tyrosine Hydroxylase Provide Evidence against Partitioning of an Arene Oxide Intermediate, 10.1021/ja00082a046, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 116, 3, 1133–1134, 1994, The enzyme can then further catalyze L-tyrosine to form L-DOPA. Tyrosine hydroxylase may also be involved in other reactions as well, such as oxidizing L-DOPA to form 5-S-cysteinyl-DOPA or other L-DOPA derivatives.JOURNAL, Haavik J, Flatmark T, Isolation and characterization of tetrahydropterin oxidation products generated in the tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (tyrosine hydroxylase) reaction, European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS, 168, 1, 21–6, Oct 1987, 2889594, 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1987.tb13381.x,

Structure

File:Tyrosine hydroxylase from rat showing two of its domains.png|thumb|left|Tyrosine hydroxylase from rat showing two of its domains, the tetramerization domain (pink) and the catalytic domain (blue). The regulatory domain (not shown) would sit somewhere on the right hand side of the image where also the enzyme's substrate would enter from.]]Tyrosine hydroxylase is a tetramer of four identical subunits (homotetramer). Each subunit consists of three domains. At the carboxyl terminal of the peptide chain there's a short alpha helix domain that allows tetramerization.JOURNAL, Kent Vrana, Vrana KE, Walker SJ, Rucker P, Liu X, A carboxyl terminal leucine zipper is required for tyrosine hydroxylase tetramer formation, Journal of Neurochemistry, 63, 6, 2014–20, Dec 1994, 7964718, 10.1046/j.1471-4159.1994.63062014.x, The central ~300 amino acids make up a catalytic core, in which all the residues necessary for catalysis are located, along with a non-covalently bound iron atom. The iron is held in place by two histidine residues and one glutamate residue, making it a non-heme, non-iron-sulfur iron-containing enzyme.JOURNAL, Ramsey AJ, Daubner SC, Ehrlich JI, Fitzpatrick PF, Identification of iron ligands in tyrosine hydroxylase by mutagenesis of conserved histidinyl residues, Protein Science, 4, 10, 2082–6, Oct 1995, 8535244, 2142982, 10.1002/pro.5560041013, The amino terminal ~150 amino acids make up a regulatory domain, thought to control access of substrates to the active site.JOURNAL, Daubner SC, Le T, Wang S, Tyrosine hydroxylase and regulation of dopamine synthesis, Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 508, 1, 1–12, Apr 2011, 21176768, 3065393, 10.1016/j.abb.2010.12.017, In humans there are thought to be four different versions of this regulatory domain, and thus four versions of the enzyme, depending on alternative splicing,JOURNAL, Kobayashi K, Kaneda N, Ichinose H, Kishi F, Nakazawa A, Kurosawa Y, Fujita K, Nagatsu T, Structure of the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene: alternative splicing from a single gene accounts for generation of four mRNA types, Journal of Biochemistry, 103, 6, 907–12, Jun 1988, 2902075, though none of their structures have yet been properly determined.JOURNAL, Nakashima A, Hayashi N, Kaneko YS, Mori K, Sabban EL, Nagatsu T, Ota A, Role of N-terminus of tyrosine hydroxylase in the biosynthesis of catecholamines, Journal of Neural Transmission, 116, 11, 1355–62, Nov 2009, 19396395, 10.1007/s00702-009-0227-8, It has been suggested that this domain might be an intrinsically unstructured protein, which has no clearly defined tertiary structure, but so far no evidence has been presented supporting this claim. It has however been shown that the domain has a low occurrence of secondary structures, which doesn't weaken suspicions of it having a disordered overall structure.JOURNAL, Obsilova V, Nedbalkova E, Silhan J, Boura E, Herman P, Vecer J, Sulc M, Teisinger J, Dyda F, Obsil T, The 14-3-3 protein affects the conformation of the regulatory domain of human tyrosine hydroxylase, Biochemistry, 47, 6, 1768–77, Feb 2008, 18181650, 10.1021/bi7019468, As for the tetramerization and catalytic domains their structure was found with rat tyrosine hydroxylase using X-ray crystallography.JOURNAL, Goodwill KE, Sabatier C, Marks C, Raag R, Fitzpatrick PF, Stevens RC, Crystal structure of tyrosine hydroxylase at 2.3 A and its implications for inherited neurodegenerative diseases, Nature Structural Biology, 4, 7, 578–85, Jul 1997, 9228951, 10.1038/nsb0797-578, JOURNAL, Goodwill KE, Sabatier C, Stevens RC, Crystal structure of tyrosine hydroxylase with bound cofactor analogue and iron at 2.3 A resolution: self-hydroxylation of Phe300 and the pterin-binding site, Biochemistry, 37, 39, 13437–45, Sep 1998, 9753429, 10.1021/bi981462g, This has shown how its structure is very similar to that of phenylalanine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase; together the three make up a family of homologous aromatic amino acid hydroxylases.JOURNAL, Ledley FD, DiLella AG, Kwok SC, Woo SL, Homology between phenylalanine and tyrosine hydroxylases reveals common structural and functional domains, Biochemistry, 24, 14, 3389–94, Jul 1985, 2412578, 10.1021/bi00335a001, JOURNAL, Grenett HE, Ledley FD, Reed LL, Woo SL, Full-length cDNA for rabbit tryptophan hydroxylase: functional domains and evolution of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 84, 16, 5530–4, Aug 1987, 3475690, 298896, 10.1073/pnas.84.16.5530,

Regulation

File:Catecholamines biosynthesis.svg|thumb|right|Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the rate limiting step in catecholaminecatecholamineTyrosine hydroxylase activity is increased in the short term by phosphorylation. The regulatory domain of tyrosine hydroxylase contains multiple serine (Ser) residues, including Ser8, Ser19, Ser31 and Ser40, that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases.JOURNAL, Haycock JW, Phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in situ at serine 8, 19, 31, and 40, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 265, 20, 11682–91, Jul 1990, 1973163, Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase.JOURNAL, Roskoski R, Roskoski LM, Activation of tyrosine hydroxylase in PC12 cells by the cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP second messenger systems, Journal of Neurochemistry, 48, 1, 236–42, Jan 1987, 2878973, 10.1111/j.1471-4159.1987.tb13153.x, Ser19 (and Ser40 to a lesser extent) is phosphorylated by the calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase.JOURNAL, Lehmann IT, Bobrovskaya L, Gordon SL, Dunkley PR, Dickson PW, Differential regulation of the human tyrosine hydroxylase isoforms via hierarchical phosphorylation, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 281, 26, 17644–51, Jun 2006, 16644734, 10.1074/jbc.M512194200, MAPKAPK2 (mitogen-activated-protein kinase-activating protein kinase) has a preference for Ser40, but also phosphorylates Ser19 about half the rate of Ser40.JOURNAL, Dunkley PR, Bobrovskaya L, Graham ME, von Nagy-Felsobuki EI, Dickson PW, Tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation: regulation and consequences, Journal of Neurochemistry, 91, 5, 1025–43, Dec 2004, 15569247, 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2004.02797.x, JOURNAL, Sutherland C, Alterio J, Campbell DG, Le Bourdellès B, Mallet J, Haavik J, Cohen P, Phosphorylation and activation of human tyrosine hydroxylase in vitro by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and MAP-kinase-activated kinases 1 and 2, European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS, 217, 2, 715–22, Oct 1993, 7901013, 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1993.tb18297.x, Ser31 is phosphorylated by ERK1 and ERK2 (extracellular regulated kinases 1&2),JOURNAL, Haycock JW, Ahn NG, Cobb MH, Krebs EG, ERK1 and ERK2, two microtubule-associated protein 2 kinases, mediate the phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase at serine-31 in situ, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 89, 6, 2365–9, Mar 1992, 1347949, 48658, 10.1073/pnas.89.6.2365, and increases the enzyme activity to a lesser extent than for Ser40 phosphorylation. The phosphorylation at Ser19 and Ser8 has no direct effect on tyrosine hydroxylase activity. But phosphorylation at Ser19 increases the rate of phosphorylation at Ser40, leading to an increase in enzyme activity. Phosphorylation at Ser19 causes a two-fold increase of activity, through a mechanism that requires the 14-3-3 proteins.JOURNAL, Ichimura T, Isobe T, Okuyama T, Takahashi N, Araki K, Kuwano R, Takahashi Y, Molecular cloning of cDNA coding for brain-specific 14-3-3 protein, a protein kinase-dependent activator of tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylases, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 85, 19, 7084–8, Oct 1988, 2902623, 282128, 10.1073/pnas.85.19.7084, Phosphorylation at Ser31 causes a slight increase of activity, and here the mechanism is unknown. Tyrosine hydroxylase is somewhat stabilized to heat inactivation when the regulatory serines are phosphorylated.JOURNAL, Royo M, Fitzpatrick PF, Daubner SC, Mutation of regulatory serines of rat tyrosine hydroxylase to glutamate: effects on enzyme stability and activity, Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 434, 2, 266–74, Feb 2005, 15639226, 10.1016/j.abb.2004.11.007, Tyrosine hydroxylase is mainly present in the cytosol, although it also is found in some extent in the plasma membrane.JOURNAL, Chen R, Wei J, Fowler SC, Wu JY, Demonstration of functional coupling between dopamine synthesis and its packaging into synaptic vesicles, Journal of Biomedical Science, 10, 6 Pt 2, 774–81, 2003, 14631117, 10.1159/000073965, The membrane association may be related to catecholamine packing in vesicles and export through the synaptic membrane. The binding of tyrosine hydroxylase to membranes involves the N-terminal region of the enzyme, and may be regulated by a three-way interaction between 14-3-3 proteins, the N-terminal region of tyrosine hydroxylase, and negatively charged membranes.JOURNAL, Halskau Ø, Ying M, Baumann A, Kleppe R, Rodriguez-Larrea D, Almås B, Haavik J, Martinez A, Three-way interaction between 14-3-3 proteins, the N-terminal region of tyrosine hydroxylase, and negatively charged membranes, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 284, 47, 32758–69, Nov 2009, 19801645, 2781693, 10.1074/jbc.M109.027706, Tyrosine hydroxylase can also be regulated by inhibition. Phosphorylation at Ser40 relieves feedback inhibition by the catecholamines dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine.JOURNAL, Daubner SC, Lauriano C, Haycock JW, Fitzpatrick PF, Site-directed mutagenesis of serine 40 of rat tyrosine hydroxylase. Effects of dopamine and cAMP-dependent phosphorylation on enzyme activity, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 267, 18, 12639–46, Jun 1992, 1352289, JOURNAL, Ramsey AJ, Fitzpatrick PF, Effects of phosphorylation of serine 40 of tyrosine hydroxylase on binding of catecholamines: evidence for a novel regulatory mechanism, Biochemistry, 37, 25, 8980–6, Jun 1998, 9636040, 10.1021/bi980582l, The catecholamines trap the active-site iron in the Fe(III) state, inhibiting the enzyme.It has been shown that the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase can be affected by the expression of SRY. The down regulation of the SRY gene in the substantia nigra can result in a decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase expression.JOURNAL, Dewing P, Chiang CW, Sinchak K, Sim H, Fernagut PO, Kelly S, Chesselet MF, Micevych PE, Albrecht KH, Harley VR, Vilain E, Direct regulation of adult brain function by the male-specific factor SRY, Current Biology, 16, 4, 415–20, Feb 2006, 16488877, 10.1016/j.cub.2006.01.017, Long term regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase can also be mediated by phosphorylation mechanisms. Hormones (e.g. glucocorticoids), drugs (e.g. cocaine), or second messengers such as cAMP increase tyrosine hydroxylase transcription. Increase in tyrosine hydroxylase activity due to phosphorylation can be sustained by nicotine for up to 48 hours. Tyrosine hydroxylase activity is regulated chronically (days) by protein synthesis.JOURNAL, Bobrovskaya L, Gilligan C, Bolster EK, Flaherty JJ, Dickson PW, Dunkley PR, Sustained phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase at serine 40: a novel mechanism for maintenance of catecholamine synthesis, Journal of Neurochemistry, 100, 2, 479–89, Jan 2007, 17064352, 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.04213.x,

Clinical significance

A deficiency of tyrosine hydroxylase leads to impaired synthesis of dopamine as well as epinephrine and norepinephrine. It is represented by a progressive encephalopathy and poor prognosis. Clinical features include dystonia that is minimally or nonresponsive to levodopa, extrapyramidal symptoms, ptosis, miosis, and postural hypotension. This is a progressive and often lethal disorder, which can be improved but not cured by levodopa.JOURNAL, Pearl PL, Taylor JL, Trzcinski S, Sokohl A, The pediatric neurotransmitter disorders, J Child Neurol, 22, 5, 606–616, May 2007, 17690069, 10.1177/0883073807302619, Response to treatment is variable and the long-term and functional outcome is unknown. To provide a basis for improving the understanding of the epidemiology, genotype/phenotype correlation and outcome of these diseases their impact on the quality of life of patients, and for evaluating diagnostic and therapeutic strategies a patient registry was established by the noncommercial International Working Group on Neurotransmitter Related Disorders (iNTD).WEB, Patient registry,weblink Additionally alterations in the tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme activity may be involved in disorders such as Segawa's dystonia, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia.JOURNAL, Thibaut F, Ribeyre JM, Dourmap N, Meloni R, Laurent C, Campion D, Ménard JF, Dollfus S, Mallet J, Petit M, Association of DNA polymorphism in the first intron of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene with disturbances of the catecholaminergic system in schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Research, 23, 3, 259–64, Feb 1997, 9075305, 10.1016/s0920-9964(96)00118-1, Tyrosine hydroxylase is activated by phosphorylation dependent binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Since the 14-3-3 proteins also are likely to be associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, it makes an indirect link between tyrosine hydroxylase and these diseases.JOURNAL, Steinacker P, Aitken A, Otto M, 14-3-3 proteins in neurodegeneration, Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 22, 7, 696–704, Sep 2011, 21920445, 10.1016/j.semcdb.2011.08.005, The activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease has been shown to be significantly reduced compared to healthy individuals.JOURNAL, Sawada M, Hirata Y, Arai H, Iizuka R, Nagatsu T, Tyrosine hydroxylase, tryptophan hydroxylase, biopterin, and neopterin in the brains of normal controls and patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type, Journal of Neurochemistry, 48, 3, 760–4, Mar 1987, 2879891, 10.1111/j.1471-4159.1987.tb05582.x, Tyrosine hydroxylase is also an autoantigen in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome (APS) type I.JOURNAL, Hedstrand H, Ekwall O, Haavik J, Landgren E, Betterle C, Perheentupa J, Gustafsson J, Husebye E, Rorsman F, Kämpe O, Identification of tyrosine hydroxylase as an autoantigen in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 267, 1, 456–61, Jan 2000, 10623641, 10.1006/bbrc.1999.1945, A consistent abnormality in Parkinson's disease is degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, leading to a reduction of striatal dopamine levels. As tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the formation of L-DOPA, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of dopamine, tyrosine hydroxylase-deficiency does not cause Parkinson's disease, but typically gives rise to infantile parkinsonism, although the spectrum extends to a condition resembling dopamine-responsive dystonia. A direct pathogenetic role of tyrosine hydroxylase has also been suggested, as the enzyme is a source of H2O2 and other reactive oxygen species (ROS), and a target for radical-mediated injury. It has been demonstrated that L-DOPA is effectively oxidized by mammalian tyrosine hydroxylase, possibly contributing to the cytotoxic effects of L-DOPA. Like other cellular proteins, tyrosine hydroxylase is also a possible target for damaging alterations induced by ROS. This suggests that some of the oxidative damage to tyrosine hydroxylase could be generated by the tyrosine hydroxylase system itself.Tyrosine hydroxylase can be inhibited by the drug α-methyl-para-tyrosine (metirosine). This inhibition can lead to a depletion of dopamine and norepinepherine in the brain due to the lack of the precursor L-Dopa (L-3,4-dyhydroxyphenylalanine) which is synthesized by tyrosine hydroxylase. This drug is rarely used and can cause depression, but it is useful in treating pheochromocytoma and also resistant hypertension. Older examples of inhibitors mentioned in the literature include oudenoneJOURNAL, Ono M, Okamoto M, Kawabe N, Umezawa H, Takeuchi T, Oudenone, a novel tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor from microbial origin, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 93, 5, 1285–6, Mar 1971, 5545929, 10.1021/ja00734a054, and aquayamycin.JOURNAL, Ayukawa S, Takeuchi T, Sezaki M, Hara T, Umezawa H, Inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase by aquayamycin, The Journal of Antibiotics, 21, 5, 350–3, May 1968, 5726288, 10.7164/antibiotics.21.350,

References

{{reflist|33em}}

Further reading

  • JOURNAL, Masserano JM, Weiner N, Tyrosine hydroxylase regulation in the central nervous system, Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 53-54, 1-2, 129–52, 1983, 6137760, 10.1007/BF00225250,
  • JOURNAL, Meloni R, Biguet NF, Mallet J, Post-genomic era and gene discovery for psychiatric diseases: there is a new art of the trade? The example of the HUMTH01 microsatellite in the Tyrosine Hydroxylase gene, Molecular Neurobiology, 26, 2-3, 389–403, 2002, 12428766, 10.1385/MN:26:2-3:389,
  • JOURNAL, Joh TH, Park DH, Reis DJ, Direct phosphorylation of brain tyrosine hydroxylase by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase: mechanism of enzyme activation, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 75, 10, 4744–8, Oct 1978, 33381, 336196, 10.1073/pnas.75.10.4744,
  • JOURNAL, Haycock JW, Ahn NG, Cobb MH, Krebs EG, ERK1 and ERK2, two microtubule-associated protein 2 kinases, mediate the phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase at serine-31 in situ, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 89, 6, 2365–9, Mar 1992, 1347949, 48658, 10.1073/pnas.89.6.2365,
  • JOURNAL, Haycock JW, Phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in situ at serine 8, 19, 31, and 40, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 265, 20, 11682–91, Jul 1990, 1973163,
  • JOURNAL, Craig SP, Buckle VJ, Lamouroux A, Mallet J, Craig I, Localization of the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene to 11p15: gene duplication and evolution of metabolic pathways, Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics, 42, 1-2, 29–32, 1986, 2872999, 10.1159/000132246,
  • JOURNAL, Grima B, Lamouroux A, Boni C, Julien JF, Javoy-Agid F, Mallet J, A single human gene encoding multiple tyrosine hydroxylases with different predicted functional characteristics, Nature, 326, 6114, 707–11, 1987, 2882428, 10.1038/326707a0,
  • JOURNAL, Kaneda N, Kobayashi K, Ichinose H, Kishi F, Nakazawa A, Kurosawa Y, Fujita K, Nagatsu T, Isolation of a novel cDNA clone for human tyrosine hydroxylase: alternative RNA splicing produces four kinds of mRNA from a single gene, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 146, 3, 971–5, Aug 1987, 2887169, 10.1016/0006-291X(87)90742-X,
  • JOURNAL, Kobayashi K, Kaneda N, Ichinose H, Kishi F, Nakazawa A, Kurosawa Y, Fujita K, Nagatsu T, Isolation of a full-length cDNA clone encoding human tyrosine hydroxylase type 3, Nucleic Acids Research, 15, 16, 6733, Aug 1987, 2888085, 306135, 10.1093/nar/15.16.6733,
  • JOURNAL, O'Malley KL, Anhalt MJ, Martin BM, Kelsoe JR, Winfield SL, Ginns EI, Isolation and characterization of the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene: identification of 5' alternative splice sites responsible for multiple mRNAs, Biochemistry, 26, 22, 6910–4, Nov 1987, 2892528, 10.1021/bi00396a007,
  • JOURNAL, Le Bourdellès B, Boularand S, Boni C, Horellou P, Dumas S, Grima B, Mallet J, Analysis of the 5' region of the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene: combinatorial patterns of exon splicing generate multiple regulated tyrosine hydroxylase isoforms, Journal of Neurochemistry, 50, 3, 988–91, Mar 1988, 2892893, 10.1111/j.1471-4159.1988.tb03009.x,
  • JOURNAL, Ginns EI, Rehavi M, Martin BM, Weller M, O'Malley KL, LaMarca ME, McAllister CG, Paul SM, Expression of human tyrosine hydroxylase cDNA in invertebrate cells using a baculovirus vector, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 263, 15, 7406–10, May 1988, 2896667,
  • JOURNAL, Kobayashi K, Kaneda N, Ichinose H, Kishi F, Nakazawa A, Kurosawa Y, Fujita K, Nagatsu T, Structure of the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene: alternative splicing from a single gene accounts for generation of four mRNA types, Journal of Biochemistry, 103, 6, 907–12, Jun 1988, 2902075,
  • JOURNAL, Coker GT, Vinnedge L, O'Malley KL, Characterization of rat and human tyrosine hydroxylase genes: functional expression of both promoters in neuronal and non-neuronal cell types, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 157, 3, 1341–7, Dec 1988, 2905129, 10.1016/S0006-291X(88)81022-2,
  • JOURNAL, Vulliet PR, Woodgett JR, Cohen P, Phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase by calmodulin-dependent multiprotein kinase, The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 259, 22, 13680–3, Nov 1984, 6150037,
  • JOURNAL, Zhou QY, Quaife CJ, Palmiter RD, Targeted disruption of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene reveals that catecholamines are required for mouse fetal development, Nature, 374, 6523, 640–3, Apr 1995, 7715703, 10.1038/374640a0,
  • JOURNAL, Lüdecke B, Bartholomé K, Frequent sequence variant in the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene, Human Genetics, 95, 6, 716, Jun 1995, 7789962, 10.1007/BF00209496,
  • JOURNAL, Lüdecke B, Dworniczak B, Bartholomé K, A point mutation in the tyrosine hydroxylase gene associated with Segawa's syndrome, Human Genetics, 95, 1, 123–5, Jan 1995, 7814018, 10.1007/BF00225091,
  • JOURNAL, Knappskog PM, Flatmark T, Mallet J, Lüdecke B, Bartholomé K, Recessively inherited L-DOPA-responsive dystonia caused by a point mutation (Q381K) in the tyrosine hydroxylase gene, Human Molecular Genetics, 4, 7, 1209–12, Jul 1995, 8528210, 10.1093/hmg/4.7.1209,

External links

{{PDB Gallery|geneid=7054}}{{Iron-binding proteins}}{{Neurotransmitter metabolism enzymes}}{{Dioxygenases}}{{Enzymes}}{{Monoamine metabolism modulators}}

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